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Cuadernos de Investigación UNED
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1659-4266 - ISSN (Online) 1659-4266
Published by Universidad Estatal a Distancia Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Compared feeding behavior of the bird Numenius phaeopus (Charadriiformes:
           Scolopacidae) in its northbound and southbound migrations through Panama

    • Authors: Maribel Barria, Heileen Aguilar, Ricardo Pérez, Ana María Jiménez, Yostin Añino
      Abstract: Introduction: Mangroves and coastal areas are of vital importance for the conservation of many migratory birds for which they provide food and refuge, including the Eurasian whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus, which stops in Panama in a southbound, and, a few months later, in a northbound migration. Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis that the bird uses different feeding behaviors in the southbound and the northbound migration. Methods: In 2018 we measured the time that the birds spent in exploratory pecking, standing, walking, running, and eating, in April-June, and October-November (3-5 days each month, N=56 birds). Results: In both stops, the birds spend the same mean time in all activities, which are dominated by walking (50% of food-related time). Conclusion: This species allocates its feeding time similarly in both stops at Panama.    
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.4026
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • First pages 14(1)

    • Authors: UNED Research Journal
      Abstract: First pages 14(1) June 2022
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.4272
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reviewers list 2021

    • Authors: UNED Research Journal
      Abstract: Reviewers list 2021    
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.4273
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Economic impact of wildlife predation on domestic animals in the Alberto
           Brenes Biological Reserve buffer zone, Costa Rica

    • Authors: José Manuel Mora, Rebeca Solano-Goméz
      Abstract:  Introduction: The size of protected areas is often insufficient for viable predator populations, which causes habitats overlap with humans. The resulting conflicts, for example, predation on domestic animals, negatively affect both wildlife and human well-being. Objective: To estimate the economic impact of human-wildlife conflicts in the Alberto Brenes Biological Reserve, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Methods: Between October 2017 and April 2018, we interviewed 59 property managers in and near the reserve’s buffer zone. They were chosen from conflict reports and “snowball” references. Results: Wild animals killed 1 846 domestic animals from 2000 to 2018, with an economic loss of $48 000. The Coyote, Canis latrans, killed 1 074 animals, worth $4 000; equivalent data: felines 261 animals, $21 000; snakes 33 animals (Fer-the-lance, Bothrops asper: $18 000). Veterinary treatment for 28 surviving animals cost $3 000. Conclusion: While the Coyote killed more animals, felines and snakes produced the highest economic cost. Appropriate institutional intervention would reduce the problem.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.4007
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The snowflake soft coral Carijoa riisei (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in Costa
           Rica

    • Authors: José A. Vargas, Odalisca Breedy
      Abstract: Introducción: Carijoa riisei (Clavulariidae) se encuentra alrededor del mundo en aguas tropicales. Es considerado como una especie invasora en algunas localidades. Un ejemplar fue colectado entre mareas en la región superior del estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. La colección del Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MZUCR) incluye otros especímenes identificados como C. riisei. Objetivo: Identificar el ejemplar y elaborar una lista de registros del MZUCR. Métodos: El coral fue mantenido en agua de mar para permitir la observación de los pólipos abiertos. Las escleritas fueron estudiadas bajo el microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se preparó una lista de los registros del MZUCR. Resultados: Las morfologías de la colonia y de las escleritas son similares a las descritas para C. riisei. El MZUCR incluye 50 registros de C. riisei a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico y en la Isla del Coco. Conclusiones: Pendiente de corroboración genética, identificamos el espécimen como Carijoa riisei con base en su morfología. La mayoría de los registros del MZUCR son de hace una década o más. Una evaluación de la presencia de este coral en las costas del Pacifico y Caribe es necesario para establecer mejor su papel ecológico actual en Costa Rica.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.4213
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • APIR: methodology for risk assessment and prioritization in HACCP plans

