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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2223-506X
Published by QScience Homepage  [13 journals]
  • How to sustain motivation among the youth in Qatar beyond hosting the FIFA
           World Cup 2022'

    • Authors: Shayma H. Al-Marri
      Abstract: This research aimed to explore and identify ways in which motivation amongst the youth can be sustained beyond the FIFA World Cup 2022 mega sports event. Findings collated via semi-structured interviews which were further validated by a larger sample through a questionnaire. Its main objectives were accomplished and the vast evidence suggested that motivation among the youth relates to key concepts of resilience, leadership styles and sustainability. This research affirms that resilience contributes to the development of youth and acts as a personal strength factor along with several other contributors, which collectively determine positive youth development. This paper also suggests that resilient and dynamic leadership styles are crucial for sustained motivation and that young people can be motivated by resilient leaders. Several recommendations have been suggested which are relevant to Qatar, youth and sustained motivation after the upcoming mega-event. One of which includes conducting and hosting similar mega events to create wider awareness related to sustainability and Qatar National Vision 2030 to contribute to its achievement positively.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Doping in sports and current regulations

    • Authors: Muneera Ahmed Alkhelaifi; Maria Alejandra Martinez
      Abstract: Over the years, numerous agencies were created to build and protect integrity in sports by reviewing the suitability of the existing laws in promoting community confidence in athletics. Doping is defined as the illegal consumption of certain substances in order to enhance athlete's performance and it has recently become a matter of concern. Anti-doping agencies were established to create regulations so players can participate in a doping-free sporting environment. Anti-Doping rules emphasize on the rationale to preserve what is intrinsically valuable about sport. This intrinsic value is often referred to as “the spirit of sport” and is concerned with ethics, fair play and honesty, health, excellence in performance, character and education, respect of rules and laws among other aspects. Hence, the key objective of this critical review is to reiterate on the importance of the criminalization of doping. It highlights the important gaps where immediate interference should take place with focus on the role of medical practitioners, pharmacies and sport science. Such a move is essential, as it will increase the avenue for handling doping cases using additional resources such as the legal framework of a country. Previously published articles were reviewed and the main findings indicate that several factors contribute to the increase in number of doping incidents such as the availability of steroids, facilitated drug trafficking, the involvement of multinational pharmaceutical organizations and other political interests. Moreover, in order to fight this phenomenon, local and international laws should penalize athletes who are engaged in doping at various levels. This criminal offense charges should implement prison sentence as well as imposing significant fine amounts to be paid. The ultimate legal action for offenders should be long-term suspension from participating in sporting events.
      PubDate: 2022-10-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Seasonal influenza disease and annual influenza vaccine coverage at
           Primary Health Care Corporation, Qatar, 2018–2019: a descriptive study

    • Authors: Seema Sylvia Dsouza
      Abstract: Background: Influenza is the most common communicable disease in the State of Qatar. The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of seasonal influenza and influenza vaccine uptake, as well as to analyze whether influenza vaccine efficacy during the 2018/2019 season was met. Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC) plays an important role in influenza disease surveillance and annual influenza vaccine administration in the country. Therefore, specific data available from this organization would reflect on the surveillance standards in place. However, data on influenza disease burden and vaccination coverage for the season was limited.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on the retrospective data of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases confirmed during the 2018/2019 influenza season by PHCC and the number of people who received the annual influenza vaccine in PHCC during the same season.Results: ILI and influenza data: A total of 998 ILI cases were considered for this study. Laboratory testing was carried out among 88.5% of the cases. Type A and B infection contributed to 63.4% and 36.4% of the influenza cases, respectively. Furthermore, 87% (n=415) of the total influenza cases were not vaccinated with the season’s influenza vaccine, and 69% (n=18) of the total vaccinated ILI cases (n=26) tested negative for influenza. Influenza vaccine campaign data: Overall, 42,476 individuals were vaccinated with the annual influenza vaccine in PHCC for the 2018/2019 season. Influenza vaccine was administered to 52.3% of people with any one risk factor (mostly chronic diseases) for severe disease due to influenza.Conclusions: The findings of this study on influenza seasonality and etiology were similar to that on previous seasons in the region. Recommendations focused on accurate and elaborate data collection and future research on the factors facilitating influenza vaccine uptake and vaccine effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2022-10-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • دراسة تأثير كوفيد-19 على الصحة النفسية في
           سوريا مقارنة بعينة من البلاد العربية:
           دراسة متغيرات مستوى القلق قبل اندلاع
           جائحة كوفيد-19 وفي ظل وجودها

