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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 201 - 265 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
LOGIKA Jurnal Ilmiah Lemlit Unswagati Cirebon     Open Access  
Makara Journal of Science     Open Access  
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Maskana     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Science     Open Access  
Middle European Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
MUST : Journal of Mathematics Education, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mutis     Open Access  
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Natural Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal  
Naturen     Full-text available via subscription  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nova     Open Access  
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Orbis Cógnita : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Patterns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PENDIPA : Journal of Science Education     Open Access  
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
RAC: Revista Angolana de Ciências     Open Access  
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Research Policy : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Respuestas     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Revista Binacional Brasil - Argentina: Diálogo entre as ciências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Iniciação Científica     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la Universidad Nacional del Este     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Revista Científica y Tecnológica UPSE     Open Access  
Revista Conhecimento Online     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Información Científica     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Científica del Paraguay     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access  
Revista Saber Digital     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access  
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Revista Vivências em Ensino de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rihan Journal for Scientific Publishing     Open Access  
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Sci     Open Access  
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4370)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 28)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science Diliman     Open Access  
Science Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Sciential     Open Access  
Scientific African     Open Access  
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 450)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Scientific World     Open Access  
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Smart Science     Open Access  
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South American Sciences     Open Access  
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
The Innovation     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Trilogía     Open Access  
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
Türk Bilim ve Mühendislik Dergisi     Open Access  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
WikiJournal of Science     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1119-8362
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Environmental and Health Impact of Small-Scale Gold Mining Activities in
           Ibanda District of Uganda

    • Authors: B. A. Peter, O. M. Zakaria, S. A. Sabiki
      Pages: 785 - 788
      Abstract: In the recent past, artisanal small-scale gold mining activities in Kicuzi Subcounty, Ibanda District, Uganda, have had a severe influence on the environment and people's health. The study investigated the environmental and health impacts of small-scale. The questionnaires of 156 respondents were given to the Ibanda District's surrounding areas. The findings demonstrated that p-value is substantially associated with perception and the surroundings (p < 0.0005). The finding also demonstrates that p-value is substantially connected with the environment and health (p< 0.0005). The findings revealed that diarrhoea, skin illness, and injuries are the most common ailments in the population. As can be observed from the results, 75% of health workers admit that the health system in this municipality is not equipped to deal with mining-related health issues.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.1
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Hybrid Fillers of Bamboo Fiber and Commercial Glass Fiber on
           High Density Polyethylene Matrix

    • Authors: J. O. Oboh, D. Maliki, K. K. Ajekwene, O. Salako
      Pages: 789 - 792
      Abstract: The focus of this research work is to study the effect of hybrid fillers of bamboo fiber and commercial glass fiber on high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix without interfacial coupling agent. The hybrid composite was formed through melt blending method using two-roll mixing mill at temperature of 160 oC and was shaped using compression molding machine. The highest value of Tensile Modulus at break and Hardness were obtained at hybrid ratio of 70 % of HDPE/ 15 % bamboo/ 15 % glass particles (H/B15/G15). However, the inclusion of the hybrid fillers did not show any significant difference in Impact strength from the molded blank HDPE samples (H/B0/G0) while the percentage water absorbed by the samples predominantly decreased as the content of the commercial glass filler was increase in the HDPE matrix.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.2
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Repeat Analysis and Dose Burdens of Patients Examined in the
           

    • Authors: J. I. Fatukasi, E. S. Osho, C. J. Olowookere, A. O. Ogunsemoyin
      Pages: 793 - 799
      Abstract: The objectives of this study was to examine the repeated examinations carried out and dose burdens of patients examined in the radiology department of a tertiary institution teaching hospital in Nigeria. A standard daily record keeping method (accepted and rejected films compiled by Radiographers) was used to collect data after viewing by a Radiologist. Raw data collected were sorted with the aid of Tally Chart. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the data collected with the help of Excel software. The specific repeat rates (SRRs) for different examinations are as follows: chest PA (CXR-6.68 %); lumbosacral (LS-10.90%); skull/head (S/H-15.08 %); abdomen (ABD-12.97 %); pelvis/hip (PE/H-7.77 %); cervical spine/neck (SP/NK-5.56 %); thoracic spine (TS-7.14 %); extremities (EXT-1.64 %); shoulder joint (SHJ-2.22 %); knee joint (KNJ-2.99 %); elbow joint (ELB-2.53 %); ankle joint (ANK-2.77 %); and  hysterosalpingography (HSG-7.35 %). The highest causal reject rates (CRRs) was found to be as a result of under-penetration (34.3%) in this study. This is followed in succession by over-collimation (22.90 %) and processing artifact (20.50 %).   The excessive population doses of the exposed patients resulting from repeats for some examinations are: chest PA (CXR-103.60 mGy); lumbosacral AP (LS-23.00 mGy); skull/head PA (S/H-71.10 mGy); abdomen AP (ABD-33.48 mGy); thoracic spine AP (TS-2.52 mGy);  shoulder joint AP (SHJ-1.89 mGy); knee joint AP (KNJ-2.00 mGy); ankle joint AP (ANK-0.76 mGy);  hysterosalpingography (HSG-1.95 mGy). The selected exposure parameters could also be examined and adjusted to prevent under-penetration.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.3
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Establishment and Validation of Continuously Operating Reference Stations
           Geosystems Network on Static and Real-Time Kinematic in Benin City,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: S. O. Oladosu, R. Ehigiator-Irughe, M. B. M. E. Muhammad
      Pages: 801 - 808
      Abstract: An infrastructure highly treasured by Geomatics Engineers is the continuously operating reference stations (CORS). CORS technology is a complete paradigm shift from the previously known ground control system to a virtual control system. In this paper, we present the steps taken to install CORS Geosystems in Benin City and further test its efficacy by observing fifteen existing control points located far and near using two Tersus GNSS receivers (A&B) concurrently. We perform statistical adjustment using Trimble Business Center software. Successful adjustment took two (2) iterations with Chi square test at (95%) precision confidence level and degree of freedom being nine (9) showed that the result of the adjustment was reliable.  Means of 0.007m, 0.003m 0.000m for Easting, Northings and Heights were obtained while the standard errors (σ) in E, N and H  are 0.003m, 0.007m and 0.000m respectively. The achieved RMS errors obtained from the attempted validation confirmed further that the newly installed CORS is capable of providing reliable 3D geo-spatial data for prospective authorized users to proffer solutions to engineering, scientific, environmental and research driven challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.4
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Geotechnical Evaluation of Road Failure along 20th Street BDPA, Benin
           City, Nigeria

