Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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 National Academy Science LettersJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.189 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 3      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 0250-541X - ISSN (Online) 2250-1754 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2467 journals]
• High-Fat Diet-Induced Altered Redox Homeostasis in Drosophila: Relevance
to Aging

Abstract: Abstract High-fat diet (HFD) induced oxidative stress is a principal contributor to multiple diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of HFD in Drosophila, in an age-dependent manner. Drosophila: young and old were treated with HFD for 5 days. Markers of redox homeostasis including glutathione, reactive oxygen species, oxidative products such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and neurological biomarkers such as acetylcholinesterase activity and locomotor activity were assessed. We observed a rise in ROS production and significantly elevated pro-oxidant level in aged Drosophila; HFD treatment escalates the ROS production leading to neuronal and oxidative defects in the body.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• On Tribological and In-vitro Analysis of Meta-Structure-Based 3D Printed
Horse Hoof Strap

Abstract: Abstract In the past decade, some studies have been reported on horse hoof straps (HHS) for efficient shoeing (with better damping effect) leading to reduced joint diseases in the athletic horse (AH). But hitherto little has been reported on tribological properties of meta-structure-based 3D printed HHS. This study outlines the tribological behavior of meta-structure-based HHS as orthotics for a veterinary subject (AH). The 3D printed HHS was prepared with two alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) as sandwich meta-structure) by using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The tribological behavior of the meta-structure-based HHS was explored from the abrasion test under dry conditions. Also in vitro study was performed (through Tafel plots) to ascertain the corrosion rate (CR). The results suggested that the wear of HSS was reduced with an increase in load at higher speed and test running time because of strain hardening and hence may be used as a commercial HSS solution for AH. The results are also supported by SEM/EDS analysis.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• A Note on Unique Solvability of the Generalized Absolute Value Matrix
Equation

Abstract: Abstract The singular value condition $$\sigma _\mathrm{max}(A^{-1}B)<1$$ for the unique solvability of generalized absolute value matrix equation (GAVME) $$AX + B \vert X \vert = D$$ is provided. Our condition is superior to the earlier published conditions $$\sigma _\mathrm{max}(\vert B \vert )$$ < $$\sigma _\mathrm{min}(A)$$ [1] and $$\sigma _\mathrm{max}(B)$$ < $$\sigma _\mathrm{min}(A)$$ [2]. For some cases, our condition perform better than the spectral radius condition $$\rho (\vert A^{-1} \vert . \vert B \vert )<1$$ [3]. To check our proposed condition, we discussed two examples.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Artificial Neural Network-Based Hybrid Model for Efficient Battery
Management

Abstract: Abstract The utilization of renewable energy is increasing due to environmental pollution. Power transmission to a remote location is also challenging. In this research work, a hybrid standalone power generation framework has been developed, which effectively utilizes the concept of renewable-based power generation and energy storage system for a real-time scenario. A detailed modeling approach for the power generation sources like solar PV and fuel cells along with the battery-based energy storage system has been carried out to develop an efficient artificial neural network (ANN)-based hybrid energy management system. The performance of the ANN was evaluated using the following performance metrics mean-squared error = 0.0461, root-mean-squared error = 0.2148, normalized root-mean-squared error = 0.043, and R-value > 0.99. The system is designed to operate the battery within safe operating limits. For the proposed energy management system, six modes of operation are considered. The system has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment and tested for a real-world scenario. With the proposed control architecture, the system performance is found better in terms of reducing the electricity cost by utilizing renewable sources efficiently.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• 3D-printed PETG-based Smart Containers for Online Health Monitoring of
Food Articles

Abstract: Abstract Polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) is one of the food-grade thermoplastic materials used extensively in the packaging of food articles (FA). But hitherto little has been reported on the use of smart PETG containers for online health monitoring of such FA. This work is focused on the 3D printing of PETG-based smart containers as an IoT solution, which may be helpful to estimate the shelf life of FA with a smartphone using a Bluetooth application. In this work, a ring resonator has been fabricated using a 3D-printed PETG substrate and its radio frequency characteristics were explored as a sensor for online health monitoring of FA (pickle). For experimental investigations, a solution of mustard oil (Brassica juncea), having the main constituent allyl isothiocyanate and NaCl has been prepared (1 g of NaCl in 10 ml of oil). The resonating frequency peak shift from 2.74 to 2.71 GHz was observed on exposure of PETG substrate to the solution of mustard oil-NaCl and water content (5 ml) (to mimic the effect of moisture), and the dielectric constant (ε) change was noticed from 2.67 to 2.73, respectively. Further voltage-resistance characterization of the ring resonator was performed and it has been observed that the resistance of PETG decreases with exposure to the solution (selected stimuli), and hence may be used as a sensor in PETG containers for online health monitoring of selected FA.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Diet Composition of Cat Fish Ailia coila (Hamilton, 1822) from a Large
Himalayan River Brahmaputra, Assam, India

