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The Scientific World Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1537-744X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Approximate Analytical and Numeric Solutions to a Forced Damped Gardner

    • Abstract: In this paper, some exact traveling wave solutions to the integrable Gardner equation are reported. The ansatz method is devoted for deriving some exact solutions in terms of Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions. The obtained analytic solutions recover the solitary waves, shock waves, and cnoidal waves. Also, the relation between the Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions is obtained. In the second part of this work, we derive some approximate analytic and numeric solutions to the nonintegrable forced damped Gardner equation. For the approximate analytic solutions, the ansatz method is considered. With respect to the numerical solutions, the evolution equation is solved using both the finite different method (FDM) and cubic B-splines method. A comparison between different approximations is reported.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 11:05:03 +000
  • In Silico Analysis Revealed Five Novel High-Risk Single-Nucleotide
           Polymorphisms (rs200384291, rs201163886, rs193141883, rs201139487, and
           rs201723157) in ELANE Gene Causing Autosomal Dominant Severe Congenital
           Neutropenia 1 and Cyclic Hematopoiesis

    • Abstract: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ELANE (Elastase, Neutrophil Expressed) gene are associated with severe congenital neutropenia, while the ELANE gene provides instructions for making a protein called neutrophil elastase. We identified disease susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ELANE gene using several computational tools. We used cutting-edge computational techniques to investigate the effects of ELANE mutations on the sequence and structure of the protein. Our study suggested that eight nsSNPs (rs28931611, rs57246956, rs137854448, rs193141883, rs201723157, rs201139487, rs137854451, and rs200384291) are the most deleterious in ELANE gene and disturb protein structure and function. The mutants F218L, R34W, G203S, R193W, and T175M have not yet been identified in patients suffering from SCN and cyclic hematopoiesis, while C71Y, P139R, C151Y, G214R, and G203C reported in our study are already associated with both of the disorders. These mutations are shown to destabilize structure and disrupt ELANE protein activation, splicing, and folding and might diminish trypsin-like serine protease efficiency. Prediction of posttranslation modifications highlighted the significance of deleterious nsSNPs because some of nsSNPs affect potential phosphorylation sites. Gene-gene interactions showed the relation of ELANE with other genes depicting its importance in numerous pathways and coexpressions. We identified the deleterious nsSNPs, constructed mutant protein structures, and evaluated the impact of mutation by employing molecular docking. This research sheds light on how ELANE failure upon mutation results in disease progression, including congenital neutropenia, and validation of these novel predicted nsSNPs is required through the wet lab.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 08:35:00 +000
  • Assessment of the Effects of Seed Storage Time on Germination Rate and
           Performance Evaluation of Ethiopian Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties
           for Yield and Related Traits

    • Abstract: In Ethiopia, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties are important and widely used as a source of food and cash source to large number of subsistence farmers. However, their production and productivity is below the world’s average partly because of lack of their sustainable performance in the current scenario of climate change. Therefore, the present study was designed to test the effects of seed storage time and to evaluate the performance of 31 faba bean varieties collected from Holeta, Kulumsa and Sinana agricultural research systems, Ethiopia. The study involved germination test and field experiment that was laid out using randomized complete block design (RCBD) and conducted at multiple test locations. Data were collected on qualitative and quantitative traits and analyzed using SAS version 9.0, and MINITAB® Release 19. Accordingly, most of the varieties showed a promising germination rate regardless of their storage duration suggesting their sustainable performance under suitable storage conditions. Most of the qualitative and quantitative traits showed a wide range of variations revealing their stable performance and better chance for further improvement. Analysis of variance also revealed a highly significant () variation for several of the traits suggesting maintenance of the original diversity that could be important in further selection breeding. Likewise, high genetic advance coupled with high heritability and genotypic coefficient of variation together with wide range of variations in both PCV and GCV observed in several of the quantitative traits suggest their sustainable performance and significance in further effective selection. Moreover, a promising high yielding varieties such as Dida1, Welki, Hachalu, Ashebeka and Obse have been identified for further use. Clustering grouped the varieties into three clusters implying significant amount of genetic variability among them. Overall, the results generated could be used as a baseline information for improving faba bean production and productivity. However, to exploit more and determine the actual performance of the varieties more markers such as molecular markers (DNA based) are recommended.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 08:05:02 +000
  • Small Area Estimation of Undernutrition under Age Five Children Based on
           Spatial-Temporal Models