    • Authors: O. O. Andre-Obayanju, C. C. Ireaja
      Pages: 809 - 814
      Abstract: This work investigated the cause of road failure using geotechnical analysis along the 20th Street, BDPA, Benin-city, Nigeria. Soil samples from the failed section of the road were analyzed to ascertain their particle size distribution, limit liquid, plastic limit, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and California bearing ratio using the British Standard Institution (BS 1377 1990). The result from the particle size distribution analysis showed that soils were well graded (GW) with percentage fines ranging from 26 to 49.7%, specific gravity from 2.4 to 2.6, liquid limit from 21.52-29.79%, plastic limit ranged from 11.73-18.80%, plasticity index 8.29-12.49% and California bearing ratio(unsoaked) from 9-29%. The compaction test results showed that the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) ranged from 1.7mg/m3-1.8mg/m3 and Optimum Maximum Content from 11-14%. It was found that there is a significant difference between the geotechnical characteristics of the soil and the standard for geotechnical characteristics set by the Federal Ministry of Works. This led to the conclusion that the soil geotechnical characteristics is a causative factor of road failure as well as the geology. Hence, it was recommended that the geotechnical and geological characteristics of sub-grades and fill materials be taken into consideration during road construction.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.5
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Bacteriological Profile of Palm Oil Sale Sites in Selected Markets in
           Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: P. Ocheni, A. Orukotan, N. I. Sylvester, S. L. Adeyemi
      Pages: 815 - 821
      Abstract: The bacteriological profile of palm oil sale sites in selected markets in Kaduna state, Nigeria were evaluated using standard techniques by collecting a (60) soil samples. Aside from bacteriological profile, pH, moisture content, temperature and lipase activity analyzed. The soil samples had pH that ranged from acidic to neutral (3.0-8.00) which indicates the presence of hydrolytic enzymes. Microorganisms isolated from soil samples palm oil sale sites were screened from their lipase producing ability. A total of (10) ten bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptobacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. The lipolytic activity of the bacteria when screened on solid agar ranged for 1.1 to 3.2cm, 2.3-3.7cm, 2.3-6.7cm at 24, 48 and 72hours respectively while that of fungal species ranged from 0.6 to12cm, 0.3-1.5cm and 1.1-1. 7cm at 3,7,14 days of incubation respectively. Exo-enzyme was produced from the various species screened for lipolytic activities. The study shows that Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma spp. had high potential.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.6
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Physico-mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber and Modified
           Natural Rubber Vulcanizates with Watermelon Rind as Fillers

    • Authors: F. Y. Falope, A. K. Akinlabi, M. A. Idowu
      Pages: 823 - 828
      Abstract: Natural Rubber (NR) has a relatively low tensile modulus and strength, hence the need for reinforcing fillers to increase its tensile strength, hardness and abrasion resistance. In this study, NR was deproteinized, epoxidized and depolymerized. The functional groups of the NR and the modified NR were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Watermelon Rind (WR) was used as fillers to replace Carbon Black (CB) in the compounding process. The shells were collected, dried, milled and sieved to 75 µm mesh size. Powdered WR was carbonized at 250oC for 1.5 hrs to obtain Carbonized Watermelon Rind (CWR). The Uncarbonized Watermelon Rind (UWR) and CWR powder were characterized based on particle size, loss on ignition, volatile matter, moisture and ash content. The UWR and CWR were used to replace CB at 0, 50 and 100% for the NR and modified NR compounding. The physico-mechanical properties of the different vulcanizates were determined for the effect of modification on the NR. The FT-IR result of the NR samples showed the presence of O-H, C-H, C=C stretching with C=H wagging bands used as the fingerprint region of NR. The results of the physico-mechanical properties revealed that an increase in shell content in the NR decreased its tensile strength and elongation but improved the physico-mechanical properties of the modified NR. This study showed that watermelon rind can be a viable alternative source of carbon filler for improved physico-mechanical properties of modified natural rubber.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.7
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Protective Roles of Adansonia digitata (African Baobab), Cucumeropsis
           mannii (Melon), and Abelmoschus esculentus (Okro) Supplemented Diets
           against Cadmium-Induced Lipotoxicity, Bone Demineralization, and
           Cytotoxicity in Rabbits

