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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2141-2839
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Comparative bioactive compounds and fourier transform infrared
           spectroscopic evaluation of Azadirachta indica extracts and its potential
           as bio-fungicides against plant pathogenic fungi

    • Authors: Javid Ali, Javed Abbas Bangash, Muhammad Siddique
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: New antifungal agrochemicals compounds discovering from natural products are a vital goal for the management of plant pathogenic fungi. As present synthetic fungicide used for the treatment of plant pathogenic fungi have negative effects on environment and human health. Therefore, it is need of the day to develop and discover new antifungal substances from natural products. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the extracts of leaves, seeds and twigs of Azadirachta indica using infusion, decoction and microwave extraction techniques. These extracts were subjected to phytochemical quantification, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and antifungal assays against pathogenic fungi by well diffusion technique. The quantitative of phytochemicals screening showed that leaves had showed high concentrations of bioactive compounds, seeds showed a moderate and twigs observed the least phyto-compounds. The infusion extracts system showed high amount of active compounds, followed by microwave and decoction. Extracts of leaves and seeds showed evidence of inhibition growth of fungi. The spectra of FTIR verified the occurrence of different functional groups such as aromatic compounds, alkanes, alkyl halides, amines, carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohol and amino acids, in the neem extracts. Relevant stakeholders along with the help of policy makers and researchers should build extra understanding regarding the requirement to clinch products of organic fungicides like secure fungus management system.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.4314/ijest.v15i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Optimisation of the choice of the sizing method for drinking water
           networks in the developing countries: A case of Cameroon

    • Authors: Ludovic Ivan Ntom Nkotto, Blanche Marcelline Manjia, Ekode Rodin Wilson, Jordan Valdès Sontia Metekong, Sontia Metekong
      Pages: 13 - 25
      Abstract: In developing countries (DC), particularly in Cameroon, the demand for drinking water is increasing. To date, the methods of design, sizing and extension of existing drinking water networks are done through the EPANET application which is a simulation software based on the Hardy-Cross method. The main objective of this study is to set up a local tool adapted to the context of D.C. allowing the design, sizing and extension of networks based on the rough model method (RMM). Thus, on the basis of a previously modelled existing network, a comparison was made between the Hardy-Cross method and the RMM (according to the criteria: costs, speed of execution, aptitude for automation, fidelity and precision) with the multi-criteria analysis tool PROMETHEE II. The results of this analysis show that the best adapted method for the design, sizing and extension of drinking water networks is the RMM. It appears that the setting up of water supply networks in DC must be done by the RMM for affordable costs, rapid execution, easy reproducibility and reliable precision.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.4314/ijest.v15i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Performance of high workability plaster mortar for water tanks

    • Authors: John K. Makunza
      Pages: 26 - 36
      Abstract: Cement sand mortar is frequently used as water proofing plaster layer for water retaining structures. However, the current practice of using standard mortar for plastering has shown to be infective due to observed leakages and low durability of some water retaining structures. In the effort of solving these problems, materials engineers have used artificial chemicals like Zypex to control leakages and improve durability with some success. This paper reports on a study done to address the use of high workability plaster mortar as a solution to meet serviceability requirements for water retaining structures. The study involved the development of mix ratios 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 for standard mortar mixes and using the same mix ratios with different doses of super-plasticizer from 0.00% to 0.50%, testing all mortar mixes for physical properties then determining their performances. The performance of mortar mixes was investigated in terms of workability, unit weight, strength development, tensile strength and water absorption. The test results have indicated high performance and suitability of high workability mortar mixes for
      plastering water retaining structures.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.4314/ijest.v15i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • The pitfalls of the unconventional process capability indices

    • Authors: Surajit Pal, Susanta Kumar Gauri
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: For assessing capability of a normal process with upper specification limit (USL) conventionally Cpu index is estimated to facilitate better decision making in product and process management. But, in practice, many quality characteristics having USL only, e.g. count data, proportion defective etc. are discrete and follow Poisson or binomial distributions. Some unconventional indices (e.g. Cu , Cfu ¸ Cpcu and Cpyu) are proposed in literature for assessing capability of Poisson or binomial processes. Due to legacy of usages of Cpu index and its interpretations, a user of an unconventional index often tends to interpret its values with reference to the values of Cpu for the bad, good or highly capable normal processes, and get a false impression about the capability of the concerned Poisson or binomial process. In this paper, the key features of those unconventional indices are highlighted and then some numerical analysis is carried out for assessing the interpretation issues associated with these unconventional indices. The results of these analyses reveal that although there is no interpretation issue for the unconventional index Cu , there are serious interpretation issues with all other unconventional indices. The mathematical relationships of estimates of other unconventional indices with the estimate of Cu index are established. It is recommended to convert the estimates of other unconventional indices into estimated Cu value using those relationships before any decision making. Otherwise, users of the other unconventional indices may inadvertently be led to erroneous decision making. 
      PubDate: 2023-04-02
      DOI: 10.4314/ijest.v15i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
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