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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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ISSN (Print) 1118-0579
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Production Of Cellulosic Enzymes By Aspergillus Niger And Hydrolysis Of
           Cellulosic Materials

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      Authors: Victoria Bakare; Mohammed Sani Abdulsalami, Thankgod Ositadinma Ndibe, Chizoba Kenneth Ejuama, Thompson Effiong,
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract: Microorganisms such as fungi can fragment carbon compounds by hydrolytic enzymes. The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger is now mostly considered because of its ubiquitous nature, non-fastidious nutritional requirements and it is classified generally as safe. This study was aimed at the production of cellulosic enzymes by A. niger and hydrolytic degradation of cellulosic materials by these enzymes. Standard methods were employed in soil samples collection, isolation of A. niger from the soils and their screening for enzyme production. Results showed that the A. niger isolates exhibited considerable activities of degrading and hydrolyzing cellulose in the agar media. The highest FPase, cellulase and xylanase activities were obtained from white saw dust with concentrations of 0.4059 U/ml, 0.7695U/ml and 1.3488 U/ml respectively. Also, results showed high enzyme activity at pH 6 (0.52U/ml) and temperature of 30ºC (0.72U/ml). Acid hydrolysis of the cellulosic substrates resulted to the release of 6.5% total sugar from white sawdust. The findings of this study revealed that the enzymes produced by A. niger hydrolyzed cellulosic materials but acid is more efficient than the enzymes in the hydrolysis and release of total sugar from cellulosic materials. This study recommends that cellulolytic enzymes used in the industries should be produced locally using filamentous fungus such as Aspergillus niger and cellulosic materials as carbon source.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heavy Metals Concentration In Soils And Bioaccumulation In Earthworm
           (Lumbricus Terrestris) At Lemna Solid Wastes Dumpsite, Calabar, Cross
           River State

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      Authors: Adie, P. I; Afu, S. M, Olim, D. M, Beshel, S. B, Ofem V. O,
      Pages: 131 - 139
      Abstract: This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals and their bioaccumulation in earthworm in Lemna solid wastes dumpsite in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Three composite samples of the depth of 30 cm each were collected from Lemna dumpsites and control from the University of Calabar Botanical garden, making a total of four composite soil samples, while samples of earthworms were collected at each sampling point. The samples were analysed for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. The result showed that the levels of heavy metals were all higher in dumpsite and significantly different from the control. The respective means of metal concentrations from both Lemna and control were Pb(323.99mg/kg , 89.88mg/kg),  Cd(1.12 mg/kg, 0.072 mg/kg), Zn(281 mg/kg, 7.60 mg/kg) and Cu(21.58 mg/kg, 4.89 mg/kg). Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also higher in earthworm of dumpsite than earthworm of the control soil. Correlation between Cadmium and Zinc concentration in soil and Cadmium and Zinc concentration in earthworm displayed strong and positive relationship while weak and negative correlation was observed between Cu and Pb concentrations in soil and Cu and Pb concentrations in earthworm. Bioaccumulation of the heavy metals by earthworm was in the order of Zn (0.382) > Cd (0.170) > Pb (0.076) > Cu (0.020). The dumpsite soil was found to be contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn as their concentrations were high above maximum permissible limits except Cu.  For safe consumption of crops from Lemna dumpsite soil, remediation of heavy metals in the soil in advocated.    
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • An Assessment Of The Impact Of Dem Interpolation Technique, Resolution,
           And Terrain Type On The Extraction Of Drainage Network

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      Authors: Abubakar, J; zubairu mohammad,
      Pages: 141 - 151
      Abstract: This research used points extracted from high-resolution DEMs (1m) to investigate the impact of resolution, interpolation method and topography on the accuracy of drainage network extraction. The investigation was conducted by evaluating the accuracy of the estimations of streams length, streams number, drainage density, and the Longitudinal Root Mean Square Error (LRMSE) of the extracted drainage networks from different DEMs interpolated using Topo to raster, Natural Neighbor (NN), kriging and IDW interpolation methods at 5, 10, 15 and 20m resolutions over moderate, steep, and gentle slope terrain. Each evaluation conducted yielded a different result, but the accuracy of the streams length estimation for most of the DEMs at all the sites increases with an increase in streams order. The total lengths of all the streams of each of the extracted networks at gentle and steep slope sites are shorter than those of the corresponding reference networks though, 15 and 20m kriging and IDW DEMs created longer streams at the moderate slope site. IDW DEMs have proven reliable for streams length estimation while Topo to raster 5, 10, and 15m for streams number estimation. In general, N.N. extracted networks are the only networks that show consistency in the streams length and number estimations, drainage density estimation as well as in LRMSE and DEM RMSE computation at all the resolutions and for all the sites. Therefore, the accuracy of N.N. DEMs and their derivatives do not rapidly change with change in resolution, especially between 5 and 20m at all (steep, gentle and moderate) terrain types.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Constructing Homeomorphisms Of The Cantor Ternary Set

