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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0855-0395
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Assessment Framework for Ieq of Classrooms in Basic Schools in
           Ghana-Review of Data Collection Methods

    • Authors: Adwoa Difie Ampadu-Asiamah, Samuel Amos-Abanyie, Daniel Yaw Addai Duah, Edward Ayebeng Botchway, Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah
      Abstract: An Indoor Environmental quality assessment framework goes through a number of processes including defining all features of the entity being studied, Review of literature, Data Collection and Analyses and Validation of developed framework. The data collection aspect of the framework encompasses activities that need to be identified and established in the development of an assessment framework for basic schools in Ghana. The Assessment of IEQ in classroom of basic schools has been undertaken by many researchers. Standards provided by international bodies such as ASHRAE, WHO, European Union, USEPA have spelt out how specific IEQ parameters must be measured. This review identifies the various data collection methods that have been used in assessing IEQ in buildings, (especially school buildings) with focus on classrooms and establishes data collection methodology that can be used in an assessment framework for IEQ in classrooms in basic schools in Ghana.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Circular Approach to Environmental Impact of Apparel Production in Ghana:
           A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Akosua Mawuse Amankwah, Edward Appiah, Christiana Konamah Okai-Mensah
      Abstract: Integral aspect of the garment industry is production. In Ghana, the linear model of production largely persists. There have been environmental concerns for the industry’s overreliance on virgin raw materials globally. The associated waste encompasses pre-production, production and, post-production waste and requires attention in Ghana. Although garment production culture varies from that of advanced fashion economies, waste generation and its negative impacts are universal and call for sustainable practices worldwide. Adopting a narrative review approach, this paper examines the various stages in garment production in Ghana, focusing on negative environmental impacts. The review highlights the adaption of models in the Circular Economy (CE) approach as a means of reducing the overreliance on virgin raw materials, and the tendencies of CE curbingthe excessive waste associated with garment production when adopted. The economic benefitof adopting CE, enhancing the per capita environmental impact of cities especially in Ghana towealth are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cryptolepine, A Plant-Derived Alkaloid, Differentially Regulates Signal
           Transduction Pathways In Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) Cells

    • Authors: Seth Domfeh, Patrick Narkwa, Mohamed Mutocheluh, Gordon Awandare
      Abstract: Cryptolepine is the main alkaloid in the medicinal plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. This plant- derived alkaloid has innumerable pharmaco-biological properties, including anti-microbial, anti- hyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory in diverse in vitro and in vivo systems. We have previously shown that cryptolepine differentially regulates signalling pathways in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Hence, this current study aimed to investigate the effects of cryptolepine on these pathways in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells to ascertain whether what we reported in the HepG2 cells is cell dependent. The Cignal Finder Multi-Pathway Reporter Array was used to screen the effects of cryptolepine on the pathways in the HEK293 cells. Next, some genes in the differentially regulated pathways were assessed using RT-qPCR. Cryptolepine up-regulated 9 pathways, including p53, IRF1 and PR, supported by increased IRF1 and PR transcripts. Contrarily, cryptolepine down-regulated 27 pathways, including STAT3, c-Myc and HIF-1α, bolstered by decreased HIF1-α and STAT3 transcripts. The regulations of the pathways in the HEK293 cells differed from those observed in the HepG2 cells. This study revealed that cryptolepine differentially regulates signalling pathways and regulates these pathways differently in diverse cells. The results from our studies support the pharmaco-biological effects of cryptolepine in different cells.
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Prevalence of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria Associated With Various
           Yoghurt Products Commonly Sold in Minna, North Central, Nigeria

    • Authors: Mary Okoye Uche, Anthony Okafor Kelechi
      Abstract: The predominance of Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria among dairy products especially yoghurt is fast becoming a major concern in most communities. Five (5) industrially prepared yoghurts were aseptically collected and transported to the Microbiology Laboratory of Federal University of Technology, Minna. Samples were serially diluted and inoculated on various media through the pour plate method. The bacterial isolates were identified through their Gram reaction and other biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out using the disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar. The result revealed that, sample C (1.7x103) had the highestmicrobial count while Sample D (8x102) had the lowest microbial count respectively. Various bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified with Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus sp and Escherichia coli having the highest frequency of occurrence (20%), followed by Pseudomonas sp and Lactobaacillus sp which had their frequency of occurrence to be 13.3% while the least frequency of occurrence (6.7%) was observed in Salmonella sp and Streptococcus sp. The antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that all bacterial isolates were multidrug resistant and as such are a great threat to the general public especially the consumers of yoghurt drinks. Hence, there is a need for adequate and continuous surveillance by food regulatory bodies in Nigeria, to curtailthe infections associated with Multidrug resistant bacteria.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Assessing the Quality of Data from Continuously Operating Reference
           Stations In Ghana

