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European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Modern Physics E-book Based Multirepresentation for Hybrid Learning

    • Authors: Diah Mulhayatiah, Parlindungan Sinaga, Dadi Rusdiana, Ida Kaniawati, Delviana Junissetiawati
      Abstract: This research is a development research that aims to describe the feasibility of material, pedagogic and media aspects of e-books based multirepresentation for hybrid learning on Modern Physics material. This research model uses 4D (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate). The data collection technique is that the validator assigns a score to each aspect on the validation sheet and then the data is analyzed to see the percentage of validation. In this study the validators consisted of each aspect as many as two validators as material, pedagogic, and media experts. The results showed that the e-books based multirepresentation for hybrid learning on Modern Physics material was feasible to use with a percentage gain from material experts of 62% (fair enough); from pedagogic experts by 89% (very feasible); from media experts by 92% (very decent). As for the results of the aiken calculation, for the material aspect, the score is 0.50 (medium); the pedagogic aspect got a score of 0.85 (high); and the media aspect scored 0.89 (high).
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Social Cohesion in times of Pandemic: A View from the Frontliners of the
           Local Government Units in CALABARZON

    • Authors: Rhodora S. Crizaldo, Jovan B. Alitagtag, Jake Raymund F. Fabregar
      Abstract: The study was an attempt to determine how social cohesion is maintained in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as perceived by frontliners in the local government units in CALABARZON. It also looked into the challenges that local government units faced in achieving social and economic development and provides baseline data on how policies on social cohesion are integrated with their efforts to respond to the pandemic. The study employed the descriptive evaluative in the study in assessing and describing how social cohesion is maintained in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as perceived by frontliners in the local government units in CALABARZON. Convenience sampling was used in the selection of the frontliners in the local and provincial levels of the local government units of CALABARZON who have direct engagement and involvement in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey was used using the Modified Social Cohesion Integration Diagnostics Tool (SCIDAT, 2017). Data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages and reflective thematic analysis in examining themes or patterns of meaning within the data. Reflective thematic analysis was used in support of the validation of the written responses on the challenges that local government units faced in achieving social and economic development and provides baseline data on how policies on social cohesion are integrated with their efforts to respond to the pandemic.   Ethical considerations were observed all throughout the duration of the research. Consent of the participants was sought prior to any conduct of survey or any participation in phase of the research. Likewise, the study maintained the confidentiality of the data and information obtained from the participants and adhered also to the provisions in the data privacy law.Majority of the frontliners in the LGUs witnessed the integration of social cohesion in this time of COVID-19 pandemic to a limited extent but they recognized the opportunities that arise from having a supportive and adaptive region to the changing economic, health, environmental, and social challenges. For social cohesion integration to exist in this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the national government has to work hand-in-hand with the local and provincial LGUs towards a clear and recognizable elements and dynamics of a stronger social cohesion within the level of individual, community and institution. Fostering social cohesion in the region means creating societies where people have the opportunity to live together with all their differences, and, on the other hand, the way to approach unity and diversity. Social cohesion could also be built through having a pool of government leaders and personnel in the LGUs who are capable of building cooperation and networks and recognize everyone’s security and safety that involves the whole-of-nation approach, focusing on internal stability, capability and preparedness against pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Bibliometric Analysis of Mathematics Reflective Thinking Based on Scopus

