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Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1119-8362
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Evaluation of Total Concentrations and Extractable Fractionations of Cd,
           Co and Ni in Soils from Dumpsites across Rivers State, Nigeria

    • Authors: R. N. Oduah, P. M. Amaibi, J. L. Konne, N. Boisa
      Pages: 5 - 10
      Abstract: The mobility of trace metals in soils strongly depends on the forms in which the metals are bound to major soil components. This study aims to determine the total concentrations and extractable fractionations of Cd, Co and Ni in soil samples collected from dumpsites across Rivers State, Nigeria. Solar Thermo Elemental Atomic Absorption Spectrometer model (SG 71906) was used after mixed acid digestion (HCl: HNO3 in a ratio of 3:1 v/v) and modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentration levels of Cd, Co and Ni in all the samples varied, with mean values of 13.48 11.85, 25.29 17.62 and 20.52 15.66 mg/kg, respectively. Using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure, the elements recoveries were within the acceptable range varying between 92.10% and 98.33% for Co and Cd, respectively. Data from the BCR extraction procedure revealed that the majority of Cd fraction was associated with residual fraction, Co fraction bound to the exchangeable fraction, while Ni was found to be associated with oxidisable fraction. These results suggest that the trace elements in the soil were highly mobile and bioavailable for plant uptake. Results from the findings particularly correlation analysis is indicative of the fact that some of the contaminants may have anthropogenic and natural origin. Hence, these contaminants could pose significant threat to human health and the environment.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Navigating the Complexity: Updates in Diabetes-Related Cardiovascular
           Complications

    • Authors: A. E. Ubhenin, S. O. Innih, F. Anura, R. I. Idris
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to offer a thorough examination of contemporary research concerning cardiovascular complications induced by diabetes, with a specific focus on coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetic heart attacks, diabetic peripheral artery disease (PAD), and diabetic hypertension. The period of analysis spans from 1988 to 2022, and the data utilized is extracted from secondary sources. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), heart attacks, strokes, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and hypertension. These complications are influenced by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Diabetic-induced cardiovascular diseases significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. The studies highlight the potential of plant-derived targeted therapies in reducing inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, providing promising avenues for improving patient outcomes. Additionally, research on diabetes-specific medications, imaging techniques, individualized glycemic targets, and combination therapies reveals new approaches to managing diabetic-induced cardiovascular diseases. Precision medicine, advancements in imaging, and lifestyle interventions offer valuable tools for personalized treatment plans and improved patient care. Public health initiatives that enhance diabetes management, raise awareness, and improve healthcare access are crucial for reducing the burden of cardiovascular complications in Nigeria and other regions affected by diabetes. Further research and collaboration among healthcare professionals will refine our understanding and enhance the management of diabetic-induced cardiovascular diseases, ultimately reducing their impact on individuals with diabetes.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Concentration and Ecological Risk Assessments of Potentially Toxic
           Elements in Soils around Lapite Dump Site, Akinyele Local Government Area,
           Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Authors: M. O. Smart, B. O. Okumodi, D. E. Ibiyeye, A. E. Roberts, O. O. Olunloyo, A. S. Adeoye, O. H. Ibironke
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: The contamination and ecological risk posed by Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) on soils around Lapite dumpsite and its environs were assessed using different analytical techniques after complete digestion of the soil using mixed acids. Results showed that the mean concentration of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) (153.2mg/kg, 13.83mg/kg, 137.2mg/kg and respectively) have higher concentrations than their crustal abundance (CA). The enrichment factor analysis revealed that most of the soils collected have been enriched with Pb showing the most enrichment at the upper and middle slopes while Cd is the most enriched at the downslope. The contamination factor showed that Cr, Pb and Cd are also the elements showing significant contamination with Cr and Pb moderately contaminating soil (1.54 and 1.62 respectively) and Cd showing very high contamination in the soil (17.3). The ecological risk indices revealed that only Cd has high risk of polluting the soils (519) of the study area while the whole area is considered to be at a high risk of various degrees of pollution (534). Considering the health implications of these concerned elements (Cr, Pb and especially Cd) to the body, the habitants of the study area are advised to move away from these dumpsite and also relocate their farmlands to more environmental friendly sites.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Rainfall-Riverflow Trends of Enyong Creek in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    • Authors: C. U. Augustine, I. E. Ahaneku, J. I. Awu
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Rainfall-riverflow is crucial for effective hydrology and water resource management. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rainfall-riverflow trends of Enyong Creek in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, utilizing daily hydro-meteorological data of daily rainfall, river discharge, and temperature data collected from the period 2018 to 2023 and modeling the data by Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models. The results show that the VAR model successfully captured the dynamic relationships among water discharge (WD), rainfall (RF), and average temperature (AVE.TEMP). Equations revealed the influence of past values on the current state of each variable. Correlation matrix and graphical representations confirmed model adequacy. Validation results demonstrated the model's accuracy, with model R-squared value of 0.8781 indicating a strong correlation. The performance measurement of evaluation for the developed model showed a Mean Average Error (MAE), Root Mean Square error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values of 5.5066, 6.7831, and 7.4203 respectively, revealing a satisfactory accuracy and precision. Information derived from this study offers valuable insights for government officials, policymakers, and planners in accurate flood forecasting, emergency management, land use planning, and infrastructure development.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and Quinolone Resistance
           Genes among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from
           Poultry, Domestic Pigs and Environ in Msimbazi River Basin in Tanzania

