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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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National Science Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.056
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2095-5138 - ISSN (Online) 2053-714X
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [423 journals]
  • Preface to special topic on brain–machine interface

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      PubDate: Wed, 02 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac211
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Deep brain–machine interfaces: sensing and modulating the human deep
           brain

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      Abstract: AbstractDifferent from conventional brain–machine interfaces that focus more on decoding the cerebral cortex, deep brain–machine interfaces enable interactions between external machines and deep brain structures. They sense and modulate deep brain neural activities, aiming at function restoration, device control and therapeutic improvements. In this article, we provide an overview of multiple deep brain recording and stimulation techniques that can serve as deep brain–machine interfaces. We highlight two widely used interface technologies, namely deep brain stimulation and stereotactic electroencephalography, for technical trends, clinical applications and brain connectivity research. We discuss the potential to develop closed-loop deep brain–machine interfaces and achieve more effective and applicable systems for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac212
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Graphene for gold extraction

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      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac160
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Beginning: China's national park system

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      Abstract: AbstractAt the leaders’ summit of the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) on 12 October 2021, China's President Xi Jinping declared that China has officially designated its first group of national parks—the Three-River-Source National Park, the Giant Panda National Park, the Northeast China Tiger and Leopard National Park, the Hainan Tropical Forests National Park, and the Wuyishan National Park. The five national parks cover a total area of ∼230 000 square kilometers and protect nearly 30% of the key terrestrial wildlife species found in China.Since the establishment of the United States’ Yellowstone National Park in 1872, national parks have been founded in many countries, and some of them have become distinctive ‘national signatures’ and important ecological security shelters. As a large country with rich biodiversity, China now begins to establish its first five national parks, with a total of about 50 planned for the future, and to form a national-park-centric protected-area system. How will national parks change the landscape of China's ecological conservation' Is China well prepared to scientifically establish and administrate national parks' In this panel discussion, six Chinese ecological conservationists introduce the background, plans and challenges of China's national park system, and provide their scientific perspectives.Guangchun LeiProfessor, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry UniversityZhiyun OuyangProfessor, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of SciencesYang SuResearch Fellow, Development Research Center of the State Council of ChinaRui YangProfessor, Institute for National Parks, Tsinghua UniversityYujun ZhangProfessor, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry UniversityKeping Ma (Chair)Professor, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac150
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant-infected individuals with
           intermittently positive retest viral RNA after discharge

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      Abstract: Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou LaboratoryEKPG21-29EKPG21-31Emergency Grants for SARS-CoV-2 Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province2022A11110900022021A1111110001
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac141
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • The missing base molecules in atmospheric acid–base nucleation

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      Abstract: AbstractTransformation of low-volatility gaseous precursors to new particles affects aerosol number concentration, cloud formation and hence the climate. The clustering of acid and base molecules is a major mechanism driving fast nucleation and initial growth of new particles in the atmosphere. However, the acid–base cluster composition, measured using state-of-the-art mass spectrometers, cannot explain the measured high formation rate of new particles. Here we present strong evidence for the existence of base molecules such as amines in the smallest atmospheric sulfuric acid clusters prior to their detection by mass spectrometers. We demonstrate that forming (H2SO4)1(amine)1 is the rate-limiting step in atmospheric H2SO4-amine nucleation and the uptake of (H2SO4)1(amine)1 is a major pathway for the initial growth of H2SO4 clusters. The proposed mechanism is very consistent with measured new particle formation in urban Beijing, in which dimethylamine is the key base for H2SO4 nucleation while other bases such as ammonia may contribute to the growth of larger clusters. Our findings further underline the fact that strong amines, even at low concentrations and when undetected in the smallest clusters, can be crucial to particle formation in the planetary boundary layer.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac137
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Non-contact real-time detection of trace nitro-explosives by MOF
           composites visible-light chemiresistor

