A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
The Scientific World Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.375
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1537-744X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [340 journals]
  • Understanding the Association of Self-Efficacy, Mood, and Demographics
           with Physical Activity in Syrian and Iraqi Refugees: A Cross-Sectional
           Study in Jordan

    • Abstract: Objective. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the influence of sociodemographic factors on physical activity among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. In addition, it sought to determine the predictive ability of self-efficacy and mood in relation to the level of physical activity in this population. Methods. A convenient sample of refugees residing in Jordanian cities was collected. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire pack consisting of a demographic data sheet, a physical activity level questionnaire, the Brunel Mood Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze demographic details, while the chi-square test examined the association between physical activity and demographic factors. The independent t-test assessed differences in self-efficacy and mood subscales in relation to physical activity. Logistic regression analysis was employed to identify potential predictors of the two categories of physical activity. Results. Most participants reported low levels of physical activity. The frequency of moderate-to-high physical activity was higher in male participants, those with higher education, better health, and higher income. Compared to participants of low physical activity, those in the moderate-to-high physical activity category expressed significantly higher mean score of self-efficacy but lower mean scores of tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion, indicating better mood. The logistic regression analysis for physical activity indicated that the model was significant for education, income, good health perception, self-efficacy, and one mood subscale (vigor), with these variables collectively accounting for 11–18% of the variance ( value
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2023 12:05:01 +000
  • Molecular Docking Study of the C-10 Massoia Lactone Compound as an
           Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agent against Candida tropicalis

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is now considered a global health problem because it reduces the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the highest mortality rate is associated with infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, with approximately 700,000 deaths worldwide each year. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of C-10 massoia lactone to inhibit the growth of fungi and C. tropicalis biofilm, and molecular docking studies were performed to determine the nature of the inhibition. The study was conducted using the microdilution method for antifungal and antibiofilm testing and designed with a molecular docking approach. Furthermore, an analysis using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed to evaluate the mechanism of effect. The results obtained showed that C-10 massoia lactone can inhibit the growth of fungi by 84.21% w/v. Meanwhile, the growth of C. tropicalis biofilm in the intermediate phase was 80.23% w/v and in the mature phase was 74.23% w/v. SEM results showed that C-10 massoia lactone damaged the EPS matrix of C. tropicalis so that hyphal formation was hindered due to damage to fungal cells, resulting in a decrease in attachment, density, and lysis of C. tropicalis fungal cells. Based on molecular docking tests, C-10 massoia lactone was able to inhibit biofilm formation without affecting microbial growth, while docking C-10 massoia lactone showed a significant binding and has the potential as an antifungal agent. In conclusion, the C-10 massoia lactone compound has the potential as an antibiofilm against C. tropicalis, so it can become a new antibiofilm agent.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2023 12:05:01 +000
  • Internet Addiction and Sleep Disorders among Medical Students

    • Abstract: Background. Considering the increasing use of the Internet in Iranian society, especially among students, and the importance of sleep quality, the present study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and Internet addiction among medical students in Shiraz. Methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample included students of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were selected by a multistage sampling method in 2018. Each faculty was considered to be stratified, and the samples were selected from all strata by simple random sampling. A total of 400 student questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The level of sleep disturbance was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate Internet addiction. Cronbach’s alpha for PSQI and IAT was 0.77 and 0.93, respectively. Results. 109 (%28.9) and 58 (%14.4) of all the people under study were at risk of Internet addiction or poor sleep quality, respectively. The highest percentage of poor sleep quality was in those who were addicted to the Internet (60%), but the lowest percentage was observed in the group without addiction (27%). In addition, there was a significant correlation between Internet addiction and subjective sleep quality (r = 0.191,  = 0.05), sleep latency (r = 0.129,  = 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.119,  = 0.01), habitual sleep efficiency (r = 0.186,  = 0.05), sleep disturbances (r = 0.169,  = 0.01), use of sleeping medication (r = 0.203,  = 0.05), and daytime dysfunction (r = 0.188,  = 0.05). Conclusion. These findings help national health officials and planners in Iran to design appropriate and effective interventions to improve students’ health and prevent Internet addiction.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Sep 2023 10:05:01 +000
  • Application of Protein-Protein Interaction Network Analysis in Order to
           Identify Cervical Cancer miRNA and mRNA Biomarkers

    • Abstract: Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the world’s most common and severe cancers. This cancer includes two histological types: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). The current study aims at identifying novel potential candidate mRNA and miRNA biomarkers for SCC based on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) and miRNA-mRNA network analysis. The current project utilized a transcriptome profile for normal and SCC samples. First, the PPI network was constructed for the 1335 DEGs, and then, a significant gene module was extracted from the PPI network. Next, a list of miRNAs targeting module’s genes was collected from the experimentally validated databases, and a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was formed. After network analysis, four driver genes were selected from the module’s genes including MCM2, MCM10, POLA1, and TONSL and introduced as potential candidate biomarkers for SCC. In addition, two hub miRNAs, including miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p, were selected from the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and reported as possible candidate biomarkers. In summary, six potential candidate RNA-based biomarkers consist of four genes containing MCM2, MCM10, POLA1, and TONSL, and two miRNAs containing miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p are opposed as potential candidate biomarkers for CC.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:35:00 +000
  • Silver Nanoparticles as an Intracanal Medicament: A Scoping Review

    • Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) release Ag ions with potent bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects. They have shown promising results as an intracanal medicament for removing Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a resistant bacterium associated with root canal failures. This review summarizes the role of AgNPs as an intracanal medicament. Original research articles on AgNPs as an intracanal medicament were searched in databases such as MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Embase, resulting in 24 studies. They showed that AgNPs effectively eliminated E. faecalis and reduced postoperative pain following root canal therapy. However, these effects should be further verified through clinical trials as most of the studies were in vitro.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2023 12:20:01 +000
  • MC1R Gene Variants and Their Relationship with Coat Color in South
           American Camelids

    • Abstract: In domestic camelids, fleece color is an essential characteristic because it defines the direction of production. Variants were determined in the MC1R gene that showed a relationship with coat color in alpacas and llamas at the level of the coding region. This report sequenced the MC1R gene from 290 alpacas (142 white, 84 black, 50 brown, and 14 light fawn), five brown llamas, nine vicuñas, and three guanacos to analyze the association between coat color and the MC1R gene among South American camelids. A total of nineteen polymorphisms were identified. Seven polymorphisms were significant; three of them were of nonsynonymous type (c.82A > G, c.376G > A, and c.901C > T), two were of synonymous type (c.126 T > C and c.933G > A), one was in the promoter region (−42C > G), and one was in the 3′ UTR (+5T > C). More polymorphisms were found in domestic camelids than in wild camelids. Besides polymorphism, the association of polymorphisms might cause white and dark pigmentation in the fleece of South American camelids. In addition, the MC1R protein would answer the pigmentation in alpacas.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2023 09:50:00 +000
  • Determinants of Stock Theft and Its Implication on Household Dietary
           Diversity in Semiarid Regions of Zimbabwe: Case of Gwanda District

    • Abstract: Stock theft is a major threat to livestock production in Africa and has been on the rise in recent years. Zimbabwe is no exception. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that contribute to stock theft in rural areas. The study used a mixed research design. The study was limited to wards 20 and 24 of Gwanda district of Matabeleland South Province. The linear regression model was used to analyze the factors that affected stock theft in rural areas. The majority (57.1%) of the interviewed household heads were males and aged below 50 years (55.8%) with an average household size of 5 members. On average, each household owned 5 cattle, 2 sheep, 17 goats, 4 donkeys, and 5 chicken. The participants kept livestock mainly for income generation, source of school fees, draught power, meat, milk, manure, and eggs. The major causes of livestock loss apart from stock theft were drought, disease outbreaks, trapped in mine holes, and predators. All the respondents practiced livestock identification which includes branding, ear notching, and the use of ear tags. The most vulnerable livestock species to stock theft were goats, cattle, donkeys, sheep, and chicken. Stock theft mostly takes place before midday and on Mondays and Wednesdays. It is at its peak levels in January and November. Goats and donkeys were the main stolen livestock species. The stolen livestock is mostly sold to meat processors. The distance from the border, the use of livestock identification tags, the total number of livestock units owned by the household, and the day of the week were significant in influencing the intensity of stock theft (). Stock theft does not directly affect household dietary diversity () because rural households do not use livestock for their nutritional benefit, particularly goats, sheep, and cattle. Thus, if dietary diversity is taken as a proxy for food security, it can be concluded that stock theft does not significantly affect the household’s food security status. Working in groups through neighborhood watch committees, livestock branding, tending livestock which reduces the time that the livestock roam freely unattended, and assisting the police with investigations whenever there is a case of stock theft were identified as important mitigation strategies. At the service provider level, it was suggested that the law enforcing needed to increase its efficiency to mitigate stock theft.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Aug 2023 04:05:01 +000
  • SARS-CoV-2 Prediction Strategy Based on Classification Algorithms from a
           Full Blood Examination

    • Abstract: A fast and efficient diagnosis of serious infectious diseases, such as the recent SARS-CoV-2, is necessary in order to curb both the spread of existing variants and the emergence of new ones. In this regard and recognizing the shortcomings of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT), strategic planning in the public health system is required. In particular, helping researchers develop a more accurate diagnosis means to distinguish patients with symptoms with COVID-19 from other common infections is what is needed. The aim of this study was to train and optimize the support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifiers to rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2 (positive/negative) patients through a simple complete blood test without any prior knowledge of the patient’s health state or symptoms. After applying both models to a sample of patients at Israelita Albert Einstein at São Paulo, Brazil (solely for two examined groups of patients’ data: “regular ward” and “not admitted to the hospital”), it was found that both provided early and accurate detection, based only on a selected blood profile via the statistical test of dependence (ANOVA test). The best performance was achieved by the improved SVM technique on nonhospitalized patients, with precision, recall, accuracy, and AUC values reaching 94%, 96%, 95%, and 99%, respectively, which supports the potential of this innovative strategy to significantly improve initial screening.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2023 10:35:01 +000
  • A Single-Center Experience of Correlation of Pulse Pressure to Mortality
           of Stroke Hemorrhage Patients in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Introduction. The relationship between pulse pressure and mortality in acute stroke hemorrhage patients is a subject of debate. To investigate this relationship in the Indonesian context, a study was conducted due to the increasing prevalence of stroke in the country. Methods. The study sample consisted of 111 patients with acute stroke hemorrhage admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019. Patients with sepsis, cancer, or other hematology disorders were excluded, as were those who were lost to follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22, and correlations were evaluated between various patient characteristics and laboratory values. Results. It was revealed that patients with a wider pulse pressure were more likely to die (adjusted odds ratio = 3,070) than those with a normal or constricted pulse pressure. Conclusion. Pulse pressure had an impact on the mortality of patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Aug 2023 03:50:15 +000
  • Computational Identification of Most Deleterious Missense Mutations in
           Human PD-1 Gene

