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National Science Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.056
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2095-5138 - ISSN (Online) 2053-714X
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • International cooperation through big science programs

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      PubDate: Wed, 07 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac187
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sieving carbons reconfigure non-graphitic carbons for practical sodium
           batteries

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      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac126
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Open-environment machine learning

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      Abstract: AbstractConventional machine learning studies generally assume close-environment scenarios where important factors of the learning process hold invariant. With the great success of machine learning, nowadays, more and more practical tasks, particularly those involving open-environment scenarios where important factors are subject to change, called open-environment machine learning in this article, are present to the community. Evidently, it is a grand challenge for machine learning turning from close environment to open environment. It becomes even more challenging since, in various big data tasks, data are usually accumulated with time, like streams, while it is hard to train the machine learning model after collecting all data as in conventional studies. This article briefly introduces some advances in this line of research, focusing on techniques concerning emerging new classes, decremental/incremental features, changing data distributions and varied learning objectives, and discusses some theoretical issues.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac123
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Energy landscape decomposition for cell differentiation with proliferation
           effect

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      Abstract: AbstractComplex interactions between genes determine the development and differentiation of cells. We establish a landscape theory for cell differentiation with proliferation effect, in which the developmental process is modeled as a stochastic dynamical system with a birth-death term. We find that two different energy landscapes, denoted U and V, collectively contribute to the establishment of non-equilibrium steady differentiation. The potential U is known as the energy landscape leading to the steady distribution, whose metastable states stand for cell types, while V indicates the differentiation direction from pluripotent to differentiated cells. This interpretation of cell differentiation is different from the previous landscape theory without the proliferation effect. We propose feasible numerical methods and a mean-field approximation for constructing landscapes U and V. Successful applications to typical biological models demonstrate the energy landscape decomposition's validity and reveal biological insights into the considered processes.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac116
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • China's goal of achieving carbon neutrality before 2060: experts explain
           how

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      Abstract: Abstract‘We aim to have CO2 emissions peak before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060,’ President Xi Jinping so declared at the General Debate of the 75th United Nations General Assembly on 22 September 2020. More than 130 countries globally have proposed their own carbon neutrality goals by 2050 or 2060. Thus, carbon neutrality is a collective effort of human societies to cope with the climate crisis. If all countries could follow their own plans and reach carbon neutrality in a few decades, we may have a chance to control global warming within 1.5 or 2oC, confining climate change to a relatively safe zone. As a developing country with a large population, high coal consumption and large manufacturing industries, can China achieve the huge task of societal transformation that will enable carbon peaking and carbon neutrality within the next four decades' How will China transform traditional power generation and manufacturing industries, as well as create new technologies for carbon capture and storage' In this panel discussion chaired by Prof. Xinhe Bao, a scientist of energy and chemistry, top experts gathered to discuss the challenges and potential solutions, outlining the coming ‘green industrial revolution’.Huiming ChengProfessor, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of SciencesZhengtang GuoProfessor, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of SciencesYaling HeProfessor, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong UniversityZheng LiProfessor, Institute of Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Tsinghua UniversityMinggao OuyangProfessor, School of Vehicle and Mobility, Tsinghua UniversityZhengrong ShiProfessor, College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric PowerZaiku XieZaiku XieProfessor, China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC)Xinhe Bao (Chair)Professor, University of Science and Technology of China, and Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac115
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Inverse design with deep generative models: next step in materials
           discovery

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      Abstract: Data-driven inverse design for inorganic functional materials is a rapidly emerging field, which aims to automatically design innovative materials with target properties and to enable property-to-structure material discovery.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac111
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Plant latent defense response to microbial non-pathogenic factors
           antagonizes compatibility