Abstract: Abstract The present study discussed the food and feeding habits of Ailia coila from Brahmaputra River, India, for the first time. Based on index of preponderance (IP) values—aquatic insects (93.87%), zooplankton (2.28%), and eggs (cladoceran and copepod) (1.62%) were found to be major food components. Insect Potamanthus sp. comprised 90–97% of gut contents across all the length groups and, hence, can be attributed as indicator species for A. coila in river Brahmaputra. The gastro-somatic index in males and females ranged from 2.75 to 5.00 and 2.92 to 5.79, respectively, and was highest in September for females and April for males.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Potential of confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy for the nutrient profiling
of kidney beans

Abstract: Abstract Vibrational spectroscopic techniques like confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy have immense potential in the field of nutrition science for the rapid and non-destructive analysis of feed involving minimal sample preparation steps. The study describes the applicability of confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy for the profiling of multiple nutrient components of kidney beans non-destructively, simultaneously, rapidly without sample pre-processing. The analysis of acquired Raman spectrum of the kidney beans shows the fingerprints of carbohydrates, cell wall polysaccharides and proteins. The spectral features and nutrients profile obtained are advantageous for nutritionists and scientists for tackling malnutrition and maintaining healthy nutrient-rich diet.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• First record of Brachymeria excarinata Gahan, 1925 (Hymenoptera:
Chalcididae) as a hyperparasitoid of Charops bicolor (Szepligeti, 1906)
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from India

Abstract: Abstract The parasitoid species, Brachymeria excarinata Gahan, 1925 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) is recorded for the first time from rice growing areas of India as hyperparasitoid of Charops bicolor (Szepligeti, 1906), a larval parasitoid of paddy yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). Diagnostic characters supported with photographs have been included for identification of both parasitoid and hyperparasitoid of S. incertulas.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Determination of
Quercetin, Stigmasterol, Psoralen, and Niloticin in the Leaves of Wood
Apple (Limonia acidissima L.)

Abstract: Abstract This study presents the development and validation of a high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for quantification of quercetin, stigmasterol, psoralen and niloticin in methanolic extract of leaf samples of Limonia acidissima. For achieving good separation, a mobile phase of Ethyl acetate: Toluene: Formic acid: Methanol in the ratio of 5.5:3:1:0.5 v/v/v/v was used for stigmasterol and quercetin, and 5:2:1:0.2 v/v/v/v for psoralen and niloticin. The scanning was performed at 386 and 299 nm. Linear regression analysis showed a good linear range of 100–500 ng per spot. The highest content of quercetin (0.02%) in Karnataka, and stigmasterol (0.081%), psoralen (0.035%), niloticin (0.033%) was found in sample of Uttar Pradesh. The proposed method is precise, reliable and reproducible. The method is selective and can be used for routine analysis of quercetin, stigmasterol, psoralen and niloticin in various crude drugs and extracts that contain these compounds as active ingredients.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Morphophysiology and Yield Variability of Fieldpea Genotypes in Rainfed
Rice Fallows

Abstract: Abstract The sustainable intensification of rice fallows starts with identification suitable crop/genotype and resource conservation technologies. Therefore, we evaluated nine fieldpea genotypes under zero-tilled (ZT) rainfed condition after harvesting rice. Tall genotypes (‘IPF 12-7’ and ‘IPF 12-20’) matured within 102–107 days, while dwarf genotypes (‘IPFD 10-13’, ‘IPFD 14-2’) matured within 95–99 days. ‘IPFD 10-13’ and ‘IPFD 14-2’ had the higher normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values (0.69 to 0.72) (p < 0.05). Also, these genotypes had significantly higher relative water content (8.5–13.4%), chlorophyll content (27.4–33.8%), and nitrogen balance index (8.4–14.9%) over the ‘IPF 12-7’ (national check). ‘IPFD 10-13’ and ‘IPFD 14-2’ had higher grain yield (mean of 2 years: 1.12–1.15 t/ha) than other genotypes (p < 0.05). Distinctiveness versus representativeness and mean versus stability analysis revealed consistency of ‘IPFD 10-13’, ‘IPFD 14-2’, and ‘IPF 10-13’ over years. Therefore, ‘IPFD 10-13’, ‘IPFD 14-2’, and ‘IPF 10-13’ could be successfully grown in the rainfed rice fallows for intensification.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Floral Position and Subtending Leaves Influence Crossing Success in
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Abstract: Abstract The study aimed to investigate the influence of maturity scales of subtending leaves (STL) [i.e. fully-developed STL (FDSTL), fully-emerged but not fully-developed STL (FESTL), and immature STL that not even fully emerged (IMSTL)] and STL pruning [no pruning and half-pruning of STL] on hybrid pod setting in chickpea. A total of 12,266 flower buds were manually crossed to determine hybrid pod setting as influenced by STL maturity scale with or without source-limiting (half-pruning) conditions. The highest hybrid pod setting was recorded in FDSTL (31–34%) followed by 10–12% in FESTL and only 2–3% in IMSTL. The half-pruning of STL reduced hybrid pod setting in FDSTL and IMSTL (p < 0.05). Likewise, pruning of STL reduced self-pod setting except for FDSTL. STL maturity scales significantly influenced pod size and seeds pod−1, which followed the order FDSTL > FESTL > IMSTL (p < 0.05). Thus, the results suggested that the selection of the early flower buds adjacent to FDSTL could improve crossing success in chickpea.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