    • Authors: J. O. Fatoki, O. C. Adekunle, A. R. Olorunfemi, O. Iyapo, H. A. Abdulrahim, B. B. Akintade, A. S. Adekunle
      Pages: 829 - 836
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective roles of Adansonia digitata (African baobab) Cucumeropsis mannii (Melon), Abelmoschus esculentus (Okro),  on lipid profile, bone health, and selected organs (liver, kidney, brain, and testis) against cadmium-induced toxicity in rabbits. Twenty male rabbits were grouped into five with four rabbits in each group. Group 1 served as positive control and received standard feed and 1.5 mg/kg body weight normal saline, group 2 served as negative control and were exposed to 1.5 mg/kg body weight cadmium chloride, group 3 received 1.5 mg/kg body weight cadmium Adansonia digitata supplemented feed, group 4 received 1.5 mg/kg body weight cadmium chloride and Citrullus lanatus supplemented feed, while group 5 were given 1.5 mg/kg body weight cadmium chloride and Abelmoschus esculentus supplemented feed. All administrations were orally and lasted for 28 days. At the end of the administration, blood, liver, kidney, brain, and testes were harvested from the rabbits for biochemical and histological analysis. One-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey’s test was used to analyze the results with p < 0.05 considered significant. The results revealed that cadmium exposure caused a significant increase in serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and atherogenic index in rabbits exposed to cadmium. Cadmium exposure also reduced bone calcium concentration. Adansonia digitata maintained the atherogenic index of plasma at 2.67 compared with the positive control group (2.66). The three vegetables reversed the cadmium-induced up-regulation of total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the liver, kidney, and brain but not in the testis. All the vegetables also restored bone calcium. Citrullus lanatus and Abelmoschus esculentus prevented organ damage induced by cadmium exposure. These vegetables however play different protective roles against cadmium exposed rabbits.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.8
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Cancer Risks Associated with Radon Concentration Measured in
           the Science Faculty Building Complex Basement of a Tertiary Institution in
           South West, Nigeria

    • Authors: C. J. Olowookere, K. Aladeniyi, G. A. Abu, J. Erimona
      Pages: 837 - 843
      Abstract: In this study, radon concentration was measured with an active detector (RAD 7) in the Science Faculty building complex basement of a tertiary institution in South West (SW), Nigeria. The attendant risk descriptors were determined with the help of mathematical models. The range of mean detectable radon concentration in the basement is 26.5 ±12.3 – 242 ± 50.7 Bq m-3 and the mean for all the rooms examined is 61.74 ± 58.48 Bq m-3. The overall mean is less than the global mean of 100 Bq m-3. The mean annual dose rate is found to be 0.97 ± 0.92 mSv y-1.  The mean annual effective doses for different subjects examined are 0.412 ± 0.391 mSv y-1 (worker), 0.0221 ± 0.0209 mSv y-1 (student in lab session), 0.515 ± 0.488 mSv y-1 (student who lives in the hostel) and 2.149 ± 2.036 mSv y-1 (home owner). Students and workers in the basement are not likely to develop serious health effects, however, if the basement is used as a living room, the radon concentration in Room I-R might lead to health effects. The range of calculated excess life cancer risks (ELCRs) are (0.64-5.82) x 10-3 and (1.16 -10.58) x 10-3 for student and homeowner respectively. The mean values for the two subjects examined fall below the maximum risk of 3.5 x 10-3.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.9
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Chemical Compositions of Leaf Protein Concentrate and Bagasse of Pride of
           Barbados (Caesalpinia pulcherrima) Leaves obtained from three Different
           Locations in Benin City, Nigeria

    • Authors: S. O. Nwokoro, O. W. Agbonghae, N. C. Akaeze, E. E. Onojeta
      Pages: 845 - 849
      Abstract: To optimize food and feed production in Nigeria and meet protein demands, viable options need to be explored. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition of Pride of Barbados leaf protein concentrate and bagasse. Freshly harvested Pride of Barbados leaves were obtained from three different locations in Benin City and processed for its leaf protein concentrate and bagasse using heat coagulated method. Pride of Barbados leaf protein concentrate and bagasse were analysed for proximate and mineral compositions using standard analytical procedures. Proximate analysis revealed that the dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash, and nitrogen free extract contents of Pride of Barbados leaf protein concentrates were 91.17%, 31.12%, 8.33%, 7.92%, 8.2%, and 35.3%, respectively. Pride of Barbados bagasse had a lower crude protein (9.22%) but higher fibre content (10.72%) compared to those of Pride of Barbados leaf protein concentrate. Na, K, Ca, and Mg were the most abundant minerals in Pride of Barbados leaf protein concentrate and bagasse. Chromium was very low in the leaf protein concentrate and bagasse. Proximate compositions were significantly (p<0.05) affected by location. Pride of Barbados leaf protein concentrate and bagasse can be used as livestock feed ingredient.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.10
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Assessing Image Classification Accuracy with Principal Component Analysis
           Algorithm Case Study: Odeda LGA of Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria

    • Authors: O. J. Aigbokhan, N. E. Essien, O. M. Ogoliegbune, O. S. Afolabi, I. S. Adamu
      Pages: 851 - 858
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess image classification accuracy using the instrumentality of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It is focused on evaluating the accruable benefits of Principal Component Analysis as part of an image preprocessing procedure for image classification. Land use land cover (LULC) and accuracy assessment datasets were obtained with remote sensing and geographic information system’s software. The principal component analysis was statistically used to assess the level of correlation amongst bands in Landsat 8. The image classification was premised on the Maximum Likelihood classifier for land use land cover analysis. To ascertain the accuracy of the classified images, the Producer’s accuracy, User’s accuracy and Kappa coefficient derivatives of accuracy assessment was calculated. The results revealed that the first three PCs of the raw Landsat data accounted for 99.37 % variance of the original Landsat data, while the last three PCs represented only 0.63% of the original data. The results of land use land cover based on raw bands composite were Forest (41%), Shrubs (33%) and Built-up (26%) respectively. On the other hand, land use land cover based on Principal Component Analysis showed Forest (39%), Shrubs (39%) and Built-up (22%) respectively. Comparing the results of Kappa coefficients of both LULC of raw bands’ composite was 0.88 while that of PCA was 0.91. Conclusively, there is a significant level of difference in the classification outputs of PCA derived classification and that of raw Landsat bands’ composite.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.11
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Phoenix dactylifera Tree Fruit Extract on Cadmium Induced Renal
           Damage in Adult Wistar Rats

    • Authors: R. O. A Ehimigbai, F. Nwosu
      Pages: 859 - 864
      Abstract: The objective of the study is to investigate the ameliorative potential of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit on cadmium induced kidneydamage in adult Wistar Rat using standard technique. Thirty (30) adult Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group.  Group A (control); Group B (0.1ml/kg body weight of cadmium); Group C (200mg/kg body weight of Phoenix dactylifera); Group D (600mg/kg body weight of Phaoenix dactylifera); Group E (0.1ml/kg body weight of cadmium and 200mg/kg body weight of Phoenix dactylifera); Group F (0.1ml/kg body weight of cadmium and 600mg/kg body weight of Phoenix dactylifera). Treatments were administered once daily for 30 days. After day 30, biochemical and histopathological studies were conducted to appraise oxidative stress and renal toxicity. Serum levels of creatinine, urea, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were quantified. Animals treated alone with cadmium (Group B), showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum urea, serum creatinine and CAT, SOD levels statistically. Treatment of rats with Phoenix dactyliferaalongside cadmium (Group E and F) showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in renal function and restoration of biochemical parameters mentioned earlier. Histopathological findings confirm these conservations. Therefore, the administration of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera has protective effect on cadmium-induced renal toxicity and oxidative stress in wistar rats which can be attributed to Phoenix dactylifera antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.12
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Non-Point Source Pollution Modelling: An Overview

    • Authors: J. H. Abdulkareem, R. I. Solomon
      Pages: 865 - 870
      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the data available from existing studies concerning non-point source pollution (NPS). NPS pollution is complex and difficult to detect and manage when compared with point source pollution. To tackle its risk, it is vital to have precise simulations and estimations of NPS pollutants. Different modelling techniques applied to NPS pollution were reviewed and classified as either physically-based models or empirical. The physically-based models (White box models) can be used both for long-term and daily time steps. They require initial model data as well as watershed morphological and physiographic, which makes them complex and not easy to use. Empirical models on the other hand are called black-box models or metric models and can be used for both long-term, daily time steps with minimal data requirement and requires less skill to operate. Although their results are easy to interpret, these types of models are only suitable within the boundary of a certain domain. The findings of this review will serve as a guide to water resource planners in identifying the type of NPS model they need to apply to a particular catchment for a particular problem.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.13
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Healthy and Leaf Curl Virus
           Infected Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) Leaves

