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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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National Academy Science Letters
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.189
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0250-541X - ISSN (Online) 2250-1754
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • QZSS Regional Navigation System Visibility and Solution Experience from
           India

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      Abstract: Abstract In a multi-GNSS environment, users are exploiting the benefits of hybrid multi-constellation GNSS operation for redundancy and enhanced solution quality. The Indian geolocation helps in signal availability from all global and regional systems, but no study on the usability and advantages of the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is made from India. This work presents the first results on the availability and advantages of QZSS from India based on simulations and real-time data. It is observed that 2–4 QZSS satellites can always be used from India. In static Single Point Positioning (SPS), QZSS in hybrid operation provides better solution quality over any single global constellation operation and GPS + Galileo + QZSS provides around 1 m 2-dimensional solution precision. The results would be useful for Indian GNSS user community.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
       
  • Improving Crossing Success in Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Using
           Phyto-Hormones

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      Abstract: Abstract The study aimed to assess the efficacy of phyto-hormones applied in different modes to improve crossing success in mungbean. The effect of phyto-hormones (gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, GA3 + kinetin, only water) and their modes of application (cotton plugging, hypodermal syringe-based application, and fine-mist spray) on hybrid pod setting (HPS) in summer and rainy season mungbean was evaluated under two different hybridization methods. The crossing success (HPS) was lower in the summer crop (40%) than in the rainy season crop (62%). Fine-mist spray of GA3 (80 mg L−1) + kinetin (10 mg L−1) increased pod setting, higher in summer (41–46%) over the rainy season (7–17%). Cotton plug and hypodermal syringe-based hormone applications did not work rather declined HPS.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
       
  • Underutilized Culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.) under Novel Pro-tray
           Cultivation System: Effect of Substrates

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      Abstract: Abstract Culantro is an underutilized herb used for imparting refreshing aroma to the cuisines in tropical regions. The herb has aroma similar to cilantro and its cultivation is getting popular owing to its hardy nature, better shelf life and stronger aroma. In order to promote its cultivation in the urban areas, a new cultivation system in pro-trays has been proposed herein. The present study aimed at exploring the possibility of cultivation of culantro in pro-trays using different substrates. For this, effect of three substrates (coir pith compost, soil + farmyard manure and soil + farmyard manure + coir pith compost) was studied on growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments accumulation. Results revealed significant differences among the treatments studied for mean number of leaves produced per plant, mean leaf length, mean leaf width, plantlet weight and chlorophyll content. The proposed method could be promoted for its cultivation in shaded terraces, balconies and backyards. Both soil + farmyard manure and soil + farmyard manure + coir pith compost substrates were found to support the crop growth in the discussed system of cultivation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
       
  • Physicochemical Analysis and Studies on Soil Profile of Prunus Armeniaca
           Collected from Mid-Hill of Himachal Pradesh

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      Abstract: The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a stone fruit that is popular in the mid-hill and arid temperate regions. It has a lot of nutritional and health benefits. Even though there has been much research on comparative analysis of apricots grown in different regions, this study focuses on a comparison of the quality of apricots grown within the Dharmapur region. Initially, soil and fruit samples were taken from each apricot tree from selected local sites in the Dharampur region of Himachal Pradesh and analyzed for microbial content, NPK, and pH. In addition, fruit weight, TSS, TA, fruit volume, pH, and Vitamin C were all measured in the physicochemical examination of apricots. The results revealed that the two soil samples which were considered for the study showed significant variation in terms of microbial activity, NPK content, and Vitamin C content which are directly correlated in terms of higher fruit weight, and fruit volume. Sample 1 was found better and superior in terms of higher microbial activity (Azotobacter, fungi, and phosphate solubilizing bacteria) and nitrogen and phosphorus content in comparison to sample 2. In addition, Sample 1 was also superior in terms of fruit weight, fruit volume, and Vitamin C content to Sample 2. It was further concluded that the soil microbial load and NPK had an impact on the various parameters related to fruit weight, volume, and Vitamin C. However, TSS and acidity are not that much affected in the comparative study of apricot with the same latitude, longitude, and height but different soil profiles. This study is beneficial in terms of selecting the best apricots in terms of their best fruit quality and soil profile so that the local apricot producers can be identified and the best quality apricots can be screened out for marketing and consumption process from the local sites of the same region. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
       
  • Sustainable Management of Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera:
           Pseudococcidae): An Emerging Threat to China Rose; Hibiscus rosa sinensis
           L. Using Essential Oil