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      Abstract: AbstractUnlike microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are readily targeted by host immunity, microbial non-pathogenic factors (NPFs) appear negligible as they do not elicit defense. Little is known about whether and how NPFs may be monitored by hosts to control compatibility. Herein, a forward genetic screening isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with a loss of plant-rhizobacteria mutualism, leading to the disclosure of a plant latent defense response (LDR) to NPFs. The activation of LDR in the mutant, named rol1 for regulator of LDR 1, is triggered by several non-pathogenic volatile organic compounds and antagonizes plant compatibility with the beneficial bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03. The activation of LDR in rol1 is mediated through the prokaryotic pathway of chloroplastic lipid biosynthesis. The rol1 root microbiome showed a reduced proportion of the Bacillaceae family. We propose that, parallel to the forefront immunity to MAMPs, LDR to certain NPFs provides a hidden layer of defense for controlling compatibility with commensal or beneficial microbes.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac109
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • (NH4)3B11PO19F3: a deep-UV nonlinear optical crystal with unique
           [B5PO10F]∞ layers

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      Abstract: AbstractDeep-ultraviolet (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals that can extend the output range of coherent light below 200 nm are pivotal materials for solid-state lasers. To date, KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) is the only usable crystal that can generate DUV coherent light by direct second harmonic generation (SHG), but the layered growth habit and toxic ingredients limit its application. Herein, we report a new fluoroborophosphate, (NH4)3B11PO19F3 (ABPF), containing four different functional units: [BO3], [BO4], [BO3F] and [PO4]. ABPF exhibits a KBBF-like structure while eliminating the limitations of KBBF crystal. The unique [B5PO10F]∞ layers enhance ABPF’s performance; for example, it has a large SHG response (1.2 × KDP) and a sufficient birefringence (0.088 at 1064 nm) that enables the shortest phase-matching wavelength to reach the DUV region. Meanwhile, the introduction of strong B-O-P covalent bonds decreases the layered growth habit. These findings will enrich the structural chemistry of fluoroborophosphate and contribute to the discovery of more excellent DUV NLO crystals.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac110
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • A CRISPR/Cas12a-empowered surface plasmon resonance platform for rapid and
           specific diagnosis of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2

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      Abstract: AbstractThe outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic was partially due to the challenge of identifying asymptomatic and presymptomatic carriers of the virus, and thus highlights a strong motivation for diagnostics with high sensitivity that can be rapidly deployed. On the other hand, several concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron, are required to be identified as soon as the samples are identified as ‘positive’. Unfortunately, a traditional PCR test does not allow their specific identification. Herein, for the first time, we have developed MOPCS (Methodologies of Photonic CRISPR Sensing), which combines an optical sensing technology-surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with the ‘gene scissors’ clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technique to achieve both high sensitivity and specificity when it comes to measurement of viral variants. MOPCS is a low-cost, CRISPR/Cas12a-system-empowered SPR gene-detecting platform that can analyze viral RNA, without the need for amplification, within 38 min from sample input to results output, and achieve a limit of detection of 15 fM. MOPCS achieves a highly sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2, and mutations appear in variants B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.1.529 (Omicron) and BA.1 (a subtype of Omicron). This platform was also used to analyze some recently collected patient samples from a local outbreak in China, identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This innovative CRISPR-empowered SPR platform will further contribute to the fast, sensitive and accurate detection of target nucleic acid sequences with single-base mutations.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac104
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Exome sequencing identifies rare mutations of LDLR and QTRT1 conferring
           risk for early-onset coronary artery disease in Chinese

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      Abstract: National Key Research and Development Program of China10.13039/5011000121662021YFA13010042020YFC2005000Shanghai Hospital Development Center10.13039/501100008750SHDC2020CR1007AShanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission10.13039/5011000033992017SHZDZX01National Natural Science Foundation of China10.13039/5011000018098217046081973032Shanghai Hospital Development Center10.13039/501100008750SHDC2020CR1007ANational Key Research and Development Program of China10.13039/5011000121662019YFA08023002021YFA0804801National Natural Science Foundation of China10.13039/50110000180991957117National Natural Science Foundation of China10.13039/50110000180931971082
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac102
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • (K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: one more step to boost
           applications

