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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0855-0395
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • A GEOSTATISTICAL APPROACH TO OPTIMAL DRILLING AND SAMPLING DESIGN: A CASE
           STUDY OF THE OBUASI GOLD DEPOSIT IN SOUTHERN GHANA

    • Authors: Casmed Charles Amadu , Gordon Foli , Emmanuel Daanoba Sunkari
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: This paper demonstrates the application of geostatistical techniques to the design of optimum drilling/sampling density, to an epithermal mixed vein- and disseminated sulphide type gold deposit. The Obuasi Mine is situated within the Ashanti gold belt of Ghana. The mine has past production and current reserves exceeding about 1,200 tonnes (t) of gold. The deposit is a typical shear zone type, characterised by non-uniform sulphide mineralisation distribution and boudinage auriferous quartz reefs having sharp boundaries. The main objectives of this study were; to determine the distribution of gold grades, and to use geostatistical approach to determine the optimum drilling and sampling intervals for the underground mine.  The data for the study come from Block 1, Kwesi Mensah Shaft of the mine. It comprises of two data sets, diamond drill core and channel samples from cross-cuts. 507 drill hole cores were sampled at intervals of between 1.0 m, and 149 crosscuts, from which a total of 114488 channel samples were obtained and assayed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) method for gold (Au). Statistical analysis showed that gold grade data had multiple-population characteristics. To analyse for spatial structure of gold mineralisation, 3D semi-variograms were computed in the 3 principal directions. Variability of the Au grades within the deposit were revealed, and nugget effect, C0 defined as 3.7 (g/t)2 and ranges (a's) ranged from 3.7, 16.1 to 27.5 in the across-strike, along strike, and down-dip directions, respectively. Sidewall channel sampling interval of 1 to 1.5 m across strike (used in crosscut and reef drives backs), and 30 m drill hole spacing for the down-dip section are adequate. Drill hole spacing in sections perpendicular to the strike of the deposit should be between 30 to 50 m, depending on the size, complexity of mineralization and structure of the orebody.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • IMPACT OF LIME AND CEMENT ON VARIOUS LATERITIC SOIL SAMPLINGS AS
           CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

    • Authors: Christopher Ehizemhen Igibah, Bamitale Dorcas Oluyemi-Ayibiowu, Lucia Omolayo Agashua
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: This study was performed so as to evaluate engineering properties and strength of lateritic soils stabilized with hydrated lime and Portland cement as construction materials. Soil samplings P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 was collected from Dualization of Sheda - Abaji, Abuja, F.C.T, Nigeria and stabilized with 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12% of hydrated lime and Portland cement.  Many laboratory tests were performed on the soil sampling such as Consistency (Atterberg limit), California Bearing Ratio (C.B.R), water absorption, compaction test and particle size distribution. The research revealed that beneficial impacts were obtained thru the addition of hydrated lime and Portland cement in order to increase the strength of poor or weak soils. C.B.R values are 9.98, 9.88%, 8.36%, 7.89% and 7.27% for samplings P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 respectively at 0% additive content and at 12% additives, the samplings gave C.B.R values of 59%, 55%, 53%, 51.0% and 50.00% by using cement. All the five samplings have highest C.B.R values of 48.0% with hydrated lime as additives. Introduction of additives improved the soil samplings from a very poor subbase and base materials to an excellent base material with C.B.R values over 40%. Thus, improvement of laterite soil samplings from the studied locality can be perform successfully by using Lime judging from the outcome of the different tests on the various soil admixtures.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A DERIVED HETEROGENEOUS TRANSFER FUNCTION FROM CONVOLUTION OF SYMMETRIC
           HARDLIMIT AND HYPERBOLIC TANGENT SIGMOID TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