    • Authors: M. Muntazhimah, T. Turmudi, S. Prabawanto, Anwar Anwar, R. Wahyuni
      Abstract: Reflective thinking is one of the most crucial abilities in learning mathematics. This study aims to reveal bibliometric analysis, including mapping a general overview and exploring research opportunities on ‘mathematics reflective thinking’, has never been carried out before. The articles were derived from Publish or Perish (PoP) software using the Scopus database. A total of 173 articles were found since the beginning of the study on mathematics reflective thinking published until November 2021. After managing the database, this study classified and visualized it by network, overlay, and density visualizations using VOSviewer software. Overall, this review provides an appropriate reference for further research on the study of 'mathematics reflective thinking’.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Psychometric Properties and Derivation of Norms for an Amharic Version of
           Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale for Children with Intellectual
           Disability in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Asaye Gebrewold Ashengo, Daniel Desta Dolisso
      Abstract: Adaptive functions of children with intellectual disability are assessed through administration of different tools.  This study examined psychometric properties and derivation of norms for an Amharic Version of Vineland adaptive behavioural scale for children with intellectual disability in Ethiopia. The research was a cross- sectional study conducted on children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa after obtaining an approval from Addis Ababa University. Finding of the present study revealed that, the Amharic version of VABS-II had a high overall internal consistency alpha coefficient (0.83), in the Ethiopian sample which is similar to Western findings; hence VABS-II is a reliable tool for measuring adaptive behavioural functions for children with intellectual disability. VABS II scores of Ethiopian sample were compared to the scale norms developed in the United States. Ethiopian sample means were consistently below the mean in the United States normative sample. The correlations between the VABS and Mekanyesus assessment tool composite and subdomain scores were all moderate. Even though Mekanyesus’s assessment tool didn’t follow proper procedure to prepare standardized tool like VABS-II survey form, it helped the school to assess children with intellectual disability modestly. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model fit the VABS-II survey well. Thus, the Amharic version of the VABS-II survey form evidenced sound psychometric properties in Ethiopian children with intellectual disability, supporting its use in identification and intervention of children with intellectual disability.  The Amharic translated version of VABS II survey form can be used in Ethiopian context for the purpose of identification and intervention of children with intellectual disabilities. This can overcome the problem of early intervention centres, families and care givers by giving them additional assessment tool that would be used in the country.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Improving Students’ Reading Motivation through Literature Circles

    • Authors: Endelibu Goa Yotta, Tsegaberan Wodaj
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Investigation of Student Difficulties in Physics Learning and Readiness to
           Implement Physics Learning Using Bifocal Modeling-Based Practicum in

    • Authors: Sunardi Sunardi, Andi Suhandi, Deni Darmawan, Muslim Muslim
      Abstract: A research has been carried out to obtain the overviews of difficulties faced by students in learning physics and readiness to implement physics learning using bifocal modeling-based practicum. It was done in a senior high school in Bandung, Indonesia. The research subjects were two physics teachers and seventy nine students enrolled in the academic year of 2020/2021. This research was a qualitative case study, in which the data was collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews. The questionnaires were used to reveal students’ responses to physics learning and potential implementation of physics learning using bifocal modeling-based practicum. Observations were used to get overviews of physics learning process and school infrastructures. Interviews were used to reveal barriers faced by teacher in organizing physics learning and reveal difficulties faced by students in understanding physics concepts. Based on the data analysis, it was found that:  1) students are difficult to understand theoretical and mathematical physics concepts, 2) teachers face barriers to organize a physics learning due to several factors, i.e. limitation of time, abundance of curriculum teacher tasks, limitation of supporting facilities, 3) the infrastructures of the school are good enough to support the implementation of physics learning using bifocal modeling-based practicum.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • An Expanded Spacing Advantage over Equal Spacing on Grammar Learning

    • Authors: Duo Wu
      Abstract: Spacing effect is a robust phenomenon especially in cognitive psychology. Many studies proved that there was spacing effect in L2 words learning, but there are sparse studies about whether spacing effect, especially expanded spacing advantage, can be generalized to L2 grammar learning. The present study aims to examine spacing effect on L2 grammar learning. Ninety-seven subjects studied 3 tenses within one week in 3 groups. Group one studied 3 tenses in only one learning episode, namely massed group; group two on day 1, day 2, day 4 and day 7 (1-2-3), namely expanded spacing; group three on day 1, day 3 day 5 and day 7 (2-2-2), namely equal spacing. Results showed that there was spacing effect on L2 grammar learning; expanded spacing had an advantage over equal spacing not only in short-term memory but also in long-term memory. In other words, spacing effect, especially expanded spacing advantage in words learning, can be generalized to L2 grammar learning. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers teach students L2 grammar in an expanded schedule.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Validity of Conflict Resolution Education Model based on Sabilulungan
           Local Wisdom to Build Conflict Resolution Competency of Elementary School