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      Abstract: AbstractTo create an artificial structure to remarkably surpass the sensitivity, selectivity and speed of the olfaction system of animals is still a daunting challenge. Herein, we propose a core-sheath pillar (CSP) architecture with a perfect synergistic interface that effectively integrates the advantages of metal–organic frameworks and metal oxides to tackle the above-mentioned challenge. The sheath material, NH2-MIL-125, can concentrate target analyte, nitro-explosives, by 1012 times from its vapour. The perfect band-matched synergistic interface enables the TiO2 core to effectively harvest and utilize visible light. At room temperature and under visible light, CSP (TiO2, NH2-MIL-125) shows an unexpected self-promoting analyte-sensing behaviour. Its experimentally reached limit of detection (∼0.8 ppq, hexogeon) is 103 times lower than the lowest one achieved by a sniffer dog or all sensing techniques without analyte pre-concentration. Moreover, the sensor exhibits excellent selectivity against commonly existing interferences, with a short response time of 0.14 min.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac143
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Increased mtDNA mutation frequency in oocytes causes epigenetic
           alterations and embryonic defects

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      Abstract: AbstractMitochondria are essential for female reproductive processes, yet the function of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in oocytes remains elusive. By employing an mtDNA mutator (Polgm) mouse model, we found the fetal growth retardation and placental dysfunction in post-implantation embryos derived from Polgm oocytes. Remarkably, Polgm oocytes displayed the global loss of DNA methylation; following fertilization, zygotic genome experienced insufficient demethylation, along with dysregulation of gene expression. Spindle–chromosome exchange experiment revealed that cytoplasmic factors in Polgm oocytes are responsible for such a deficient epigenetic remodeling. Moreover, metabolomic profiling identified a significant reduction in the α-ketoglutarate (αKG) level in oocytes from Polgm mice. Importantly, αKG supplement restored both DNA methylation state and transcriptional activity in Polgm embryos, consequently preventing the developmental defects. Our findings uncover the important role of oocyte mtDNA mutation in controlling epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression during embryogenesis. αKG deserves further evaluation as a potential drug for treating mitochondrial dysfunction-related fertility decline.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac136
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Cyclic-anion salt for high-voltage stable potassium-metal batteries

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      Abstract: AbstractElectrolyte anions are critical for achieving high-voltage stable potassium-metal batteries (PMBs). However, the common anions cannot simultaneously prevent the formation of ‘dead K’ and the corrosion of Al current collector, resulting in poor cycling stability. Here, we demonstrate cyclic anion of hexafluoropropane-1,3-disulfonimide-based electrolytes that can mitigate the ‘dead K’ and remarkably enhance the high-voltage stability of PMBs. Particularly, even using low salt concentration (0.8 M) and additive-free carbonate-based electrolytes, the PMBs with a high-voltage polyanion cathode (4.4 V) also exhibit excellent cycling stability of 200 cycles with a good capacity retention of 83%. This noticeable electrochemical performance is due to the highly efficient passivation ability of the cyclic anions on both anode and cathode surfaces. This cyclic-anion-based electrolyte design strategy is also suitable for lithium and sodium-metal battery technologies.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac134
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Recent progress on BFT in the era of blockchains

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      Abstract: This perspective highlights some recent progress on the research of Byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) consensus protocol in the era of blockchains, including both partially synchronous BFT and asynchronous BFT protocols, their fundamental building blocks, and their variants.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac132
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Decoupling engineering of formamidinium–cesium perovskites for
           efficient photovoltaics

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      Abstract: AbstractAlthough pure formamidinium iodide perovskite (FAPbI3) possesses an optimal gap for photovoltaics, their poor phase stability limits the long-term operational stability of the devices. A promising approach to enhance their phase stability is to incorporate cesium into FAPbI3. However, state-of-the-art formamidinium–cesium (FA–Cs) iodide perovskites demonstrate much worse efficiency compared with FAPbI3, limited by the different crystallization dynamics of formamidinium and cesium, which result in poor composition homogeneity and high trap densities. We develop a novel strategy of crystallization decoupling processes of formamidinium and cesium via a sequential cesium incorporation approach. As such, we obtain highly reproducible, highly efficient and stable solar cells based on FA1–xCsxPbI3 (x = 0.05–0.16) films with uniform composition distribution in the nanoscale and low defect densities. We also revealed a new stabilization mechanism for Cs doping to stabilize FAPbI3, i.e. the incorporation of Cs into FAPbI3 significantly reduces the electron–phonon coupling strength to suppress ionic migration, thereby improving the stability of FA–Cs-based devices.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac127
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • A critical review of mineral–microbe interaction and co-evolution:
           mechanisms and applications