    • Authors: Osman Mohammed Abukari, Akwasi Afrifa Acheampong, Samuel Osah, John Ayer
      Abstract: Assessing the Quality of Data from Continuously Operating Reference Stations In Ghana Since 2019, Ghana has witnessed the establishment of new Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) sites by the Licensed Surveyors Association of Ghana (LISAG) to augment the five existing CORS which were established in 2007 by Government of Ghana. However, limited study has been carried out on quality of data from these CORS stations regarding the standards set out by the International GNSS service (IGS) Site Guidelines, 2015. This study presents preliminary reports on pseudorange multipath effects, cycle slips and data completeness in CORS data using Translate, Edit and Quality Check (TEQC) software. The study used data observed simultaneously from receivers mounted at different sites with interstation distances of up to 200km. The results showed noticeable variations in the quality parameters measured at the CORS stations. The Root Mean Square (RMS) values of pseudorange multipath on L1 signal (MP1) and L2 signal (MP2) at the test stations were within the threshold of 0.5m contained in IGS Site Guidelines of 2015. All observed CORS data were available between 99.07% and 100% completeness which is well above the 95% thresholds set by IGS. The CORS stations recorded cycle slip counts fluctuating between 4 and 16. The study concluded that multipath effects in Ghana are location dependent with higher variability. Quality reports on CORS data provide useful information to CORS operators and users for decision making.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Physicochemical Evaluation of Shea Butter Treated with Borututu
           (Cochlospermum Angolensis) Bark

    • Authors: Baffour Kyei-Asante, Francis Alemawor, Jacob Kwaku Agbenorhevi, Peter Fitz-Williams
      Abstract: Borututu (Cochlospermum angolensis) bark has long been used in the preparation of ‘yellow shea butter with claims of improving its aesthetic appeal and quality than its ‘ivory’ counterpart. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ‘borututu’ bark on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of shea butter. The shea butter samples were treated with borututu bark (shredded and milled) at varying levels of 10–70 g per 100 g of butter. The resulting butter samples were analysed for pH, acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, ester value, iodine value total polyphenols and % radical scavenging activity using standard methods. The results indicate that ‘borututu’ influenced the physicochemical properties positively and improved the total polyphenol content and radical scavenging properties of the treated shea butter samples. The findings suggest that borututu could be explored as natural food additive/colourant to improve the quality attributes of shea butter.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Vehicular Emission Levels and Risk Associated with Street Hawkers and
           Traffic Wardens in Some Selected Areas of Accra, Ghana

    • Authors: Lyndon Nii Adjiri Sackey, Nana Tanoa Dougan, Linda Aurelia Ofori
      Abstract: Fifty street workers on three main routes in Accra, Achimota- Neoplan, Dzorwulu-N1 and Legon-Shiashie were identified and questionnaires were administered to obtain information for risk assessment on motor vehicle emissions. A study on CO and Hydrocarbon emissions from petrol-  based vehicles and opacity emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles were measured using Emission Combi Tester 6.3, Maha-Luxembourg, from vehicles that came for testing at the Drivers and Vehicles License Authority (DVLA) garage. The cars were categorized into two, based on their ages; cars manufactured before and during 1995 (old-aged) and those manufactured after 1995. The mean concentration determined for CO was 2.8% and 1.9%, hydrocarbon was 467 ppm and 215 ppm and the opacity was 49.2% and 27.8% for old aged cars and cars manufactured after 1995, respectively. The study showed that emissions from old-aged cars were generally higher than those manufactured after 1995. The average daily dose was also higher for street vendors than for traffic wardens. The hazard quotient revealed extreme risks for these workers due to exposure to the emissions. Therefore, regulating vehicle emissions and increasing air pollution awareness is crucial.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
  • Efficiency of Locally-Made Edible Coating In Maintaining the Postharvest
           Quality of Belfast Tomatoes

    • Authors: Kofi Owusu-Akyaw Oduro , Abena Boakye , Ibok Nsa Oduro, William Otoo Ellis, Nana Baah Pepra-Ameyaw
      Abstract: Edible coating technology has been proven to be an efficient and effective method of postharvest preservation. Especially in developing countries, edible coatings and other postharvest technologies are often limited by their high cost. The study aimed to assess the effect of edible coating materials prepared from inexpensive and locally available materials on the postharvest quality of Belfast tomatoes during storage. Different edible coating formulations [M1, M2, M3 and M4] were prepared by varying the concentration of orange peel powder [OP] [0,0.1,0.5,1%] in 10g/L Cassava Starch [CS] and 10g/L Chitosan [CH] coating solutions. Coated and control fruits were stored at 25°C for three weeks. Results showed that the coatings significantly [p<0.05] delayed the changes in weight loss, total Soluble solids, pH and colour compared to uncoated control fruits. At the end of the 3-week storage period, the control fruits recorded the highest weight loss, 25.58 ±1.73 % whiles M4 had the least, 15.14 ±0.30 %. M4 [CH+CS+1OP] significantly maintained the total soluble solids of the tomatoes which increased from 5.71° to 6.68°whiles the control tomatoes increased from 5.71° to 9.09° showing the effectiveness of the coating in maintaining the Total Soluble Solid (TSS) of the Belfast tomatoes. The coated samples also showed some resistance to the colour changes as well as the pH exhibiting the ability to delay the ripening rate in the tomatoes. The edible coating significantly improved the postharvest quality of the Belfast tomato and could have immense impact on other local tomato varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2023)
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