    • Authors: Andrés Cartín-Rojas , Natalia Cediel Becerra, Francisco Monroy López
      Abstract: Introduction: A prioritization methodology based on bottom-up risks is proposed for different hazards and food matrices. The variables of the model are subdivided into two categories: a) the characteristics of the hazard, where the probability of occurrence and severity are quantified. (b) the properties of the food matrix which estimate its epidemiological risk, presence in the food and vulnerability of its manufacture. A Risk Index (IR) is established as a parameter to facilitate food safety managers to discriminate and prioritize Significant Hazards during the hazard identification of HACCP plans. Objective: The aim of this work was to establish a flexible and dynamic methodology of prioritization based on risk for processing and processing companies of animal products intended for human consumption and integrate it with HACCP plans, allowing specific controls to be established in the production process. Results: The significance values between the clusters Nrp and Nrm were p<0,05. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient (rho) was estimated to determine the proportion of variation between the same predictors. The results obtained were Or-Nrp (rho= 0,719, p= <0,001), Se-Nrp (rho= 0,888, p-valor= <0,001), Re-Nrm (rho= 0,560, p-valor= <0,001), Pm-Nrm (rho= 0,696, p-valor= <0,001) y Vd (rho= 0,687, p-valor= <0,001), respectively. A case study is included to simulate the model and demonstrate its operability. Discussion: The results obtained demonstrate the replicability and validity of this model. The name APIR (Prioritization analysis based on Risk Index) is proposed for this methodology.
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3882
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of a biol on soil characteristics and sprout production in pitahaya
           (Hylocereus sp.)

    • Authors: José Eladio Monge Pérez, Michelle Loría-Coto, Patricia Oreamuno-Fonseca
      Abstract: Introduction: Bioles are fermented liquid fertilizers.  Objective: to evaluate the effect of a biol on soil characteristics and sprout production in pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.) cultivation. Methods: The evaluated treatments were Fertibiol 45L® and Control (distilled water), both applied to the soil. A physical, chemical and microbiological analysis of the soil was carried out before and towards the end of the trial. The production of new sprouts (vegetative and reproductive) was biweekly evaluated. Results: Compared to the Control, Fertibiol caused an increase in the content of P (+112%), S (+1200%) and Zn (+18%) in the soil, and a suppression of the fungi Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. Furthermore, it did not cause changes in the production of vegetative sprouts, but it did cause a decrease (-56%) in the production of reproductive sprouts of pitahaya. Conclusion: Fertibiol caused an improvement in the availability of P, S and Zn in the soil, and suppressed the fungi Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp.; however, the production of reproductive sprouts was negatively affected in pitahaya cultivation, while the production of vegetative sprouts was not affected.
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3836
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Endpoint and real-time PCR optimization for detection of Salmonella
           enterica serovar Gallinarum in poultry from Costa Rica

    • Authors: Makayla Tatiana Leza-Leza, Eunice Víquez-Ruiz, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Carolina Sancho-Blanco, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro
      Abstract: Introduction: Avian typhoid and pulorosis, diseases caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Gallinarum biotype Gallinarum and biotype Pullorum, respectively, are responsible for high mortality in poultry, generating significant economic losses for poultry farmers. Objective: To strengthen the detection of the causative agents of Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease by optimizing molecular techniques, such as endpoint PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Methods: Bacterial strains control groups, isolates, and tissue from poultry infected with Salmonella Gallinarum were used to standardize the detection by endpoint PCR and qPCR. Results: For the endpoint PCR, a repeatability, specificity, and sensitivity of 100% was obtained, and a Kappa value of 0.98 for reproducibility. With the qPCR, an efficiency of 103% was obtained, while the coefficients of variation for repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 6%. The detection limit of genomic DNA was 6.4 pg/μL, and the number of viable cells was 3x102 CFU/mL for endpoint PCR and 10 copies of DNA per reaction for qPCR. Through sequencing and analysis of the molecular taxonomy of the PCR products, the strains in this study were positioned together with those of serotype S. Gallinarum, corroborating their identity. Conclusion: It was possible to optimize a molecular technique that allows a rapid, reliable, and sensitive detection of Salmonella Gallinarum /Pullorum, which can reduce the waiting time to take action in cases of clinical suspicion and possible outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3831
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The grison, Galictis vitatta (Carnivora: Mustelidae) in coffee
           agroecosystems, Costa Rica

    • Authors: Ronald Sánchez Brenes, Javier Monge
      Abstract: Introduction: The grison, Gallictis vittata, is a IUCN species of least concern. However, in Mesoamerican countries it is rare and probably endangered, and studies are scarce. Objective: To report G. vitatta in a new habitat. Methods: We placed four camera traps in strategic places such as food sources, burrows, water bodies forest ecotone in Alajuela, Costa Rica. Results: We obtained two records of G. vittata in the transition between coffee plantation and secondary forest. Conclusion: These records expand the known range of G. vittata and provide information for its conservation.  
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3796
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Distribution and conservation status of the American Crocodile
           (Crocodylidae: Crocodylus acutus) in El Salvador