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      Authors: Asante – Mensa, Obeng-Denteh, K. Boadi; E. Ayekple,
      Pages: 153 - 163
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a generalized form of the Cantor ternary set by studying the cantor    middle set where 1    and its fractal dimension. The paper also introduces the Heine-Borel set and shows that the cantor set and its generalised   middle set where 1   are Heine-Borel sets.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Preservative Effect Of Gelatin Coatings On Carrot

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      Authors: Ajiboye, A. E; Olawoyin, R. A,
      Pages: 165 - 170
      Abstract: Edible coating extends the life span of fresh fruits and vegetables. It is used to preserve food and prevent spoilage of fruits stored at room temperature. Preservative effect of gelatin coatings on the preservation of carrots was analyzed. Gelatin was prepared in four concentrations (0.5 g/ml, 1.0 g/ml, 1.5 g/ml and 2.0 g/ml). It was applied using dipping technique and allowed to dry before storage in sterile containers. Physiochemical parameters, weight loss and microbiological qualities of the coated and uncoated carrots were analyzed for a period of 7 days using standard procedures. Isolation and identification of bacteria was carried out using pour plate method and biochemical tests. Gelatin concentration at 0.5 g/ml attained nutrient retention with moisture content, total soluble solids and protein content of coated carrots ranging from 90.50 ± 0.01 – 85.40 ± 0.00 %, 12.20 ± 0.01 – 10.60 ± 0.00 Brixo and 1.50 ± 0.01 – 0.25 ± 0.01 % respectively. Weight loss of coated carrots at 0.5 g/ml concentration ranged from 0.35 ± 0.01 – 0.25 ± 0.02 g while 1.0 g/ml concentration ranged from 0.35 ± 0.00 – 0.28 ± 0.03 g. The bacterial and fungal counts of carrots coated with gelatin ranged between 0.20 ± 0.01 x 104 - 7.50 ± 0.05 x 104 Cfu/g and 0.20 ±0.01 x 104 – 18 ± 0.01 x 105 Cfu/g respectively. Eight bacterial and five fungal isolates namely Proteus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Aeromonas sp, Bacillus sp, Streptococcus sp, Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifera, Penicillum sp. were the most occurring bacterial and fungal species respectively. Coating with gelatin extends life span, reduce water and helps maintain the phytochemical properties of the carrot.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Aninvestigation Of Winding Number Of A Closed Planar Curve

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      Authors: William Obeng-Denteh; Nicholas Tetteh Ofoe,
      Pages: 171 - 175
      Abstract: This paper examines winding number of a closed planar curve through various aspects. It is related to a range on an arc in the complex plane and a point not in the range. Functions of such natures are considered to be continuous real-valued functions. Conclusion was drawn by naming a number of areas of applications.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Assessment Of The Prevalence Of Suicide Among Young Adults Using Machine
           Learning

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      Authors: Ibode, R.T.; Tunde-Francis, A. A.; Afeye, A. F.; Anifowose, O. T.; Owolola,O. I; Ogidan, O. A,
      Pages: 177 - 184
      Abstract: Due to the high rate of suicide all over the world resulting in about 800,000 people dying by suicide each year. The instances where suicide victims constantly publish suicide messages deliberately to express their feelings on social media, there is need to address suicide issues, and how suicide can be prevented. Therefore, as a solution to this, there is need to create a model that classifies these users" social media posts and identify users with suicidal ideations, so as to prevent future suicide cases by getting the identified users the necessary help needed. The study adopted a binary classification of a suicide-related tweet with respect to age 15 up till 29 years, on a document-level basis. A machine learning approach was employed to solve the problem of tweet classification and predictions. The dataset was generated from a Twitter API. It was observed that suicidal issues are rampant among the young adult, which need urgent attention. The paper recommended that timely intervention should be provided so as to reduce suicidal victims and preserve the future of young adults.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Appraisal Of Knowledge And Practice Of Food Hygiene Among Food Vendors In
           University Of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

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      Authors: Easter Chukwudi Osuchukwu; Hannah Thompson Udom,
      Pages: 185 - 191
      Abstract: Food vendors with poor knowledge and practice of food hygiene are potential source of food contamination and food borne diseases in institutions of learning in developing countries. The study was conducted to appraise the knowledge and practice of food hygiene among food vendors in the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria using a cross - sectional descriptive survey as the research design. A total of sixty – seven food vendors were purposely recruited for the study.  Researcher’s developed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Collated data were sorted, coded, and analysed with SPSS software. The results were described using frequency counts and percentages. Findings from the study indicated that majority of the respondents 57 (85.1%) had adequate knowledge of food hygiene and the same percentage also engaged in good food hygienic practices. The result also revealed that, there was a statistically significant relationship between knowledge and practice of food hygiene (=28.134; p<0.05).  Thus, the researchers suggested continuous education of food vendors on the need to maintain hygiene practices during preparation and handling of food to safeguard the health of the students.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence Of Malaria And Intestinal Parasitic Co-Infection Among Diabetic
           Patients In Calabar.