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      Abstract: National Natural Science Foundation of China10.13039/501100001809517881045203200752072028Tsinghua University10.13039/5011000041472020Z99CFZ026
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac101
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • The challenges of sequestering terrestrial carbon

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      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac085
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Direct and green repairing of degraded LiCoO2 for reuse in lithium-ion
           batteries

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      Abstract: AbstractTraditional recycling processes of LiCoO2 rely on destructive decomposition, requiring high-temperature roasting or acid leaching to extract valuable Li and Co, which have significant environmental and economic concerns. Herein, a direct repairing method for degraded LiCoO2 using a LiCl–CH4N2O deep eutectic solvent (DES) was established. The DES is not used to dissolve LiCoO2 but directly serves as a carrier for the selective replenishment of lithium and cobalt. Replenishment of lithium restores LiCoO2 at different states of charge to a capacity of 130 mAh/g (at 0.1 C rate), while replenishing the cobalt increases the capacity retention rate of 90% after 100 cycles, which is comparable to pristine LiCoO2. The DES is collected and reused multiple times with a high repair efficiency. This process reduces energy consumption by 37.1% and greenhouse gas emissions by 34.8% compared with the current production process of LiCoO2, demonstrating excellent environmental and economic viability.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac097
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Commentary on ‘Physics-informed deep learning parameterization of ocean
           vertical mixing improves climate simulations’ by Zhu et al.

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      Abstract: Climate models constitute an essential tool to understand our planet, as they implement the laws of physics describing the ocean, land and atmosphere dynamics. However, resolving processes at fine resolutions constitute an important computational bottleneck. Parameterization (or closure) approximates such (e.g. turbulent) processes that cannot be resolved in climate models. Parameterizations rely on semi-empirical physical principles and typically improve modeling when included in coarse resolution climate models. However, they are not perfect and induce large biases in, e.g. ocean currents and heat. Machine learning algorithms could help alleviate the problem when massive amounts of observational data are available, but this is not typically the case.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac092
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • A photon-controlled diode with a new signal-processing behavior

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      Abstract: AbstractThe photodetector is a key component in optoelectronic integrated circuits. Although there are various device structures and mechanisms, the output current changes either from rectified to fully-on or from fully-off to fully-on after illumination. A device that changes the output current from fully-off to rectified should be possible. We report the first photon-controlled diode based on a n/n− molybdenum disulfide junction. Schottky junctions formed at the cathode and anode either prevent or allow the device to be rectifying, so that the output current of the device changes from fully-off to rectified. By increasing the thickness of the photogating layer, the behavior of the device changes from a photodetector to a multifunctional photomemory with the highest non-volatile responsivity of 4.8 × 107 A/W and the longest retention time of 6.5 × 106 s reported so far. Furthermore, a 3 × 3 photomemory array without selectors shows no crosstalk between adjacent devices and has optical signal-processing functions including wavelength and power-density selectivity.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac088
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sieving carbons promise practical anodes with extensible low-potential
           plateaus for sodium batteries

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      Abstract: AbstractNon-graphitic carbons are promising anode candidates for sodium-ion batteries, while their variable and complicated microstructure severely limits the rational design of high-energy carbon anodes that could accelerate the commercialization of sodium-ion batteries, as is the case for graphite in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we propose sieving carbons, featuring highly tunable nanopores with tightened pore entrances, as high-energy anodes with extensible and reversible low-potential plateaus (<0.1 V). It is shown that the tightened pore entrance blocks the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase inside the nanopores and enables sodium clustering to produce the plateau. Theoretical and spectroscopic studies also show that creating a larger area of sodiophilic pore surface leads to an almost linearly increased number of sodium clusters, and controlling the pore body diameter guarantees the reversibility of sodium cluster formation, producing a sieving carbon anode with a record-high plateau capacity of 400 mAh g–1. More excitingly, this approach to preparing sieving carbons has the potential to be scalable for modifying different commercial porous carbons.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac084
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Indian plate paleogeography, subduction and horizontal underthrusting
           below Tibet: paradoxes, controversies and opportunities

