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Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1119-8362
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Assessment of Agroforestry Practices in Ago-Owu Forest Reserve, Ayedaade
           Local Government area, Osun State, South-western Nigeria

    • Authors: A. R. Falana, A. T. Ademigbuji, O. C. Odeyale, T. R. Ibode, F. F. Ojo-Fakuade, T. O. Bamigboye, O. J. Aigbokhan
      Pages: 1621 - 1627
      Abstract: Agroforestry is a collective name for land use systems and practices in which woody perennials are integrated with food crop and forestry, either in a spatial mixture or in a temporal sequence and there are normally both ecological and economic interactions between woody and non woody components. This study investigated types of agroforestry practiced, the impact of agroforestry on the lives of people, assessed the impact of agroforestry on the environment, and identified possible problems associated with agroforestry system in Ago-owu Forest Reserve, Ayedaade Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria by collecting samples from Mokore, Ajegunle and Alabameta villages using verified methods. Sampling intensity of 10% for population below 500, 5% sampling intensity for population between 500 and 1000 and 2.5% sampling intensity for the population above 1000. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered, thirty copies of questionnaires were distributed both in Mokore and Ajegunle and twenty in Alabameta. The result was analysed using Descriptive Statistics such as frequency tables, percentages, bar chart and Chi square. The result showed that 47.5 % of the respondents are involved in Agri-silviculture. The benefits derived from agroforestry was also unfolded, they are medicinal (11.25%), Income generation (52.5%), production of food crop (33.75%) and non-timber forest products generation (2.5%). The impact of agroforestry to the environment includes Soil erosion control (48.75%), Soil stabilization (31.25%), and (Stable environment 20%).
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.1
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Decadal Assessment and Distribution of Rainfall Anomaly Index (1991 –
           2020) for Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: C. S. Ofordu, Q. A. Onilude, E. D. Adedoyin, N. C. Mba, O. O. Adeoti, S. O. Osundun, A. R. Kilasho
      Pages: 1629 - 1635
      Abstract: This study was designed to provide valuable insight into the temporal patterns of rainfall in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria using rainfall data from 1991 – 2020 (30 years) collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), airport station, Benin City. The data were assessed based on 10 years interval (decade) identified as decadal A (1991-2000), decadal B (2001-2010) and decadal C (2011-2020). The data was analysed descriptively using charts and graphs. Also, Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) was determined for each decadal. Findings from the study reveal that rainfall pattern changes significantly based on statistics for each decadal. In decadal A, rainfall usually began in the month of July to October, June to September in decadal B while May to September in decadal C with rainfall going above the annual precipitation (2679 mm) for the City. The rainfall anomaly over the city revealed that there was a composite nature in which some dry years were mixed with wet years and vice versa and this occurred in all decades. RAI revealed that decadal C recorded the highest number of years (7) of intense rainfall compared to decadal A and B. The trend for the average annual rainfall showed a significant trend based on the decade. The average annual rainfall increased with time (decade) as the trend rose from 1886.9 mm in decade A to 1890.0mm in decade B and 2078.8 mm in decade C. The year of greatest positive value was 2016 (decadal C), with an average RAI of 6.53 classified as extremely humid. Based on these findings, the study concludes that the climate in Benin City has significantly changed.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.2
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Protective Effect of Turmeric on Aspirin Induced Gastric
           Injury on Wistar Rats

    • Authors: F. F. Akeredolu, A. A. Oladele, V. O. Ekundina
      Pages: 1637 - 1639
      Abstract: Turmeric (from Zingiberaceae family) is highly regarded as a universal panacea in the herbal medicine with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. Forty eight adult rats (150g-200g body weight) were randomly divided into six (control, treatment, 3 post treatment and recovery) groups of eight rats each. Gastric injury were induced with the administration of different concentration of Aspirin and co treated with different concentration of Turmeric for a period of 14-28 days. It was histologically revealed that Aspirin can induced gastric injury and Turmeric protect gastric layers. There is need for more research work on the protective effect of Turmeric on gastric layers against gastric injury.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.3
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Groundwater for Irrigation
           Purposes from Difa, Dadinkowa and Gwani Communitiesof Yamaltu-Deba Local
           Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria

    • Authors: B. Hammani, I. Abubakar, A. Danlami, A. M. Gimba, M. Abdulkadir, Z. Muhammad
      Pages: 1641 - 1646
      Abstract: The demand for quality water free of pollutants that can be maximally utilized by soil for crop production is on the societal increase. The study is aimed at examining some physico-chemical indices of groundwater for irrigation purposes from Difa, Dadinkowa and Gwani of Yamaltu-Deba Gombe State, Nigeria using standard methods. Samples collected were analysed ad data for mean concentration range presented aspH (6.00 - 6.80), temperature (23.95 - 25.78 oC), total dissolved solids (106.98 - 149.51 mg/L), total suspended solids (0.60 -1.28 mg/L), total alkalinity (17.00 - 19.25 mg/L) and dissolved oxygen (1.18 - 2.98 mg/L). The water samples recorded significant different (p<0.05) in pH values and were all below the permissible limits. However, cations and anions; NaCl, CaCO3, PO43-, CO2, NO2- and NH4- showed no significant difference p<0.05 and were below the permissible limit, except CaCO3 which exceeds the maximum permissible limits. These results suggest that the studied water samples are suitable for consumption and irrigation purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.4
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Improving Crude Oil Contaminated Soil with Organic Amendments: Effect of
           Oil Palm Bunch Ash and Dried Poultry Litters on Soil Properties and
           Cassava Growth and Yields

    • Authors: S. R. Osu, G. E. Udofia, N. U. Ndaeyo
      Pages: 1647 - 1656
      Abstract: In this study, onsite field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of amending a crude oil polluted soil with oil palm fruit bunch ash (OPFBA), dried poultry litters (DPL), soil bacterial, physico-chemical properties, as well as the growth and tuber yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ) grown on the amended soils using standard techniques. Results of autotrophic bacteria counts revealed that nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) populations in soils treated with OPBA+DPL combined, OPBA and DPL singly, recorded high bioloads in the magnitude of 105 , 103 , 105 CFU/g of soil respectively, whereas the group mean population was lower in the control soil (103 CFU/g). Similar trends were observed for SRB, PSB, and THB. Results of aggregate growth showed that while the mean plant heights and number of nodes increased, stem girth and leaf area were observed to decrease in 2017 when compared with those of 2016. Apart from number of tubers and weights that showed increase under all amendment treatments, tuber girth and length decreased under DPL amendments in 2017. The average findings of several chemical and physical characteristics of crude oil polluted soil after amendments and subsequent cultivation demonstrated that the addition of DPL and OPBA fructifies the soil by increasing reduced or lost qualities. When the amendments were used, the concentrations of organic carbon, accessible phosphorus, Ca, Mg, Na, and K were greatly enhanced, while the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content was significantly reduced. In this study, the application of combination DPL + OPBA yields the greatest results in terms of ameliorating the impacts of crude oil in cultivable soils, as it increases fertility parameters for better cassava production in Niger Delta soils. The technology has been shown to be cost effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly, as well as capable of resolving waste management issues.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.5
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Decentralized Solid Waste Management in Rural Ghana: A Case Study of Assin
           Kushea Community in Assin North Municipality