    • Authors: N. Mohammed, I. Abdullahi, S. K. Bala
      Pages: 871 - 876
      Abstract: The present investigation deals with the determination of phytochemical constituents of healthy and leaf curl virus infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Specimens were collected from Koraye in Zaria and transported to the Herbarium unit for proper authentication. Healthy and curl leaves of Solanum lycopersicum were washed thoroughly three times with running tap water and once with sterile distilled water, air dried at temperature on a sterile blotter. After complete drying, young leaves were pulverized. The powdered material was weighed and kept in air tight container in dark place for further extraction procedure. Extraction was done by methanol method, where 100g each of pulverized powder of both healthy and infected Solanum lycopersicum leaves was put in a cornical flask and (1000ml) of measuring cylinder was used to measure 500ml of 70% methanol. The results obtained from the qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of; Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tanins, Cardiac glycosides, Phenols and Saponins in both healthy and infected leaves of Solanum lycopersicum and the absence of; Carbohydrates, Steroids and Anthroquinone in both healthy and infected leaves of Solanum lycopersicum. While the quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 8.2% and 3.8% Alkaloids, 49.6% and 48.2% Flavonoids, 30.6% and 19.99%, Tanins 30.6% and 19.9%, Phenols 13.6% and 7.022% Saponins 1.2% and 0.1% in both healthy and infected leaf curl of Solanum lycopersicum. Evidently, from the above investigation there are no reducing sugars in Solanum lycopersicum leaves and there are metabolites in some healthy and infected leaf curl of Solanum lycopersicum leaves.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.14
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Secondary Metabolites from
           Microporus xanthopus (Fr.) Kuntze (Polypore) Collected from the Wild in
           Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: M. T. Sholola, E. M. Adongbede, L. L. Williams, A. A. Adekunle
      Pages: 877 - 883
      Abstract: The secondary metabolites in medicinal mushrooms are responsible for their activity against infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, and diseases caused by presence of free radicals in the body. Microporus xanthopus a polypore medicinal mushroom was collected from the wild in Lagos Nigeria and identified using standard manuals and oligosaccharides, polysaccharide and polyphenols extracted from its tissues were investigated for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. M. xanthopus oligosaccharides were extracted with neutral and acid detergents and hydrolysis with concentrated H2SO4. Polysaccharides and polyphenols extracted with hot water and acidified methanol, respectively. Concentrations of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and polyphenols were determined with the total carbohydrate and total phenolic quantification assay kits, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the extractsnvestigated using the DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay and Trolox Antioxidant Equivalent Capacity (TEAC) Assay in In-Vitro experiments in 96-well microtiter plates. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined with broth microdilution assay using human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli (0157:H7) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC®700698 (MRSA). Oligosaccharides showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (86%) with half maximal effective (EC50) of 16.46µg/mL. The highest TEAC value (1.18µM TE/g) was recorded in the oligosaccharide extract and the least TEAC value (0.39µM TE/g) was in the polyphenol extract. The most potent antimicrobial agent was the oligosaccharide extract with IC50 of 44.64 µg/mL and 40.08 µg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Oligosaccharide extracts were more active than the polyphenol and polysaccharide extracts. M. xanthopus oligosaccharides can be developed as potential new dietary supplements with antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.15
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Potential Health Risk Assessment of Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in
           Freshwater Organisms from Ojo River, Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: V. T. Sanyaolu, A. I. Omotayo, F. A. Adetoro
      Pages: 885 - 892
      Abstract: This study investigated potential health risk associated with heavy metal bioaccumulation in freshwater organisms in Ojo River, Lagos, Nigeria. Liver, gills and muscle from fish samples and muscle and exoskeleton from crab samples were analysed for concentration of Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cu using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer after digestion of samples. Generally, heavy metal concentration in water samples from different locations in Ojo River did not exceed WHO limits. Concentration of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr in tissues of M. niger and L. campechanus shows high bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Heavy metals bioaccumulated more in liver > muscle > gills in both fish samples. Ni and Cd were not detected in the two fish species. Similarly, Pb, Cu and Ni were found in muscles and exoskeleton of C. pagurus and S. serrate at quantities higher than WHO limits. Zinc was detected only in muscle and not exoskeleton of both crab samples, while Cr was found only in exoskeleton of C. pagurus and Ni was not detected in all crab species. Estimated daily intake (EDIs) for Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr in M. niger and L. campechanus and for Pb, Cu and Ni in C. pagurus and S. serrate were higher than the oral reference doses. Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for heavy metals were also extremely high. Significantly high bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater organisms from Ojo River calls for serious actions because it is a major source of freshwater foods for residents of Lagos.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.16
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Obesity and Insulin Resistance Components of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by
           High-fructose Diet in Wistar Rats could be attenuated by
           Spices-Supplemented Diets

    • Authors: N. U. Imam, A. S. Idoko, M. Osibemhe, N. Lawal, A. S. Zaharaddeen
      Pages: 893 - 901
      Abstract: Constant consumption of fructose-sweetened diets and beverages has led to increasing incidences of metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). This research was designed to evaluate the potentials of supplementing diets with some locally available spices in ameliorating obesity and insulin resistance in induced metabolic syndrome. Thirty out of thirty-five rats weighing 128.08±5.29g were induced with MS, divided into six groups and treated with diets supplemented with powders of garlic, ginger, turmeric, black pepper and equal mixture of the spices while the other 5 rats were maintained on normal diet throughout the experiment. The weight and blood glucose were recorded weekly, while serum insulin level was determined on the 56th day of the treatment after which HOMA-IR was computed. The group of MS-induced rats fed normal diet had significantly (p<0.05) higher weekly average weight gain of 11.43g±0.63g compared with other groups. Our data show that blood glucose level (mmol/L) ranged from 4.61±0.22 - 5.99±0.17; Insulin (μU/mL) 8.00±0.41 - 22.00±0.58 and HOMA-IR 1.65±0.14 - 5.47±0.07. The treated groups had significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage decrease in blood glucose and HOMA-IR when compared with the control but all the MS-induced rats maintained on supplemented diets had significantly (p<0.05) lower blood glucose and HOMA-IR when compared with MS-induced rats maintained on normal diet. From our finding, obesity and insulin resistance due to consumption of MS-causing diets could be ameliorated by consumption of diets fortified with any of the four spices, but fortification with a blend of the spices could give a better result.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.17
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • In Silico Identification of Protein Targets for Drug-like Compounds from
           Epicarp Extract of Cola rostrata K. Shum

