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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Network Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.461
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2050-1242 - ISSN (Online) 2050-1250
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • Relational event models in network science

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      Authors: Butts; Carter T., Lomi, Alessandro, Snijders, Tom A. B., Stadtfeld, Christoph
      Pages: 175 - 183
      Abstract: Relational event models (REMs) for the analysis of social interaction were first introduced 15 years ago. Since then, a number of important substantive and methodological contributions have produced their progressive refinement and hence facilitated their increased adoption in studies of social and other networks. Today REMs represent a well-established class of statistical models for relational processes. This special issue of Network Science demonstrates the standing and recognition that REMs have achieved within the network analysis and networks science communities. We wrote this brief introductory editorial essay with four main objectives in mind: (i) positioning relational event data and models in the larger context of contemporary network science and social network research; (ii) reviewing some of the most important recent developments; (iii) presenting the innovative studies collected in this special issue as evidence of the empirical value of REMs, and (iv) identifying open questions and future research directions.
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2023.9
       
  • A simplest mathematics of turn-taking: Conversational deep structure,
           emergence, and permeation

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      Authors: Cannon; Bryan C., Robinson, Dawn T.
      Pages: 224 - 248
      Abstract: David Gibson’s (2008) examination of research on conversational interaction highlighted methodological and theoretical gaps in current understanding – particularly around the localized construction of interaction and the reproduction of social structures. This paper extends extant formal models used by group process researchers to explain how exogenous status structures shape local interaction by incorporating insights from qualitative work examining the local production of conversational interaction. Relational events serve as a bridge between conversation analytic understandings of the deep structure of conversation and expectation states formal models of permeation. We propose a theoretical integration of the status organizing process (permeation) and local turn-taking rules (deep structure) as a more complete model of conversational behavior in task groups. We test a formalized construction of this preliminary theory by examining turn-taking using data from 55 task groups whose members vary in gender, authority, and legitimacy of that authority. This integrated model offers substantial improvements in prediction accuracy over using status information alone. We then propose ways to expand the integrated theoretical framework to advance current understandings of action and events in conversation. Finally, we offer suggestions for insights from group processes theories that could be incorporated into network models of interaction outside of this theoretical framework.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2022.38
       
  • Random effects in dynamic network actor models

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      Authors: Uzaheta; Alvaro, Amati, Viviana, Stadtfeld, Christoph
      Pages: 249 - 266
      Abstract: Dynamic Network Actor Models (DyNAMs) assume that an observed sequence of relational events is the outcome of an actor-oriented decision process consisting of two decision levels. The first level represents the time until an actor initiates the next relational event, modeled by an exponential distribution with an actor-specific activity rate. The second level describes the choice of the receiver of the event, modeled by a conditional multinomial logit model. The DyNAM assumes that the parameters are constant over the actors and the context. This homogeneity assumption, albeit statistically and computationally convenient, is difficult to justify, e.g., in the presence of unobserved differences between actors or contexts. In this paper, we extend DyNAMs by including random-effects parameters that vary across actors or contexts and allow controlling for unknown sources of heterogeneity. We illustrate the model by analyzing relational events among the users of an online community of aspiring and professional digital and graphic designers.
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2022.37
       
  • How fast do we forget our past social interactions' Understanding memory
           retention with parametric decays in relational event models

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      Authors: Arena; Giuseppe, Mulder, Joris, Leenders, Roger Th. A.J.
      Pages: 267 - 294
      Abstract: In relational event networks, endogenous statistics are used to summarize the past activity between actors. Typically, it is assumed that past events have equal weight on the social interaction rate in the (near) future regardless of the time that has transpired since observing them. Generally, it is unrealistic to assume that recently past events affect the current event rate to an equal degree as long-past events. Alternatively one may consider using a prespecified decay function with a prespecified rate of decay. A problem then is that the chosen decay function could be misspecified yielding biased results and incorrect conclusions. In this paper, we introduce three parametric weight decay functions (exponential, linear, and one-step) that can be embedded in a relational event model. A statistical method is presented to decide which memory decay function and memory parameter best fit the observed sequence of events. We present simulation studies that show the presence of bias in the estimates of effects of the statistics whenever the decay, as well as the memory parameter, are not properly estimated, and the ability to test different memory models against each other using the Bayes factor. Finally, we apply the methodology to two empirical case studies.
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2023.5
       
  • Modeling complex interactions in a disrupted environment: Relational
           events in the WTC response