    • Authors: E. Antwi, D. A. Anang, E. O. Marfo, M. Bediako, J. Ribeiro, B. Boahen, G. Opoku
      Pages: 1657 - 1661
      Abstract: Management of solid waste continues to be a major developmental challenge for developing countries like Ghana. The current focus and attention have been on the collection and dumping of waste in urban communities where generation rate is high to the detriment of rural communities. In this study, a pilot waste management scheme was undertaken in Assin Kushea, a rural community in the Assin North Municipality, to determine the willingness of the community to sort their waste at source, the quantity of waste generated by the community, and the characteristics of the waste to inform the treatment or disposal options suitable for the community. The results of the study showed that the community generates approximately 20 to 40 kg waste per day which comprises about 77% biological municipal waste (BMW) and 23% of residual waste. Laboratory analysis of the waste showed that the moisture content of the waste was about 68%. The percentage volatile solid was about 85.45%, leaving an ash content of approximately 14.55% all by weight of the waste materials. More than 50% of the sampled population achieved 100% source separation efficiency. Given the composition and characteristics of the waste, and the willingness of the community to sort their waste at source, composting or anaerobic fermentation of the organic waste fraction is recommended as the best waste treatment option for the organic component of the waste for the community.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.6
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Perception of the Impact of Fuel Wood and Charcoal Productions on the
           Environment: A Case Study of Toro L.G.A of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    • Authors: E. A. Chomini, M. U. Henry, A. J. Daspan, I. O. Agbaje, M. A. Ameh, F. O. Osasebor, S. K. Vihi, M. S. Chomini
      Pages: 1665 - 1668
      Abstract: Wood biomass felling for fuel negatively impacted on the structuring and functioning of ecosystem worldwide. Consequently, increasing soil erosion, reduction in soil moisture, content, fertility, and decline vegetation cover. The study area comprised four districts: Leme, Rimi, Jama’a and Tilden Fulani in Toro LGA, Bauchi State, purposively chosen because of their high fuel wood activity. Charcoal producers were sampled, using stratified sampling methods while traditional leadership and the department of Forestry officials were purposefully sampled for their involvement in fuelwood and forest management of the area. Fifty (50) fuel wood and charcoal producers were chosen per district. A total of two hundred (200) sampled respondents and four each of the traditional leaders and forestry officials in the four districts were investigated. Apparent collapse of traditional governance system correlated with fuelwood exploitation (especially for charcoal production) and remained a threat to sustainability of forest and forest products management. Poverty was the main driver to resource destruction, as only 34% were employed.67%, 71% and 59% indicated impact on environment, temperature, and erosion due to charcoal production.Charcoal producers obtained the trees and logs for charcoal production from the natural forest and 88% of them use life trees, cutting above 40cm above the ground level. This method of harvesting from the forest inhibits replenishment commensurate with the rate of extraction. The study showed that poverty, unemployment, ignorance and lack of education have great and direct negative impact on the environment as global warming, ozone layer depletion and climate change are evident.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.7
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Combination of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder and Iron Sulfate Heptahydrate
           Salt as Biopolymer Based Matrix for Application as Adsorbent for Odor
           Inhibition in Poultry Farms

    • Authors: J. M. Manu, G. A. Maspalma, M. M. Micah, U. A. Maryam
      Pages: 1669 - 1674
      Abstract: A biopolymer based matrix of M. Oleifera Seed Powder (MOSP) and Ferrous Sulphate Heptahydrate (FSH) salt was formulated as adsorbent for odor inhibition in poultry farms. The matrix was characterized using FT-IR technique and its performance as adsorbent for NH4+ removal from aqueous solutions was examined via sorption studies. The result showed an excellent sorption performance at 0.1 g sorbent dosage, pH of 9 and 30 min agitation time. This indicates that the matrix possess an excellent ion exchange property and thus a suitable sorbent for NH4+ even in low concentration environment. The study reveals the capacity of the adsorptive matrix as a safe and cost-effective method to be used for ammoniacal odor control from poultry farms which may be applicable to other animal farm operations (AFOs).
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.8
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Proximate Composition and Metabolizable Energy of Some Commercial Poultry
           Feeds Available in Abuja, Nigeria