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      Abstract: AbstractThe India–Asia collision zone is the archetype to calibrate geological responses to continent–continent collision, but hosts a paradox: there is no orogen-wide geological record of oceanic subduction after initial collision around 60–55 Ma, yet thousands of kilometers of post-collisional subduction occurred before the arrival of unsubductable continental lithosphere that currently horizontally underlies Tibet. Kinematically restoring incipient horizontal underthrusting accurately predicts geologically estimated diachronous slab break-off, unlocking the Miocene of Himalaya–Tibet as a natural laboratory for unsubductable lithosphere convergence. Additionally, three endmember paleogeographic scenarios exist with different predictions for the nature of post-collisional subducted lithosphere but each is defended and challenged based on similar data types. This paper attempts at breaking through this impasse by identifying how the three paleogeographic scenarios each challenge paradigms in geodynamics, orogenesis, magmatism or paleogeographic reconstruction and identify opportunities for methodological advances in paleomagnetism, sediment provenance analysis, and seismology to conclusively constrain Greater Indian paleogeography.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac074
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • The RAG key to vertebrate adaptive immunity descended directly from a
           bacterial ancestor

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      Abstract: National Natural Science Foundation of China10.13039/50110000180932170888319708523217093431800740Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China10.13039/5011000028552018YFD09005022021YFA0909800Guangdong Science and Technology Department10.13039/5011000071622017B030314021
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac073
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • The allosteric gating mechanism of the MthK channel

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      Abstract: AbstractAllostery is a fundamental element during channel gating in response to an appropriate stimulus by which events occurring at one site are transmitted to distal sites to regulate activity. To address how binding of the first Ca2+ ion at one of the eight chemically identical subunits facilitates the other Ca2+-binding events in MthK, a Ca2+-gated K+ channel containing a conserved ligand-binding RCK domain, we analysed a large collection of MthK structures and performed the corresponding thermodynamic and electrophysiological measurements. These structural and functional studies led us to conclude that the conformations of the Ca2+-binding sites alternate between two quaternary states and exhibit significant differences in Ca2+ affinity. We further propose an allosteric model of the MthK-gating mechanism by which a cascade of structural events connect the initial Ca2+-binding to the final changes of the ring structure that open the ion-conduction pore. This mechanical model reveals the exquisite design that achieves the allosteric gating and could be of general relevance for the action of other ligand-gated ion channels containing the RCK domain.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • The role of China's terrestrial carbon sequestration 2010–2060 in
           offsetting energy-related CO2 emissions

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      Abstract: AbstractEnergy consumption dominates annual CO2 emissions in China. It is essential to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from energy consumption to reach national carbon neutrality by 2060, while the role of terrestrial carbon sequestration in offsetting energy-related CO2 emissions cannot be underestimated. Natural climate solutions (NCS), including improvements in terrestrial carbon sequestration, represent readily deployable options to offset anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, the extent to which China's terrestrial carbon sequestration in the future, especially when target-oriented managements (TOMs) are implemented, can help to mitigate energy-related CO2 emissions is far from certain. By synthesizing available findings and using several parameter-sparse empirical models that have been calibrated and/or fitted against contemporary measurements, we assessed China's terrestrial carbon sequestration over 2010–2060 and its contribution to offsetting national energy-related CO2 emissions. We show that terrestrial C sequestration in China will increase from 0.375 ± 0.056 (mean ± standard deviation) Pg C yr−1 in the 2010s to 0.458 ± 0.100 Pg C yr−1 under RCP2.6 and 0.493 ± 0.108 Pg C yr−1 under the RCP4.5 scenario in the 2050s, when TOMs are implemented. The majority of carbon sequestration comes from forest, accounting for 67.8–71.4% of the total amount. China's terrestrial ecosystems can offset 12.2–15.0% and 13.4–17.8% of energy-related peak CO2 emissions in 2030 and 2060, respectively. The implementation of TOMs contributes 11.9% of the overall terrestrial carbon sequestration in the 2020s and 23.7% in the 2050s. The most likely strategy to maximize future NCS effectiveness is a full implementation of all applicable cost-effective NCS pathways in China. Our findings highlight the role of terrestrial carbon sequestration in offsetting energy-related CO2 emissions and put forward future needs in the context of carbon neutrality.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Physics-informed deep-learning parameterization of ocean vertical mixing
           improves climate simulations