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      Authors: Renshaw; Scott Leo, Livas, Selena M., Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna G., Butts, Carter T.
      Pages: 295 - 323
      Abstract: When subjected to a sudden, unanticipated threat, human groups characteristically self-organize to identify the threat, determine potential responses, and act to reduce its impact. Central to this process is the challenge of coordinating information sharing and response activity within a disrupted environment. In this paper, we consider coordination in the context of responses to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Using records of communications among 17 organizational units, we examine the mechanisms driving communication dynamics, with an emphasis on the emergence of coordinating roles. We employ relational event models (REMs) to identify the mechanisms shaping communications in each unit, finding a consistent pattern of behavior across units with very different characteristics. Using a simulation-based “knock-out” study, we also probe the importance of different mechanisms for hub formation. Our results suggest that, while preferential attachment and pre-disaster role structure generally contribute to the emergence of hub structure, temporally local conversational norms play a much larger role in the WTC case. We discuss broader implications for the role of microdynamics in driving macroscopic outcomes, and for the emergence of coordination in other settings.
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2023.4
       
  • Rivalries, reputation, retaliation, and repetition: Testing plausible
           mechanisms for the contagion of violence between street gangs using
           relational event models

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      Authors: Gravel; Jason, Valasik, Matthew, Mulder, Joris, Leenders, Roger, Butts, Carter, Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, Tita, George E.
      Pages: 324 - 350
      Abstract: The hypothesis that violence—especially gang violence—behaves like a contagious disease has grown in popularity in recent years. Scholars have long observed the tendency for violence to cluster in time and space, but little research has focused on empirically unpacking the mechanisms that make violence contagious. In the context of gang violence, retaliation is the prototypical mechanism to explain why violence begets violence. In this study, we leverage relational event models (REMs)—an underutilized yet particularly well-suited modeling technique to study the dynamics of inter-gang violence. We use REMs to examine gang violence’s tendency to replicate—for which retaliation is but one plausible mechanism—and its tendency to diffuse to other groups. We rely on data on conflicts between gangs in a region of Los Angeles over 3 years. We consider how the characteristics of gangs, their spatial proximity, networks of established rivalries, and the evolving history, directionality, and structure of conflicts predict future inter-gang conflicts. While retaliation is an important mechanism for the replication of violence, established rivalries, and inertia—a gang’s tendency to continue attacking the same group—are more important drivers of future violence. We also find little evidence for an emerging pecking order or status hierarchy between gangs suggested by other scholars. However, we find that gangs are more likely to attack multiple gangs in quick succession. We propose that gang violence is more likely to diffuse to other groups because of the boost of internal group processes an initial attack provides.
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2023.8
       
  • All that glitters is not gold: Relational events models with spurious
           events

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      Authors: Fritz; Cornelius, Mehrl, Marius, Thurner, Paul W., Kauermann, Göran
      Pages: 184 - 204
      Abstract: As relational event models are an increasingly popular model for studying relational structures, the reliability of large-scale event data collection becomes more and more important. Automated or human-coded events often suffer from non-negligible false-discovery rates in event identification. And most sensor data are primarily based on actors’ spatial proximity for predefined time windows; hence, the observed events could relate either to a social relationship or random co-location. Both examples imply spurious events that may bias estimates and inference. We propose the Relational Event Model for Spurious Events (REMSE), an extension to existing approaches for interaction data. The model provides a flexible solution for modeling data while controlling for spurious events. Estimation of our model is carried out in an empirical Bayesian approach via data augmentation. Based on a simulation study, we investigate the properties of the estimation procedure. To demonstrate its usefulness in two distinct applications, we employ this model to combat events from the Syrian civil war and student co-location data. Results from the simulation and the applications identify the REMSE as a suitable approach to modeling relational event data in the presence of spurious events.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2022.22
       
  • Multimodal mechanisms of political discourse dynamics and the case of
           Germany‚Äôs nuclear energy phase-out

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      Authors: Haunss; Sebastian, Hollway, James
      Pages: 205 - 223
      Abstract: The 2011 policy pivot of the German government, from extending nuclear power plants terms to securing their shutdown for 2022, cannot be explained without looking at how the German political discourse network shifted in the months following Fukushima. This paper seeks to model and identify mechanisms that help explain how the two-mode network of political actors’ support for claims developed. We identify possible mechanisms to explain discourse dynamics from literature on political discourse and discourse networks, and extend homophily mechanisms to two-mode networks as “tertius” effects. We then introduce and employ a multimodal extension of dynamic network actor models to answer two questions key to how the discourse has evolved: which actors support claims more frequently and which claims they support. Our results indicate that mechanisms vary according to the discursive phase, but that powerful actors participate in the discourse more often, and actors tend to support claims that have already found support by cross-party coalitions. These are the two most prominent mechanisms that help to explain the dramatic nuclear policy change in Germany after Fukushima.
      PubDate: 2022-12-15
      DOI: 10.1017/nws.2022.31
       
 
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