    • Authors: Z. I. Kimera, F. X. Mgaya, S. E. Mshana, E. D. Karimuribo, M. I. N. Matee
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: We investigated the occurrence and distribution of genes encoding for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and quinolone resistance among multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from poultry, domestic pigs, and environment samples in the Msimbazi basin in Tanzania. A total of 130 non-duplicated isolates obtained from the poultry (n = 40), domestic pigs (n = 52) and environment (n = 38) were screened for ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, qepA, and aac (6)-Ib-cr) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most commonly detected ESBL genes were blaCTX-M (31.5%, n=41) and blaTEM (10%, n=13), while quinolone resistance genes were qnrS (27.7%, n=36), qnrB (6.9%, n=9) and aac (6)-lb-cr (5.4%, n=7). ESBL gene blaSHV and quinolone resistance genes qnrA, qnrC, and qepA were not detected in any of the isolates. Resistance genes were highest in isolates from the environmental samples (86%, n=33), followed by poultry 72.5% (n=29), and domestic pigs 21.4%, (n=9). Overall, the most frequent resistance gene was qnrS, followed by blaCTX-M and blaTEM. About 17.7% (n=23) of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates depicted co-existence of ESBL and quinolone resistance genes. One Health interventional measures, involving different disciplines across human, animal, and environmental sectors, are needed to control the spread of antimicrobial resistance in the Msimbazi River Basin in Tanzania.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.5
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Nauclea latifolia Stem Bark Extracts: Potentially Effective Source of
           Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Compounds

    • Authors: A. J. Adepoju, A. O. Esan, I. T. Olawoore, G. J. Ibikunle, V. O. Adepoju
      Pages: 49 - 59
      Abstract: The stem bark of African peach (Nauclea latifolia) plant is used as traditional remedy for diabetes and inflammatory diseases, however, authenticated information on this use is scare. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to investigate the traditional folklore of the trado-medical remedy of the stem bark of African peach (Nauclea latifolia) plant for diabetes and inflammatory diseases using appropriate standard methods. Qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of saponins, alkaloids alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarin, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, glycosides, quinones, anthocyanin, anthraquinone, and phenol in the extracts. The ethanol extract exhibited the highest quantities of phenolics (19.69±0.12 mgGAE/g), flavonoids (46.84±0.12 mgQE/g), alkaloids (8.76±0.10 mg/g), tannins (7.25±0.10 mgTAE/g), and saponins (4.53±0.13 mg/g). Both ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed potent antibacterial and significant antifungal potential against the chosen pathogenic species. The ethyl acetate extract showed superior antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities compared to the ethanol extract. However, the ethanol extract outperformed in terms of anti-inflammatory efficacy, although still below standard Ibuprofen. This study propounds that N. latifolia stem bark is an attainable diabetic medication due to its interactions with enzymes, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory capabilities and its potential for isolating medicinal compounds.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.6
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Extraction Characterization of Oils Extracted from different Parts of Red
           and Yellow Varieties of Anacardium occidentale (Lin)

    • Authors: N. B. Nwosu, E. E. Okoronko, D. K. Njoku, P. O. Emole
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to extract and characterized the oils from different parts of red and yellow varieties of Anacardium occidentale after extractions using Soxhlet extractor and steam distillation techniques and characterization of the bioactive components using GC/MS analysis. Physicochemical parameters of the extracted oils were analyzed, and the bioactive compositions were also examined. The results showed that the oils extracted were within 0 and 0.5% moisture content and pH values ranged from 3.7 to 4.7.  The average relative densities of the extracted oils by Soxhlet extraction and steam distillation at temperature 25oC were 0.887 and 0.8745 g/cm3 respectively, with average saponification value of 132.45 mgKOH/g for Soxhlet extraction and 127.98 mgKOH/g for steam distillation. The iodine values of all the oils were between 35 and 19.00 mg iodine/100g; while the refractive index was between 1.7 and 1.9. The acid values were within the range of 10.00 and 13.00 mgKOH/g, and peroxide value of 1.67 and 1.20 mmol/l. The oils had low viscosity which were within 28 and 32 mpa.s. The compounds identified from the GC-MS results showed that cashew nut shell oil contained cardol, anacardic acid, cardanol, 2-methyl cardol, triacconten and β-sitosterol. The main bioactive components of the extracted oil identified from the stem bark, root bark, and leaf were alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and saponins. This study, therefore, showed that Soxhlet extraction could be a better extraction method for extraction of oil from cashew nut shell which had higher relative density; while cashew stem bark, root bark and the leaf which had lower density were selective based on the target products.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.7
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Evaluation of Antiasthmatic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Euphorbia Hirta
           and Lactuca Virosa on Ovalbumin and Ammonium Hydroxide Induced Asthma in
           Guinea Pigs

    • Authors: D. O. Uwaya, I. E. Ogie, O. G. Fayoriju, E. G. Tafamel, U. K. Obinna, J. C. Atughara
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Euphorbia hirta and Lactuca virosa are both powerful medicinal plants that are used in ethnomedicine to treat diarrhea, bacterial infections, inflammation, asthma, pain, fungus, cancer, and malaria.The aim of this study is to evaluate the antiasthmatic effect of the aqueous extracts of Lactuca virosa and Euphorbia hirta on ovalbumin and ammonium hydroxide induced asthma in guinea pigs model using standard procedures after dividing animals into 8 groups of 4 animals each. Lungs and trachea were collected for histology. The result obtained shows that the leaves of Lactuca virosa and the whole plant of Euphorbia hirta increased the latency to preconvulsing time and reduced the trachea wall thickness when compared to the ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide control (**p<0.01, *p<0.05). Hematology parameters were not affected (P<0.05). The extract increased the level of superoxide dismutase in the blood and tissues of the animals (P<0.01). Data obtained shows that the leaves of Lactuca virosa and the whole plant of Euphorbia hirta possess antiasthmatic properties.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.8
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Preliminary characterization of PEGylated nanostructured lipid carriers as
           potential drug delivery system

