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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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ISSN (Print) 1118-0579
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Evaluation of proximate composition and anti-nutrient content of groundnut
           soup delicacy prepared with processed ficus glumosa leaves

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      Authors: Josephine Eneji Egbung; , Margaret Akpana Agiang, , Magdalene Obi-Abang, , Nyakno Essien, , Aniekeme Inyang,
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Assessment of the proximate composition and anti-nutrient composition of groundnut soup delicacy prepared with Ficus glumosa leaves was carried out in this study.  Proximate and anti-nutrient composition of all the soups namely groundnut soup made without Ficus glumosa (GS), groundnut soup made with unblanched F. glumosa (GSUB), groundnut soup with blanched F. glumosa (GSBF), with blanched and dried F. glumosa (GSBD) were evaluated using standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and other standard assay techniques.  The results of the proximate analysis showed a high crude protein and crude fat contents (19.87 to 31.77 and 21.11 to 29.10  in percentage dry weight) respectively, in all the soup samples. GS had the highest protein content (31.77%).  The crude protein in all the soups were significantly (p<0.001) higher than GS. Also, crude protein in GSBD and GSBF had significantly (p<0.001) higher value compared to GSUB.  The crude fat of GSUB was significantly (p<0.05) higher than GS. The GSBD was also significantly higher (p<0.05) than GSUB. The soups had moderate carbohydrate (2.43 to 9.46%) and crude fibre content (0.23 to 5.37%). Ash content obtained was significantly (p<0.001) high in the F. glumosa containing soups and GS. Assessment of oxalate, phytate and tannin showed that cooking reduced the quantity of anti-nutrients in the soups.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual ability of
           primary school children in southern cross river state–nigeria

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      Authors: Magdalene Obi-Abang
      Pages: 9 - 12
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the nutritional status and intellectual ability of primary six (6) pupils in Southern Cross River State-Nigeria. The ex post facto research design was used in carrying out the study. The sample size consisted of five hundred and seventy nine (579) public primary schools in Southern Cross River State using stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used for this study was an intelligence test consisting of 29 items divided into four sections A-D.  Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient was used in analyzing the result. The correlation coefficient value between them is 0.809. It is therefore recommended that primary school proprietors, administrators, even parents and government should put machinery in place to provide quality food to maintain good nutritional status of their pupils to enhance good intellectual abilities. Key word:  Nutritional Status, Intellectual status, primary school.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of hibiscus sabdariffa l., zingiber officinale roscoe and piper
           nigrum l. On the hematological parameters of alloxan induced diabetic
           wistar rats.

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      Authors: Ime Franklin Ani; , Item Justin Atangwho, , Eyuwa Ignatius Agwupuye, , Ogheneovo Abigail Oghenefejiro,
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes is a disease condition of metabolism clinically expressed by chronic hyperglycemia and protein disorder; it has a link to several complications that cause morbidity and mortality and native plants with antidiabetic properties can be used to avoid further progression of the disease Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic properties of combined extract of hibiscus sabdariffa l., zingiber officinale roscoe and piper nigrum l. as well as its effect on selected hematological parameters in alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats Methods: Thirty (30) male wistar rats aged between 8-10 weeks, weighing 130g to 138g were divided into five groups of six rats each and acclimatized for a week prior to the commencement of the treatments. Of the 5 groups, 4 were induced with 170mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Diabetic rats were treated with 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg of the combined extract as well as 500mg/kg of metformin. The last diabetic group was left untreated and served as the negative control. All treatments were administered for 21 days with blood glucose level and body weight of the experimental animals regularly measured during the course of the treatment. At the end of the treatments, experimental rats were sacrificed and the blood collected was used to carry out hematological analysis including White Blood Cell count(WBC), Red Blood Cell count (RBC), Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) or Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and  Platelet (Plt). The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P˂0.05. Results:  The combined plant extract was observed to cause a decrease in the blood sugar level and also helped to maintain the body weight of animals. Similarly, the level of the PCV and the HB significantly increased (p<0.05) after administering the combined extract at the two selected doses. Also the WBC count was significantly (p<0.05) lowered following the administration of the combined extract. Conclusion: The combined extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa and Zingiber Officinale and Piper Nigrum have potential in the management of hyperglycemia as well as in the improvement of hematological parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of hibiscus sabdariffa l. Piper nigrum l. And zingiber officinale
           r. Extract on serum electrolytes profile and changes in the pancreas of
           alloxan induced diabetic rat.