    • Abstract: The mean flow of direct survey estimates is mainly concerning the sample adequacy fulfillment unless it has been produced large variance estimates, and therefore, the small area estimations are developed to manage this flaw of the path. Small area estimation improved the direct survey estimates by borrowing strength from the census data and at the same time by using historical data from consecutive surveys. In this paper, we applied the spatiotemporal Fay–Herriot (STFH) model for producing fairly reliable disaggregate-level estimates of undernutrition indicators across all zones. The STFH model is an appropriately fitted model to the undernutrition data since it has the lowest information criteria (IC) value. The spatiotemporal estimates improved both the direct and spatial estimates of undernutrition under the FH model and have brought efficiency gain in the percent coefficient of variation (CV). These results may provide useful information to the government’s planners, policymakers, and legislative organs for effective policy formulation and budget allocation in all zones.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 13:50:04 +000
  • Improving the Accuracy of Rainfall Prediction Using Bias-Corrected NMME
           Outputs: A Case Study of Surabaya City, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Generating an accurate rainfall prediction is a challenging work due to the complexity of the climate system. Numerous efforts have been conducted to generate reliable prediction such as through ensemble forecasts, the North Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). The performance of NMME globally has been investigated in many studies. However, its performance in a specific location has not been much validated. This paper investigates the performance of NMME to forecast rainfall in Surabaya, Indonesia. Our study showed that the rainfall prediction from NMME tends to be underdispersive, which thus requires a bias correction. We proposed a new bias correction method based on gamma regression to model the asymmetric pattern of rainfall distribution and further compared the results with the average ratio method and linear regression. This study showed that the NMME performance can be improved significantly after bias correction using the gamma regression method. This can be seen from the smaller RMSE and MAE values, as well as higher R2 values compared with the results from linear regression and average ratio methods. Gamma regression improved the R2 value by about 30% higher than raw data, and it is about 20% higher than the linear regression approach. This research showed that NMME can be used to improve the accuracy of rainfall forecast in Surabaya.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 07:20:00 +000
  • Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities of Garlic (Allium
           sativum L.) Bulb and Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L. var. Porrum) Leaf Oil

    • Abstract: Allium species including garlic and leek exhibits a broad range of medicinal and nutritional properties. Therefore, this study investigates the physicochemical and biological activities of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (A. ampeloprasum L. var. Porrum) oil extracts. The result indicated that physicochemical properties indicated that significantly higher oil yield (21.25%), ACV (2.66 mg/g), FFA (1.34%), and PV (4.10 meq/kg) and also antioxidant activities with respect to 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH (27.60 ± 1.55%), hydrogen peroxide (12.35 ± 0.92%) free radical scavenging activities, and ascorbic acid content (25.30 ± 3.25%) were obtained for leek leaf oil extract. Stronger antibacterial activity with a maximum zone of inhibition (16.00 mm), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.20 µg/ml), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) (0.40 µg/ml) was recorded for leek oil extract against S. pyogenes. However, garlic oil has presented stronger antifungal activity with a maximum zone of inhibition (13.50 mm), MIC (0.40 µg/ml), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (0.75 µg/ml) against Candida albicans. It is concluded from the results of this investigation that oils extracts of garlic bulb and leek leaves demonstrated significant biological activities that can be used as sources for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 11:05:01 +000
  • Development and Characterization of Powdered Antioxidant Compounds Made
           from Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Peels and Arrowroot (Maranta
           arundinacea L.)

    • Abstract: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a plant containing many phenolic compounds, mostly distributed in the peel, pulp, and seeds. This study evaluates the centesimal composition and bioactive compounds in Shiraz grape (Vitis vinifera) peels using spectrophotometric and UHPLC techniques and develops different formulations of compound powders from the peels and arrowroot using conventional drying technology. The results demonstrate that Shiraz grape skin contains significant amounts of insoluble fiber (15.3%), phenolics (157.09 ± 6.96–149.11 ± 9.27 mg GAE g−1), and flavonoids (0.75 ± 0.50–2.00 ± 0.50 mg QE g−1), with excellent antioxidant capacity observed in the alcoholic extracts. The phenolic content in the developed powdered compounds ranged from 128.32 to 139.70 mg GAE g−1. In general, the compounds showed good antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 0.17 to 0.19 μg mL−1). According to the chromatographic evaluation, it was possible to quantify gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin, the latter of which was found in the largest quantities in the six formulations. The EV5 formulation was the most efficient in terms of phenolic compounds and protein amounts. This formulation’s composition and low cost could make it viable for use in the food industry.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 08:20:01 +000
  • Determinants of Production Efficiency of Maize-Dominated Farmers in
           Western Parts of Ethiopia in Gudeya Bila District: Evidence under Shifting
           Cultivation Area