    • Authors: باسل عبدالهادي صوفان; باسل عمر بيرقدار ، اياد عبدالهادي صوفان
      Abstract: Background: With the COVID-19 pandemic dramatic outcomes: high death rate, education institutions closure, business deterioration, and lock down with no social or religious gatherings, individuals have experienced several psychiatric disturbances like anxiety. Aims: This study aims to compare the levels of anxiety among people in some Arab countries before and after the COVID-19 pandemic; how the pandemic affected their mental health and lead to the appearance of psychosomatic symptoms. The study includes three variables: gender, work, age. Methods: The study used an online questionnaire that included a number sections, the main section was Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), In addition to other sections like the demographic information section. We analyzed the data using python (programming language). Results: The study received 559 responders (N=559) from several Arab countries (62.79% Females, 53.31% of participants are 21-30 years old, 53.31% live in Syria). This study found Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale increased by 5.50 points in Syria, and 4.60 in some other Arab countries with no significant difference (P>0.05). Females aged less than 31 are the most affected people. Conclusion: The number of patients who experience psychological and digestive symptoms is increasing. Moreover, education and work performance have been affected as a result of the increasing levels of anxiety (especially among the youth). We recommend providing mental health support in schools, universities, and workplace.
      PubDate: 2022-10-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Towards disruptive education: The potential role of artificial
           intelligence in customized learning

    • Authors: Marwen Hjiri; Alexandre Freire Dormeier
      Abstract: This work aims to study the potential role of Artificial Intelligence in customized learning. The rationale behind this particular topic relies on two factors. First of all, the need to highlight the importance of the educational eco-system in Qatar as it considers all levels of education starting from kindergarten to university and higher studies. Education in Qatar has achieved a significant advancement in various areas after adopting independent school systems with international practices and allowing students to join top-ranked universities worldwide. Secondly, the need to find a way to combine Artificial Intelligence (AI) with education to explore the potential of AI in adaptive learning in Qatar. The results show that the utilization of AI in adaptive learning seems to be promising in advancing the quality of education in an unstable instruction setting, such as the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic and the prospect of implementing a versatile education.
      PubDate: 2022-10-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Studying the causes of delays in construction projects: the case of Qatar
           infrastructure projects

    • Authors: Amna Khalil Ibrahim Hassan Al-Hail1; Mohammed Mafrash Mohammed Mousoof
      Abstract: Background: This study aims to examine the causes of delay in construction projects, particularly in the case of infrastructure projects in Qatar. The most critical delay causes were analyzed in the perception of the project’s three participants: clients, contractors, and consultants. A literature review was conducted to highlight possible delay causes in other countries. There were gaps in detecting the causes of delay due to the lack of studies on Qatar infrastructure projects. Methods: The deductive approach has been used in this study for the quantitative method. It provides a new framework or theory for identifying the causes of delay. The quantitative method used a questionnaire that was created through Survey Monkey. The number of participants was one hundred thirty-three. The questionnaire included forty-one questions in four sections, one sheet for participant information, nine questions about personal data, thirty questions about delay causes, and two questions about delay effects. Results and Discussion: The data analysis was conducted on a questionnaire to rank the causes of delays by the Relative Importance Index (RII) method. Further analysis was undertaken to interpret the data by regression analysis. The results showed that client changing orders during construction was the most significant delay cause in Qatar infrastructure projects. Conclusions: The research aim was achieved by meeting its objectives. Several recommendations were suggested to reduce delays’ influence on Qatar's infrastructure projects. Research limitations were identified for this study.
      PubDate: 2022-10-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Process Pattern Recognition for Building Information Models:A Case Study

    • Authors: Haya Al-Roum; Ruqaya Al-Sabah
      Abstract: Background: The fourth dimension of building information modeling (BIM) plays a significant role in construction planning by linking the construction schedule to the existing building information model. However, a difficulty may arise concerning the ease with which a link can be made and modified. Pattern-based techniques that search for recurring processes can help eliminate this drawback by producing predefined process templates. Methods: This paper critically examines the applicability of generating pre-defined process templates for BIM-based schedules using process pattern recognition techniques to reduce the effort of defining the construction schedules and integrating the templates into the BIM data. The technique estimates the level of recurrence of certain tasks within a schedule by applying several metrics. A real-life construction schedule from a housing project in the State of Kuwait was decomposed into numerous sub-schedules based on a set criterion to estimate the level of recurrence, the sub-schedules were compared based on structural and contextual similarities. Results and Discussion: The generated process templates produced demonstrated that the approach is ideal for projects with repetitive processes and that by utilizing the templates, linking building elements to tasks in 4D modeling can be greatly facilitated, thereby reducing the planning time. Conclusion: This study corroborates the results of previous literature, which found that the improvement in the efficiency of construction planning could be achieved by applying reusable process templates. The generated templates should enable the idea of storing the process templates in data banks for detecting undesired regularities in previous schedules in preparation for future use.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Data mining indicates an association between ambient PM2.5 levels and wind
           speed in an urban environment (Education City, Doha, Qatar)