    • Authors: A. A. Ugwu, P. O. Nnamani, A. A. Attama
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: This study is a preliminary characterization of PEGylated nanostructured lipid carriers as potential drug delivery system using appropriate standard methods.  DSC traces showed that PEG 4000 was the most crystalline of all the lipids and Softisan® 154 was the least crystalline due to high enthalpy (-36mW/mg) and low enthalpy (-8.9 mW/mg) respectively. It was noticeable that the endothermic peak heights of PEGylated lipid matrix became smaller compared with the original starting lipid. All demonstrated good potentials for use as nanostructured lipid carrier drug delivery system but LMA, LMB and LMC turned to be the preferred in other of better thermal activity. SEM analysis revealed evidence of coarse structure amorphous than the individual lipidic systems. By implication showed increase drug loading capacity, it follows that that PEGylated nanostructured might be employed as NLCs carriers to serve as alternative transdermal delivery systems to improve the solubility of some poorly soluble drugs.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.9
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Micro-Morphological and Proximate Analysis of Sour Sop (Annona muricata L.
           of Annonaceae) Harvested from a Tertiary Institution Campus in the Niger
           Delta Region Nigeria

    • Authors: C. Wahua, I. Ogan
      Pages: 85 - 89
      Abstract: This research investigated the micro-morphological and proximate analysis of sour sop (Annona muricata L. of Annonaceae), harvested from a tertiary institution campus in the Niger Delta Region. It is a perennial small tree commonly known as sour sop. Plant sample was collected fresh within the University of Port Harcourt Campus, (4053130.1211North, and 6055139.611East). The proximate analysis was done following the methods of AOAC Official methods of Analysis. The result revealed that A. muricata is glabrous and reach up to 8 ± 1 m tall. The petiolate foliar organs are simple, oblong, having acuminate apex, acute base with parted margins, pinnately veined and opposite in phyllotaxy; measuring up to 12.5 ± 4.5 cm in length and 4.6 ± 1.38 cm in width. The fruit is oval berry containing whitish pulp embellished with black shiny seeds, and spinous greenish fruit cover. The foliar epidermal study revealed presence of polygonal cells, trichomes and paracytic stomata which are amphistomatic. The proximate study showcased the following compositions: 9.27 ± 1.0 Carbohydrate (%); 5.38 ± 1.00 Protein (%); 2.00 ± 0.90 Lipid (%); 85.84 ± 1.74 Moisture (%) content; 0.58 ± 0.11 Fiber (%) and 0.89 ± 0.01 Ash (%). These information would assist for further delimitation of the species.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compound from Ethanol Extract
           of Root Bark of Grewia mollis (Dargaza’a) Widely Growing in the Wild in
           North Eastern Nigeria