    • Abstract: Background. In Ethiopia, maize is produced as major food crop that is based on traditional methods of production, and there exists inefficiency in the use of available scarce resources. Thus, poor people are failing to achieve rapid economic growth, development, and food security still today in the country. Hence, the best possible means of achieving development is through increasing the production efficiency of farmers. Thus, to estimate the levels of production efficiency, this study specifically used only data of farmers who are producing without ploughing by oxen and without using fertilizers in the study area under shifting cultivation. Method. Stochastic frontier production is used to estimate the technical efficiency score, and the cost frontier model is used to estimate production efficiency. To determine the determinants of production efficiency, the Tobit model was used in this study. Result. The Tobit model results show that loss due to wild animals, experience of household, and off-farm income had a negative impact on production efficiency of farmers. Regarding the positive determinants of production efficiency, land conservation practice and mobile use have a positive influence. Conclusion and recommendation. The farmers in the study area are inefficient in the production of maize. Since the loss of maize products is high due to wild animals such as pigs, apes, and monkeys that results in production inefficiency, the agricultural policies and strategies of Ethiopian governments should be directed toward providing tourism to protect those wild animals. Additionally, to increase the production efficiency, construction of terraces and soil bunds to conserve land and supporting the farmers by providing network facilities for mobile usage that boost maize production efficiency of farmers is essential for policymakers.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 08:20:01 +000
  • Effect of Unilateral Shoulder Disorder on the Stance Phase of Human Gait

    • Abstract: Background. Gait analysis systems serve as important tools for assessing disturbed gait patterns. Amongst other factors, functional limitations of the shoulder joint may relate to such disturbances. Patient-reported outcome measures, assessment of pain, and active range of motion are commonly used to describe shoulder impairment. Purpose. The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the impact of unilateral limitations of shoulder mobility and pain on gait patterns and to detect correlations between pain, shoulder mobility, and particular phases of human gait using a Zebris gait analysis system. Methods. 20 subjects with unilaterally restricted mobility and pain of the affected shoulder and a control group of 10 healthy subjects underwent a gait analysis. Various gait parameters, the DASH score, pain at rest and movement of the affected shoulder, and the active range of motion (aROM) for shoulder flexion and abduction were recorded. Results. We determined significant differences of the duration of the loading response ( = 0.021), midstance ( = 0.033), and the terminal stance phase ( = 0.019) between the shoulder group and the control group, with a shorter loading response phase and a longer terminal stance phase of the affected side in the shoulder group. In the shoulder group, we found significant correlations between the DASH and the duration of the midstance phase ( = 0.023) and the terminal stance phase ( = 0.038). In addition, there was a significant correlation between shoulder flexion and the duration of the midstance phase ( = 0.047).
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Apr 2022 05:35:02 +000
  • Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B, C, and D in Kazakhstan

    • Abstract: Background. Viral hepatitis is a major burden for the healthcare system worldwide. Up to date, a comprehensive analysis of the prevalence of viral hepatitis in Kazakhstan and Central Asia has not been carried out yet. Our epidemiological study aimed at investigating the frequency and spread of viral hepatitis B, C, and D depending on age and sex in Kazakhstan (5-year period). Materials and Methods. We utilized the data from the primary registration of the incidence of hepatitis B, C, and D in 18 regions of Kazakhstan (period: from 2015 to 2020). Age indicators, gender, and territorial characteristics of registered cases were determined and analysed. The data were obtained from the state information system “Electronic Register of Dispensary Patients”, based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 for coding diseases. Results. During the period studied, 268 975 cases of hepatitis B, C, and D were detected in Kazakhstan. Hepatitis B was registered in n = 109 734 cases. In women, the incidence rate was 40.6% of all cases (n = 44545), and in men it was 59.4% (n = 65189) of all cases (). Hepatitis D was detected in 8 656 cases, of which 58.3% (n = 5049) were in men and 41.7% (n = 3607) in women (). Hepatitis C was registered in n = 159 585 cases. The rate was higher in the male population (54.6%; n = 82 203) compared to women 45.4% (n = 68382) (). In 2020 (in comparison with 2015), there was a significant increase in the incidence of hepatitis D by 68.3%, hepatitis B by 49.8%, and hepatitis C by 46.4%. The largest prevalence of hepatitis D was recorded in 2016 which is 22.3% higher compared to 2020. A significant increase in hepatitis C was recorded in 2019 compared to 2015, where indicators were 49.2% higher. Conclusion. An analysis of the prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and D showed an increase in new cases in Kazakhstan. These findings indicate the need to develop effective preventive measures and screening strategies among people in a high-risk group. The results of the study can be used for the development of a national program to combat the spread of viral hepatitis.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 07:20:02 +000
  • Removal of the Hazardous Congo Red Dye through Degradation under Visible