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      Authors: Glory Philemon Bebia; Eldad Akong Akpang, Joy Chinweokwu Ugwu, Paul Columbus Inyang-Etoh,
      Pages: 193 - 200
      Abstract: Background: Malaria and intestinal parasitosis is a public health problem among diabetic patients, therefore, this work evaluates the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and malaria co-infections in diabetics. Materials and Methods Capillary blood and fecal samples were collected from 190 diabetic patients at the outpatient clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital and Navy Reference Hospital Calabar and another batch of capillary blood and fecal samples from 110 non-diabetic subjects. The stool samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically by direct smear and formol- ether concentration method and also stained by modified Ziehl- Neelsen acid fast stain. The thick and thin blood film were stained with 10% Giemsa stain and viewed microscopically. Result: Amongst the test subjects, malaria parasites had a prevalence rate of 30 (15.8%), intestinal parasites had a prevalence rate of 48 (25.3%), and prevalence of co-infection with malaria parasites and intestinal parasites were 8 (4.2%), the difference was statistically significant (p= 0.036). Amongst the non-diabetic subjects, prevalence of malaria parasites was 12 (10.9%), intestinal parasites had a prevalent rate of 12 (10.9%) and a co-infection prevalence rate of 12 (3.6%). Amongst the diabetic patients, subjects aged 21-30 years had the highest infection rate of 14 (70.0%) for malaria parasites while 31-40 years had the highest infection of 8 (57.1%) for intestinal parasites the difference was statistically significant p = 0.0001. Amongst the non-diabetic subjects, age group 31-40 had the highest prevalence rate for malaria parasites 4(28.6%) and intestinal parasites 6(42.9%), while age group 31-40 and 41-50 had the highest prevalent rates of 2(14.3%) for co-infection. Amongst the diabetic patients, male subjects had a higher prevalence rates for malaria parasites, intestinal parasites and co-infection of 20(33.3%), 26(43.3%) and 6(10.0%) respectively which was statistically significant (p= 0.001). For the non-diabetic subjects, females had a higher prevalence rate for malaria infection 8(13.3%), while males had a higher prevalence rate for intestinal parasites and co-infection of 8(16.0%) and 4(8.0%) respectively, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.250). Hookworm was the most observed parasite, 18(37.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides, 14 (29.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum, 8 (16.7%), Cyclospora cayetanensis, 4 (8.3%), Trichuris trichiura, 2 (4.2%) and Microsporidia, 2 (4.2%). Conclusion: Based on findings in this study, this work has shown a prevalence of intestinal parasites (25.3%), and prevalence of malaria infection (15.8%) in diabetic subjects; and this study also illustrate the prevalence of malaria and intestinal parasitic co- infection of 4.2%, and the need to put in place strategies for the control of the parasite among this group of patients.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Public Health Risk Knowledge, Awareness And Hygiene Practices Of Producers
           Of Artisanal Drinks Using Previously Disposed Plastic Bottles In Calabar
           Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria.

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      Authors: Obo Offiong Etim Aniekanabasi Jonathan Okon; Olajumoke Esther Olanrewaju, Simon Alain Inah,
      Pages: 201 - 211
      Abstract: Background: The magnitude of production and sales of unregulated beverages in Nigeria has significantly increased over the years. Several studies have found a high prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in locally made drink samples which is a threat to public health. This study assessed the knowledge, awareness of public health risks associated with the use of previously disposed plastic bottles for packaging drinks and hygiene practices of producers of artisanal drinks in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria. Methods: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design using a semi-structured questionnaire to elicit information from 166 producers of locally packaged drinks. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Associations were tested using chi square statistics. Results: The study showed a high level of awareness of food borne diseases 120(73.2%). Majority of the respondents 83(50.8%) had a high level of knowledge on health risks associated with use of previously disposed bottles for packaging drinks. The level of hygiene practice was however not in tandem with Knowledge as the practice level was generally poor 99(60.3%). Majority 114(69.5%) also had a negative attitude towards safe use of previously disposed plastic bottles. There was an association between producers’ duration in business and food hygiene practices (X2= 5.153, P= 0.023). There was also a significant association between producers’ exposure to food hygiene training and food hygiene practice (X2= 49.993, P= 0.0001) Conclusion: There is an urgent need for planned regular food safety training sessions for artisanal drink producers and the regulation of sales of artisanal drinks to safeguard public health in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.10
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Utilization Of Health Information Technology In Provision Of Maternal And
           Child Health Care Among Nurses In The University Of Calabar Teaching
           Hospital, Calabar