    • Authors: N. C. Igwemmar, S. A. Kolawole, A. O. Omoniyi, D. M. Bwai, A. A. Fagbohun, O. E. Falayi
      Pages: 1675 - 1682
      Abstract: Poultry feeds are prepared to contain all the nutrients in their right proportions necessary for good health, proper growth and egg production of the chicken. This study was undertaken to determine the proximate composition and variations of nutrient in some commercial poultry feeds sold in Abuja, Nigeria. Seven poultry feed brands in their various ratios were subjected to proximate analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the poultry feeds had proximate composition ranging from 6.58 ± 0.02 - 10.88 ± 0.19 % moisture content, 6.03 ± 0.16 - 14.78 ± 0.73 % ash content, 9.98 ± 0.81 - 20.05 ± 0.08 % crude lipid, 3.57 ± 0.11 - 14.77 ± 0.14 % crude fiber, 16.55 ± 0.07 % - 34.01 ± 0.09 % crude protein, 26.28 ± 1.80 % - 48.21 ± 2.07 % carbohydrate and 2971.48 ± 65.44 - 3686.18 ± 29.08 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy. Generally, there were differences in the proximate composition of the poultry feed brands analyzed, however, the poultry feeds have optimum nutrients in their feeds which meet most of the requirements recommended by SON and NRC. The moisture contents in all the feeds were within the recommended value of not more than 12 % while the mean values obtained in crude lipid were all higher than the maximum recommended requirements in poultry feeds.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.9
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Soil under Gum Arabic Tree
           (Acacia senegal L.) Wild Plantation in Sahel Zone of Jigawa State, Nigeria
           

    • Authors: T. A. Ampitan, D. I. Adekanmbi, A. A. Ampitan, K. M. Adelakun
      Pages: 1683 - 1687
      Abstract: Acacia senegal (L), a nitrogen fixing tree and a drought resistant species with potentials to improve infertile soils was planted in Sahel zone of Jigawa State, Nigeria for the production of gum arabic. However, information on the soil physico-chemical properties under plantation in Nigeria is scanty, hence the objective of this paper was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of soil under gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L) wild plantation in Sahel zone of Jigawa State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from four 30 x 30m plots in the plantation and another plot in open land (control). Three replicate soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-60 cm soil depths, analysed for micro and macronutrients using standard methods. Soil texture of the plantation is loamy sand but with slight textural differentiation under the open land. Mean soil bulk density ranged from 1.6 g/cm3 in the plantation to 1.8g/cm3 in the open woodland. The high values of soil bulk density might be ascribed to loss of organic matter as a result of soil erosion and animal grazing which are common occurrences. Results obtained indicated that the ECEC decreased as the soil depth increased and is low in values while the CEC of soils range from 5.57 to 5.97. The physicochemical properties of soils under the plantation were significantly different at P < 0.05 compared with the control an indication that Acacia senegal can gradually improves soil quality and productivity especially in Sahel zone of the northern part of Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.10
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Effect of MethanolicExtract of Justicia flava Leaves on Biochemical
           Markers in Male Wistar Rats Fed Crude Oil Contaminated Feed