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      Abstract: AbstractMineral–microbe interactions play important roles in environmental change, biogeochemical cycling of elements and formation of ore deposits. Minerals provide both beneficial (physical and chemical protection, nutrients, and energy) and detrimental (toxic substances and oxidative pressure) effects to microbes, resulting in mineral-specific microbial colonization. Microbes impact dissolution, transformation and precipitation of minerals through their activity, resulting in either genetically controlled or metabolism-induced biomineralization. Through these interactions, minerals and microbes co-evolve through Earth history. Mineral–microbe interactions typically occur at microscopic scale but the effect is often manifested at global scale. Despite advances achieved through decades of research, major questions remain. Four areas are identified for future research: integrating mineral and microbial ecology, establishing mineral biosignatures, linking laboratory mechanistic investigation to field observation, and manipulating mineral–microbe interactions for the benefit of humankind.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac128
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Nanotechnology for the management of COVID-19 during the pandemic and in
           the post-pandemic era

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      Abstract: AbstractFollowing the global COVID-19 pandemic, nanotechnology has been at the forefront of research efforts and enables the fast development of diagnostic tools, vaccines and antiviral treatment for this novel virus (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we first summarize nanotechnology with regard to the detection of SARS-CoV-2, including nanoparticle-based techniques such as rapid antigen testing, and nanopore-based sequencing and sensing techniques. Then we investigate nanotechnology as it applies to the development of COVID-19 vaccines and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nanomaterials. We also highlight nanotechnology for the post-pandemic era, by providing tools for the battle with SARS-CoV-2 variants and for enhancing the global distribution of vaccines. Nanotechnology not only contributes to the management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic but also provides platforms for the prevention, rapid diagnosis, vaccines and antiviral drugs of possible future virus outbreaks.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac124
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Bioavailability of nanomaterials: bridging the gap between nanostructures
           and their bioactivity

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      Abstract: Instead of the nanostructure and biological activity, this perspective highlights the metabolic processes from biotransformation to bioavailability, to bridge the gap between the cradle (structure design) and endpoint (efficacy and/or safety) of nanomedicines.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac119
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Progress in the development of a fully implantable brain–computer
           interface: the potential of sensing-enabled neurostimulators

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      Abstract: This perspective article investigates the performance of using a sensing-enabled neurostimulator as a motor brain-computer interface.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac099
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Challenges and opportunities in flexible, stretchable and morphable
           bio-interfaced technologies

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      Abstract: Living organisms operate on the basis of dynamic biochemical processes elicited by a rich diversity of endogenous and exogenous stimuli. For higher-level forms of life, the result manifests as complex patterns of behavior and ultimately in the form of intelligence and consciousness. Emerging classes of biocompatible electronic interfaces support expanding possibilities in bidirectional communication. Examples include innovative interfaces that provide functional access to the central and peripheral nervous systems, vital organs and muscle tissues, as the basis of control (excitatory or inhibitory electrical stimuli (Fig. 1A-i)) and feedback (electrophysiology recordings (Fig. 1Ai–iii)) mechanisms, linked to implanted or externalized hardware and/or software systems for data collection and analytics. Potential applications in humans span stimulators for treating neurological disorders or chronic pain, to intraoperative devices for surgical uses or diagnostics. Furthermore, bidirectional interfacing provides opportunities in closed-loop operation for autonomous real-time control of biochemical processes (Fig. 1A-ii) relevant for the treatment and diagnosis of diseases or for brain–machine interfaces.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Shedding light on neurons: optical approaches for neuromodulation

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      Abstract: AbstractToday's optical neuromodulation techniques are rapidly evolving, benefiting from advances in photonics, genetics and materials science. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the latest optical approaches for neuromodulation. We begin with the physical principles and constraints underlying the interaction between light and neural tissue. We then present advances in optical neurotechnologies in seven modules: conventional optical fibers, multifunctional fibers, optical waveguides, light-emitting diodes, upconversion nanoparticles, optical neuromodulation based on the secondary effects of light, and unconventional light sources facilitated by ultrasound and magnetic fields. We conclude our review with an outlook on new methods and mechanisms that afford optical neuromodulation with minimal invasiveness and footprint.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Brain–spine interfaces to reverse paralysis

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      Abstract: Swiss National Science Foundation10.13039/50110000171132003BE_205563European Research Council10.13039/100010663ERC-2019-PoC875660New York State Foundation for Science, Technology and Innovation10.13039/10000486341871.1
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Brain–machine–brain interfaces as the foundation for the next
           generation of neuroprostheses

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      PubDate: Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwab206
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
       
 
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