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      Authors: Ime Franklin Ani; , Item Justin Atangwho, , Abdulhakeem Rotimi Agboola, , Temitope E. Adebambo, , Nnenna Choice Ajuzie, , Adeola Beatrice Adetola,
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and protein with an increased risk of many complications such as liver and pancreas damage and altered serum electrolytes level. During the past few years many plants and spices have been used to manage DM. This work aimed to investigate the possible anti-diabetic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Zingiber officinale roscoe and Piper nigrum L. extract treatments in alloxan induced diabetic rats via studying pancreas, liver structure abnormalities and serum electrolytes level alteration. 30 male Wistar rats (130-180 g) were injected intraperitoneally and divided into five main groups each of 6 rats. The control group was injected with a single dose of saline solution (0.9% NaCl), diabetic group was injected with a dose of alloxan solution (170 mg/kg), high and low dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg extract after induction of diabetes respectively and metformin treated group was injected at a daily dose 500 mg/kg metformin after induction of diabetes. Microscopic histopathology examination of pancreatic tissues showed decrease in islets of Langerhans size in the diabetic group, sinusoidal enlargement and increased fatty vacuoles in the liver tissues of the diabetic group. There were alterations in the serum electrolytes levels of the diabetic group. These abnormalities were healed after treatment of diabetic rats with extract which could have the ability to regenerate beta cells of islets of Langerhans. The present study could verify that the extract normalized the various serum electrolytes levels and histological abnormalities resulted due to diabetes metabolic disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Ficus glumosa delile leaf extract attenuates some biochemical markers in
           testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in wistar rats.

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      Authors: Magdalene Obi-Abang; , Ironya Ogar, , Jonathan Osine Enyike, , Margaret Akpan Eno, , Godwin Eneji Egbung,
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Ficus glumosa is used extensively in traditional medicine to manage and remedy some health conditions. This study evaluated the impact of F. glumosa leaf extract on selected biochemical indices of testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in male Wistar rats.  Thirty-six male rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Rats in the Normal Control (NC) received feed without any special treatment, rats in the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Control (BPHC) group were administered 50 mg/Kg body weight testosterone, rats in the Standard Control (STDC) group received 50 mg/Kg body weight testosterone + 5 mg/Kg body weight finasteride, rats in the low dose (LD) group received 50 mg/Kg body weight testosterone + 100 mg/Kg body weight of F. glumosa extract, rats in the medium dose  group received 50 mg/Kg body weight testosterone + 200 mg/Kg body weight of F. glumosa extract, rats in the high dose group received 50 mg/Kg body weight testosterone + 400 mg/Kg body weight of F. glumosa extract. The animals received water and feed ad libitum for 28 days. They were anaesthetized (after treatment period) using ketamine hypochlorite. Blood samples were collected, centrifuged and serum harvested for analyses using standard methods and one way ANOVA followed by least square difference (LSD) post-hoc comparison test. Results indicated a significant decrease at p< 0.05 in serum electrolytes (Na and Cl) in the groups treated with F. glumosa extract when compared to the control groups. The serum urea, uric acid and creatinine levels of the groups treated with 200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg bw of F. glumosa leaf extract decreased significantly when compared to the BPHC standard and normal control groups. Also the serum level of aspartate aminotransferase indicated similar trend. We therefore conclude that F. glumosa leaf extract may attenuate some biochemical indices especially serum electrolytes (Na and Cl), aspartate aminotransferase as well as HDL-c level in testosterone – induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.5
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis, spectroscopic, and density functional theory studies of the
           corrosion inhibitive behaviour of
           n-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxonaphthalene-3-yl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide
           chelator-ligand