    • Authors: Vladlen Henríquez, Manuel Aranda Coello, Néstor Herrera
      Abstract: Introduction: The American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a top predator and can be considered a keystone species is its ecosystems. Even though the species has often been studied elsewhere, there is little information about its current distribution and status in El Salvador. Objective: To update the geographic distribution, and to assess its conservation status, in El Salvador. Methods: We defined a potential distribution model for nine climatic factors with DOMAIN, a bioclimatic modeling program. Location was compiled from the literature; observations and photographs by biologists and rangers; and state records. We defined status with International Union for Conservation of Nature guidelines. Results: The crocodile was reported from 40 localities, including all departments of the coastal zone and in artificial reservoirs in the center of the country. There is a close relationship between the records and the hydrological systems of the Lempa, Grande San Miguel and Goascorán rivers. The sites with the highest numbers of records are Bahía de La Unión, the mouth of the Lempa River and Barra de Santiago. The potential distribution covers 29% of the country, with only 8 % in protected areas. The species is considered extirpated from Lake Güija. Many specimens are translocated to avoid accidents with humans. Conclusion: The crocodile is widely distributed in El Salvador river systems, but management is still needed and should be improved, covering research, education, and protection.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3950
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Factors associated with disability in basic and instrumental activities of
           daily living in Costa Rican residents aged 60 and over

    • Authors: Eduardo Aguilar Fernández, Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro
      Abstract: Introduction: Disability has been considered as a difficulty in carrying out activities necessary for life. Objective: To identify factors associated with disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living in people aged 60 and over residing in Costa Rica. Methods: The study included 2238 people participating in the Costa Rica project: Longevity and Healthy Aging Study. Logistic regression models were estimated and odds ratios were calculated in order to identify factors associated with disability. Results: Factors that influence disability in combined activities are the presence of pain, the lack of physical activity and C-reactive protein. The factors with the greatest impact on basic activities were the presence of pain, the lack of physical activity and the presence of chronic disease. For instrumental activities, negative self-rated health and pain had the greatest impact, after physical activity. In addition, conditions such as diabetes affect activities of daily living. Conclusion: Pain, not performing physical activity, self-rated health and other sociodemographic factors cause functional difficulties that affect the quality of life of people aged 60 and over.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3838
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Validation of an analytical method with modified acid purity and iron
           matrices to measure heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr and As) in fertilizers

    • Authors: Fabricio Elizondo Hidalgo, Esteban Pérez López
      Abstract: Introduction: The frequent use of fertilizers in the Costa Rican agricultural sector causes environmental pollution; and heavy metals are among the main pollutants because of their high toxicity, strengthening the need for affordable and reliable local methods to assess pollution levels. Objective: To validate an adaptation of a method that uses modified acid purity and iron matrices to measure heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr and As) in fertilizers. Method: We tested four duplicate analyzes of a sample of known concentration with reactive grade acids and ultra-pure acids. For the iron interference test, we used eight replicates. We also did tests for bias, precision, detection limits, quantification limit, specificity, recovery, false positives and false negatives. Results: The new method proved satisfactory and its efficiency held by analytical performance parameters. Conclusions: The method is resistant to changes in acid purity, and tolerates matrices with iron concentrations under 5% m/m.  
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3485
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Relative abundance of wild mammals in Cinchona, Costa Rica, before the
           2009 earthquake: estimation with camera traps

    • Authors: Juan Carlos Villegas Arguedas
      Abstract: Introduction: On January 8, 2009, Costa Rica was hit by the Cinchona earthquake in Alajuela Province. When the earthquake hit, a network of automatic cameras had been operating in the premontane rain forest for two years, recording the relative abundance of mammals. Objective: To quantify the relative abundance of wild mammals in the Cinchona area, before the earthquake, and to serve as a point of comparison for future studies. Methods: With automatic cameras running a total of 1555 "camera-nights". Results: I obtained 150 photographs corresponding to 10 species. The most abundant were the peccary, Pecari tajacu, with 150 records; the guatuza, Dasyprocta punctata, with 31; and the tepezcuintle, Cuniculus paca, with 29 records. I also recorded the puma, Puma concolor (one male and one female, 0,02 pumas/km2); and the ocelot, Leopardus pardalis (one male, two females and one calf, 0,43ind/km2). Conclusion: The abundance of wild mammals in Cinchona was relatively low before the earthquake, but it included large cats declared endangered in Costa Rica.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3794
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Biochemical and physiological responses of the tree Pterogine nitens
           (Fabaceae) to simulated glyphosate drift