    • Abstract: The C,N co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by interacting the chicken egg white having various weights (1, 2, and 4 g) with 1 g of TiO2 in an autoclave through the hydrothermal process at 150°C. The C,N co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specular reflectance UV/visible (SRUV/Vis), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) instruments. The photocatalytic activity of the co-doped TiO2 was evaluated by monitoring the photo-decolorization of Congo red dye under visible light through a batch experiment. The characterization results assigned that the C and N atoms from the chicken egg white have been successfully co-doped into TiO2 through interstitial and substitutional combination, which could notably narrow their band gap energy entering into the visible region. In line with the gap narrowing, the co-doping C,N into TiO2 could remarkably improve the photocatalytic activity under visible light in the dye photo-decolorization. The enhancement of the photocatalyst activity of TiO2-C,N was controlled by the weight of the egg white introduced, and 2 g of the egg white resulted in the highest activity. Further, the best dye photo-decolorization, which was about 98%, of 10 mg/L Congo red dye in 100 mL of the solution under visible irradiation could be reached by applying TiO2-C,N prepared from 2 g of the egg white, within 45 min, at pH 7, and 50 mg of the photocatalyst mass.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Apr 2022 10:20:02 +000
  • The Role of Zinc Finger Proteins in Various Oral Conditions

    • Abstract: The zinc finger proteins (ZNFs) are essential transcription factors, and the genes encoding them constitute about 3% of the entire human genome. They are involved in the development of several tissues, and any alterations in their structure may promote chronic conditions like diabetes and tumorigenesis. Lately, their role in the development, progression, and metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), Epithelial Dysplasia, Oral Lichen Planus, and Periodontitis has been found. The present review aims to describe their role in various oral conditions. Electronic databases like Medline (PubMed) and Scopus were searched for original studies related to the role of ZNFs in various oral conditions. It yielded 48 studies included in the review. It was found that the ZNFs influenced chronic conditions like Oral Cancer and Periodontitis. They act both as tumor suppressors and oncogenes and have an anti-inflammatory effect. The knowledge from the present review may be utilized in designing drugs that prevent unusual expression of specific ZNFs. Besides, they may be applied as prognostic markers due to their high expression specificity in some tumors.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Apr 2022 10:20:02 +000
  • Response of Balanced Laminate Subjected to Abrupt Heat Flux: A New

    • Abstract: A new perspective presents how the interaction between the material stiffness of both matrix and fibre took place to form the laminate response. Thin square simply supported balanced laminated composite plate of different ply arrangements subjected to abrupt heat flux is utilized in this investigation. The effect of ply arrangement on the elapse time for vibrations to vanish and the maximum response amplitude is also investigated. The finite element analysis results show that the response is an amplitude modulated signal that represents frequencies of both fibre and matrix. The analysis shows that the ratio of the carrier frequency to the modulating frequency matches the ratio of the fibre stiffness to ply lateral stiffness. Through the investigation, the maximum static deformation and the dynamic amplitude are illustrated for different ply arrangements. Furthermore, it is found that almost all laminates have a similar elapsed time for vibrations to vanish.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 06:20:03 +000
  • Neural Networks Application for the Data of PID Controller for Acrobot