    • Authors: Tuti Istianti, Enok Maryani, Bunyamin Maftuh
      Abstract: This study entitled Development of Conflict Resolution Education Model Based on Local Wisdom Values of Sunda Sabilulungan, is intended to develop life skills in a moral frame as the basis for strengthening conflict resolution competence in elementary school students. The research method was carried out by Research and Development (R&D) from Dick and Carey with the ADDIE Model development design (Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluations – PRK BKLS). The results of the research on the development of the PRK-BKLS model were declared to be very valid and suitable for use according to expert judgment. The results of the validation of Sociology and Conflict Resolution Learning experts are 92.4%, Cultural Literacy and Citizenship Experts 88%, Multiliteracy experts and Elementary Schools 96%, and the average achievement is 93.55%. The results of the validation of user 1 are 96%, user 2 94%, user 3 94%, the average achievement of teachers as users is 94.7%. The product of the resolution education model can be assumed to be applied as an education program to build life skills that enable students to resolve conflicts that are constructive in nature. The model can be used for a wider range of practitioners and adapted to the characteristics of students as users.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Nursing Students’ English Language Learning Needs and Perceptions

    • Authors: Getnet Gidey Takele, Solomon Belayneh Yimer, Ephrem Tiruneh Adugna
      Abstract: Nursing students should learn English language courses which focus on a restricted range of skills required by them for their profession. Cognizant of this, the researchers in this study surveyed specific English language needs of undergraduate nursing students. The study used Hutchinson and Waters' (1987) approach to analyze nursing students’ needs of English language skills and sub-skills to study their field effectively, their level of proficiency in English language skills and their perceptions of the relevance of the courses offered to them. To collect data, questionnaire and interview were used. The results showed that students are more proficient in reading and writing about health related issues than speaking and listening. Students reported that they could read and understand medical texts, instruments and reports written by doctors. It was also found out that students could write patient history, prescriptions and medication procedures. The study concluded that the courses which nursing students are taking are irrelevant. There is need to design specific courses which improve their reading and writing skills in their field. Key words: field related courses, needs analysis, profession, read medical articles, writing about health related issues,  
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Comparative Analysis of Export Performance of Indian Cocoa during Pre and
           Post MIDH Periods

    • Authors: M. Sundariya, V. Banumathy, S. Ravichandran
      Abstract: A progress of cocoa cultivation was focused on the objective of estimating the growth rate of export quantity and value of Indian cocoa and identifying the trade direction of Indian cocoa. The study was based on the secondary data for 15 years (2006-07 to 2020-21), separated into period I (Pre-MIDH) and period II (Post-MIDH). Compound growth rate used to estimate the export quantity and value, Markov chain analysis for probability changes of cocoa exports to the major markets. The study found that the share of cocoa exports in agricultural exports in terms of value increased from 5.25% in 2011-12 to 10.83% in 2020–21 for the last decade of the study. The growth rate analysis, export quantity and value increased in the both periods. The transition probability matrix showed that Nepal was the most stable importing market for Indian cocoa in a period I, whereas the USA and Turkey were stable importers in period II. The other markets retained a probability share with a low probability and were considered unstable markets. Hence, the study concluded that a robust export policy is responsible for stabilizing the international market, disseminate export-oriented strategies of cocoa beans to farmers, and raise the level of price competition for Indian cocoa abroad. The government sector is responsible for setting Premium cocoa prices, building large-scale processing plants with high production rates and facilities for farmers producers organisations (FPO) to distribute cocoa beans, and luring international buyers by improving the quality of the beans.

      PubDate: 2022-10-30
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • A Case Study on Assessing Opportunities and Challenges of Students with
           Low Vision in Special Classes at Tabor General Primary School, South
           Gondar, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tarekegn Asnake Bitew, Balew Kebkab
      Abstract: The study was aimed at assessing the opportunities and challenges of students with low vision (SWLV) in Tabor General primary and special need school of Debretabor town, south Gondar, Ethiopia. A qualitative case study research design was used to carry out this study. The total number of participants involved is 28, of which 12 were SWLV, 10 teachers, 4 parents and 2 principals. Teachers, SWLV, and parents were selected using purposive sampling method. Comprehensive sampling was also used to select principals. Interview, FGD and observation were employed to collect data, which were analyzed using thematic data analysis technique. The results of the study showed that most of SWLV were happy with getting a chance to attend their education. They get extra time during examination; get motivation and advice from principals, though it was not enough. Students’ skill in Braille writing and reading was good. The challenges SWLV faced were found out to be lack of assistive technology, absence of resource room, absence of visual interpreter. Teachers were not using student-centered teaching method very well and didn’t implement IEP. The most difficult subject for SWLV was reported to be Mathematics. SWLV were not involved in co-curricular activities. Finally, recommendations were put forward based the findings of the study.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Heutagogy in Speaking: Exploration and Mapping of Self-Learning in Social
           Organizations Community