    • Authors: Diego Ariel Meloni, María José Nieva, Ignacio Aspiazú
      Abstract: Introduction: In the last decades, the natural dispersal area of P. nitens has been subjected to a change in land use. The agricultural frontier has expanded, at the expense of native forest, with the incorporation of productive systems that use high doses of the herbicide glyphosate. The degree of tolerance of the species to the herbicide and its physiological responses are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the biochemical and physiological responses of Pterogine nitens to simulated glyphosate drift. Methods: Greenhouse trials were conducted with one-year-old plants grown in pots. Glyphosate drift was simulated at doses of 0,65 and 130g a.e. ha-1. We measured concentrations of shikimate, photosynthetic pigments, and mineral composition, 20 days after application. Results: Glyphosate increased concentrations of shikimate and decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments. It also reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, manganese, and iron. Conclusions: Glyphosate alters the photochemical stage of photosynthesis by decreasing the concentration of photosynthetic pigments. It also interferes with macro- and micronutrient homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3825
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of birds and temperature on the germination and viability of Rubus
           ulmifolius (Rosaceae) seeds

    • Authors: Claudia Dellafiore, Maximiliano Sainz
      Abstract: Introduction: Invasive species is causing great modifications worldwide, affecting both deserts and tropical forests. In the province of Córdoba, Argentina, the distribution and abundance of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) has been seriously increased in recent times both in natural and rural environments. The appearance of these plants in isolated areas has been attributed to birds, which have been mentioned as one of the main responsible for their dispersal; however, there are no studies referring to the consumption of blackberry by them. On the other hand, forest fires and the proliferation of invasive alien species can positively interact with each other, increasing the impact of these species on invaded ecosystems. Objectives: a) to know if the birds disperse the blackberry seeds, b) to know if the birds affect the germination of said seeds and c) to know the effect of high and low temperatures on their germination and viability. Results: 80 blackberry seeds were extracted from the feces of the birds, which did not present any type of physical damage. These seeds did not germinate after 20 months, but they remained viable. Significant differences were observed in the viability of the fruit seeds and those subjected to high and low temperature treatments (H: 21.50, p = 0.0054). The greatest effects were observed for extreme temperatures, both hot and cold. Conclusion: blackberry seeds have low germination power since they did not germinate under any treatment after 20 months in favorable conditions of light, temperature and humidity. Birds make a “legitimate” dispersal of blackberry seeds, which are also highly resistant to high and low temperatures, although surface fires could destroy these seeds
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3786
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Acaricide residues in whole bovine milk from Costa Rica

    • Authors: Cecilia Alvarado Vega, Susana Briceño Guevara, Jessie Matarrita Rodríguez, Mario Masís Mora, Greivin Pérez Rojas, Rodolfo WingChing Jones
      Abstract: Introduction: Because of the high per capita consumption of 216 kilograms, in Costa Rica, 681 million liters of milk are processed annually, and it is particularly important to avoid the toxic effects of contaminated milk, associated with vomiting, paralysis and cramps, and, in the long term, cancer, endocrine disorders, diabetes and chromosomal alterations, among others. Objective: To determine the residue levels of five acaricides used in Costa Rica: Amitraz, Coumafos, Chlorpyrifos, Cyfluthrin and Cypermethrin, in samples of whole bovine milk. Methods: From January to September 2018, we collected samples from 200 production systems in six provinces and applied gas and liquid chromatography techniques coupled with mass spectrometry. Results: We did not find residues of Coumafos and Cyfluthrin, but in 19 farms we detected Amitraz, Cypermethrin and Chlorpyrifos (the latter, 0.01mg/kg). Few managers know alternatives to chemical control, and most do not respect the withdrawal period of the tick, and do not rotate the active ingredient. Conclusion: Education and monitoring on tick control should be improved in dairy farms.  
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3787
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of altitude on the structure, floristic composition and carbon
           of Choco forests