    • Authors: B. E. Ajayi, B. Oboh, J. B. Minari, A. A. Fatokun
      Pages: 903 - 911
      Abstract: Fruit epicarp has been found to contain several bioactive compounds which are useful for herbal treatment of several ailments and diseases. The phytochemicals present in C. rostrata epicarp as well as their potential to bind to human proteins and modify their function have not been investigated. This study, therefore, identified the top protein targets of drug-like components of C. rostrata epicarp extract in humans as well as the disease conditions associated with the targets. The identities of constituents of methanol and n-hexane fractions of absolute ethanol extract of C. rostrata epicarp were determined via GCMS analysis. Druglikeness (adherence to Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, Egan, and Muegge filters) and the protein targets of drug-like constituents were determined using SwissADME and SwissTargetPrediction web tools. GCMS analyses revealed the presence of 49 compounds in the n-hexane and methanol fractions. Corynan-16-carboxylic acid, 16,17-didehydro-9,17-dimethoxy-, methyl ester, (16E)-, a yohimbine derivative, was abundant (13.33%) in the methanol fraction. The n-hexane fraction was rich in odd-chain fatty acids and phytosterols. Four drug-like compounds were identified in the fractions: (1) Azelaic acid, monoethyl ester; (2) 3-(2-Methoxymethoxyethylidene)-2,2 dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane; (3) Cyclododecanol, 1-aminomethyl-, and (4) Corynan-16-carboxylic acid, 16,17-didehydro-9,17-dimethoxy-, methyl ester, (16E)-. The predicted top protein targets of the drug-like compounds include carbonic anhydrase II, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B, sphingosine kinase 1, maltase-glucoamylase, adenosine A2b receptor, P2X purinoceptor 7, MAP kinase p38 alpha, δ-opioid receptor, and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. Findings show that C. rostrata epicarp contains drug-like phytochemicals with potential against cancer, diabetes, pain and inflammatory diseases, and the extract could have aphrodisiac potential.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.18
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • COVID-19 Pandemic and Volatility Persistence of the Nigerian Crude Oil
           Price

    • Authors: T. K. Samson, M. A. Raheem
      Pages: 913 - 919
      Abstract: Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy cannot be overemphasized, especially with Nigeria, which largely depends on crude oil as a major source of her revenue. Thus, investigating COVID-19’s impacts on the volatility persistence of Nigerian crude oil price forms the nucleus of this study. Our modelling framework was based on GARCH, EGARCH and GJR-GARCH with two asymmetric innovation distributions  Daily price data on the Nigerian crude oil sales (in dollars per barrel), ranging from 4th Jan., 2010 to 27th May, 2021, were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). To capture the impact of the pandemic, the data were divided into two periods, before Covid-19 was proscribed as a pandemic by World Health Organisation (01/04/2010 to 10/03/2020) and during COVID-19 pandemic (11/03/2020 to 27/05/2021). Result shows that the leverage effect were positive and significant in both periods which indicates that positive shocks increases volatility more than negative news of the same sign. Also, EGARCH-SSTD and GJR-GARCH (1,1)-SSTD were the best fitted models for before and during pandemic respectively. Result shows that volatility persistence was higher during COVID-19 period (1.012639) than before the COVID-19 pandemic (0.988749) .There was also an increase and over persistence in the volatility of Nigerian crude oil price during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 period.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.19
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Seismic Interpretation and Petrophysical Analysis for Evaluation of Ataga
           Field, Onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria

    • Authors: M. D. Ehinlaiye, O. W. Osisanya, F. C. Ighrakpata, A. S. Saleh, T. A. Ibitoye
      Pages: 921 - 927
      Abstract: The majority of geophysical survey in hydrocarbon exploration and production sector is driven by the ability to describe reservoirs. This research is aimed at describing the interpretation and petrophysical analysis of the reservoirs in Ataga field Niger Delta using a combination of seismic and well-log data. The Ataga Field in the Niger Delta was subjected to 3-D seismic interpretation and petrophysical study to perform comprehensive structural interpretation, prospect evaluation, and volumetric calculation. Two reservoir windows “1” and “2” were identified and correlated from four wells ATA 10, ATA 11, ATA 5 and ATA 7. Detailed evaluation was done on well ATA 11 since it is the only well that has sufficient data for both qualitative and quantitative interpretation. Structural interpretation for inline 5731 revealed fifteen faults on the seismic vertical section through ATA 11, most of which are antithetic faults while the rest are synthetic faults. Top and base of each reservoir window was delineated from the well. Result of the petrophysical assessment of reservoir A, B and C for ATA 11 revealed that the porosity values range from (24 -29) % which are indicative of very good to excellent porosity value according to Rider (1996). While the permeability values range from (1887-2582) mD were obtained from the three reservioir A, B and C of ATA 11 which depict very good to excellent reservoir units. Since, .all of the wells were discovered to have hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir formations (sandstones), the integration of structural interpretation and well logs have successfully revealed that the reservoirs are mostly oil-bearing zones.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.20
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Sustainable Environment: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Effects of Gas
           flaring in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    • Authors: I. Uchegbulam, A. Aliyuda, Y. M. John
      Pages: 929 - 942
      Abstract: The objective of this review is to provide an extensive assessment of the impacts of gas flaring from the ancient to modern life conditions at the Niger Delta as an area of global significance was reviewed from Millennium development goal (MDG) sustainable environmental perspective. These effects of flared gas took so long to persist due to its underdeveloped market, technological deficiency in its conversion into profitable byproducts and/or reinjection into geologic reservoirs until when needed. Findings show that these upstream emissions from flared gas have led to precipitation of acid rain and anthropogenic emissions like GHGs, VOCs, PM and over 250 toxins that have caused innumerable adverse effects on the Niger Delta communities and to the global community as climatic changes and global warming. Categorically, the environmental effects ranged between air, soil, water, heat, light and noise pollution as well as loss of biodiversity, vegetation and inflicted severe impacts on the health, and socioeconomic destitution of the Niger Delta residents including deterioration of the houses they live and shoreline threats as a coastal habitat. Despite the Nigerian government’s achievements in recovering the accrued carbon debt through liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects and other strategic measures as attested by international agencies, yet a detailed discussion on the constraints to effective anti-flare deadlines were also highlighted. Also, suggestions for substantial sustainability of the Niger Delta was made towards a climatic justice and zero-carbon footprint.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.21
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Matrix Method of Determining Optical Energy Bandgap of Natural Dye
           Extracts