    • Authors: P. Onakorhefe, O. B. Onyeukwu, O. A. Ohwokevwo, F. I. Achuba
      Pages: 1689 - 1694
      Abstract: The medicinal potentials of plants have been documented. This study evaluated the capacity of the leaf of Justicia flava methanolic extract (JFME) to alter the biochemical distortions initiated by feeding on diet containing crude oil. Male Wistar albino rats, thirty six, were constituted into nine groups. Each group had six rats. Group 1 had untreated feed. Groups 2 to 4 had untreated feed but were given 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg/ kg b.wt of JFME, respectively. Group 5 had untreated feed and given 200 mg/kg b.wt of ascorbic acid as standard. Group 6 was fed with diet containing crude oil (4ml/100g v/w). Groups 7 to 9 were given contaminated feed and 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg/ kg b.wt of JFME, respectively. The rats were maintained on these treatments for thirty days and had water ad libitum. Thereafter exposure period, lipid profile, hematological and inflammatory markers in the blood were analyzed using standard methods. Petroleum in feed altered the lipid profile, hematological and inflammatory markers compared to values in positive control rats. However, treatment of the rats with JFME had a positive reversal of these markers close to values in control rats; which compared favorably with ascorbic acid, used as standard. This investigation discovered JFME as a candidate for managing crude oil- imposed health issues.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.11
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Heavy Metals in Tomatoes, Green Beans and some Vegetables on
           Road Side Farms in Farin-Lamba, Jos South Local Government Area Plateau
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S. A. Kolawole, R. O. Ukwede, N. C. Igwemmar
      Pages: 1695 - 1698
      Abstract: Heavy metals retention by vegetables and crops planted along road-side is of awesome concern due to dangers associated with human health risks. This paper therefore evaluates the levels of heavy metals in onion bulbs, onion leaves, tomato fruit, cabbage, carrot roots, green beans and green pepper on Road-side Farms in Farin-Lamba, Jos South Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria using AAS model AA240FS. The results of analysis show that the mean concentration of the heavy metals obtained by sum of all the plants analyzed were Cd: 0.633 ±.02; Cu: 0.209 ± 0.07; Pb: 0.756 ± 0.5; Cr: 0.566 ±0.07; Mn: 0.457 ± 0.3; Zn: 0.663 ± 0.1 and Ni: 0.057± 0.02, respectively. The result shows that the vegetable samples have high content of lead and low content of nickel. The average values of the heavy metal content obtained were compared to Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and world Health Organization (WHO) Standard limits, cadmium 0.2 mg/kg, copper 0.1 mg/kg, lead 0.3 mg/kg, chromium 2.3 mg/kg, manganese 0.4 mg/kg, zinc 3.3 mg/kg and nickel 5.0 mg/kg. The results from the study show that the mean concentration of chromium, zinc and nickel were within the permissible limits set by FAO/WHO with exception of cadmium, copper, lead and manganese which were higher than the permissible limits. Therefore, consumption of these vegetables by members of the communities where these vegetables were planted or other communities expose the population to adverse effects of these heavy metals. This may pose a serious health challenge on long term consumption of the vegetables.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.12
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • The Use of Seismic Attributes and Well Logs in Delineating Kick Horizon; A
           Case Study of Nova Well, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    • Authors: K. O. Ejairu
      Pages: 1699 - 1703
      Abstract: Predrill pore pressure prediction of the NOVA well suggested that the drilling program was in agreement with available seismic surveys. However, a kick was encountered while during the well. The study was carried out to ascertain the cause of the kick horizon in the NOVA Well, using seismic attributes and well log. Eight stratigraphic horizons were characterized to describe the amplitude variations. The top and base of the kick horizon were picked and sculptured to create sub-volume maps.The results revealed that the kick horizon was a shaly unit. The kick horizon was far off bright amplitudes that could have delivered high pressure which could trigger a kick. Faulting, shallow water and gas flows have been suggested as possible causes of the kick. A kill weight mud should be factored into the drilling operations to produce hydrostatic pressure where the kick is entering the NOVA well in order to prevent a blow out.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.13
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Effective Doses and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risks from Absorbed Dose Rates
           Measured in Facilities of Two Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

    • Authors: C. J. Olowookere, N. N. Jibiri, E. O. Oyekunle, J. Fatukasi, E. S. Osho, A. A. Raheem, D. B. Adejumo, T. A. Awolola
      Pages: 1705 - 1712
      Abstract: This study was aimed at examining the radiation absorbed dose rate, annual effective doses and excess lifetime cancer risks of halls of residence, Radiotherapy Unit and Radiology Department of UI, UCH and UNIMEDTH respectively. Results of measurements show that the mean absorbed dose rate for male and female hall are 0.33 ± 0.05476 and 0.17 ± 0.05074 µSv h-1 respectively. The mean overall absorbed dose rates calculated for facilities studied are 0.269 ± 0.0992 µSv h-1, 0.121 ± 0.036 µSv h-1 and 0.123 ± 0.00931 µSv h-1 in UI, UCH and UNIMEDTH respectively. The mean annual effective doses recorded in both male and female halls in University of Ibadan ranges between 0.71 mSv y-1 and 2.67 mSv y-1. The mean annual effective doses obtained from the facility of University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Ondo (UNIMEDTH) ranges between 0.17 and 0.44 mSv y-1. In addition, the mean annual effective doses calculated from the measured absorbed dose rate in Radiotherapy Department of University College Hospital, Ibadan ranges between 0.20 and 1.22 mSv y-1. As regards ELCRs, the mean values  determined in various facilities examined are 6.07 x 10-3 (Male Halls, UI), 3.27 x 10-3 (Female Halls, UI), 0.57 x 10-3 (UNIMEDTH- NE), 0.99 x 10-3 (UNIMEDTH- EX), 0.65 x x 10-3 (Teletherapy, UCH) and 0.57 x 10-3 (Brachytherapy, UCH).The mean ELCRs of both halls examined are higher than the world average of 1.45 x 10-3 and the standard value of 0.29 x 10-3 by at least a factor of 1.97 units.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.14
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Cattle Segmentation and Contour Detection Based on Solo for Precision
           Livestock Husbandry