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      Authors: Festus Chioma,, Odozi, Nnenna W; , Mchihi M. Moses,, Olatunde, M. Abimbola
      Pages: 39 - 50
      Abstract: The inhibitory effect of N-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxonaphthalene-3-yl) pyrazine-2-carboxamide (HL chelator) on the corrosion of mild steel (Ms) in 1M HCl remained appraised via weight loss (WL) estimations, atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and computational studies. The adsorption of the appraised ligand remained found to conform to Langmuir adsorption isotherm (LAI). The data acquired for ΔGads denotes chemisorption adsorption mechanism for the inhibitor while acquired AAS analysis results revealed that the concentration of iron in the inhibited corrosive medium is less than the concentration of iron in the uninhibited solution after immersion with Ms at the same contact time and was also observed to reduce with upsurge in concentration of the inhibitor. SEM micrographs acquired revealed that the existence of the studied compound lessened the degree of corrosion in addition to decreased surface roughness signifying establishment of protective inhibitor film at the Ms surface. The energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO) as well as energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) remained estimated via density functional theory (DFT) method from which other parameters were determined. The results acquired from computational studies were in conformity with those from experimental studies and both validate the use of HL chelator as an excellent and efficient inhibitor for the corrosion of Ms in 1 M HCl.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.6
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Psychosocial determinant of teenage pregnancy among selected secondary
           school students in akamkpa local government area, cross river state,
           nigeria

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      Authors: Agba; Mathias, , Agba, Affiong Mathias, , Ndubisi, Blessing,
      Pages: 51 - 62
      Abstract: Purpose This study explored the psychosocial determinants of teenage pregnancy among selected secondary school students in Akamkpa Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. The Specific objectives were to determine the influence of parental-child relationship on teenage pregnancy, examine influence of attitude to sex on teenage pregnancy, determine influence of self-esteem on teenage pregnancy and ascertain the influence of peer influence on teenage pregnancy among selected secondary school students in Akamkpa Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Four research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Method: The research design employed in the study is cross-sectional descriptive design. A total of 241 female senior secondary schools one and two (SSS I & SSS II) students of five (5) public secondary schools in Akamkpa LGA, Cross River State were selected as sample of the study using simple and proportionate sampling techniques. The instrument of data collection was a structured questionnaire. Data collected were presented and analyzed using frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics (Means []). The hypothesis was tested using Population t-test (t) analysis. Result The findings of the study revealed that parent-child relationship has a negative influence on teenage pregnancy among female students. Attitude to sex has positive influence on teenage pregnancy among female students. Self-esteem has positive influence on teenage pregnancy among female students. Peer pressure has negative influence on teenage pregnancy among female students. There is a significant negative influence of peer influence on teenage pregnancy among female students in selected secondary schools in Akamkpa LGA, Cross River State. Based on the results it was recommended that Parents should endeavour to strengthen relationships with their children as this will help them to discuss relevant issues relating to sexuality and reproductive health that will help prevent unwanted teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy is a major public health and social problem worldwide. Poor parent-child relation and peer pressure have negative influence on teenage pregnancy among female students while, self-esteem and attitude to sex have positive influence on teenage pregnancy
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.7
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative assessment of structures and treatment processes in public and
           private hiv treatment centres in port harcourt, rivers state