    • Abstract: Traditional cancer treatment approaches are often hindered by the presence of toxic side effects and the high rate of relapse observed in treated organs. In contrast, novel immunotherapeutic strategies targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors, particularly PD-1, have demonstrated promising results with minimal adverse effects. However, the emergence of immunotherapeutic-resistant tumors, predominantly caused by intrinsic mutations, poses a significant obstacle to successful treatment outcomes. Consequently, the primary objective of this study was to screen for the most detrimental missense mutations in the PD-1 gene associated with immunotherapeutic resistance. To achieve this aim, a comprehensive screening process utilizing 20 web servers, incorporating both sequence- and structure-based methodologies, was undertaken. Through meticulous analysis and mutual disease association sorting, four specific missense mutations were successfully identified. These mutations, namely, R38C, D61V, R94C, and D117V, emerged as the leading contributors to genetic cancer progression and immunotherapeutic resistance against PD-1 blockers. The findings presented in this study are supported by multiple lines of evidence. A thorough examination of protein topology, structural alignment, docking interactions with PD-L1, and protein flexibility collectively confirmed the pathogenic nature of these sorted mutations. By considering these various aspects, we have gained a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving immunotherapeutic resistance. In conclusion, the comprehensive screening process undertaken in this study has successfully identified R38C, D61V, R94C, and D117V as the primary mutations contributing to genetic cancer progression and immunotherapeutic resistance against PD-1 blockers. The integration of protein topology analysis, structural alignment, docking studies with PD-L1, and assessment of protein flexibility have collectively provided robust evidence to support the pathogenic significance of these mutations.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Aug 2023 05:35:00 +000
  • Diversity and Relative Abundance of Avian Species in the Wetland Area
           Northwest of Lake Abaya, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Studies on the diversity and relative abundance of birds are crucial for improving wetland bird conservation in Ethiopia. The current study aimed at investigating the diversity and relative abundance of avian species in the wetland area around Lake Abaya’s northwest tip in southern Ethiopia due to the lack of previous studies that were conducted in the area. A line transect method was applied to determine the avian species in the area. A total of eight line transects were established along the banks. Using encounter rates, which provide crude ordinal scales of abundance, the relative abundance of avian species was calculated. In the intended habitat, Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H′) were employed to analyze the diversity of avian species. During the study period, a total of 34 bird species belonging to 18 families and 12 orders were recorded. Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae were the two most dominant families. In this study, 13 bird species were frequent, four were common, four were rare, one was uncommon, and 10 had abundant records. The highest species diversity (H′ = 3.40), species evenness (0.093), and Margalef’s richness index (N = 30) were recorded during the months of June, July, and May, respectively. The lowest species diversity (H′ = 3.13), evenness (0.088), and Margalef’s richness index (N = 23) were all recorded during the month of February. The present findings will provide relevant information to the concerned bodies and policymakers to take appropriate conservation measures for wetland birds.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Aug 2023 05:20:01 +000
  • Assessment of the Antivirulence Potential of Tamarix aphylla Ethanolic
           Extract against Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus mutans Isolated from
           Iraqi Patients

    • Abstract: Halophytes have long been used for medicinal purposes. However, their use was entirely empirical, with no knowledge of the bioactive compounds. The plant Tamarix aphylla L. has not drawn the deserving attention for its phytochemical and bioactive explorations, but available data expressed its needs to be attended for its potential. The Streptococcus mutans SpaP gene (cell-surface antigen) mediates the binding of these bacteria to tooth surfaces. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance triggered the research on alternative antimicrobial approaches. Our study aims to explore the activity of T. aphylla ethanolic extract against the virulence gene found in Streptococcus mutans pathogenic bacteria. Samples that were previously collected and identified in our previous work (in press) were obtained from different dental clinics and hospitals in Baghdad. Three nonbiofilm-forming bacterial isolates having multidrug resistance (MDR) for 10 antibiotics (doxycycline, ofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, rifampicin, imipenem, amikacin, and cefepime) were selected to examine the potential of the T. aphylla ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract showed high antimicrobial activity against MDR. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) for the extract was 17.5 mg/ml, while minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 35 mg/ml. The phytochemical compounds present in the ethanolic extract were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which revealed that the leaves contain thirteen different alkaloids, twelve flavonoids, and four vitamins. The extract strongly inhibited a virulence property, the adherence of S. mutans which reduced during critical growth phases. The one-step RT-PCR method was used to study the SpaP gene expression of bacterial isolates which significantly reduced. In conclusion, extraction of T. aphylla leaves showed an antimicrobial effect against MDR S. mutans. The identified phytochemicals in the T. aphylla extract are reported to be biologically important and need further investigation to develop safe and cheap drugs.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Aug 2023 09:20:00 +000
  • Students’ Perceptions on Online Clinical Learning amid the COVID-19
           Pandemic in an Institution of Higher Learning: A Qualitative Inquiry