    • Authors: Baharman Baharman, Andoyo Sastromiharjo, Vismaia S. Damaianti, dan Yeti Mulyati
      Abstract: The heutagogical approach is a self-determined learning model that can encourage independent learner development. The model's design with a heutagogical approach is integrated with language skills in aspects of speaking skills that can be taught or trained to students based on heutagogical principles. This type of research is classified as qualitative research. Collecting research data by distributing questionnaires and conducting interviews with community members spread across three social organizations. The goal was to obtain data as a form of information related to the heutagogical approach to speaking skills. The method used in this research is descriptive-qualitative. Based on the results of the study, self-learning mapping as part of a heutagogical approach in the implementation of learning/training speaking skills refers to identifying the variety/type of speaking skills that each student wants to learn, determining the method/learning process, and negotiating the type of evaluation of the selected speaking skills material. In conclusion, in this study, students are responsible for their learning and determine and control themselves what, when, and how they will learn it.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Attitude of School Community towards the Use of Sign Language for
           Instructional Purpose in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Wondwosen Mitiku Wolderufael
      Abstract: This study is conducted in order to assess the attitude of school community towards the use of sign language for instructional purpose in Bahir Dar town in the case of Yekatit 23 and Donaber primary school. The study used descriptive survey as a research design to explain the current trends existing in the study area. As to the samples considered for the study, because there are only two schools it appeared manageable to take them as they are. In regards to participants of the study eighty seven participants, namely 4 from the school's principals, 7 from the professional teachers in special needs, 23 regular class teachers, 13 students with hearing impairments, and 44 students without hearing impairments were involved as sample participants. With regard to data gathering instrument, questionnaire, structured interview and observation were used to collect data from the participants. The finding shows that even though teachers have positive attitude to use sign language for media of instruction, they faced many challenges and the major barriers in teachings students with hearing impairments are lack of sign language skill, lack of appropriate training and lack knowledge and experience about teaching in integrated classes.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Teaching Tertiary Physical Education in the New Normal: Gains, Drawbacks,
           and Suggestions

    • Authors: Datu Ibrahim S. Angkay, Ruben Jr Lagunero Tagare
      Abstract: The difficulty on the current situation brought by the COVID-19 Pandemic around the globe resulted in the students' insufficient knowledge, most especially in Physical Education subjects. It happens as the closure of institutions, colleges, and universities are closed immediately. In the Philippines, there are studies concerning medical fields and other necessary fields on front in fighting with the virus; however, few chose to talk about the gains, drawbacks, and suggestions based on teachers teaching at the tertiary level. Hence, this research was realized, and it aimed to: identify the favorable experiences of Tertiary Physical Education Teachers; determine the problems and challenges of Tertiary Physical Education Teachers; and generate sensible and feasible suggestions from the research participants to further improve the delivery of tertiary Physical Education and Health courses amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic. The data gathering method used was an In-Depth Interview. Research participants from selected schools in Cotabato Province in Mindanao, Philippines, were involved in an informal, unstructured, and open-ended type of interview to make the participants comfortable conceptualizing their thoughts and have the freedom to organize them into essential categories. In this paper, the tertiary physical education teachers have seen to cope with the fast-pacing new normal era and developed the character of resiliency. Thus, the tertiary physical education teachers have been creative than ever as they make the subject engaging despite the unfitted mode of teaching required for physical education. Moreover, conclusions and recommendations are based on the research findings.
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Effects of Demographic factors on job stress level: Evidence from women
           bank employees in Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Srinivasan Krishnasamy, John Wilson
      Abstract: The research study examined the job stress association with women employees working in the Indian banking sector – Tamil Nadu. The core objective of the study was to analyze the job stress of women bank employees and its level. The study was conducted in four zones consisting of 32 districts, and they were stratified. The samples were drawn under a stratified random sampling technique from each stratum. The aggregate population of the women bank employees in 32 districts was 17 865, in which 1008 respondents were selected as the sample population for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in this study. The mean, standard deviation, Two-way analysis, ANOVA tables and Regression analysis were employed to examine the degree of stress on female workers at the bank and their associations. The diverse demographic variables were included in the study like age, education, designation, experience, salary, marital status, spouse occupation, number of dependents, and family system. The study's conclusion was that the regressions analysis co-efficient Beta value results were positively associated with stress level and all variables. The designation and number of dependents were negatively correlated.