    • Authors: J. B. Yerima, A. Babangida, S. C. Ezike, W. Dunama, A. D. Ahmed
      Pages: 943 - 948
      Abstract: In this paper, a total of fourteen dye extracts from different plants’ parts (flowers and fruits) were extracted. Absorbance of light by dye extracts with 5%, 10% and 20%concentrationsweremeasured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at different wavelengths. A system of linear equations in terms of wavelength and absorbance without film thickness was developed and solved using MATLAB software. Also, optical energy bandgap (Eg) obtained experimentally are at range of 1.77- 2.76 eV. From the solutions of the system of equations, the (Eg) of the natural dyes were obtained. The results show all the dye extracts have (Eg) in the range 1.34-2.09 eV which falls within the range of UV and IR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Also, the results reveal that sunflower (Helianthus) dye has the smallest (Eg) of 1.34 eV and guava (Guajava) peel dye with the higher (Eg) of 2.09 eV. This means Helianthus dye absorbs more light over a wider part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the easier electron transfer from its valence band to the conduction band. The values obtained via matrix method are in agreement with the experimental values with slight deviation, hence this validates the matrix method of obtaining optical energy bandgaps.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.22
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera on Phenylhydrazine-induced
           Liver Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    • Authors: E. Obayuwana, E. O. Imafidon, D. E. Odiase, O. J. Alih, S. M. Nweke, R. J. Enoghase, J. P. K. Ndubuisi, R. A. Okpako
      Pages: 949 - 954
      Abstract: Moringa oleifera has been shown to have a variety of medicinal benefits, including hepatoprotective effects. Phenylhydrazine has been used to cause hepatotoxicity in experimental models. In this study, an aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera was used to evaluate the ameliorating properties of phenylhydrazine-induced liver damage by assessing liver enzymes and histoarchitecture employing twenty-five (25) mature Wistar rats were divided into five (5) groups. Group A received 1 ml distilled water, Group B received 50 mg/kg phenylhydrazine twice in 48 hours, Group C received 500 mg/kg body weight of Moringa oleifera aqueous extract for four (4) weeks, Group D received 50 mg/kg phenylhydrazine twice in 48 hours and 500 mg/kg body weight of Moringa oleifera aqueous extract for four (4) weeks, and Group E received 50 mg/kg of phenylhydrazine twice in forty-eight (48) hours and 70 mg/kg body weight of Silymarin for four (4) weeks.  After the administration of phenylhydrazine, significant increases (P<0.05) in the mean concentrations of liver enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT) and total protein were observed, whereas treatment with Moringa oleifera resulted in a reversal of those parameters to values comparable to the control and the standard drug - Silymarin. Overall, the results showed that Moringa oleifera aqueous extract had considerable hepatoprotective capability against phenylhydrazine-induced hepatotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.23
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters and Heavy Metals in Sagamu
           Abattoir Waste Water Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Authors: D. O. Jegede, J. F. Oluyomi, O. S. Shokunbi, O. J. Oyewola, A. A. Ogunnowo, R. O. Animashaun, M. D. Afolabi
      Pages: 955 - 960
      Abstract: Abattoir wastewater is a great threat to environmental safety. This study was aimed at assessing the physiochemical constituents using standard methods and some heavy metals using Agilent Microwave Atomic Emission Spectrometer (MP-AES) 4200 model after sample digestion of wastewater from three (3) major abattoirs in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. The sample was digested using a mixture of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digested samples were then analyzed for heavy metals. Data from the physicochemical characterization show that pH, TS, TDS, TSS and COD ranged from; (5.8 – 6.2), (11500 – 27733.33), (5500 – 9066.67), (6000 – 18666.67), and (1507.67 – 3671) respectively. The assessed heavy metals are in the range (mg/L): Zn (0.132-0.337), Cu (0.091 – 0.516), Mn (0.410 – 0.994), Fe (5.294 – 15.44), V (0.132 – 0.32), Cd (0.036 – 0.119), Ni (0.029 – 0.17), Pb (0.136 – 0.234), Cr (0.299 – 1.277), and Co (0.015 – 0.079). Zn, Cu and Fe are essential metals within tolerable limits except Mn that exceeded the limits of World Health Organization (0.04 mg/L) but below Federal Ministry of Environment (5 mg/L) while Ni, Pb and Chromium are above permissible limits in all samples.  The pretreatment of the wastewater before discharging into environment is highly recommended and more research should be done on remediation to reduce the abattoir wastewater heavy metals concentration and the effect it is having on the ecosystem and the environment at large.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.24
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Bioactivity of Bamboo Leaf Ash and Bularafa Diatomaceous Earth
           against Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)