    • Abstract: Institutions of learning have been disrupted globally with serious implications for clinical teaching for students of health professions. The purpose of our study was to explore the perceptions of students towards online clinical teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic at Fatima College of Health Sciences. This was a descriptive qualitative study conducted on a purposive sample of 25 students from 24 June to 30 August 2020. The sample size was determined by data saturation. These were mainly nursing students in their 2nd to the 4th years of study. Students are required to have experiences, of stipulated nature and duration, in various specialty clinical settings throughout the clinical years of their programs. Approval for the study was granted by the Fatima College Research Ethics Committee (approval number: INTSTF010BSN20). The research was conducted according to the requirements of the Declaration of Helsinki. Data were collected through online semistructured questionnaires. Prospective participants were sent a soft copy of the informed consent document, and consent was indicated by clicking an “agree” link on the page that took them to the questionnaire. All participants were informed of their freedom to either participate in the study or not, without any penalty and were assured of their confidentiality. The questionnaires were kept in a password-protected file to which the researchers had sole access. Manual thematic analysis was done following the stages of organisation, familiarisation, transcription, coding, developing a thematic framework, indexing, displaying, and reporting. The major themes identified were the unfamiliar experience, challenges of online clinical learning, and possible solutions. Challenges of online clinical learning are multifaceted and require concerted multidisciplinary efforts to resolve. Nursing institutions, ours included, must develop flexible education systems that will be able to thrive in crisis and other unforeseeable circumstances.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2023 09:05:00 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) on Antibiotic Use and Disposal

    • Abstract: Antibiotic resistance has been among the top public health threats elsewhere. Scientific information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) at the community level towards antibiotic use and disposal ways is a vital step for effective intervention. This study aimed at determining the levels of KAP and associated risk factors for antibiotics in and around Hawassa City, southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used to analyze and interpret the results. A total of 504 participants with a mean age of 35.32 ± 9.03 years were included in the study. Most of the participants were urban dwellers (59.5%); more than half (55.6%) of the participants were male; most of the participants (62.7%) were at least college graduates; about half were employed (52.4%); about 41.7% of the participants had a large family size (≥7) with a mean family size of 5.7 ± 2.7; the average family monthly income was ETB 7213.71 ± 3673, and over three-fourth (74.8%) of the study participants were married. In addition, about 83.13% of the study participants heard about antibiotics; almost all of them (99.8%) had ever used antibiotics at some point in their life (75% of which used antibiotics within 6 months), and all of them could name at least one common type of antibiotic. Moreover, most of the participants (86.5%) did not receive any training related to antibiotics, and 29.4% of them obtained antibiotics without a prescription. Most participants had poor knowledge (64%), negative attitudes (60.4%), and poor practices (55%) towards antibiotic use, resistance, and disposal methods. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.539, ), knowledge-practice (r = 0.532, ), and attitude-practice (r = 0.786, ) were also observed. Most of the sociodemographic variables were significantly associated with the mean KAP scores of the study participants. Living in a rural area, having a large family size, and being female, married, illiterate, and farmer resulted in a very low level of knowledge. Similarly, living in a rural area, having a small family size, and being older and married resulted in a negative attitude. Furthermore, having a smaller family size, having a low family monthly income, and being married, illiterate, and self-employed resulted in poor practice. A very low level of KAP towards antibiotics among people living in and around Hawassa City calls for urgent and effective intervention strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2023 12:20:01 +000
  • Shared Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and
           Cancer: Evidence for Joint Prevention

    • Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and are the major focus of the World Health Organization’s joint prevention programs. While, diverse diseases, CVD and cancer, have many similarities. These include common lifestyle-related risk factors and shared environmental, metabolic, cellular, inflammatory, and genetic pathways. In this review, we will discuss the shared lifestyle-related and environmental risk factors central to both diseases and how the strategies commonly used to prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease can be applied to cancer prevention.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Jul 2023 04:35:01 +000
  • Fractionation and Antibacterial Evaluation of the Surface Compounds from
           the Leaves of Combretum zeyheri on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    • Abstract: Combretum zeyheri is traditionally used for the treatment of many infections, including bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to fractionate and evaluate antibacterial activity of the crude extract of C. zeyheri, as well as the surface compounds from the leaves of C. zeyheri, in two pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activities of fractions obtained from chromatographic separations were determined using broth microdilution assay on the laboratory and clinical strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The fractionation of the compounds on the leaf surface yielded 262 fractions. The fractionated compounds with similar TLC profiles were pooled together to yield 47 pools. The extract and pooled fractions CZSC151154, CZSC155160, and CZSC209213 showed significant antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 12.5 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. The clinical strain of S. aureus had MIC greater than 100 μg/ml for CZSC151154 and CZSC155160. The minimum bactericidal concentration values for these fractions were also in the range of 12.5 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. The extract and fractions CZSC151154, CZSC155160, and CZSC209213 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of growth in S. aureus. Analyses of the CZSC209213 pool by LC-MS showed the presence of nine compounds which are (3R,7R)-1,3,7-octanetriol, (-)-tortuosamine, 11-aminoundecanoic acid, 1-piperidinecarboxaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol 3-glucoside, hydroxy-isocaproic acid, oleamide, palmitic amide, phytospingosine, and sphinganine. In conclusion, C. zeyheri leaf surface compounds exhibited antibacterial activity. The crude extract and the pooled fractions showed concentration-dependent inhibition of growth on S. aureus. Results from this study indicate the potential of C. zeyheri as a source of lead compounds that may be further developed into antibacterial drugs.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jul 2023 05:50:01 +000
  • The Validity and Reliability of Automatic Tooth Segmentation Generated
           Using Artificial Intelligence

    • Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the precision of the segmented tooth model (STM) that was produced by the artificial intelligence (AI) program (CephX®) with an intraoral scan (IOS) and insignia outcomes. Methods. 10 patients with Cl I malocclusion (mild-to-moderate crowding) who underwent nonextraction orthodontic therapy with the Insignia™ system had IOS and CBCT scans taken before treatment. AI was used to produce a total of 280 STMs; each tooth will be measured from three aspects (apexo-occlusal, mesiodistal, and labiolingual) for DICOM and STL formats. Also, root volume measurements for each tooth generated by using the CephX® software and Insignia™ system were compared. The software used for these measurements was the OnDemand3D program used for the multiplanar reconstruction for DICOM format and Geomagic® Control X™ used for STL format. Statistics. An intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis was used to check the agreement between the volume measurement of the segmented teeth generated by using the CephX® and Insignia™ system. Also, it was used to check the agreement between the STL (IOS), STL (CephX®), and DICOM tooth models. In addition, it was used to determine the intraexaminer repeatability by remeasuring five randomly selected individuals two weeks after the initial measurement. After confirmation of the data normality using the Shapiro–Wilk test, the right and left tooth models and the differences between the DICOM, CephX® (STL), and IOS (STL) tooth models were compared using a paired t-test. The STL (IOS), STL (CephX®), and DICOM tooth models were compared utilizing the ANOVA test. was set as the statistical significance level. Result. Overall data showed good agreement with ICC. The measurements of the various tooth types on the right and left sides did not differ significantly. Also, there was no significant difference between the three groups. Conclusions. The automatic AI approach (CephX®) may be advised in the clinical practice for patients with mild crowding and no teeth restorations due to its speed and effectiveness.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2023 08:05:00 +000
  • Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition and Associated Health Benefits
           of Oat (Avena sativa) Grains and Oat-Based Fermented Food Products

    • Abstract: Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a popular functional cereal grain due to their numerous health benefits. This review article summarized the information on the chemical composition and phytonutrients of oats grown in different countries. It also reviewed recently developed fermented oat products to highlight their potential for human health. Oats have an interesting nutritional profile that includes high-quality protein, unsaturated fats, soluble fiber, polyphenolic compounds, and micronutrients. Oat grain has a unique protein composition, with globulins serving as the primary storage protein, in contrast to other cereals, where prolamins are the main storage proteins. Oats have the highest fat content of any cereal, with low saturated fatty acids and high essential unsaturated fatty acid content, which can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Oats are a good source of soluble dietary fiber, particularly β-glucan, which has outstanding functional properties and is extremely important in human nutrition. β-Glucan has been shown to lower blood cholesterol and glucose absorption in the intestine, thereby preventing diseases such as cardiovascular injury, dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammatory state, and type 2 diabetes. Oats also contain high concentration of antioxidant compounds. Avenanthramides, which are unique to oats, are powerful antioxidants with high antioxidative activity in humans. Recognizing the nutritional benefits of oats, oat-based fermented food products are gaining popularity as functional foods with high probiotic potential.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2023 11:50:02 +000
  • Modulating Effects of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Persicaria
           lanigera R. Br. Soják (Polygonaceae) against Acute Inflammation