      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Covid-19 Pandemic and the Implications for Needs Listening Teaching

    • Authors: Nafri Yanti, Yeti Mulyati, Dadang Sunendar, Vismaia Damaianti
      Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has caused many new impacts on the listening learning process. This research was conducted to determine the need for listening teaching materials to the conditions after the Covid-19 pandemic. The study was conducted on 120 students who were taking listening courses, using a descriptive quantitative method using the SPSS version 22 application. The researcher conducted a validity and reliability test with the results of the r-count value on all question items above 0.312 and a significant value of 0.554 greater than the value-r table 0.312, so it can be concluded that the instrument is valid and feasible to use. The results of the study show that students nowadays prefer to use digital teaching materials compared to printed teaching materials, especially in listening learning. The form of digital teaching materials that they need the most to support the listening learning process is a digital module. It is felt that it can save time, energy, and costs, make it easier for students to understand the material in the listening learning process because the material is presented in an interesting and not boring way. Students hope that the module is made by combining two or more media.   
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Efficiency of Working Capital Management by Firms Listed in BSE SENSEX

    • Authors: Waseem Bashir, N. Gunasegari, N. Periyasami
      Abstract: Working capital management assesses a company's short-term financial health by examining daily short-term assets and liabilities. Efficient working capital management involves planning and administration of current obligations and assets in such a way that excessive investments in current assets are avoided and also avoids the risk of meeting short-term commitments on time. Efficient working capital management entails a trade-off between profitability and liquidity risks and ensures that firms may have an optimum working capital that maximizes their value. The study is intended to analyze the efficiency of working capital management by firms listed in the BSE SENSEX. Correlation and regression analysis has been used to study the relationships between working capital efficiency, profitability and liquidity. One-way ANOVA has also been used to see that the means of components of working capital are significantly varying and Turkey’s HSD test has been used to see which component is varying significantly.  The study's finding shows that employing the Working capital cycle does not provide any significant forecast of profitability. The relationship between DSO and CCE is not significant enough to predict the efficiency of management in converting its profits into cash. According to the study, profitability and liquidity are positively associated, but liquidity is inversely related to WCC. There is evidence that working capital management in companies listed in BSE SENSEX is poor. The study suggests that companies listed on the BSE SENSEX should focus on DPO to improve their working capital management efficiency and secure more credit from suppliers.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Cervical Cancer Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Women
           Employees Working in Star Hotels in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mequanente Dagnaw, P. Srinivasan, G. Mallika, Thamimul Ansari Peer Mohamed, Alemu Tebje, Zewdu Baye, Meera Indracanti
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Role of Socio-Economic and Personal Factors in Dropping of the Children in
           Jammu: A Case Study

    • Authors: Rajeev Rattan Sharma, Mohan Galgotra
      Abstract: This study aimed to seek the personal and socio-economic causes for dropping of the children at the primary level in Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir. The main objectives of the study were:  1) To investigate the causes of high dropout at primary level. 2)  To determine the socio-economic and personal factors that causes children to drop out. 3) To determine the attitude of parents towards education as a factor that causes children to dropout. 4) To determine strategies of reducing the dropout among pupils. Random sampling technique was used. The research study is descriptive in its nature. For conducting the study two types of questionnaires were prepared - one for children, and one for parents. After collection of data the data was analyzed using percentage method.  Results of the study showed that majority of the parents were illiterate, belonged to low caste, unemployed, having very low socio-economic status and have poor attitude towards education.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • The Effect of Organizational Culture and Work Motivation on Teacher
           Performance in Private Schools in Central Jakarta