    • Authors: E. H. Mshelia, K. Tadzabia, W. Pindar, A. H. Mohammed, S. A. Aska
      Pages: 91 - 101
      Abstract: Grewia mollis is a plant, has been used as a source of food and in traditional medicinal preparations. Hence, the objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize the bioactive compound from ethanol extract of root bark of Grewia mollis (Dargaza’a) widely growing in the wild in North Eastern Nigeria using standard methods. The isolated compounds were also subjected to antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic assay. The isolation from the ethanol extract afforded a compound B that showed some degree of bioactivities. Compound B isolated showed good antioxidant activity by bioautography method. For the cytotoxic activity the result revealed that Compound B was moderately active with LC50 value of 14.06 µg/ml. The result for the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compound B using bioautography showed moderate inhibition by inhibiting three of the test organisms. The structural elucidation of the isolated compound B were done using UV, IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, DEPT and COSY and also by comparing the melting point and Rf- values of the isolate with the standards reference from literatures and compound B was found to be (2-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran -4-  one) (quercetin)
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.11
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Assessing the Level of Compliance to Standards among Agencies for Housing
           Development in Taraba State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A. E. Chrinus, C. O. Okoye, C. Ukah
      Pages: 103 - 112
      Abstract: Housing development is an investment from which flows a number of consumer services. Hence, this paper evaluates the level of compliance to standards among agencies for housing development in Taraba State, Nigeria using both primary and secondary types and sources of data in a 399 structured questionnaire and interview section. The results showed that all respondents affirmed that limited resources on the part of concerned agencies contributes to the challenges of compliance (3.33), inadequacy of regulatory frameworks affects compliance (3.22), favoritism in the course of discharge of duties undermine the enforcement of standards (3.29), corruption compromises the quality of housing development (3.22), nepotism also leads to lack of safety of housing units (3.24), inadequate funding affects agencies to ensure standard compliance (3.31), lack of awareness among stakeholders also affects the level of compliance to standard (3.31) as well as inadequate equipment necessary for monitory compliance (3.18) were all above the acceptance value of 2.50. Furthermore, the hypothesis which states that factors affecting level of compliance to standard among agencies do not significantly impact on housing development was tested using Chi-Square. The p-value (Sig) is .000 which implies that there is a significant impact of factors affecting level of compliance with standard among agencies on housing development in Taraba State. From the findings, the study recommends that fight against bribery and corruption should be initiated at all government levels (Federal, State, and LGAs) especially in Taraba State in order to maintain standards and compliance. Also, funds and resources should be made available for the agencies responsible for housing development.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.12
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Measurement and Modelling of Vehicular Emissions in Some Selected Towns in
           Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: O. O. Asheshi, A. S. Achide
      Pages: 113 - 121
      Abstract: This work focused on the measurement and modeling of vehicular emissions (CO, NO2, SO2 and PM10) in some selected towns of Nasarawa State, Nigeria using appropriate standard method for six months and the data modeled by Standard Research Institute model. The measured and modeled results of the pollutants concentrations in all the selected towns ranged as follows; CO, 6.52-17.93 µg/m3 and 1.63-2.70 µg/m3, NO2, 0.14-0.23 µg/m3 and 0.04-0.18 µg/m3, SO2, 0.18-0.28 µg/m3 and 0.09-0.20 µg/m3 and PM10 9.92-33.37 µg/m3 and 4.53-17.23 µg/m3respectively. Comparison of these results with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) set limits for these pollutants in the ambient air showed that CO concentration exceeded the limit of 11.40 µg/m3 in all the selected towns except for Akwanga town, while the concentration levels of NO2, SO2, and PM10 in the ambient air of the selected towns were within the permissible limit and pose no threats. Vehicular density was also determined by counting for the same period. The mean vehicular density decreases across the selected towns, with Karu having 3982, Lafia 2768, Keffi 2171 and Akwanga 1719. The mean concentration of each pollutant also showed the same trend with a significant correlation of about 99% between vehicular density and pollutant concentration for all the pollutants except NO2. From these results, it is worth recommending that government should enforce the control of vehicles that emit much fumes and sponsor the fabrication of electric or fuelless vehicles.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.13
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Larvicidal Efficacy of Citrus sinensi (Sweet Orange) Peel Extract against
           Anopheles Mosquito Larva from Nagazi Adavi Local Government Area, Kogi
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S. U. Umar, B. T. Kokori, A. A. Bashir, W. H. Umaru
      Pages: 123 - 128
      Abstract: This research investigates the larvicidal efficacy and phytochemical composition of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel methanol extract against Anopheles mosquito larvae collected from temporary rain pool and grassy ditches from Nagazi, Adavi Local Government Area of Kogi State Nigeria. Using appropriate standard methods. Test concentration of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% of methanol extract were prepared and tested for its larvicidal efficacy against Anopheles mosquito larva. Larval mortality where recorded after 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours of exposure in three replicates and the mean mortalities were recorded. Lethal concentration value (LC50 and LC90) of the extracts were determined using Probit regression analysis. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenol (281.67 ± 0.23), flavonoid (34.22 ± 0.00), saponin (26.36 ± 0.03), tannins (22.35 ± 0.02), cardiac glycoside (1.66 ± 0.01) and alkaloid (1.06 ± 0.08). The median (LC50) and upper (LC90) lethal concentration of methanol extract of Citrus sinensis peel were 2.49%, 1.48%, 1.09%, 0.88% and 4.25%, 2.58%, 1.91%, 1.69% at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The findings from this research suggests that the methanol extract of Citrus sinensis peel possesses some bioactive components that have the ability to cause lethal effect on the larvae of Anopheles mosquito and can be incorporated into a control strategy in the management of the mosquitoes.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.14
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Isolation and Identification of Microbes Associated with Spoilage of
           African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum Linn.) Sold in Markets in Benin
           City, Edo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: C. O. Udinyiwe, E. S. Aghedo
      Pages: 129 - 133
      Abstract: African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum Linn.) belong to the order Ebernale and family Sapotaceae. The study was aimed at isolating and identifying microbes associated with spoilage of Africa Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) commonly sold at Oba, Uselu and Ikpoba Hill markets in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Standard microbiological and biochemical techniques were used for the analysis. The results showed that viable bacterial counts of the spoilt cherry fruits ranged from 1.8×103 ‑ 7.6×103 cfu/g, 8.8×102 ‑5.4×103 cfu/g and 8.7×102 ‑1.7×103 cfu/g for spoilt cherry obtained from Oba market, Uselu market and Ikpoba Hill market. The fungal counts of spoilt cherry fruits ranged from 3.1×103 ‑ 9.4×103 cfu/g, 1.8×103 ‑6.0×103 cfu/g and 1.3×103 ‑ 2.9×103 cfu/g for spoilt cherry obtained from Oba market, Uselu market and Ikpoba Hill market. The bacterial isolates obtained were Klebsiella spp., Flavobacterium spp., Serratia spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Erwinia spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Escherichia coli. The fungal isolates identified from the spoilt cherry fruits were Saccharomyces spp., Aspergillus niger, Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus and Geotrichum spp. Bacillus subtilis had the highest percentage occurrence, while Aspergillus niger was the most occurring fungal isolate. The least occurring bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus and Erwinia spp., while the least occurring fungal isolates were Geotrichum and Mucor spp. This study showed high level of contamination of cherry fruits by microbes during preharvest and postharvest period.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.15
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Ocean and Coastal Resources Components and their Contributions to
           Sustainable Development of Nigeria