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      Authors: Neriton-Prefa Chisa Diana; , Omosivie Maduka
      Pages: 63 - 73
      Abstract: Background: HIV treatment centres use the WHO standard policies and guidelines to conduct HIV testing services, and anti-retroviral treatment to people living with HIV. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare structures and treatment processes in public and private HIV treatment centres in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Materials and Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out in both public and private HIV treatment centres in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The sample size of 10 public and 10 private HIV treatment centres were used for this study. A stratified sampling method was used to randomly select ten public and ten private HIV treatment centres from existing forty-six (46) public and forty (40) private ART facilities in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State. Public and private HIV treatment centres included in the study were all that had existed for 6 months, still functional and render HIV treatment to a minimum of 5 patients per week. Other treatment facilities that did not meet this criteria were excluded. The study tool was pretested in other HIV treatment centres that were not selected for the main study. The tool was validated by performing Cronbach’s alpha (α) using 24 items tool for measuring the structure and 10 items tool for measuring the process; hence 0.902 and 0.736 were obtained for structure and treatment process respectively. A semi-structured interviewer checklist was used to assess structures of the treatment centres and evaluate the treatment process. The assessment the structure and evaluation of HIV treatment process was completed in a period of eight (8) weeks. Data was entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21 in numeric codes and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Comparative analysis for public and private HIV treatment centres were done. Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of the University of Port-Harcourt. Written permission from Rivers State Primary Health Management Board, Department of Planning, Research and Statistics (DPRS) and Rivers state Ministry of Health was obtained to cover the various health facilities used. Verbal permission/ consent were obtained from the directors of the private treatment centres. Result: A total of 20 facility assessment checklists were used to assess the public and private HIV treatment centres. The result indicated that public versus private structures of facilities had median scores of 11 versus 6.5 for utilities, 30.5 versus 22.5 for equipment, 24 versus 18.5 for commodities and the overall structural score of 65 versus 46. There was a statistically significant difference between the various structural domains and the health facility type: Utilities (5.60; p=0.02); Equipment (10.08; p=0.002); Commodities (6.27; p=0.01); Overall Structural scores (7.02; p=0.01). Also, (public versus private facilities) had median scores of (39 versus 34.5) with interquartile range of 39-46 for public facilities and (30-37) for private facilities. A statistically significant association was observed between HIV treatment process in public and private facilities (10.87; p=0.001).The HIV treatment process in public versus private facilities had median scores of (39 versus 34.5) with interquartile range of 39-46 for public facilities and (30-37) for private facilities. Conclusion: Based on findings in this study, the researchers conclude that the public HIV treatment centres had good structures in offering HIV service delivery. The public HIV treatment centers had a better HIV treatment process than the private HIV treatment centres. The non-governmental organizations should be encouraged to take responsibility of equipping private facilities with the needed structure which in turn will enhance HIV treatment process.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.8
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Religious and existential well-being among nursing students in anambra
           state, nigeria

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      Authors: Okoli Uchenna J; , Edet, Olaide Bamidele,, Akpan-Idiok, Pauline Ackley,
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Spirituality is a significant concept for the discipline of nursing with substantial influence on holistic care of patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the status of Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) among nursing students in public Schools of Nursing in Anambra State, Nigeria.  A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 228 nursing students based in three government Schools of Nursing in Anambra State, Nigeria.  A 20 item Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWS) comprising of 10 questions each on religious and existential wellbeing sub-scales was adapted for the study. Internal consistency reliability of the instrument using the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was 0.93. Ethical approval was obtained from Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) ethical committee. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Chi-Square and Pearson correlation analysis were done to verify association between variables using SPSS version 21 for Windows.  Probability value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of respondents was 22 years. Overall, 55.1% reported moderate level of spirituality compared with 44.9% who had high level of spirituality. Nursing students’ average spiritual well-being (SWB) score was 97.7. SWB was significantly related to the level of study of respondents (p= 0.001). A significant strong positive correlation was found between Religious Well-Being (RWB) and Existential Well-Being (p=0.001; r=.697). The study has shown that nursing students in public Schools of Nursing in Anambra State, self-reported moderate level of spiritual wellbeing (SWB). Educational interventions are required to improve nursing students’ religious and existential well-being for the ultimate purpose of promoting holistic nursing care.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.9
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of auto regressive integrated moving average (arima) and
           artificial neural networks (ann) in the prediction of effluent quality of
           a wastewater treatment system