    • Authors: Kevin Zhai; Fatema Al-Wahshi, Latifa Mahmoud, Majda Sebah Mohammad S. Yousef
      Abstract: Background: Elevated PM2.5 levels pose serious health hazards and are implicated in numerous acute and chronic conditions. Delineating the contributions of meteorological factors to PM2.5 levels is a daunting task, especially in confined or semiconfined urban spaces. This study aims to (1) characterize the influence of wind speed and direction on outdoor PM2.5 levels within a semiconfined urban environment, and (2) develop a simple and readily accessible data mining method for this purpose. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the extent to which PM2.5 correlations demonstrated in open spaces hold in semiconfined outdoor settings with irregular terrain. Methods: In this study, data mining techniques were applied to retrieve patterns pertaining to the effects of meteorological factors on PM2.5 levels. As a proof of concept, a feasible framework was developed to elucidate the associations between wind speed and direction and PM2.5 levels during May 2020 in Education City, Doha, Qatar. Results and Discussion: The results showed a modest negative correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 levels, at low to moderate, but not high, PM2.5 readings. Meanwhile, no correlation was detected between wind direction and PM2.5 levels. Conclusions: Limited by the geographical location, microenvironment, and duration of this study, it can be said with moderate statistical confidence that low PM2.5 readings are associated with high wind speeds. As a result, increasing wind speed may be beneficial at low to moderate PM2.5 levels. However, delineating a single contributing factor to high PM2.5 readings may prove infeasible. Moreover, an association with wind direction was not immediately obvious, possibly due to microenvironmental limitations. These findings underscore the applicability of data mining and the importance of microenvironmental factors in air quality research and mitigation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • The improvement in PM2.5 levels in Education City, Doha, Qatar during the
           COVID-19 lockdown was limited and transient

    • Authors: Latifa Mahmoud; Fatema Al-Wahshi, Kevin Zhai, Majda Sebah Mohammad S. Yousef
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 lockdown reduced anthropogenic activities worldwide and therefore provided a unique opportunity to investigate the factors that impact air pollution. Here, we investigated the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in Education City, Doha, Qatar. Methods: Ambient air samples were collected in real time from two stations within Education City during 2019 and 2020. PM2.5 data collected from four different seasons during the lockdown were compared with their corresponding pre-lockdown levels. Results: No significant changes in PM2.5 levels were observed during the spring and fall seasons. A 10% decline in the PM2.5 level was observed post-lockdown in the summer season, whereas a 33% increase in the PM2.5 level was observed post-lockdown during the winter season. Conclusion: The decline in PM2.5 levels in Education City during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown was transient and modest. No significant decline in PM2.5 levels was detected for most of the year. Therefore, anthropogenic activities (vehicular and industrial) could have had season-dependent effects on ambient PM2.5 levels within Education City.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • تعزيز ثقافة القراءة: أدلة من ‘قطر تقرأ’

    • Authors: لوجان كوشران; أوزجان أوزتورك, هانيه ختائي, ريم الأحبابي, فاطمة المالكي هشام نورين
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • المسؤولية القانونية لمدير الشركة
           المُؤَقَّت في النظام السعودي والمصري -
           دراسة مقارنة

    • Authors: حمود عاطف مبارك القحطاني
      Abstract: The temporary management of companies is one of the modern legal means to confront the emergency conditions facing companies, to preserve its legal entity, and to help saving small and medium sized enterprises from extinction in the event of abuse in the management's work. The idea of resorting to the theory of the company temporary manager, by appointing a person with related technical and administrative experience, has several benefits like the ability to deal with arising administrative and technical risks and saving companies from dissolution and liquidation, within a legal framework that guarantees the continuity of the economic legislator. Moreover, it is an effective legal tool to: protect the minority of shareholders; to detect harmful behaviors of the company and partners because the manager is staying for limited time during which the interim manager is obligated to exercise care; and to save the company from bankruptcy, liquidation and dissolution.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Nanophase engineering and visualization for biomedical applications: from
           technology to method

    • Authors: Hong Y. Zhai; Mohammad S. Yousef Kevin Zhai
      Abstract: Nanobiotechnology has gained increasing traction in biomedical research and manufacturing in recent years. Benefiting from tools and methods developed in other nanophase engineering and visualization disciplines, this branch of biological engineering encompasses the worlds of biomolecular science, drug development, and bioelectronic device fabrication. A key challenge in observation and manipulation at the nanoscale is that smaller dimensions lead to weaker signals. Numerous technologies have been developed to detect weak signals and integrate them to create holistic views of biomedical phenomena. This perspective discusses some of these modern nanobiotechnologies and links them to fundamental principles in lithography, patterning, visualization, inspection, and signal detection - all of which emerged from electrical engineering, physics, and materials science.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
 
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