    • Authors: R. W. Bello, E. S. Ikeremo, F. N. Otobo, D. A. Olubummo, O. C. Enuma
      Pages: 1713 - 1720
      Abstract: Segmenting objects such as herd of cattle in natural and cluttered images is among the herculean dense prediction tasks of computer vision application to agriculture. To achieve the segmentation goal, we based the segmentation on the model of single objects by locations (SOLO) which is capable of exploiting the contextual cues and segmenting individual cattle by their locations and sizes. For its simple approach to instance segmentation with the use of instance categories, SOLO outperforms Mask R-CNN which uses detect-then-segment approach to predict a mask for each instance of cattle. The model is trained using synchronized stochastic gradient descent (SGD) over GPU to achieve a mAP of 0.94 making it 0.02 higher than the result recorded by the Mask R-CNN model. By using the focal loss, the proposed approach achieved 32.23 ADE on cattle contour detection making its performance better than the Mask R-CNN’s performance.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.15
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Modelling the Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 Incorporating public
           Enlightenment Campaign

    • Authors: T. T. Ashezua, L. C. Aondona, A. U. Amaonyeiro
      Pages: 1721 - 1726
      Abstract: A mathematical model to study the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 incorporating public enlightenment campaign as control is presented. The effective reproduction number (Rc) was computed using the next generation method. Using the Lyapunov method, the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium was found to be globally asymptotically stable whenever (Rc ≤ 1)   . Sensitivity analysis was conducted on the effective reproduction number in order to determine parameters of the model that are most sensitive and targeted by way of intervention strategies. Numerical simulations of the COVID-19 model shows that if  of both treatment and public enlightenment campaign is achieved, the pandemic will be greatly controlled and subsequently eradicated in the population.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.16
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Pulp Juice Production and Quality Evaluation
           via Proximate and Mineral Composition Analyses

    • Authors: S. I. Kolo, N. J. Dadi-Mamud, M. Aliyu-Paiko, B. Jubril
      Pages: 1727 - 1731
      Abstract: Shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa) are common in African countries such as Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Sudan, and others. When fully ripe, the Shea tree's green fruit turns yellow. The tree is well-known and valued for its versatility. Its entire composition is useful in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Among its applications is the production of butter from the nuts, while the rest of the fruit is left to rot or discarded. This study focuses on using other parts of the fruit to create a new product, reduce waste, and expand the Shea value chain. Three formulations of Shea fruit juice were created. The juice were evaluated for nutritional, physicochemical, and mineral compositions. The nutritional composition revealed a high moisture content that ranged from 84.39 to 93.01%, high carbohydrate and caloric values, ranging from 5.84 to 8.96% and 33.51 to 67.31%, respectively. It also had a high concentration of vitamin C (16.45 - 38.99 percent). The mineral composition was observed to increase as the Shea pulp percentage increased. Magnesium was observed to be higher in sample C (36.71±0.24) while sample A recorded a lower magnesium content (18.04±0.06). Calcium was also found to be present in high concentrations (30.07 - 50.64 %). The juice's potassium content ranged from 58.6 - 50.54% in sample C to 24.6 - 60.16% in sample A. The physicochemical analysis revealed a close range of p H values (5.37 - 6.06 %) between the samples and the control, making the juice less susceptible to spoilage. Overall, the results presented a high-quality juice that could compete favorably in the market with other fruit juices.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i10.17
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 10 (2022)
       
 
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