    • Abstract: Acrobots are a system that has levels of operating states in many investigated cases, and they are subjects to many events during operation due to the mechanisms of locomotion processes. These states have been investigated in specific situations. Due to the limited nature of surveying under conditions without the aid of software fine-tuning the desired output values, designers have to create a number of algorithms that control the system most appropriately in a complex working environment of this system. In this study, the author has proposed design problems to suit the working needs. The author has modeled the objects to be investigated, and at the same time, the author has combined simulation of phenomena that have been documented from the theoretical model of this system before. Control an Acrobot system, including Neural Network Application for the data of the PID controller (closed form). Mathematical models, Simulink, are also presented specifically through this study. The simulation parameters have been adjusted to match the set criteria, and the reader’s perception will be more intuitive through simulation interpretations. Based on simulation data, the system performance analysis becomes more accurate than ever. The above suggestions are intended to serve vocational education and scientific research, and at the same time, they also contribute to suggesting new and unique ideas. The ANN is the most intelligent control method currently added in this study to firmly confirm its effectiveness in all problems related to artificial intelligence. Proposing control strategies for different models is also suggested by the author in the conclusion. Neural networks application is a highly applicable method because it works in sync with other methods. In other words, neural networks application can be applied to any situation based on given data. Specifically, in this study, the application of neural networks becomes more flexible and vivid thanks to the data of the PID controller. The purpose of this method is to increase the security of the system against the attack of hackers on facilities of the automatic control system. Simulation is done by Matlab.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 06:20:03 +000
  • Antiurolithiatic Potential of Three Sri Lankan Medicinal Plants by the
           Inhibition of Nucleation, Growth, and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate
           Crystals In Vitro

    • Abstract: Background. Deposition and formation of stones in any part of the urinary system is called urolithiasis. CaOx is the predominant component of most stones, and the formation of these stones is a multistep process that includes supersaturation, nucleation, aggregation, growth, and retention. In ayurvedic medicine, medicinal plants are used for the management of kidney stones. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous, ethanol, and hexane extracts of Drymoglossum piloselloides leaves, Kalanchoe laciniata leaves, and Aegle marmelos flowers against CaOx urolithiasis in vitro. Methods. The crystallization of CaOx monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) was induced in a synthetic urine system. The nucleation, growth, and aggregation of crystals were measured using spectrophotometric methods. The results were compared against the polyherbal drug, Cystone, under identical concentrations. Crystals generated in the urine were also observed under light microscopy. Statistical differences and percentage inhibitions were calculated using standard formulae and compared. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also performed to detect active phytoconstituents present in the three plants used in the study. Results. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that Kalanchoe laciniata, Aegle marmelos, and Drymoglossum piloselloides have the capacity to inhibit the nucleation, growth, and aggregation of CaOx crystals. Microscopic examination of crystals revealed the presence of more COM than COD crystals but a dose-dependent reduction in crystals was observed in the presence of plant extracts. Hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of all three plants had different capabilities to inhibit nucleation, growth, and aggregation of CaOx crystals but their activities were different at different concentrations. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of reducing sugars, proteins, flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenol compound in Kalanchoe laciniata and Drymoglossum piloselloides and reducing sugars, proteins, anthracene glycosides, and saponins in Aegle marmelos. Conclusions. This study provided evidence that Kalanchoe laciniata, Aegle marmelos, and Drymoglossum piloselloides have the potential to be developed as inhibitors of nucleation, growth, and aggregation of CaOx crystals in the treatment of urolithiasis.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 08:20:01 +000
  • Determinants of Rural Household Food Security Status in North Shewa Zone,
           Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Food insecurity is one of the most serious problems in developing countries, especially in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is important to understand the barriers to improving the state of food security in the country. Thus, this study aims to investigate the determinants of food security of rural households in the North Shewa zone in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A sample of 796 farm households was considered. This paper used the calorie intake method per day to measure household food security status and a logit model to investigate the determinants of food security. The results show that family size, age of the household head, educational level of the head, off-farm activities, monthly income of the household, and distance from the market are the major determinants of rural household food security in the North Shewa Zone. The findings suggest that expanding the access to education in farm households, expanding the access to off-farm activities to increase household income, and expanding market access to farm households are important to improve rural food security status in the study area.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 05:50:02 +000
  • A Survey of Dental Caries Segmentation and Detection Techniques

    • Abstract: Dental caries detection, in the past, has been a challenging task given the amount of information got from various radiographic images. Several methods have been introduced to improve the quality of images for faster caries detection. Deep learning has become the methodology of choice when it comes to analysis of medical images. This survey gives an in-depth look into the use of deep learning for object detection, segmentation, and classification. It further looks into literature on segmentation and detection methods of dental images through deep learning. From the literature studied, we found out that methods were grouped according to the type of dental caries (proximal, enamel), type of X-ray images used (extraoral, intraoral), and segmentation method (threshold-based, cluster-based, boundary-based, and region-based). From the works reviewed, the main focus has been found to be on threshold-based segmentation methods. Most of the reviewed papers have preferred the use of intraoral X-ray images over extraoral X-ray images to perform segmentation on dental images of already isolated parts of the teeth. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of recent research in deep learning for dental caries segmentation and detection. It involves discussing the methods and algorithms used in segmenting and detecting dental caries. It also discusses various existing models used and how they compare with each other in terms of system performance and evaluation. We also discuss the limitations of these methods, as well as future perspectives on how to improve their performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 15:20:01 +000
  • Climate Change Adaptation Strategies by Indonesian Vegetable Farmers:
           Comparative Study of Organic and Conventional Farmers