    • Authors: J. N. Osuji, J. Agbakwuru
      Pages: 135 - 146
      Abstract: The blue economy, which encompasses the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, has the potential to revolutionize Nigeria's maritime industry and provide a significant boost to the country's economy. The subject has been taken seriously in recent time in many parts of the world basically due to the sustainability it implies to the use of ocean in boosting national and therefore well-being of the people. Hence, the objectives of this paper were to examine ten important blue economic components and evaluate their contributions to the sustainable development of Nigeria using various secondary data acquisition. Data obtained reveals that out of the ten (10) blue economic components studied, oil/gas exploration, maritime transport/shipping and fisheries dominate the blue economic contributions with the oil/gas exploration contributing 90% of the blue economic value in Nigeria. This work has shown that efforts are required both from the government and private sectors to pursue the huge opportunities available especially in the non-oil/gas exploration components to sustainably improve the economic base of the nation and generate huge employment opportunities for the large growing Nigerian population.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.16
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Defensive Influence of Methanol Fraction and Crude Extract of Cocoplum
           (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) on Nickel Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    • Authors: O. Q. Stephen-Onojedje, S. O. Asagba, H. E. Kadiri
      Pages: 147 - 157
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the defensive influence of methanol fraction and crude extract of cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) on nickel toxicity in male Wistar rats. Biochemical analyses in the serum and tissues (liver and kidney) were carried out using standard procedures. Significant (p < 0.05) increase were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, fragmented deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA), and decrease in albumin and total protein in serum and tissues of Group 2 when compared with Group 1. The oral administration of C. icaco methanol fraction and crude extract significantly decreased AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, urea, fragmented DNA and increased albumin and total protein in the serum and tissues when compared with Group 2. The histology of various organs (liver and kidney) of Group 2 revealed inflammation of portal vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The renal tubules showed inflammation of glomerulus and tubular cell. The administration of C. icaco extract markedly reduced the histological alterations of various organs studied. However, these efficacies were shown to be better in the methanol crude extract than the methanol fraction of C. icaco.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.17
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Evaluating the Nature of Constraints of Land Delivery Process for Housing
           Development in Taraba State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A. E. Chrinus, C. O. Okoye, C. Ukah
      Pages: 159 - 164
      Abstract: A combination of a growing urban population, lack of an efficient mortgage system, poverty, increasing construction costs, high inflation and declining household income, have made access to decent and affordable housing difficult for many Nigerians. Hence, the aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of constraints of land delivery process for housing development in Taraba State, Nigeria using appropriate standard techniques after acquiring data from primary and secondary types and sources of data. From the results, 20.5% pointed out that complex land tenure system was a constraint to land delivery process for housing development in Taraba State, 33% of the agreed that insufficient infrastructure constitutes the nature of constraint while 20.2% of the population agreed that lack of coordination constitutes to the nature of constraint while the remaining 26.2% maintained that insecurity is the bane of the nature of constraint of land delivery process for housing development in the study area. Needless to say, majority of respondents agreed alongside with responses from questionnaire that nature of constraints of land delivery process negatively impact on housing development in the study area. Also, the Chi-Square p-value (Sig) was .000 which implies that there is a significant impact of nature of constraint of land delivery on housing development in Taraba State. Based on the findings, the study recommends that insecurity should be eliminated as it contributes largely to land delivery process as farmers/herders conflicts, kidnapping, communal crises are rampant in the state. Also, Government at all levels especially Taraba State government should look into the land tenure system practiced in the state in order to checkmate its complexities.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.18
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Plastics Biodegradation: The Situation Now and Its Potential Effects on
           Environmental Safety

    • Authors: F. A. Igiebor, E. M. Jonathan, O. Haruna, B. I. Alenkhe
      Pages: 165 - 178
      Abstract: Plastics are made of polymers with a high concentration of petrochemical components derived from coal, oil, and natural gas and majority of fossil and bio-based plastics are not biodegradable. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the current situation and potential environmental safety of plastic biodegradation by harvesting data and information from secondary sources. Data obtained show that there are several different kinds of plastics exists, including polypropylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polystyrene (PS) and that the environment is seriously threatened by the widespread use of plastics, poor waste management, and careless community behaviour about proper disposal. In Nigeria, more than 88% of the plastic garbage produced is not recycled. In the absence of appropriate waste management and litter control techniques, the use of biodegradable plastics for specialised applications is a promising idea. Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 is a brand-new bacterial strain that has been discovered to be capable of breaking down PET. High-density polyethylene was found to be negatively impacted by Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Therefore, a lot of research is being done to create methods for degrading polymers composed of fossil and biological sources as excellent techniques and environmentally acceptable strategies for waste management.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.19
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Assessment of Changes in Channel Width and Braiding: The Implications on
           Flooding Upstream of Shiroro Reservoir in river Kaduna, Kaduna State,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: O. G. Salawu, D. Leke
      Pages: 179 - 186
      Abstract: The objective of this paper was to presents potential implications of flooding on changes in channel width and braiding patterns within the nine study reaches upstream of the Shiroro Reservoir of River Kaduna, Kaduna Nigeria using standard methods for data acquisition and analysis. Preliminary findings reveal substantial alterations in channel morphology, characterized by an increase in channel width and a shift towards braided patterns in some of the study segments of River Kaduna. These changes are attributed to factors such as deforestation, urbanization, and land use changes within the river's catchment area resulting sediment released into the river. The hydrological consequences of these alterations, including increased flood risk in the upstream regions, sediment transport dynamics, and their implications for the functionality of the Shiroro Reservoir as a flood control mechanism has been pointed out. The outcomes of this study not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolving hydro- geomorphological dynamics of the Kaduna River but also provide valuable insights for sustainable river management practices and flood risk mitigation in the region. As Nigeria grapples with increasing challenges related to climate change and population growth, the findings presented in this paper hold significant relevance for policymakers, water resource managers, and communities living in flood-prone areas along River Kaduna.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.20
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Evaluating Water Quality of Lower Omo River and the Ethiopian part of Lake
           Turkana, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: A. K. Abiy, T. Y. Girma, S. Sorsa, S. B. Yohannes
      Pages: 187 - 194
      Abstract: The study’s surface water bodies, which include the lower Omo River and Lake Turkana in Ethiopia, are the most significant supplies of water for human activities, but they are also severely stressed by environmental factors and are in danger due to human activity. The physicochemical parameters were determined using standard analytical procedures in the Laboratory. The mean BOD5 values obtained in this study were 16.268± 1.47 mg/l and 16.28 ±1.133 mg/l in the upstream and in the downstream respectively. The COD value was higher in the River(upstream) (mean 376.06 ±130.45mg/L) than in the Lake (downstream) (mean 136.00± 41.52 mg/L).The mean fluoride ion level in the River were 0.89 ±0.0135 while that of the Lake was 2.026±0.064mg/l. The mean concentration of total nitrogen were 8.938±1.327mg/L) and 17.84 ± 4.0083mg/L) in River and Lake respectively .The value for PO4-3 was 1.866 ± 0.625mg/L in the River (LOR) while in Lake (ELT) , the concentration was 5.108±0.975mg/L . Mean concentrations for NH3 were 0.54 ±0.361and 1.354 ± 0.655 in the river and lake respectively. The finding of Water quality index (WQI) revealed that the water quality status was very poor and unsuitable for drinking in the lower Omo River and Omo Delta. Hence monitoring the effluent standards from the upstream industries, managing the waste disposal system in the towns along the river side are vital to protect the freshwater from further pollution.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.21
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Practices and Associated Health Risks for
           Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining at Stamico, Nsangano, and A.S.
           Lulila Mine Sites in Tanzania