    • Authors: Christopher Godwin Udomboso, Olamide Olufunmilayo Ilori
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: This study derived a new heterogeneous transfer function of the Statistical Neural Network from a convolution of two transfer functions: the Symmetric Hard Limit and Hyperbolic Tangent Sigmoid, showing their various mathematical forms. The properties of the derived function were examined. Results show that it is a proper probability distribution with distributional properties shown to exist with mean 0, and variance . Numerical illustrations showed that the derived heterogeneous model is more efficient than its homogeneous forms, as indicated from their respective predictive performances. From the foregoing, the use of homogeneous models of the statistical neural networks in solving empirical problems is encouraged, for effective outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN DIETARY PATTERNS, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND COGNITIVE
           PERFORMANCE OF FINAL YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FOOD
           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, KNUST

    • Authors: Marina Aferiba Tandoh, Veronica Tawiah Annaful
      Pages: 38 - 50
      Abstract: This study explored the relationship between dietary patterns, nutritional status and cognitive performance of final year undergraduate students in the Food Science and Technology department of KNUST. A cross sectional study was conducted among the final year undergraduate students of the Food Science and Technology Department, KNUST, Kumasi. A total of 30 participants were conveniently sampled for the study; however, only 21 were able to complete the study due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the resulting closure of schools. Five distinct dietary patterns were obtained using 99 food components identified through the food frequency questionnaire. These mainly comprised of starch-based foods, soups and stews with little fruits and vegetables consumption. A good proportion of participants (42.9%) had normal BMI. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 14.3%, 28.6% and 14.3% respectively. Participants with normal cognitive performance were slightly higher (52.4%) than those with mild cognitive impairment (47.6%) according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. The results showed no significant correlation between dietary patterns and nutritional status. Adherence to dietary pattern 4 characterized by low consumption of iron-enhancing fruits, sea foods, soups and stews, high consumption of starch-based foods, no iron-enhancing vegetables and snack consumption was associated with cognitive decline. Fruits and vegetables consumption was generally low, necessitating nutrition education and campaigns to encourage healthy eating. Furthermore, it will be necessary to apply policies to regulate the quality of food sold at on-campus cafeterias and canteens since students eat from these places while on campus.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES AGAINST COVID-19 ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Authors: Temitope Monsurat Osobamiro, Awolesi Awolesi , Ogundaini Rotimi Sina
      Pages: 51 - 65
      Abstract: As COVID-19 becomes fast spread, safe disposal of infectious and hazardous COVID-19 waste that has mixed with municipal waste is now becoming a major environmental challenge. In many cities in Nigeria, such wastes are often disposed of in landfills or incinerated openly. Though, significant attention has been paid to policy and management of COVID-19 in the health sector, little has been done in managing COVID-19 waste. Effective handling and disposal techniques of these wastes must be harnessed in sustaining the environment and curbing the spread of this disease. This paper is aimed at evaluating the two major precautionary measures taken against the spread of COVID-19; face covering and hand sanitizer, their chemical composition, use, disposal and impacts of their improper disposal on the environment. Common medical and disposable face masks are made of non-biodegradable plastic materials containing toxic additives that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and contribute significantly to climate change. Prolong or misuse of commonly used hand sanitizers can cause oral and dermal toxicity especially in children. Safer, economical and reusable materials to replace hitherto toxic materials used in curbing the spread COVID-19 should be made available. Aside from frequent washing of hands with soap and water, this paper recommends that attention should also be focused on public awareness on proper handling and disposal of all waste. Hospitals and municipal waste management should adopt the art of autoclaving before incineration of waste.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF
           MILLETTIA CHRYSOPHYLLA AND MILLETTIA ZECHIANA