    • Abstract: Plant species have been used traditionally to treat numerous inflammatory disorders because of their known medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Persicaria lanigera using acute inflammatory models. The safety profile of the Persicaria lanigera extract was assessed using an acute toxicity model. The anti-inflammatory effect of the Persicaria lanigera leaf extract (100–600 mg·kg−1, p.o.) was studied in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, zymosan-induced knee joint arthritis, and histamine-induced paw oedema in Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 5). It was observed that the Persicaria lanigera leaf extract administered prophylactically significantly inhibited paw oedema from 99.01 ± 12.59 to 59.10 ± 4.94%, 56.08 ± 3.65%, and 48.62 ± 3.27% at 100 mg·kg−1, 300 mg·kg−1, and 600 mg·kg−1, while the standard drug, aspirin, showed 41.84 ± 9.25% in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, respectively. Furthermore, the extract decreased knee joint inflammation significantly from 62.43 ± 5.73% to 32.07 ± 2.98% and 24.33 ± 8.58% at 300 mg·kg−1 and 600 mg·kg−1 in zymosan-induced knee joint inflammation, respectively. In the histamine-induced paw oedema model, the extract significantly inhibited oedema to 61.53 ± 9.17%, 54.21 ± 9.38%, and 54.22 ± 9.37% at the same doses. Aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Persicaria lanigera is safe and attenuates inflammation in acute inflammation models.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2023 05:05:00 +000
  • Socioeconomic Inequalities in Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption: A National
           Ecological Study in Mexican Adolescents

    • Abstract: Alcohol and cigarettes are the psychoactive substances that adolescents use most frequently. When both addictions are combined, they carry the worst burden of disease globally. The objective of this study was to identify whether socioeconomic factors correlate with alcohol and tobacco consumption in Mexican adolescents aged 10 years or more and to establish the relationship in the consumption between the two substances. This ecological study utilized data describing alcohol and tobacco consumption among adolescents aged 10–16 years (n = 48,837 ≈ N = 11,621,100). Having ever consumed any alcohol-containing beverage constituted alcohol consumption. Smoking a cigarette within 30 days constituted cigarette consumption. For both variables, the state-level percentages reported in the survey were used. Diverse socioeconomic variables were collected from official sources. Data on the prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption were entered into an Excel database estimated for each of the states of the Mexican Republic, as well as the socioeconomic variables. We performed the analysis using Stata 14. Consumption prevalence was 15.0% for alcohol and 4.2% for tobacco. Alcohol consumption was not correlated with any studied socioeconomic variable (). The prevalence of tobacco consumption among elementary school students correlated () with the portion of the population living in private dwellings without sewage, drainage, or sanitation (r = 0.3853). The prevalence of tobacco consumption among middle-school adolescents correlated with the portion of the employed population that earned up to two minimum wages (r = 0.3960), the percentage in poverty by income 2008 (r = 0.4754) and 2010 (r = 0.4531), and the percentage in extreme poverty by income 2008 (r = 0.4612) and 2010 (r = 0.4291). Positive correlations were found between tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption among both elementary (r = 0.5762, ) and middle-school children (r = 0.7016, ). These results suggest that certain socioeconomic factors correlate with tobacco consumption but not alcohol consumption. A correlation between alcohol consumption and tobacco consumption was observed. The results can be used for developing interventions in adolescents.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2023 06:20:01 +000
  • A Radiative Chemical Process for the Methylene Blue Degradation by Natural
           Convective Nanofluid Flow over an Upright Cone

    • Abstract: An upstraight cone with nonisothermal surface velocity, temperature, and concentration was investigated using a numerical solution approach to simulate MHD, MB dye, and various nanofluid flows. Numerical evaluation of the flow field equation was carried out using an excellent finite difference method after it has been converted into a dimensionless form. Different heat transfer occurrences were observed depending on temperature, velocity, and concentration when using several types of nanofluids (TiO, Ag, Cu, and ). The amount of MB dye that was degraded by the synthesized nanofluids under the influence of sunlight irradiation was 81.40 percent as a catalyst (carbon nanodots). The parametric analysis of various features of flow fields has been shown using graphs. It was observed that heat is generated from the cone during the sun light irradiation reaction, heat is transferred to MB dye containing nanofluids, and heat interacts with nanofluids and is involved in the chemical reaction with the assistance of electrons. As MB dye degrades in the absence of catalysts (carbon nanodots), it is only 52 percent effective. MB dye is degraded at 81.40 percent, then becomes stable, and takes 120 minutes to degrade in nanofluids containing MB dye with catalysts (carbon nanodots).
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 07:20:01 +000
  • Stress Factors, Stress Levels, and Coping Mechanisms among University

    • Abstract: Aims. To explore university students’ levels of stress, stressors, and their coping style. Methods. A cross-sectional correlational design with a convenience sample (n = 676) of university students who completed the Student-Life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Coping Strategies Indicator (CSI) was used. Findings. Overall, two-thirds of the participant reported moderate levels of stress. Students with chronic illness, living alone, low CGPA, and having exams today experienced a statistically higher mean level of stress. Students who are living alone used the “avoidance” method more significantly and the “social support” method significantly less compared with students who are living with their families and friends. Conclusion. This study concurs with others that university students are prone to distress. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the region to explore the students’ coping skills. Some of the employed coping and associated factors could be used to lay the groundwork for evidence-based prevention and mitigation.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jun 2023 06:35:01 +000
  • Evaluation of Single-Shade Composite Resin Color Matching on Extracted
           Human Teeth