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      Abstract: AbstractUncertainties in ocean-mixing parameterizations are primary sources for ocean and climate modeling biases. Due to lack of process understanding, traditional physics-driven parameterizations perform unsatisfactorily in the tropics. Recent advances in the deep-learning method and the new availability of long-term turbulence measurements provide an opportunity to explore data-driven approaches to parameterizing oceanic vertical-mixing processes. Here, we describe a novel parameterization based on an artificial neural network trained using a decadal-long time record of hydrographic and turbulence observations in the tropical Pacific. This data-driven parameterization achieves higher accuracy than current parameterizations, demonstrating good generalization ability under physical constraints. When integrated into an ocean model, our parameterization facilitates improved simulations in both ocean-only and coupled modeling. As a novel application of machine learning to the geophysical fluid, these results show the feasibility of using limited observations and well-understood physical constraints to construct a physics-informed deep-learning parameterization for improved climate simulations.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • The pathway toward practical application of lithium-metal anodes for
           non-aqueous secondary batteries

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      Abstract: abstractThe revolution of automotive vehicles (from petrol vehicles to electric vehicles) has set high demands for the performance of batteries. Lithium-metal batteries (LMBs) show great potential owing to their high energy density but encounter poor cycle life and safety issues. It is of great significance to reveal LMB failure mechanisms and understand their relationship with battery performance. This review presents an overview of the state-of-the-art Li-metal anodes, with an emphasis on two typical failure modes: capacity degradation and dendritic growth of Li metal. The critical correlations between the composition, structure and failure are explained point by point. The chemical and electrochemical stabilities of the lithium anode are discussed. Particularly, for the first time, five types of lithium-metal anodes are classified to develop a comprehensive understanding of LMBs. Furthermore, strategies are suggested to improve the practical performance of LMBs, including material innovation, electrolyte modification and advanced characterization.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Water-assisted and protein-initiated fast and controlled ring-opening
           polymerization of proline N-carboxyanhydride

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      Abstract: AbstractThe production of polypeptides via the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) is usually conducted under stringent anhydrous conditions. The ROP of proline NCA (ProNCA) for the synthesis of poly-L-proline (PLP) is particularly challenging due to the premature product precipitation as polyproline type I helices, leading to slow reactions for up to one week, poor control of the molar mass and laborious workup. Here, we report the unexpected water-assisted controlled ROP of ProNCA, which affords well-defined PLP as polyproline II helices in 2–5 minutes and almost-quantitative yields. Experimental and theoretical studies together suggest the as-yet-unreported role of water in facilitating proton shift, which significantly lowers the energy barrier of the chain propagation. The scope of initiators can be expanded from hydrophobic amines to encompass hydrophilic amines and thiol-bearing nucleophiles, including complex biomacromolecules such as proteins. Protein-mediated ROP of ProNCA conveniently affords various protein-PLP conjugates via a grafting-from approach. PLP modification not only preserves the biological activities of the native proteins, but also enhances their resistance to extreme conditions. Moreover, PLP modification extends the elimination half-life of asparaginase (ASNase) 18-fold and mitigates the immunogenicity of wt ASNase >250-fold (ASNase is a first-line anticancer drug for lymphoma treatment). This work provides a simple solution to a long-standing problem in PLP synthesis, and offers valuable guidance for the development of water-resistant ROP of other proline-like NCAs. The facile access to PLP can greatly boost the application potential of PLP-based functional materials for engineering industry enzymes and therapeutic proteins.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
       
 
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