    • Authors: Mary Anti Chama, Beverly Egyir, Kofi Baffour-Awuah Owusu
      Pages: 66 - 85
      Abstract: Millettia chrysophylla (MC) and Millettia zechiana (MZ) are two medicinal plants distributed in Africa. MZ is used traditionally to treat infectious diseases. Current literature survey suggests no scientific studies on MC and phytochemical studies on MZ were scanty with no biological activities.  In vitro antibacterial activities of the ethanol extracts of the leaves (L), stems (S), and roots (R) for both plants, and flowers (F) and twigs (T) for MZ were tested against eight laboratory bacteria strains and 28 clinical isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical profile of the extracts was obtained by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) whiles characterisation of the alkaloid, flavonoid, and tannin contents were also determined. MCS extract showed a strong and broad activity against S. epidermidis (8.79 μg/mL), E. coli (3.9 μg/mL), S. enteritidis (5.11 μg/mL) and B. cereus (5.33 μg/mL).  Broad bactericidal activity against MRSA strains: MR21, MR4 and MR19 with respective IC50 values of 72.30, 86.45 and 97.76 µg/mL were showed by MCL extract. The major components identified from the GCMS analysis included 17-octadecenoic acid (39.46%), 17-octadecynoic acid (27.90%) n-decanoic acid (27.88%), (Z, Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (27.02%), (Z)-18-octadec-9-enolide (24.46%), and n-hexadecanoic acid (20.87%). MCL indicated 6.97±0.62 mg CA/g, 3.75 ± 0.12 mg TA/g, and 3.58 ± 0.18 mg RU/g for the respective contents of alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids. These findings have given insights into the phytochemicals of M. chrysophylla and the antibacterial activities of leaves, stems and roots of M. chrysophylla and the twigs of M. zechiana for further drug discovery research. 
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • HANDLING, SAFETY AND HYGIENIC PRACTICES OF FROZEN MEAT AND FISH DURING
           VENDING IN THE KUMASI METROPOLIS

    • Authors: Antoinette Simpah Anim-Jnr, Abena Boakye , Seth Etuah, Christopher Antwi, William Appaw, Stephen Alfred Osei, Ibok Oduro, William Otoo Ellis
      Pages: 86 - 101
      Abstract: This study assessed the extent to which cold store operators and table-top meat and fish sellers in Kumasi, employed safe meat and fish handling practices.  The meat and fish safety knowledge and attitudes of food vendors and household consumers were also assessed. Data was collected from 155 respondents comprising 53 cold store operators, 42 table-top vendors and 60 consumers using semi-structured questionnaires. The majority of respondents were females aged between 20 – 40 years. Cold store operators were generally more educated than the table-top meat and fish sellers who had only basic or no formal education. However, formal education had little effect on respondents’ knowledge and adoption of meat       handling and safety practices. Neither meat and fish vendors nor consumers considered hygiene as necessary in their selection of suppliers and purchase of products. Although most claimed to be aware of meat and fish contaminants, they could not mention specific pathogens that contaminated either products. While most table-top vendors wore overalls, the purpose was not to reduce contamination of meat and fish but to promote personal cleanliness. The findings indicate the need for further studies and interventions to bridge the existing gap between knowledge and practice in the frozen meat and fish industry. We propose a conceptual framework for an integrated approach involving all key stakeholders for safe vending of frozen fish and meat. Other urban cities in developing nations could adopt the framework to promote safe and hygienic practices in the frozen meat and fish industry.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL EDUCATION AND
           CONSCIOUSNESS ON ARCHITECTURE IN GHANA

    • Authors: Kofi Adjei, Rexford Assasie Oppong, Steve Kquofi
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: The National Commission on Culture was established in 1999 with the mandate to promote a “national culture”. The Commission as part of its roles developed the 2004 National Cultural Policy. One aspect of the policy worth consideration is cultural education which is expected to positively impact on public architecture. This study aimed to assess the extent of the policy’s achievements with respect to cultural education and its impact on architecture, after nearly 18 years of its existence. The study adopted the narrative method of qualitative research methodology.  Non-probabilistic sampling techniques namely; purposive and snowball were used to sample 30 key respondents from Accra, Kumasi and Tamale to arrive at the findings of the study. The study revealed that the policy has not achieved much of its objectives regarding architectural development. The study revealed that the general architectural landscape shows little or no programmed attempt at incorporating culture into national architecture. This is attributed to the absence of effective cultural education and consciousness of the citizenry, lack of effective dissemination of the policy to the implementing stakeholders including architects, artists, educators etc., lack of funding and power of enforcement. The study puts forward six recommendations for policy direction aimed at addressing the challenges that militate against the achievement of Ghana’s National Cultural Policy objective on architecture.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.4314/just.v40i1.
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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