    • Authors: A. Marwa, L. N. Sweya
      Pages: 195 - 203
      Abstract: Access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene is one of the main factors linked to community health risks. Hence, the objective of this paper as to evaluate the water, sanitation and hygiene practices and associated health risks for artisanal and small-scale goldmining at Stamico, Nsangano, and A.S. Lulila Mine Sites in Tanzania using 148 participants with structured questionnaires to harvest quantitative and qualitative data in this study. Findings of the study have revealed that about 95% of the case study area use boreholes water for domestic purposes, and majority use water without treatment. Pit latrines and open defecation are the common practices for most people at the sites. As such, this study revealed that, there is a possibility of microbial infection from salmonella due to the exceeded the limit value of 10-4. The chronic daily intake suggested that the overall hazard quotient of cancer risk from lead (Pb) was less than the tolerable limit for Pb exposure. The human health risk was assessed and the incremental lifetime cancer risk at all sites was low with values below 10−6. It is advised that artisanal and small-scale gold mining sites enhance their sanitation and water supplies in order to maintain excellent hygiene practices.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.22
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Effect of Environmental Immunity on Mathematical Modeling of Malaria
           Transmission between Vector and Host Population

    • Authors: A. L. Olutimo, N. U. Mbah, F. A. Abass, A. A. Adeyanju
      Pages: 205 - 212
      Abstract: The effect of environmental immunity on the mathematical modeling of malaria transmission between vector and host population is investigated in this study using appropriate standard procedures. We develop a mathematical SIR-SI model incorporating environmental immunity parameters to describe the dynamics transmission rates of both humans and vectors with the assumption that an individual develops environmental immunity on the infected and recovered classes. The model is analyzed by the reproduction number derived using the next-generation matrix method and its stability is checked by Jacobian matrix. We demonstrate that the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if  (  – reproduction number) and is unstable if . Numerical simulation indicates that, with acquired environmental immunity due to nutrition and medicinal herbs, the spread of malaria can be significantly impacted by increasing the recovered class and lowering the infected class.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.23
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Production and Characterization of Biolubricant from Cassia Sieberiana
           (Decandole) Seed Oil Using Transesterification Reaction

    • Authors: E. Stephen, H. Ibrahim, C. E. Gimba
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: Biolubricant is a biopolymer that can be used as a base oil in a variety of applications such as biomass and bioenergy. Hence, the objective of this paper is the production and characterization of biolubricant from Cassia sieberiana (Decandole) seed oil via two step transesterification reaction between methylesters and trimethylolpropane (TMP) at a molar ratio of 3.5: 1 with a catalyst of 0.8 % w/w of the total reactant at a temperature of 120 C for 2:30 hrs with a percentage yield of 93%. The physicochemical properties of the produced oil were determined by FTIR spectrum and GC-MS analysis. The viscosity (at 40 and 100) are 44.20 cSt and 7.82 cSt with pour point (-9 C), and viscosity index (148.04 cSt) respectively. The GCMS analysis revealed the fatty acid composition of the based oil as palmitic acid, linoleic acid, lineolaidic acid, stearic acid, and that of the biolubricant:  methyl oleate, 2-hydroxyl ethyl esters, and 22-tricosenoic acid with other traces of methyl ester. The analysis of the FTIR for the TMP triesters shows superior thermal and oxidative stability due to the ester functional group present. The produced oil was found to confirm with ISOVG viscose grade 32 and 46 for gear oil and other low temperature applications.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.24
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Combined Effects of Elevated Manganese and Zinc Levels on Germination,
           Chlorophyll Development, Foliar Nitrogen and Carbon Sequestration in
           Sorghum bicolor seedlings

    • Authors: S. Oyedeji, M. A. Ajayi, G. K. Olawepo, O. O. Agboola, K. S. Olorunmaiye, P. O. Fatoba
      Pages: 221 - 226
      Abstract: Sorghum is a major staple crop in many parts of semi-arid tropics, but soil nutrient deficiencies and pollution are limiting its performance. The study was carried out to determine the combined effects of elevated levels of manganese and zinc in the soil on the germination and performance of Sorghum bicolor seedlings at the early stage of growth. A 9×3 complete block design (CBD) experiment consisting of 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg manganese (Mn) levels each with sub-levels of zinc (Zn) at 0 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg were set-up in three replicates alongside the uncontaminated control. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench were sown in the treatments after two weeks of spiking. The set-up was observed for germination (as from 1 day after sowing - DAS), cchlorophyll index (at 7 DAS and 14 DAS), leaf nitrogen (at 14 DAS), biomass accumulation of seedlings (at 14 DAS). The results showed that germination occurred in all the treatments at 3 DAS and the combined low (10 mg/kg) Mn with low (10 mg/kg) Zn treatment achieved the highest germination rate (100%) while high (100 mg/kg) Mn without Zn had the least (26.67%). High Mn combined with high Zn improved chlorophyll index and leaf N. Contrarily, increasing levels of Mn had no significant impact on biomass accumulation/carbon sequestration. The study concluded that Mn and Zn spiking differently impacted on the performance indices of sorghum. The combined low levels of Mn and Zn improved germination while increasing levels of both metals enhanced chlorophyll and foliar N concentration in sorghum.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.25
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Comparative Estimation of Onshore (Okada) and Offshore (Okerenkoko) Wind
           Speed for Potential Wind Energy Access in Delta State, Nigeria