    • Abstract: Introduction. Universal single-shade composite resins are characterized by a property that enables the creation of restorations that mimic tooth structure to the extent possible with fewer shades of color. Objectives. This study aimed to instrumentally and visually evaluate the color correspondence of two single-shade composite resins in extracted human teeth multishade composite resins. Methods. Upper central incisors and upper and/or lower molars with intact buccal surfaces were selected. The study consisted of a control group (n = 20): Z250 XT (3M ESPE) (G1) multishade composite resin in colors A1 to A4, and a test group (n = 20) divided further into two equal groups, consisting of single-shade composite resin Omnichroma (Tokuyama Dental) (G2) and single-shade composite resin Vittra APS Unique from (FGM) (G3). Instrumental evaluation was performed using a spectrophotometer, and visual evaluation was performed by three observers. Descriptive measurements related to the differences in color obtained through instrumental means were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, wherein the means were compared using ANOVA, applying the Bonferroni post hoc test. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed among the groups (G1, G2, and G3) (ANOVA: ). For the visual assessment, regardless of the assessment group, 77.49% of the teeth were within the acceptable color-match classification, with the single-shade resins showing better correspondence than the multishade resins. Conclusion. Single-shade composite resins showed different color-matching results when compared to multishade resins, both in spectrophotometry and visual evaluations. Clinical Significance. Single-shade composite resins simplify the shade-selection process and are promising materials for use in dental practice.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jun 2023 10:50:01 +000
  • The Impact of Origanum vulgare Supplementation on Human Asthenozoospermic
           Sperm Parameter Quality

    • Abstract: Male infertility is a complex multifactorial disease and a real health problem; 50% of infertile men have identifiable causes detectable by fundamental sperm analysis. Numerous research studies have shown the possibility of treating abnormal semen samples with some drugs before artificial insemination, yet evidence of the drug’s effectiveness remains minimal. In our previous work, we tested the effectiveness of some essential oils, such as eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) on sperm parameters. The essential oil of oregano showed the best ameliorative effect. In present, we examined the effect of the essential oil of O. vulgare on the physiological parameters and the specific activity of certain antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation rate (MDA), and GAPDH and antioxidant and metabolic biomarkers, characterizing the quality of human sperm. The results showed that in vitro supplementation of oregano significantly improves the mobility and antioxidant activities, without harmful effects on the integrity of the sperm’s DNA, and that the selected concentration of oregano EO is nontoxic and may be considered a therapeutic alternative to heal sperm motility problems in asthenozoospermic patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jun 2023 10:35:00 +000
  • Prediction of Translational Regulation by Network Interaction in Synaptic
           Plasticity Induced with Centella asiatica

    • Abstract: Background. Recently, human life expectancy, aging, and age-related health disorders, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), have increased. The increasing number of AD patients causes a heavy social and economic burden on society. Since there is no treatment for AD, utilization of natural products is currently accepted as an alternative or integrative treatment agent against AD. Methods. Selection of protein databases related to synaptic plasticity was obtained from a gene bank. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis was performed using Cytoscape 3.9.1. Prediction of Centella asiatica target constituents and their relationship with target synaptic plasticity was performed using STITCH, followed by GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and molecular binding of ligands to presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors afterwards. Results. From the protein database, 446 protein coding genes related to synaptic plasticity were found. PPI and KEGG pathway analysis showed potentiality to inhibit AKT and mTORC1 pathways. The targeted proteins were TSC1, Rheb, and FMRP. Conclusion. This study showed potentiality of Centella asiatica in AD through its binding to several proteins such as TSC1, Rheb, and FMRP. This compound in Centella asiatica was able to bind to the AKT1 and mTOR signaling pathways. Centella asiatica may behold greater potency in AD therapy.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jun 2023 06:05:00 +000
  • The Report of Lightning in Himalayan Locale

    • Abstract: A few normal calamities (disasters) as often as possible happen within the Himalayan locale in Nepal. The height of this locale ranges from 59 m to “8848.86 m” along the range of 160 km. As a result, there is a significant variety of temperatures within the locale. In addition, Nepal includes a heterogeneous geography. All these highlights impact different normal fiascos counting the lightning action. This report points at analyzing the varieties of lightning inside and over a long time from January 2011 to present. For this report, the information was taken from the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) portal of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA). The investigation indicated that there was no lightning occasion in November, and the lightning stroke density was higher in the premonsoon period, and the number of harmed individuals was almost three times the number of individuals passing due to the lightning.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jun 2023 11:35:01 +000
  • Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Fruit Pulp
           Extracts of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and Cucurbita maxima Duchesne

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate and compare the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp extracts from Cucurbita moschata (PCMOS) and Cucurbita maxima (PCMAX). Methods. The antidiabetic activity was carried out in vivo by orally and daily giving the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg·b.w. to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino Wistar rats for six weeks. After the period of administration, blood glucose levels, body weight, serum insulin, morphology of islets of Langerhans, biochemical parameters, and haematological values of the rats were determined. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity was carried out in vitro by determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Results. PCMAX significantly () reduced blood glucose levels but increased the body weight, serum insulin levels, size and number of islets of Langerhans, and β-cell number of the treated diabetic rats more than PCMOS did. However, they did not alter biochemical parameters and haematological values of the treated diabetic rats. PCMAX possessed total phenolic and flavonoid contents and showed DPPH scavenging and FRAP reducing antioxidant power more significantly () than PCMOS. Conclusions. According to the obtained results, it is indicated that PCMOS and PCMAX possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. PCMAX possesses more potent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities than PCMOS. These are probably due to PCMAX providing polysaccharide and total phenolic and flavonoid contents more than PCMOS.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jun 2023 11:05:01 +000
  • Effect of Broad-Spectrum Hemp Extract on Neurobehavioral Activity on the
           Immobilization Stress-Induced Model in Sprague Dawley Rats

