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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Journal of the Ghana Science Association
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0855-3823
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Evaluation of the Efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the Cowpea Beetle,
           Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on Stored Cowpea Grains

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      Authors: E A Osekre, J Abrahamani, D T Abudu
      Abstract: The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have ne-cessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a Control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dos-ages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Phosphorus Uptake and Partitioning in Maize as Affected by Tillage on
           Dystric Cambisol and Ferric Acrisol in Ghana

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      Authors: V Logah, V Atobrah, B Essel, A Bosomtwe, A Acquah
      Abstract: Phosphorus deficiency is a major problem confronting crop production in tropical soils. In sub–saharan Africa, the deficiency of the nutrient has caused decline in crop yield over the years. Rele-vant information on phosphorus uptake and partitioning in plants, its use efficiency and the impli-cations on crop yield on different soil types under different management systems will enhance sus-tainability of cropping systems and the environment. Field experiments were conducted at the An-womaso Agricultural Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi located within the semi- deciduous forest zone and Crops Re-search Experimental Station, Ejura within the Forest- Savannah Transition zone of Ghana. The soils of the experimental sites at Anwomaso and Ejura were respectively Ferric Acrisol and Dystric Cambisol. The study aimed at evaluating phosphorus partitioning in maize plants following phos-phorus application under two tillage systems on the two soil types. The field experiments at both locations were split - plots arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot factor consisted of two tillage systems namely, conventional tillage (CT) and no – tillage (NT) systems whereas the sub-plot factor consisted of four levels of phosphorus fertilizer: 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 per ha. Phosphorus uptake and partitioning and, use efficiency (PUE)in different parts of maize (ear, shoot and leaves) were determined at physiological maturity (R6). Phosphorus partitioned into the various plant parts showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the four levels of phosphorus applied on both soil types. Higher phosphorus concentrations were found in the ears than in the shoots and leaves at physiological maturity. Tillage x phospho-rus interactions influenced phosphorus partitioning in the ears and the leaves on the Dystric Cam-bisol but not on the Ferric Acrisol. PUE in the plant parts were significantly higher under applica-tion of 60 kg/ha P2O5than applications of 30 and 90 kg/ha P2O5 on both soils. Though the PUE of maize components on both soils were low, relatively higher values were recorded on the Dystric Cambisol than on the Ferric Acrisol. The study indicated that application of 60 kg/ha P2O5 under conventional tillage can lead to higher phosphorus partitioning into the ears at physiological maturity resulting in higher maize grain yield on Ferric Acrisol and Dystric Cambisol in Ghana in the short term.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant
           Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in
           Atwima Nwabiagya District, Ghana.

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      Authors: A K Edusei, J Bentum, B Nkum
      Abstract: The desire to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 has stimulated several investiga-tions related to pregnancy and birth outcome. Gestational weight gain and haemoglobin levels of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Nkawie Government Hospital were assessed to ascertain their appropriateness, and effect on the birth weight of the newborns. The study was ob-servational and prospective; involving 150 singleton pregnant women aged 15-49 years, in their second trimester, with risk-free pregnancy selected through systematic random sampling. Struc-tured questionnaire and records from maternal health clinics on body weight changes and haemo-globin levels were used for the assessment. Birth weights of babies born to the women were ob-tained from the hospital records. The study period was from July to October, 2012. Mean weight gains during second and third trimesters were 2.2± 2.1kg and 2.9± 2.2kg, respectively, with 91.2% and 95.3%, respectively unable to gain the recommended weight. Mean haemoglobin levels at first, second and third trimesters were 10.4± 1.8g/dl; 6.1± 1.6g/dl; and 9.9± 1g/dl, respectively. Mean birth weight was 2.9± 0.5kg. The respective correlation coefficients and p-values between weight gain during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and birth weight which were 0.01 (p = 0.69) and 0.02 (p = 0.36) indicating a weak positive correlation. Birth weight is positively corre-lated with gestational haemoglobin levels at first and third trimester and infant birth weight with a correlation coefficient of 0.10 (p= 0.008) and 0.13 (p= 0.004), respectively. In this study, weight gain during the second and third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with birth weight. However, birth weight was associated with maternal haemoglobin levels in the first and third tri-mesters of pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Effect of HIV-1 and Antiretroviral Therapy on Semen Quality