    • Authors: O. Erhinyodavwe, C. O. Omoyi, E. K. Orhorhoro
      Pages: 227 - 234
      Abstract: The low availability of reliable electrical energy in Nigeria; urban centres and rural area in particular is alarming. At the moment, average Nigerians readily depends on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil and wood fuel which is environmental unfriendly. However, wind energy is abundant, inexhaustible, affordable, environmentally preferable, and equally sustainable. Hence, the objective of this paper was to undertake a comparative estimation of onshore (Okada) and offshore (Okerenkoko) wind speed for potential wind energy access in Delta State, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. The outcome of the results obtained reveal that offshore areas generated more wind speeds than the onshore area of Niger Delta. The percentage of onshore wind speed to offshore windspeed was established to be 46% to 54%. Besides, offshore shows a better tendency of wind power generation against onshore and this was due to high values of wind speed generated in offshore area. The amount of electricity produced by a turbine is mostly determined by wind speed. Above and beyond, Okerenkoko has a better wind energy potential than Okada and installation of wind turbine in Okerenkoko will help to boast a green sustainable renewable energy in the region.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.26
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Provenance Interpretation and Depositional Environment of Sandstones of
           the Ajali Formation, South of Ifon, Western Flank of Anambra Basin,
           Southwestern Nigeria

    • Authors: O. A. Oluwajana
      Pages: 235 - 242
      Abstract: Grain size analysis, heavy mineral analysis, and petrographic studies of sandstones of the Ajali Formation near Imoru (south of the Ifon), the western flank of the Anambra Basin, were conducted to determine the provenance and depositional environment. The textural attributes of the Ajali Sandstone were inferred from the statistical variables namely graphic mean, graphic kurtosis, inclusive graphic standard deviation (sorting), inclusive graphic skewness with values of 0.37 - 1.17 (average 0.55Ø), -9.84 - 3.07 (average 0.09Ø), 0.05 - 1.02 (average 0.75Ø), and -0.03 - 1.00 (average 0.35Ø) respectively. Bivariate plots, such as simple skewness measure versus standard deviation (sorting) and mean versus sorting, suggest that the Ajali Sandstone is mainly a fluvial environment. The petrographic result indicates that quartz is the dominant detrital component with iron oxide, and hematite and goethite are the major cement in the analyzed sandstone sample. The zircon–tourmaline–rutile (ZTR) indices range from 67.65% to 73.17%, indicating that the sandstones are sub-mature to mature. Provenance indicators support igneous rocks of acidic compositions (e.g., granite) and high-grade metamorphic rocks (e.g., granite gneiss) of the Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.27
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Socio-Economic Determinants of Households’ Dependence on Forest
           Resources. A Case of Forested Communities in Quan’Pan Local Government
           Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S. K. Vihi, K. I. Okeke-Agulu, P. M. Selzing, U. I. Henry, M. U. Henry, E. Y. Zaman, M. Z. Ode
      Pages: 243 - 251
      Abstract: This study evaluated the socioeconomic factors determining rural households' reliance on forest resources, a case of forested communities in Quan’Pan Council Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling process, 150 household heads were chosen for the study. Descriptive statistics, five point Likert scale and binary logit regression analysis were used to achieve the objectives of the study. The study's outcome showed that the heads of the households were averagely 40years.  About 71% of the selected persons were men with a greater (89%) number married.  Majority (58%) of them had only primary education. Findings from the study also revealed that 82% of the heads of the households were into farming as their major occupation. They practice farming on average farm sizes of 1.6hectares. All (100%) interviewed household heads collected and utilized a variety of forest products throughout the year for their daily subsistence and income generation. The respondents showed high level of dependability on resources from the forest to support themselves such as firewood (4.7), timber (4.0), charcoal (4.0), fruits and nuts (3.8), bush meat (3.7), honey (3.7) and medicinal herbs (3.0). Forest products contributed the second largest proportion of income in the home by 27.0% after income from agriculture (51.0%). Gender (0.944), education status (-0.385), household size (0.432), farm size (-0.581) and farm income (-0.024) were significant determinant of households reliance on the resources of the forest. Gender (0.944) and household size (0.432) had positive and significant relationships with households dependence on forest resources while education status (-0.385), farm size (-0.581) and farm income (-0.024) showed a significant inverse relationship with the reliance of households on forest resources.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.28
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Impact of anthropogenic Pollution on Bujumbura Rivers: Toward Rivers and
           Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Conservation, Burundi