    • Authors: Jhon Jerley Torres Torres, Víctor Eleazar Mena Mosquera, Melissa Niyet Rueda Sánchez
      Abstract: Introduction: Despite the wide biodiversity found in the Chocó, little has been documented on the influence of altitude on floristic composition, structure, diversity, biomass and tree carbon. Objective: To evaluate the influence of altitude on the floristic composition, structure and carbon stored in forests of the Quibdó (QDO)-Carmen de Atrato (CA) altitudinal gradient in the biogeographic Choco.  Methods: Eighteen plots (20×20m) were established in a gradient of 100-1700m altitude between QDO and CA, Choco. The floristic composition was analyzed using Ward's method and a simple linear regression was performed to observe the relationship between altitude and structural and biomass variables. Diversity was estimated using Shannon's and Simpson's indices. Biomass was calculated using an allometric equation developed for this forest type. Carbon was estimated with a carbon fraction of 0,5. Results: A total of 773 individuals were found, comprising 90 species and 33 botanical families. The sites at lower altitudes presented greater richness. The families with the highest number of tree species were: Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Lauraceae and Clusiaceae. Ward's analysis allowed separating the sites into two statistically different groups (p ˂ 0,05), the first of lower altitude dominated by the species Iryanthera tricornis Ducke, Brosimum utile (Kunth) Pittier. and Pithecellobium sp. and the second of higher altitude dominated by Aniba puchury-minor (Mart.) Mez. At the density level, few differences were observed between sites, while the basal area decreased with increasing altitude. For the variables species richness, basal area, diversity and biomass, negative relationships and correlations were obtained with altitude, while for density this was positive. On average, carbon stored in aboveground biomass was 68.28Mg h-1 for the QDO- CA altitudinal gradient (100-1700masl), which decreases as altitude increases and differs statistically among the sites sampled (p ˂ 0,05). Conclusion: Altitude exerts a strong negative influence on the floristic composition (species richness and floristic turnover), structure (basal area and Importance Value Index), biomass and carbon of the ecosystems studied.
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3746
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Phylogenetic relationships of a rabies virus isolate in Costa Rica

    • Authors: Luis Castro Rodríguez, Bernal León, Lisbeth Ramírez Carvajal
      Abstract: Introduction: The sylvatic cycle of rabies is a significant sanitary burden in Central America. The Costa Rican government monitors cases since 1985 and infections from bats are still reported for wild animals, livestock, and humans, generating a need of further pathogen characterization in the region. Objective: To compare rabies phylogenetic analyses from complete genomes with nucleoprotein gene studies. Methods: For the phylogenetic analyses we used four rabies tissue samples collected in 2018, and generated complete genomes by Next-Generation sequencing (NGS). We also extracted RNA from tissues of confirmed cases and generated ssDNA using several primers. Double-stranded DNA was generated and used to generate genomic libraries. Results: We describe, for the first-time, the complete genome of four sequences of the rabies virus isolated in Costa Rica in 2018. Complete genome trees resembled the topology of nucleoprotein gene trees. All isolates were related to Desmodus rotundus. One sample group into Lineage (L)2, and the remaining samples group in L1, matched previous reports from regional rabies viruses. Conclusion: Our method produces valid viral assemblies from clinical specimens without target enrichment or viral isolation.
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3713
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Macrocytic-normochromic anaemia in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus
           (Siluriform: Clariidae) exposed to Paraquat under laboratory conditions

    • Authors: Musa Idi-Ogede Abubakar, Adeshina Ibrahim
      Abstract: Introduction: Agricultural pesticides are among the main causes of pollution in aquatic ecosystems, and they can lead to physiological changes in fish. For example, blood alteration and damage to haemopoietic tissue can be associated with pathological conditions related to water. Objective: To describe the effects of certain levels of pesticide on a Nigerian fish species. Methods: Macrocytic-normochromic anaemia was induced in C. gariepinus at intervals of 1,7 and 14 days (sub-lethal concentrations of Paraquat: 0; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 and 0,09mg/l). Results: Blood dyscrasias was observed with a significant (p<0,05) decrease in haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocytes and monocytes. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), Neutrophils, Eosinophil and Basophil increased significantly (p<0,05) with increasing concentrations of the toxicant while Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) remained normal. Conclusion: Sublethal concentrations of paraquat induced macrocytic-normochromic anaemia in the catfish C. gariepinus.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v14i1.3789
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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