Flora

Abstract: Abstract Skurbuchan is one of the largest and most populated village located around 125 km from the main city (Leh) of Ladakh, situated on the bank of Indus river in western side. The village is relative warmer than the rest of Leh. The region holds a diverse array of herbs, shrubs and trees like species of Mentha, Iris, seabuckthorn (Hippophae), wild rose (Rosa webbina) Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Salix, Mulberry (Morus alba) etc. Interestingly, the region is home to a variant of Prunus not reported till date from Ladakh. Growing naturally in the said village only, the plants are qualitatively and quantitatively differ from the rest of Prunus species. The morphological traits of the plants were quantified and the same were compared with other subspecies of genus Prunus such as P. domestica and P. salicina. The comparison revealed the resemblance of present plant species to Prunus domestica subspecies italic. The present communication, therefore, puts forth the record of P. domestica subsp. italic (Greengage) from Ladakh, India. The taxon holds strong relevance to the village of its occurrence; that is “Skurbuchan”.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Satellite-Based Detection of Noctiluca Bloom in the Coastal Waters of the
South-eastern Arabian Sea: A Case Study Implicating Monitoring Needs

Abstract: Abstract The south-western coast of India recently witnessed an intense bloom of green Noctiluca scintillans (NS) that resulted in water discolouration, scummy surface layer, bioluminescent tides, and mass fish mortality. The Algal Bloom Information Service (ABIS) of the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services could efficiently provide information on the spatial extent of the bloom from its occurrence to disintegration. The initiation of the bloom was evidenced on 30 November, attained its peak on 12 December, and waned on 21 December 2021 with chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.42, 3.01, and 0.33 mg m−3, respectively, and with NS spread area of 3888, 10,608, and 48 Sq Km, respectively. Based on the information generated from ABIS, this manuscript addresses the ecosystem-disrupting algal bloom event and reiterates the need for autonomous coastal water quality observatories as a suitable alternative to field measurements to trace out the underlying factors responsible for the blooms and resultant harmful impacts on the ecosystem.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• First Record and Floristic Inventory of a Rare Low-Level Basalt Mesa in
the Western Ghats of India

Abstract: Abstract Rock outcrops are habitats possessing large areas of exposed bare rock and extreme environmental conditions. In the biodiversity hotspot of Western Ghats, three types of rock outcrops are known: lateritic outcrops at high (HLF) and low altitude (LLF), and basalt outcrops at high altitudes (BM). Apart from these types, one study mentioned the possibility of a fourth rare type: low altitude basalt outcrop. However, previous studies did not report occurrence of such an outcrop. In this study, we report a low altitude basalt outcrop (Manjare, Maharashtra), document its vegetation and compare it with the other three types of outcrops. We recorded 76 taxa belonging to 24 families. Families Poaceae, Leguminosae and Cyperaceae were species-rich. Vegetation comparison with the other three outcrop types revealed that maximum species (76%) were shared with LLF, followed by HLF (62%) and BM (59%). A cluster analysis based on species occurrence using the Sørensen dissimilarity index showed that the Manjare outcrop separates from high altitude outcrops (HLF and BM) at the first level and from LLFs at the second level. Manjare supports a unique combination of species composition from HLF, LLF and BM, which offers a system to study species interactions and their relationship with the environment.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Hedyotis manasensis (Rubiaceae), A New Species From Assam, India

Abstract: Abstract A new species Hedyotis manasensis, from Assam, is described and illustrated. The complete description with colour plate is provided for easy identification. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered as per IUCN.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• TXOP Tuning-based Channel Access Scheme for Performance Enhancement of
IEEE 802.11ah Multi-rate NOMA-IoT Networks