    • Authors: C. Sibomana, S. Buhungu, D. Ntakirutimana, D. Nahimana
      Pages: 253 - 262
      Abstract: Despite its importance, Lake Tanganyika is threatened by pollution especially around Bujumbura, the largest city on its shores, leading to its biodiversity loss, habitat destruction and trophic system disturbance. Hence, the objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the anthropogenic pollution of Bujumbura on rivers using water quality physicochemical and macroinvertebrates community parameters. Four rivers were sampled and two stations, upstream and downstream the city were considered. EC, TDS, NH4, NO2- and BOD5 show high values downstream at all rivers on one hand and NO3- except for Kanyosha on the other hand, while DO values significantly decreased downstream the rivers except for Kanyosha too. This indicates the increasing water pollution from upstream to downstream, what is consistent with the dominance of the pollution-tolerant Chironomidae and Lumbriculidae dowmnstream and high density of the pollution-sensitive taxa from the EPT orders upstream the rivers. The same trend was observed with the reduction in macroinvertebrates diversity as Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices are lower downstream than upstream. The canonical correspondence analysis showed that the pollution-sensitive Hydropsychidae and Simuliidae and DO are associated with upstream stations while pollution-tolerant Chironomidae high densities on one hand and higher nutrients’ concentrations, TDS, EC and BOD5 on the other hand were associated with downstream stations.. This study indicates that rivers crossing Bujumbura have caused anthropogenic pollution thathas negatively affected rivers’ ecosystem causing biodiversity loss, community simplification and water quality alteration. More facilities should be installed for sufficient wastewater treatment before it is discharged into rivers and Lake Tanganyika.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.29
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Trichomoniasis Spread amongst Pregnant Women attending a Tertiary
           Institution Teaching Hospital for Antenatal Routine in Kwara State,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: A. A. Aishat, U. N. Gimba, K. Ibrahim
      Pages: 263 - 268
      Abstract: The objective of this paper was to present the spread of Trichomoniasis amongst pregnant women attending a tertiary institution teaching hospital for antenatal routine in Kwara State, Nigeria using appropriate standard structured questionnaire and standardized methods were deployed for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and fifty samples were collected based on their age group, marital status and their level of Education. From the results obtained, the respondents between the ages 15-25 (66.6%) were shown to be positive, followed by those within the age of 26-35 (23.2%), and those between 35-45 years (10.2%) respectively. With respect to the marital status, the prevalence rate of T.vaginalis was recorded to be highest in single (51.4%); married (40%) and divorced pregnant mothers (8.6%) respectively. On the accK of the level of Education, the prevalence rate of T.vaginalis was reportedly higher in those with primary education (44.3%) followed by those with secondary school education (30%) and post-secondary school education (25.7%) respectively. There was however no statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.559). The immunological status as indicated by CD 4 counts caused by Trichomonasvaginalis infection (p=0.560) show no significant differences in the sampled groups. Therefore, to prevent the impact of Trichomonasvaginalis infection, health sanitization awareness is recommended to be carried out time to time by the community health service providers.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Histomorphological Effects of Tadalafil on the Liver of Adult Wistar Rat

    • Authors: P. O. Onyilo, B. O. Samuel
      Pages: 269 - 273
      Abstract: Tadalafil is used to treat erectile dysfunction and improve exercise capacity in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension. It promotes blood circulation to the penis during sexual stimulation, thus facilitating the occurrence of an erection. This study examined tadalafil effects on the liver, focusing on potential hepatotoxicity and liver function adverse effects. It aims to contribute to knowledge on tadalafil misuse and abuse, promoting informed decision-making and raising awareness. The study was conducted using fifteen (15) adult Wistar rats randomly assigned into three groups consisting of 5 rats each. Group A was the control group while group B (10 mg/kg of tadalafil) and C (20 mg/kg of tadalafil) were the low dose and high dose groups respectively. Oral administration of tadalafil in treated rats showed evidence of vascular congestion and dilation in the liver tissue, at 20 mg/kg there was periportal hepatitis. Assay of liver function parameters showed increase in liver enzymes across treatment groups compared to control. The presence of periportal hepatitis indicates potential inflammation in the region surrounding the portal area of the liver which suggests that tadalafil may have an impact on hepatocyte morphology and may also influence the inflammatory response in the periportal region of the liver. Hence, Tadalafil should be taken with caution.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.31
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Physicochemical Parameters and Abundance of Pathogenic Protozoans and
           Helminths in Abattoirs within Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria

    • Authors: H. D. Sha-Amu, K. Ibrahim, U. N. Gimba
      Pages: 275 - 290
      Abstract: Protozoans and helminthes are parasites. Protozoans are single-celled organisms, while helminthes are multicellular animals. These parasites feed off on other living organisms and cause diseases. The objective of this paper therefore was to investigate the physicochemical parameters and abundance of pathogenic protozoans and helminths in abattoirs within Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria using appropriate standard techniques.The parasites identified in the abattoirs wastewater samples in the three study locations were: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiuria, Hookworm, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Fasciola hepatica. With Hookworm having the highest occurrence in Chanchaga wastewater with 20.7%, Tayi wastewater 21.2% and in Maikunkele 19.3%. Similar organisms were also observed to be present in the soil samples of the three study locations. Chanchaga with Schistosoma Mansoni having the highest occurrence of 25.4%, Tayi had high occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis with 29.4%, and Maikunkele had high occurrence of Hookworm with 19.8%. The physicochemical parameters evaluated in the study areas shows that the colour and odour were different from the control with high level of clay, sand, Total Organic Carbon, Magnesium, Salinity, Nitrate and Sulphate in samples than the control (p<0.05),but in Maikunkele abattoir, Electricity Conductivity, Chloride, Phosphate, Sulphate were higher in the control than the samples. Therefore, conducting educational campaigns and raising awareness among the local population about the risks associated with contaminated water and soil in abattoirs is essential. Providing information on proper hygiene practices, including hand-washing and safe food preparation, can help prevent the ingestion of parasite eggs or cysts and minimize the spread of infections.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v28i1.32
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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Heriot-Watt University
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Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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