    • Abstract: Background. Broad-spectrum hemp extract is expected to be a promising new intervention for managing stress and anxiety. Research has shown that the cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa, such as cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabigerol (CBG), possess anxiolytic properties that can positively impact mood and stress. Methods. In the current study, a broad-spectrum, nondetectable THC hemp extract with other minor cannabinoids (broad-spectrum hemp extract) was administered at 28 mg/kg·bw to evaluate its anxiolytic properties. This was performed using various behavioural models and biomarkers for oxidative stress. In addition, a 300 mg/kg·bw of Ashwagandha root extract was also incorporated to compare its effects on relieving stress and anxiety. Results. The decreased levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in broad-spectrum hemp extract (36 nmol/ml), Ashwagandha (37 nmol/ml), and induction control (49 nmol/ml) treated groups of animals. The levels of 2-AG decreased in the broad-spectrum hemp extract (1.5 ng/ml), Ashwagandha (1.2 ng/ml), and induction control (2.3 ng/ml) treated groups of animals. The levels of FAAH decreased in broad-spectrum hemp extract (1.6 ng/ml), Ashwagandha (1.7 ng/ml), and induction control (1.9 ng/ml) treated groups of animals. The levels of catalase increased in broad-spectrum hemp extract (35 ng/ml), Ashwagandha (37 ng/ml), and induction control (17 ng/ml) treated groups of animals. Similarly, increased levels of glutathione were found in broad-spectrum hemp extract (30 ng/ml), Ashwagandha (27 ng/ml), and induction control (16 ng/ml) treated groups of animals. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that broad-spectrum hemp extract inhibited the biomarkers for oxidative stress. Also, certain behavioural parameters showed improvements with respect to both the ingredient administered groups.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Jun 2023 05:35:00 +000
  • Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effects of Ethyl Acetate
           Root Extracts from Vernonia adoensis (Asteraceae) against Pseudomonas

    • Abstract: There is an increase in mortality and morbidity in the health facilities due to nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant nosocomial bacteria; hence, there is a need for new antibacterial agents. Vernonia adoensis has been found to possess medicinal value. Plant phytochemicals may have antimicrobial activity against some resistant pathogens. The antibacterial efficacy of root extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated using the microbroth dilution method. All extracts from the roots had an inhibitory effect on the growth of both bacteria, with the most susceptible being P. aeruginosa. The most potent extract was the ethyl acetate extract which caused a percentage inhibition of 86% against P. aeruginosa. The toxicity of the extract was determined on sheep erythrocytes, and its effect on membrane integrity was determined by quantifying the amount of protein and nucleic acid leakage from the bacteria. The lowest concentration of extract used, which was 100 µg/ml, did not cause haemolysis of the erythrocytes, while at 1 mg/ml of the extract, 21% haemolysis was observed. The ethyl acetate extract caused membrane impairment of P. aeruginosa, leading to protein leakage. The effect of the extract on the biofilms of P. aeruginosa was determined in 96-microwell plates using crystal violet. In the concentration range of 0–100 µg/ml, the extract inhibited the formation of biofilms and decreased the attachment efficiency. The phytochemical constituents of the extract were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results of analysis showed the presence of 3-methylene-15-methoxy pentadecanol, 2-acetyl-6-(t-butyl)-4-methylphenol, 2-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoyl) cyclohexane-1,4-dione, E,E,Z-1,3,12-nonadecatriene-5,14-diol, and stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol. Fractionation and purification will elucidate the potential antimicrobial compounds which are present in the roots of V. adoensis.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2023 10:35:01 +000
  • Assessment of Genetic Diversity of a Collection of Senna obtusifolia (L.)
           Irwin and Barneby Using SSRs Markers in Burkina Faso

    • Abstract: Sennaobtusifolia (L.) is a plant in the genus Senna that contributes to improving nutritional quality, food security, and better health protection for rural populations. However, very few studies have been devoted to it in Burkina Faso. Consequently, its genetic diversity remains poorly known. Such neglect would lead to the erosion of its genetic resource. The general objective of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of the genetic diversity of the species in order to be able to issue scientific bases for its conservation, valorization, and genetic improvement. Sixty (60) accessions of Senna obtusifolia were collected in the wild from five provinces of three climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Molecular characterization was carried out using 18 SSR markers. Fifteen were polymorphic microsatellite markers leading one hundred and one (101) alleles in total, with an average of seven (7) alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles was 2.33. Expected heterozygosity, Shannon diversity index, and polymorphism information content averaged 0.47, 1.05, and 0.47. Molecular characterization revealed the existence of genetic diversity within the collection. This diversity has been structured into three genetic groups. Genetic group 3 presents the highest genetic diversity parameters.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jun 2023 10:35:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-