    • Authors: Anita Yosepha, Dinn Wahyudin, Mohammad Ali
      Abstract: In the current era, competition in the business world is growing. It also happens in the world of education, especially private education. This competition causes private educational institutions to survive and move forward. One thing that is the goal of improvement is the problem of the performance of members of the organization. Factors that influence performance include motivation and organizational culture. The aim is to analyze the influence of organizational culture on teachers' work motivation and performance in Central Jakarta private schools. Data collection is done by distributing questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed using path analysis to see the direct and indirect influence of culture on the teachers' performance. From the results of processing data from 100 samples, it was found that culture had a positive influence indirectly through motivation on teachers' performance. Organizational culture also directly affects performance, although the path coefficient is not as significant as work motivation. Likewise, work motivation has a positive effect on the performance of teachers. From these results, it can be said that organizations need to manage organizational culture well so that they have a positive influence on performance so that teacher performance increases.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Digital Citizenship among Saudi Community Colleges’ Undergraduates:
           Reality and Requirements for Enablement

    • Authors: Hani E. Alamri, Abdulaziz A. Alqahtani
      Abstract: This mixed mode study aims at examining digital citizenship among Saudi university undergraduates at the community college at the University of Tabuk. The objective of the study is manifested in three main axes; first, measuring the Saudi university undergraduates' perceptions of four categories of digital citizenship: Ethics, Media and Information Literacy, Engagement, and Critical Resistance. Second, investigate points of similarities and differences between male and female participants concerning the aforementioned categories. Lastly, the study explores the potential avenues for digital citizenship enablement within the selected context. 560 (280 females & 280 males) undergraduates participated in the study. Their age varied from 21 to 24 years old. The researchers designed a scale based on Ribble’s (2015) and Siemens’ (2005) theory of connectivism theoretical framework of digital citizenship. Two research instruments were used to collect data from participants in this study including an online questionnaire survey and an interview for 10 undergraduates (5 males & 5 females). Conducting exploratory factor analysis showed that the questionnaire had discriminant and convergent validity. 72.50% total variance was discussed by the nine applied digital citizenship factors. The findings of the study showed no statistical differences between undergraduates’ digital citizenship uses related to gender, educational level, and age. In addition, the results indicated there was a statistical difference between undergraduates’ digital citizenship uses credited to their regular practices with electronic devices.
      Issue No: Vol. 11
  • Superantigen as a Promising Immunotherapy Treatment against Cancer: A
           Review Article

    • Authors: Safiyah H Al Zahrani, Sahar El Hadad
      Abstract: Superantigens are toxins produced in hosts by some pathogenic microbes as a mechanism to sustain their pathogenicity. Superantigens are highly resistant to degradation by proteases enzyme, heat denaturation, and cause many dangerous diseases that in severe cases lead to death. Superantigens are atypical antigens that stimulate a profound proliferation of polyclonal T cells at low concentrations. All superantigens have a standard architecture even though they differ in amino acid sequences and are divided into two groups: endogenous superantigens and exogenous superantigens. The major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T cell receptors on T cells are the major players in identifying foreign antigens. Superantigens can bind nonspecifically to both the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and T cell receptors and form a trimolecular complex. Superantigens do not follow conventional antigens processing and presentation; they bind as intact macromolecules outside the antigen-binding groove of the major histocompatibility complex class II and to Vβ of T cells receptors. Thus, triggering an excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, radiotherapy and chemotherapy often develop radio/drug resistance. Hence, cancer immunotherapy has been mainly considered as it instigates the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Superantigens are one of the most potent T cell mitogens as 0.1 pg/ml is adequate to excite T lymphocytes. Accordingly, extensive in-vivo/in-vitro investigations have been conducted on the potential role of superantigens in eradicating tumors. The safety and effectiveness of superantigens as a cancer treatment have been verified in many clinical trials. Nevertheless, the vast inflammation after the potent T cell activation is known to promote diseases, including cancer. This paper reviews the potentiality of superantigen as an immunotherapy treatment against cancer.
      Issue No: Vol. 11
  • Biocontrol of Some Fungal Pathogen that Cause Plant Diseases by Some Bio