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      Authors: Agba; Mathias, Aduaka, Oluchukwu Stella, Enang, Kingsley Oju, Agba, Affiong Mathias,
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: This study was assessed utilization of health information technology in provision of maternal and child health care among nurses in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. The research design employed for the study was descriptive survey design. The sample of one hundred and ninety-six (196) registered nurses/midwives from the population of nurses providing maternal and child healthcare in maternity ward, children’s ward, pediatric ward, labour ward, antenatal clinic and postnatal clinic at UCTH, Calabar using simple random sampling technique. The instrument of data collection was a validated structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistic, charts, frequencies tables and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that majority (87.2%) of nurses working in UCTH, Calabar use paper based routine health information system. The factors inhibiting utilization of health information technology among nurses to deliver maternal and child healthcare in UCTH, Calabar include: inadequate knowledge of informatics, lack of comprehensive training of nurses on ICT utilization, unavailability of health information technology tools, lack of constant power supply Based on the findings of the study the it was recommended that health policy makers, hospital managements and nurse leaders should ensure that electronic health information technology are utilized in healthcare service at UCTH, Calabar.  
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.11
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Anti-Anaemic And Hepato–Renal Activities Of Ethanol Leaf Extract Of
           Alchornea Cordifolia In Phenyl Hydrazine Induced-Anaemic Wistar Rats

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      Authors: Ezugwu, Hilary C; Jankada Patience A, Ipav, Selumun S, Dasofunjo, Kayode,
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: The effect of ethanol leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia on some biochemical parameters in phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemic Wistar rats was studied. A total of thirty-six (36) Wistar rats weighing 95-200 g were selected for this study and randomly divided into six groups of six animals per group. Group A (normal control), group B (negative or anaemic) control, group C (standard), group D, E and F (treated groups). Animals in groups B, C, D, E and F were induced with anaemia via intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection of 10mg/kg body weight phenyl hydrazine (PHZ) for 3 days and group A received distilled water in place of the PHZ for the same duration. After the induction, group A and B rats received oral administration 0.9w/v normal saline solution while groups C, D, E and F received oral administration of enzoron (10mg/kg.bwt), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg.bwt of extract respectively for 14 days. The percentage yield of the extract was determined to be 18%. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, protein, alkaloids, phytosterols, phynols, flavonoids and glycosides at varying concentrations.A dose of 5000mg/kg. bwt was found to be safe in the LD50 study of the extract. The oral administration of the extract showed a significantly  (p<0.05) level of  total protein (TP)  ,packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBCs) of the animals in treated groups  compared to those of the animals in anaemic groups.The aspartate transaminase (AST),alanine transaminase (ALT)and total bilirubin (TB)were significantly (p<0.05)  lowered in the extract treated groups than  in the anaemic non-treated groups. There was a no-significant decrease (p>0.05) in the serum urea, creatinine, Na+ ,K+  and ,Cl­- of animals in the extract treated groups when  compared to both the normal and standard control . The histology of the spleen revealed the regeneration of damaged cells in extract treated groups unlike that of the anaemic non-treated groups which showed distorted architecture. The study suggests that treatment with Achornea cordifolia leaf extract in phenyl hydrazine induced anaemia enhances anti- anaemic and hepatoprotective effect possibly due to both its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.12
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • On The Calculation Of The Average Value Of The Strong Coupling Constant
           α_s, Using The Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (Blue) Method

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      Authors: LAAMRI KALLOUCHE
      Pages: 231 - 236
      Abstract: Experiments to measure a single physical quantity often produce several estimates based on the same data, and which are hence correlated. We describe how to combine these correlated estimates in order to provide the best single answer, and also how to check whether the correlated estimates are mutually consistent. We discuss the properties of our technique, and illustrate its application by using it for a specific experiment which measured the strong coupling constant .In this work, we computed the mean value of the strong coupling constant by relying on the three measurement values of ATLAS. We present a method to calculate the mean value of the strong coupling constant and the uncertainty about this value at a centre of-mass energy 7Tev, 8Tev and 13Tev based on the results obtained in ref[1]. We get the result , we will compare it with the result obtained by the authors of ref[1], which is .
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i2.13
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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