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study reports the heavy infestation of Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) on China rose; Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Critical observation revealed that infestation starts with the appearance of first instar nymphs on the tender portion of the plants. Later they spread to shoots, leaves, buds and flowers of the plant. Leaves and buds of highly infested plants become yellowish, gradually dry and later fall down. Correlation co-efficient between mealybug population and weather parameters revealed that the maximum (r = 0.429) and minimum (r = 0.445) temperature were significantly positively correlated whereas morning relative humidity (r =  − 0.501) was significantly negatively correlated. Regression analysis showed that morning relative humidity significantly imparted 25.10% variation to their population build up. Two ant species namely Camponotus compressus and Solenopsis geminata were found associated with the mealybug. It was observed that two predators belonging Coccinellidae and Lycaenidae families were feeding on the immature stages of the mealybug. Four oils namely camphor, eucalyptus, lemongrass and neem oil were tested against the mealybug to determine their insecticidal activity. The resultant biological parameters for eucalyptus, lemongrass and camphor oils were LC50 values of 2.45, 5.10 and 7.81 mg/L air respectively for fumigant toxicity. This study reports for the first time the insecticidal potential of eucalyptus, camphor and lemongrass essential oils against them.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
  • Oversampled Two-dimensional Deep Learning Model for Septenary
           Classification of Skin Lesion Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Among all the types of cancer, skin cancer is one of the deadliest and its rise has been globally alarming. While this is curable with early detection, we have limited number of specialists and methodologies that can recognize this disease accurately. As trained specialists are limited, recognition of skin cancer and their classification into seven classes, viz., melanoma, dermatofibroma, basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, benign keratosis, melanocytic nevi, vascular lesions, is relatively difficult. Towards this goal the authors have proposed an automated system which uses deep learning techniques using convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect and classify skin lesion images. The system is evaluated using 3 instances in which the model is trained for 7 classes in 3 instances. A sequential model helps in efficient detection and classification of the skin lesions into 7 different types. Among the 3 models trained and tested, an accuracy of 58% is achieved in under-sampled dataset. The average sampled dataset’s model and the over-sampled dataset’s model were the best performing model with highest accuracies of 83.42 and 94.37%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
  • Spider Nectivory from Extranuptial Nectaries of Urena lobata L.: A Case
           from Indian Subcontinent

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      Abstract: Abstract Several plant species are known to differentiate extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) many of which secrete nectar that encourages numerous visitors to forage plants. Feeding at more than one trophic level is a common theme among various predatory insects. Particularly serving as a way to protect the plant from herbivory, nectivory is, however, not a widely appreciated feature of spiders. Here, we present one such observation in Urena lobata (Malvaceae). The plants are visited by five different members of Araneae owing to the presence of EFNs on leaves. Initially the spiders were envisaged as a predator of ants lured by nectar from EFNs. However, critical observations reveal that spiders prefer nectar to ants. Details on behaviour of spiders, time, and frequency of their visitation were generated and furnished. Our findings suggest that nectar feeding by arthropod predators may have beneficial interaction with U. lobata.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
  • Environmental Drivers of Fish Community Structure in An Open Wetland of
           Brahmaputra Basin, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Fish fauna of Dighali beel, upper Brahmaputra basin, India was comprised of 40 species belonging to 10 orders and 21 families. Families Cyprinidae and Danionidae dominated the species encountered, accounting for 30% of the total. Shannon, Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Pielou indices were in range of 2.095–2.895, 0.851–0.928, 2.196–5.402, 1.129–2.712 and 0.816–0.934, respectively. Multivariate Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed significance of common environmental parameters on species abundance.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
  • Assessment of Cashew-Based Intercropping System in Chhattisgarh, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Intercropping systems are useful in enhancing land use efficiency and improving economic return. The studies on intercropping system in the cashew plantation was conducted at the Shaheed Gundadhur College of Agriculture and Research Station, Kumhrawand, Jagdalpur during the years 2018–19 and 2019–20. The present study consisted of six treatments of intercropping system viz., cashew + mango ginger, cashew + elephant foot yam, cashew + turmeric, cashew + east Indian arrowroot, cashew + taro and cashew alone (no intercropping) replicated four times in a randomized block design. The data revealed that the cashew + taro intercropping system recorded the highest yield (210.61 q/ha) of intercrop, whereas, the highest yield of cashew (4.18 q/ha) was recorded with sole cashew cultivation. The land equivalent ratio of intercropping system (1.67) and production efficiency (54.80 kg/ha/day) was recorded highest in cashew + taro whereas, the partial land equivalent ratio (0.71) and cashew equivalent yield (3521.58 kg/ha) in cashew + turmeric system. The highest cost of cultivation, gross return, net return and relative economic efficiency were recorded in the cashew + turmeric intercropping system; however, the production efficiency and benefit–cost ratio were recorded maximum in the cashew + taro intercropping system. Hence, intercropping of taro can be practiced in cashew orchards of South Chhattisgarh.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
  • Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES); a Prospective Sampling
           Strategy for Assessing the Fish Egg Distribution and Abundance in the
           Northern Indian Ocean