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      Authors: E A Ntim, K Bedu-Addo
      Abstract: Some studies have suggested that HIV infection may have a negative impact on fertility of infected males. Inconsistent results have characterised reports on the effect of HIV infection on semen quality. HAART has been reported to improve health by reducing blood viral loads, the incidence of opportunistic infections and improving immune system relatively. Investigating the effect of HIV-1 infection and HAART on semen quality was the priority of the study. Semen analysis and blood CD4+determination were carried out on25 subjects each of asymptomatic, moderately symp-tomatic, short duration of HAART treated(<1), longer duration of HAART treated (≥1) of HIV-infected men and HIV-negative control men and the data compared. The results showed that all the critical semen parameters (sperm motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm mor-phology, sperm vitality, semen volume and pH) were impaired in the HIV-1 infected groups. How-ever, sperm motility improved with longer duration of HAART treatment than shorter duration. The study concluded that semen parameters evaluated in HIV-1 infected men revealed several im-pairments. Immune status largely correlated with semen parameters. Longer duration of treatment of HIV-1 infected men with HAART relatively improved some of the semen parameters.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of
           Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana

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      Authors: P Twumasi, E Moses, G Ohene-Mensah
      Abstract: Botryodiplodia theobromae is a virulent plant pathogen commonly found in the tropics and sub-tropics. The fungus has wide range of plant hosts and known to cause yield losses up to 80% espe-cially on cash and food crop farms. This study aimed at establishing genetic diversity of B. theo-bromae collected from four common food and cash crops grown in Ghana. A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four geographical regions of Ghana. The isolates were developed into pure single-spore cultures on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Single-spore cultures of the 25 B. theobromae isolates from the four crops were grown in V8 juice medium at 28°C on a rotary shaker for 48 hrs. Mycelia were harvested at 48 hrs of growth, washed with sterile distilled water, grounded in liquid nitrogen and the genomic DNA iso-lated. PCR products from SSR and RAPD primers were resolved on 2.5% agarose gel and the DNA bands from the 25 isolates clustered on dendrogram into 5 distinct groups of varied genetic simi-larities using NTSYS software. The study showed only two banana isolates, B(Kt) and B(Ef), shar-ing highest genetic similarity above 80%. An isolate from yam, Y(Zu), shared no genetic similarity (0%) with any of the remaining 24 fungal isolates from the four regions in Ghana. The remaining 22 isolates measured genetic similarity between 20 and 75%. The results suggest high genetic vari-ability among the B. theobromae isolates on the crops studied.Keywords: Banana; Botryodiplodia theobromae; cocoa; genetic variability; mango; phylogeny; plant pathogen; potato dextrose agar (PDA); RAPD; SSR and yam.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa oleifera,
           Hibiscus sabdariffa and Cymbopogon citratus

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      Authors: I Oduro, P Twumasi, M A Tandoh, G Ankar-Brewoo, N E De-Heer
      Abstract: The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with potential for processing into herb tea, research in product de-velopment of herb teas is limited. The objectives of the study were to conduct acceptance tests on herb tea prepared from formulations of three indigenous herbs: Moringa oleifera, Hibiscus sab-dariffa and Cymbopogon citratus. Fifty (50) untrained panelists conducted acceptance tests on infusions from nine formulations and one control. Herb tea brewed from product code- 532, composed of 50% Moringa, 30% roselle and 20% lemon grass, was the most preferred in colour, fla-vour, astringency and overall sensory properties while the control made up of 100% Moringa brewed the least preferred herb tea in most of the sensory attributes
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Comparative Study on Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection among
           Adolescents in the Kumasi Metropolis Using Dipstick, Culture and PCR
           Methods