Abstract: Abstract In this letter, we propose a transmission opportunity (TXOP) tuning-based channel access scheme to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11ah multi-rate NOMA-IoT networks. We consider the multi-rate NOMA-IoT network, which utilizes distributed coordination function (DCF) with restricted access window (RAW) mechanism at the data link layer and NOMA at the physical layer. We present an analytical model, and from the results, we observed that IEEE 802.11ah multi-rate NOMA-IoT network with the proposed channel access scheme provides significant improvement in throughput and connectivity compared to conventional IEEE 802.11ah multi-rate network. The proposed scheme gives enhanced throughput gain of 278.38% for N=1200 devices than IEEE 802.11ah NOMA-IoT network. The analytical results are validated with simulations.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Oversampled Two-dimensional Deep Learning Model for Septenary
Classification of Skin Lesion Disease

Abstract: Abstract Among all the types of cancer, skin cancer is one of the deadliest and its rise has been globally alarming. While this is curable with early detection, we have limited number of specialists and methodologies that can recognize this disease accurately. As trained specialists are limited, recognition of skin cancer and their classification into seven classes, viz., melanoma, dermatofibroma, basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, benign keratosis, melanocytic nevi, vascular lesions, is relatively difficult. Towards this goal the authors have proposed an automated system which uses deep learning techniques using convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect and classify skin lesion images. The system is evaluated using 3 instances in which the model is trained for 7 classes in 3 instances. A sequential model helps in efficient detection and classification of the skin lesions into 7 different types. Among the 3 models trained and tested, an accuracy of 58% is achieved in under-sampled dataset. The average sampled dataset’s model and the over-sampled dataset’s model were the best performing model with highest accuracies of 83.42 and 94.37%, respectively.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Effect of Fiber Anisotropy and Interphase on the Stress Jumps Across the
Fiber/Matrix Interface in Fuzzy Fiber Composites

Abstract: Abstract Designing the interphase region in conventional fiber-reinforced plastics is an efficient strategy to enhance their interfacial and interlaminar properties. The influence of the interphase region on stress concentration surrounding the fiber is systematically studied using finite element (FE) simulations in fuzzy fiber-reinforced composites. Two-phase (fiber/matrix) and three-phase (fiber/interphase/matrix) numerical models are used in FE simulation for comparative analysis. While the matrix is taken as isotropic material, both isotropic and transversely isotropic fibers are considered in numerical simulations. Two types of interphase regions: (1) interphase having a constant modulus and (2) graded interphase with varying modulus across the thickness are studied. The predictions from FE simulations are validated with the analytical results obtained from the rule of mixtures approach. FE simulations show that the presence of interphase increases the stiffness of the representative volume element (RVE) and reduces the stress concentration around the fiber. Moreover, the graded interphase is more effective in reducing the stress jump at the fiber/matrix interface in comparison with the interphase having a constant modulus.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Higher-Order Finite Element Analysis of Skew Plate on Elastic Foundation

Abstract: Abstract Static analysis of four-noded thin skewed plate bending element resting on Winkler foundation using a higher-order finite element is presented here. The present formulation has developed a MATLAB code to consider any loading and boundary conditions. Validation of the code is carried out after the convergence study. Compared to other researchers, the results show excellent agreement. The central deflection and bending moment have been obtained parametrically for the different aspect ratios, skew angle, and foundation coefficients. The results are presented in tabular and graphical formats. The present formulation fits effectively into the analysis of skew plates on Winkler foundations with a reasonable convergence rate and accuracy. It is worth noting that, even with the usual mesh pattern, perfect convergence for deflection and moment values is attained for Morley’s acute skew plate.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

• Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth: A Potential Plant for Conserving Insect
Pollinators in Shivalik Foot Hills of Himalaya

Abstract: Abstract Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth, a tropical evergreen hardy shrub, was studied in foot hills of Shivalik range of Himalaya. This study revealed that a total of 30 insect species belonging to orders Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera visited this plant, with Simpson’s diversity index (SDI) of 0.94. The Shannon–Wiener index (H’) was 1.25 (morning), 1.28 (afternoon) and 1.31 (evening) showing upmost diversity with high abundance of pollinators for foraging on this plant whole day and also visitor species were evenly distributed. Peak foraging activity of visitors was found during afternoon (12.00–1.00 pm) with Apis mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea bees more interactive species. The weather parameters had a low and non-significant impact on insect visitation. This plant produces both pollen and nectar with profuse flowering to attract and sustain foraging activity. Thus, this plant can be recommended for conserving and augmenting the insect pollinators for enhancing pollination support in farming landscapes.
PubDate: 2023-04-01

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