    • Authors: Hawazen H. Khallaf, Magda M. Aly, Reda Amasha
      Abstract: Fungal plant pathogens are among the most important factors that cause serious losses to agricultural products every year. Biological control of plant diseases including fungal pathogens has been considered a viable alternative method to chemical control. In plant pathology, biocontrol applied some microbes to suppress soil borne and airborne pathogens in an attempt to replace existing methods of chemical control by fungicides, which often lead to resistance in plant pathogens. In this review, we present the effect of mycorrhizae, actinomycetes and Trichoderma on plant growth and biocontrol of some fungal pathogens under stress conditions. The biological performance of mycorrhizae and Actinomycetes in soil is important for plant growth and development in stressed environments. In agriculture, plant growth promoting Actinomycetes can be used as biocontrol microorganisms and they had a big role in antibiotic production. They are well- known as active producers of a wide range of secondary metabolites, antibiotics and volatile organic compounds that can inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. In particular, mycorrhizae and Trichoderma spores are found in soil and enhance both plant growth and decrease fungal infections. These antagonistic microorganisms are abundant in soils around the roots of economically and nutritionally valuable crops.  Their interactions with plant pathogens can significantly affect plant health in various ways. Different mode of actions of biocontrol-active microorganisms in controlling fungal plant diseases    include hyper parasitism, predation, antibiosis, cross protection, competition for site and nutrient and induced resistance. In conclusion, some microorganisms can used to suppress some phytopathogens and improve plant growth.
      Issue No: Vol. 11
  • Biodegradation of Some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by a Bacterial
           Consortium Isolated from the Red Sea of Jeddah

    • Authors: Nouf H. AL-Essa, Bothaina A. Alaidaroos, Samyah D. Jastaniah, Reem M. Farsi, Fatemah S. Basingab, Najwa M. Alharbi, Jeyakumar Dhavamani
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered organic pollutants, which are stable, highly toxic, and carcinogenic. Therefore, it was necessary to find an environmentally friendly way to degrade these compounds and remove them from polluted environments. Water samples polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons were collected from the coast of Jeddah on the Red Sea - Saudi Arabia. The results of the current study showed the ability of bacterial consortium that was enriched from the coast of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons wastewater, which proved its ability to degrade PAHs in saline conditions. The bacterial union degraded BENZ compound by more than 95% at the concentration of 100 and 250 mg/L, while the degradation of this compound at the concentration of 1000 mg/L was recorded about 83% while the ANT degradation rate was recorded at more than 90% at different concentrations. In addition, this study revealed the ability of bacterial consortium to treat petroleum hydrocarbons wastewater in bioreactor (CSTR) with 92.7% of COD removed under saline conditions. Hence, this study recommends the investment of bacterial consortium in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons wastewater in marine environments and to remove pollutants from them.
      Issue No: Vol. 11
  • The Facilities and Incentives for Entrepreneurship in a Resource-Based
           Economy: A Review on Industrial Sector

    • Authors: Faiz Alfazzi
      Abstract: Entrepreneurship is critical for economic development. In economies where entrepreneurs can be flexible, promote their ideas, and reap the advantages, society benefits the most. When exposed to severe regulatory challenges, entrepreneurs either relocate to more creative nations or shift their focus from productive to wealth-generating activities. The goal of this intellectual study is to look at the origins of entrepreneurship. The importance of the socioeconomic environment in determining "resource capacity" (knowledge, relationships, and financial resources gathered by entrepreneurs) is examined in this research. The 'Organic Square' of entrepreneurs (resource capacity, market, economic structure, and public policy) defines the human traits of entrepreneurs as well as environmental influences. It's a tool for researching entrepreneurs in a variety of social, economic, and political situations. By examining the assets and limits of the business environment, we may demonstrate this function. We stress the need of considering the production system's structural characteristics while developing future company policies. This research explores assumptions between the resource integration process and the enterprise's performance, while resource integration capacity plays an essential role as a contingency factor, using a theoretical contingency viewpoint and a resource-based perspective. Finally, based on the research findings, recommendations for future research and management implications are addressed.
      Issue No: Vol. 11
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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