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      Authors: P Twumasi, P Darko, K Nsiah
      Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with clinical conditions such as hypertension, anaemia, kidney failure and even death. Diagnosis and early detection of UTI are critical measures in the management of the disease. The classical microbiological culture method is hindered by long diagnostic time and characteristic features of certain microbes becoming viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC). Direct PCR is a more sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting pathogens in clini-cal samples. This work aimed at developing a simplified PCR assay for detection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, an index microorganism for UTI and the results compared to two common diagnostic markers – i.e., dipstick and microbiological culture methods. The cross-sectional study involved collection of urine samples from 195 adolescents, aged between 13 and 18 years. DNA segments were amplified using specific primers targeting papC gene for fimbriae formation and the bacteriocin usp gene of the uropathogenic E. coli. Comparing the three diagnostic tools, the PCR produced the highest sensitivity of 71%, and the nitrite-based dipstick method recording the least sensitivity of 3%. Leukocyte esterase-based dipstick recorded the highest specificity of 76% as against 24% specificity by the PCR method. In addition, leukocyte esterase detection dipstick pro-duced the highest values for both positive and negative predictive values of 52% and 76%, respec-tively. From the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, PCR showed an area of 0.7231± 0.0262 (age in years X number of positives) over culture method with P value 0.0001, compared to 0.7205± 0.02623 (age in years X number of positives) of culture method over the dipstick method (p< 0.0001). Although the PCR diagnostic method for UTI uropathogenic indicator (E. coli) was found to be superior method as compared to culture and dipstick methods, it should be made a complementary UTI diagnostic tool due to the low specificity.Keywords: Dipstick; Escherichia coli; PCR; papC gene; urinary tract infection (UTI); usp gene.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Prospecting for Groundwater in the Bawku West District of the Upper East
           Region of Ghana Using the Electromagnetic and Vertical Electrical Sounding
           Methods

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      Authors: c Adu Kyere, R M Noye, A Menyeh
      Abstract: An integrated approach involving the Electromagnetic (EM) and Vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey methods, has been used to locate potential drilling sites to find groundwater for twenty (20) rural communities in the Bawku West District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. The EM method involved the use of the Geonics EM 34-3 equipment to obtain traversing data for the horizontal dipole (HD) and vertical dipole (VD) modes at station intervals of 10 m for a 20 m coil separation. The EM survey provided subsurface information relating to positions of high electrical conductivity anomalies which presumably pointed to locations for groundwater structures. As a follow up, the VES was carried out with respect to the anomalous positions, using the dipole-dipole configuration with the McOhm-EL resistivity meter. The VES enabled the estimation of the depth of the weathered layer to the bed rock. The results of the VES data were interpreted quantitatively by modeling using IX1D V.3 software. The study identified prospective sites for drilling of bore-holes to provide potable water for the communities. Results for the VES suggested that the aquifer zones in the area under study are mainly deeply weathered and fractured. The lithology for some of the recommended drilled points correlated well with the results obtained from the EM and VES investigations. The aquifer depth was found to be between 10 and 40 m with an average value of 21.5 m. The depth of the basement rock from the surface was 21.4 m. The estimated yield of the boreholes drilled within the area was between 10 and 500 litres/min with an average value of 136.8 lit/min. the success rate was found to be about 95%. The integrated use of EM and VES surveys has been found to be very successful in locating groundwater resources for the rural communities with the area studied.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Electricity Generation by Single- and Double Chamber Membrane-Less
           Microbial Fuel Cells (MLMFCS)

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      Authors: R Y Tamakloe, K Singh
      Abstract: Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of microbes capable of producing electri-cal current. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy. Application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) may represent a completely new approach in production of sustainable clean energy. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are not yet commercialized but they show great promise as a method of power production. The power produced by these cells is currently limited, primarily due to high internal (ohmic) resistance. There are two main components of the fuel cell; cathode and anode compartments along with a cation specific membrane. In the anode compartment, microorganism oxidizes substrates which generate electrons and protons. Electrons are then transferred to the cathode compartment via an external electric circuit. Protons are transferred to the cathode com-partment through the cation specific membrane like Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which is very expensive. In this study, a successful attempt has been made to fabricate single and double chamber Membrane-Less-Microbial-Fuel-Cells (MLMFCs) which are capable to give COD reduc-tion greater than 93 percent, with maximum power production 6 W/m2.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
 
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