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      Authors: HOWARD, C. C; , ETUK, E. H, , HOWARD, I. C,
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: The main objective of wastewater treatment is to purify the water by degradation of organic matter in the water to an
      environmentally friendly status. To achieve this objective, some effluent (waste water) quality parameters such as
      Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) should be measured continuously in order
      to meet up with the said objective and regulatory demands. However, through the prediction on water quality
      parameters, effective guidance can be provided to comply with such demand without necessarily engaging in rigorous
      laboratory analysis. Box-Jenkin’s Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) technique is one of the most
      refined extrapolation techniques for prediction while Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a modern non-linear method
      also used for prediction. The Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Root Mean
      Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation coefficient (r) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the above-mentioned
      models. This paper examined the efficiency of ARIMA and ANN models in prediction of two major water quality
      parameters (COD and BOD5) in a wastewater treatment plant. With the aid of R software, it was concluded that in all
      the error estimates, ANNs models performed better than the ARIMA model, hence it can be used in the operation of
      the treatment system.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Stochastic analysis of stock price changes as markov chain in finite
           states

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      Authors: I. U Amadi; , C. P. Ogbogbo, B. O Osu,
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: In this work, stochastic analysis of Markov chain model used to examine stock price formation in finite states. The data was subjected to 5-step transition matrix for independent stocks where transition matrix replicated the use of 3-states transition probability matrix. This enables us proffer precise condition of obtaining expected mean rate of return of each stock. Out of the four stocks studied, stock (1), stock (2), stock (3) and stock (4), it  was also discovered that stock (1) has the highest mean rate of return:4.0548 and Stock (4) has the best probability of price increasing in the near future:21%. This informs the investor about the behavior of the stocks for the purpose of decision making. From the stochastic analysis, it is revealed that stock price changes are memory-less satisfying the properties of Markov chain. i.e., it converges to a point or becomes stationary at n=5 ie S1:0.1967-0.2354,S2:0.2053-0.1913,S3:0.1972-0.2051 and S4:0.2023-0.1835. Also all states of the transition communicate and are all time dependent. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.11
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A comprehensive approach to geometric simplexes

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      Authors: Mari Mohammed; , William Obeng-Denteh, , Fred Asante-Mensa
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: This paper is an expository research to simplexes. The work focuses on how simplexes are created. It also looked at how complete graphs are treated as simplexes. We further present an important theorem and its proof.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.14
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of population growth on biodiversity loss in boki agro-ecological
           rainforests, cross river state, nigeria

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      Authors: Oko, P. E; , Odey, D. U,
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: In today's world, the rapid growth of human populations, who rely on forest resources as their primary source of income, is a major source of concern. The impact of population increase on biodiversity loss in the Boki rainforest in Nigeria's Cross River State was investigated in this study. The study looked into the causes of rapid population expansion, the proximate causes of deforestation, the effects of deforestation on biodiversity, and the economic values of rainforests to Boki inhabitants. The study gathered information on the factors that contribute to population growth, the pace of biodiversity loss, the causes of deforestation, and the effects of deforestation on biodiversity in the study area. The findings found that a mix of human influences such as rapid population growth, increasing human activities such as lumbering, fuel wood extraction, settlement expansion, agricultural practices, and construction works had aggravated tropical rainforest degradation in the studied area. These factors have aided in the extinction and depletion of important flora and fauna species in the study area. To maintain the Boki rainforests and it’s biodiversity, the report suggests population education, research-based innovative forestry and biodiversity policies, and forest restoration efforts such as community-based forest management.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.12
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative analysis between homotopy group and homology group

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      Authors: William Obeng-Denteh, David Adjei
      Pages: 106 - 110
      Abstract: This paper seeks to demonstrate the relation between homology group and homotopy group. The result in this paper is a construction of the homology of a complex torus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.4314/gjpas.v28i1.13
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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