    • Authors: M. K. Abdulbaki, E. Nwebor, D. Uzu, O. M. Arohunmolase, D. S. Daramola, D. E. Nwokpoku, F. O. Onyegbule, S. I. Nwaubani
      Pages: 961 - 967
      Abstract: Maize is one of the major staple foods in Sub-Saharan Africa and there is serious loss in maize storage due to insect damage. This study compared the bioactivity of Bamboo Leaf Ash (BLA) and Bularafa Diatomaceous Earth (BDE) against Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) under laboratory conditions. Insecto®, a commercialized DE was also tested as standard check. Adults of the insects were exposed on maize admixed with the BLA at dose rate of 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000ppm; BDE and insecto® at a dose rate of 1,000ppm, at 28.20C and 82.2% relative humidity. Mortality increased with increasing exposure duration and all treatments showed mortality of more than 80% after 14days post-treatment compared to negative control with 0%.The treatments suppressed F1 progeny. Treated grains have weight loss less than 4%, kennel damage less than 14% and grain germination showed no significant change. The decreasing efficacy of the dusts against this insect is Insecto®> BLA > BDE. BLA and BDE have potential for the management of insect pests of stored grain in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.25
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the Efficacy of African Basil (Ocimum gratissimum) Leaf for
           Disinfecting Well - water obtained from Ekiti State, Nigeria

    • Authors: O. O. Ayeni, S. O. Oyegoke, O. I. Ndububa, A. E. Adetoro
      Pages: 969 - 973
      Abstract: The demand for potable and affordable water led to comparative research of the efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum Leaf (OGL) extract by collecting well water and treated with OGL extract. Both treated and untreated samples were subjected to physiochemical and bacteriological examinations. Data obtained showed that the pH and feacal coliform counts ranged from 6.17 to 6.74 and 0 to 192 CFU/100 mL for well water sample A; 6.56 to 7.24 and 0 to 118 CFU/100 mL for well water samples B; 6.81 to 7.79 and 0 to 75 CFU/100 mL for well water samples C respectively. The OGL extract includes various bioactive components (i.e. steroids, tannins, etc) according to the phytochemical tests. The first feacal coliform count was above the allowed range (i.e. >50 CFU/100 mL) and the pH value tended to be acidic (6.5), with a colour of >15 H.U. and an unclear (brownish) appearance. The Coliform count was lowered with each dosage of OGL extract until it reached zero count after 24 hours’ contact time at an optimum dosage of 5 mL and the total bacteria counts were gone. The beneficial influence (s) from this study confirms the disinfectant potential of OGL extract for well water treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.26
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatial Distribution of Radiometric and Dosimetric Parameters in Soil
           Samples from Selected Areas in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: N. L. A. Ikoko, M. A. Briggs-Kamara, F. B. Sigalo, A. R. C. Amakiri, H. N. Ude
      Pages: 975 - 981
      Abstract: Radiation from radioactive materials/radionuclides in the environment enhanced by anthropogenic activities is presently of a great concern globally. The objective of this study is to determine the radiometric and dosimetric parameters from soil samples collected randomly from the study area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The samples were prepared using standard methods and analyzed with a high resolution Hyperpure Germanium Detector configuration (HPGe). The results showed the clay samples to have higher activity concentration to the sands samples with activity concentration of clay samples ranging between 68.99±9.05 –189, 42±21.11Bq/kg and the sand samples with activity concentration range of 17.95±5.87 – 38.59±7.43Bq/kg. The activity concentration spatial distribution map in clay lithologies showed 2 peak values trending north-west, while the sand lithology showed a single peak central distribution. The result also showed the values of the absorbed doses with the 8 clay samples values ranging between 59.09 - 155.25nGy/h and sand samples values between 17.90 – 33.92nGy/h. The spatial distribution of the dose showed 2 peak central distribution in clay samples and north-east trending distribution of high peak values for samples with sand lithologies.  In addition, the results showed an effective absorbed dose of range of 0.235-0.0616mSv/y for samples with clay lithology and 0.0071-0.0135mSv/y for samples with sand lithology The activity concentration of all the samples studied are below the 1000Bq/kg international reference limit  for Radium 226, Thorium 232, uranium 238 and 10,000Bq/kg for potassium 40. The absorbed dose rate and annual effective absorbed dose are also below the international reference limits published by ICRP, 2007 and UNSCEAR, 2000 publications. Also, effective activity maximum limit of 370Bq/kg for input raw materials for public building is not exceeded.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i5.27
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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