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      Abstract: Abstract Marine fishery has a central role in the economic growth of our country and livelihood for the coastal population and evaluation of fish egg abundance is important for the sustainable fisheries. The estimation of fish egg abundance is mainly carried out by sampling in discrete locations using plankton nets which is labor intensive. Hence, the continuous underway fish egg sampler (CUFES), an instrument specifically designed to sample fish eggs was operated for the first time in the northern Indian Ocean. Operation of CUFES was successful in providing a detailed distribution and abundance of fish eggs from a broader region along the ship-track. The distinct hydrographical characteristics and the concurrent variability in the phytoplankton standing stock of the Arabian Sea resulted in the evident spatial disparity in the distribution and abundance of fish eggs. The broader area coverage, reliable data sets and ease in operation makes CUFES a potential sampling method in providing accurate information on the fish egg distribution in Indian waters.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Emissions Prediction of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Biodiesel Using Machine
           Learning

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      Abstract: Abstract Biodiesel is a type of alternative diesel fuel made from transesterification vegetable or animal oils. It is used in ignition engines for locomotives, heat generation, stationary power, and aviation fuels. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) biodiesel is blended with diesel in different ratios to study the behavior of diesel engines against different environment emissions parameters such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and smoke. The performance of the diesel emission parameters is assessed using machine learning based on multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks (ANN), and random forest regression models.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • A Transfer Learning Approach for Effective Motor Fault Identification of
           Industrial Machines used in Tile Manufacturing

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      Abstract: Abstract As the development and usage of autonomous machines and industrial IoT in manufacturing/production companies is becoming more active, machine fault identification has become a core component in any industrial environment. This research proposes a fault identification deep learning methodology to identify motor failures in industrial machines used in tile manufacturing. The deep learning model imports open-source machinery fault dataset of induction motors used in tile industries which contains parameters such as rpm, vibration, radial, axial and tangential direction values obtained using high-end sensors interfaced with an industrial test rig known as MFS—Machinery Fault Simulator. Furthermore, the model is fine-tuned using transfer learning techniques using pre-trained networks, and the performance of the model is assessed using accuracy metrics like Kappa Statistic: K, Overall Accuracy: OA and Average Accuracy: AA. The accuracy rate of 97.61% proves the effectiveness of the proposed fault identification model, thereby ensuring proficient and smooth operation of industrial machines.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Assessment of the Elemental Profile of the Pigeon Pea by the Direct
           Current Arc Optical Emission Spectroscopy

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      Abstract: Abstract Pulse industry and its derived products have great economic and social importance worldwide as they are an excellent source of protein, carbohydrate, fibres and minerals. This necessitates the determination of nutrients profile in pulses for the quality control. Pigeon pea (yellow dal) is a highly nutritious food which provides number of health benefits. The study has been conducted to highlight the potential of the direct current arc optical emission spectroscopy for the assessment of the elemental profile of the pigeon pea. For this, the emission spectrum of powdered sample of the pigeon pea has been recorded in the wavelength range 300–900 nm at a resolution 0.3 nm by exciting the direct current in the arc arrangement. The spectral analysis reveals that pigeon pea is a rich source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, chromium and titanium.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Comparison of Recycled ABS Composite Filaments Prepared by Different
           Blending Routes

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      Abstract: Abstract This work reports the peak strength (PS)-based comparative analysis of composite filaments prepared with reinforcement of wood dust (WD), bakelite powder (BP), and Fe powder, respectively, through three different blending routes (mechanical, mechanical-hybrid (secondary (2°) recycling), and chemically assisted mechanical blending (tertiary (3°) recycling), by altering the twin-screw extruder (TSE) processing parameters for addressing issues related to recycling and self-assembly. Experimental results illustrated that the combination of blending route and processing parametric levels influences the filament porosity along with the bonding characteristics between the base matrix and reinforced material and thus affects the PS of composite filaments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • First Report of Cymothoid Isopod Nerocila kisra Bowman and Tareen, 1983
           (Family: Cymothoidae) from India

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports Nerocila kisra Bowman and Tareen, 1983, for the first time from the coastal waters of India. It was collected from bycatch trash of Kumbhabhishekam fishing harbour, Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh). It is the first record of this species from this area beyond its type locality Persian Gulf. This species is characterised by the presence of serrated endopod and triangular cephalon. The present manuscript also discussed how this species is different from the other related species under the subgroup Emphylia.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40009-022-01154-2
       
  • Chlorpyrifos Root Dip Treatment Effect on Population of Singhara Beetle,
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Leaf beetle commonly called Singhara beetle, Galerucella birmanica, is the main insect pest in the water chestnut crop. In this experiment, we studied the control efficacy of Chlorpyrifos seedling root dip against Singhara beetle and its effect on the density of natural enemy population and yield of water chestnut under the field condition during 2021. The results revealed that seedling root dip with Chlorpyrifos @0.05% (RAMBAN®) effectively controls the Singhara beetle, where the minimum number of all the life stages was recorded on root dip-treated plants, and duration of root dip has no significant effect on Singhara beetle incidence. Seedling root dip has no adverse effect on natural enemy populations such as spiders and water striders. Further, the highest yield was recorded from 6 h of root dip treatment. Hence, the seedling root dip of water chestnut protects the crop against early stage infestation by Singhara beetle, thereby reducing the significant yield loss.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40009-022-01153-3
       
  • Morpho-Molecular Identification of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Causing Root
           Rot of Mulberry in India

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      Abstract: Abstract The root rot disease caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Morus alba emerged as a serious problem that affect sustainable mulberry production. In this study, the disease symptoms like yellowing of leaves, blackening, and rotting of roots were observed. The associated pathogen was isolated from infected root tissue and pure culture was raised. Based on morphological features, ITS sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses, the fungal pathogen is identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession number MK811183. The pathogenicity was confirmed by artificial inoculation on mulberry seedlings. This disease can cause great economic loss, as every part of the plant is infected. So, correct identification of disease to take timely management measures is a must, this basic work will give proper identification of pathogen and help to improvise the mulberry production in the country.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40009-022-01161-3
       
  • Heavy Infestation by Indian Tortoiseshell Caterpillars (Aglais
           caschmirensis aesis) on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Plants at
           Kumaon Hills of the Western Himalaya

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      Abstract: Abstract Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is an ecologically and economically important multipurpose perennial shrub of family Urticaceae. Here, we report heavy infestation by caterpillars of Indian tortoiseshell (Aglais caschmirensis aesis Fruhstorfer, 1912) on leaves of the plant at Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, located in the Western Himalayan region. The infestation resulting in complete defoliation was recorded from April to November in the years 2020 and 2021. A life cycle study revealed 30 days as the life span of the insect. The insect may be an important component of the Integrated Weed Management system to manage the plant where its growth is undesired. Alternatively, an Integrated Pest Management system needs to be developed for sustainable management of the insect.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40009-022-01156-0
       
  • A Quick Analysis of Various Elements (Heavy) in Sand Collected from the
           Topical River (Ganga and Yamuna) Using LIBS Coupled with Multivariate
           Technique

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study investigates the presence of heavy/toxic elements in the sand collected at different depths (5 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm) from the Ganga, Yamuna basin, and the Sangam using the LIBS technique. The presence of several heavy/toxic elements is detected along with some other minerals in all samples. Sedimentation velocity is an important factor for the variation of concentration of Cr and other elements at different depths. The variation in the concentration of Cr is explained based on the settling velocity of the particle in the fluid. The multivariate analysis of the LIBS data has been applied to discriminate the sands collected from different locations and at different depths.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40009-022-01163-1
       
  • Partially Absorbable 3D Printed Innovative Orthopedic Implants

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      Abstract: Abstract Commercially the orthopedic implants (OI) of metals/alloys/polymers are being widely used in clinical applications. But hitherto little has been reported on partially absorbable OI for supporting osteointegration and online health monitoring. This study outlines the 3D printed partially absorbable innovative OI comprising of 17-4 precipitate hardened stainless steel (as conductor and ground plane) and polylactic acid-based composite with the reinforcement of hydroxyapatite, and chitosan (as dielectric material). The 3D printed innovative OI of multi-materials was explored for online sensing capabilities based upon dielectric constant (εr) and loss tangent (tanδ) of dielectric material. The radio frequency and polarization resistance (Rp) analysis under the effect of simulated body fluid was conducted to ascertain the health of innovative OI in the industrial, scientific, and medical band as an internet of things-based solution.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40009-022-01151-5
       
 
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