    • Abstract: Some experts believe that organic agriculture is more adaptable compared to conventional agriculture. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to assess organic and conventional farmers’ perception and adaptation to climate change and analyse the factors that influence such decisions. The survey was conducted in Java, involving 112 organic farmers and 112 conventional farmers. The chi-square test was used to differentiate climate change perceptions and adaptation strategies applied by farmers. The factors that influenced the selection of the adaptation strategies were analysed using logistic regression. The results of analysis found that organic farmers have more precise perceptions of climate change than that of conventional farmers. Organic farmers more commonly implement mixed cropping, crop rotation, increasing organic manure, using shade, and changing irrigation techniques as their adaptation strategies, while conventional farmers more commonly prefer to adjust planting and harvesting dates and use traditional climate prediction called Pranata Mangsa. The selection of farmers’ adaptation strategies is influenced by age, education, experience, distance to extension services, access to credit, information about climate and farmer groups, as well as farmers’ perceptions of climate change. The results of the study recommend that policy makers increase farmers’ adaptive capacity through investment in education and institutions to support climate change adaptation.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 05:20:05 +000
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Calcium Deposit in the Surgically Transacted
           Transverse Carpal Ligament

    • Abstract: A diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a human often contains more than one test. Calcification of the traverse carpal ligament (TCL) is the common reason why patients seek CTS surgery. However, the determination of calcium (Ca) concentration in the TCL has not been studied. The results of environmental toxicity studies assessing the relationship between Ca and elemental deposition in the TCL are inconsistent. The purpose of this paper was to verify this hypothesis by conducting a chemical analysis of a portion of the released TCL to assess whether there is a relationship between CTS and Ca, measured as the total concentration of Ca, and to measure the precipitation of elements; the most closely related elements associated with Ca are cadmium and lead, which are also toxic. Surgical release of TCL was performed on forty patients. Total concentrations of Ca, Cd, and Pb in the extracted portion of TCL were digested and determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the possibility of using X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) for direct elemental analysis. Ca mineralisation was revealed in some TCLs. In assessing patients’ environmental pollution, it was observed that the Cd and Pb concentrations were significant with a higher Ca concentration, and XRF was useful for direct detection of the elements in samples of the human body. These results indicate that TCL mineralisation by Ca does not characterise CTS, which has important concerns in improving patients’ therapeutic strategies, and Cd and Pb concentrations varied due to different factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 10:50:02 +000
  • Pharmaceutical Assessment of Melia azedarach Gum as a Binder and
           Disintegrant in Immediate-Release Tablets

    • Abstract: Excipients are components other than active ingredients that are added to pharmaceutical formulations. Naturally sourced excipients are gradually gaining preeminence over synthetically sourced excipients due to local availability and continuous supply. This study aimed to investigate the binding and disintegrating characteristics of gum extracted from the bark of Melia azedarach tree. The bark of Melia azedarach was harvested from Kwahu Asasraka in Ghana. The gum was extracted with ethanol (96%), and the percentage yield, phytochemical constituents, and flow characteristics were assessed. As a disintegrant, the gum was utilized to formulate granules at varying concentrations of 5% w/w and 10% w/w using starch as the standard. The gum was also utilized to prepare granules at varying concentrations of 10% w/v and 20% w/v as a binder, with tragacanth gum serving as the reference. Eight batches of tablets were produced from the granules. The formulated tablets from each batch were then subjected to quality control testing, which included uniformity of weight, friability, disintegration, hardness, drug content, and dissolution tests, respectively. Tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and glycosides were identified in the Melia azedarach gum. The gum had a percentage yield of 67.75% and also exhibited good flow properties. All tablets passed the uniformity of weight, friability, disintegration, hardness, dissolution, and drug content tests, respectively. According to the findings of the study, Melia azedarach gum can be utilized as an excipient in place of tragacanth and starch as a binder and disintegrant, respectively, in immediate-release tablets.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 08:05:01 +000
  • Effectiveness of Experimental Whitening Toothpastes Containing Colorants
           on the Optical Properties of Enamel

    • Abstract: Objective. This in vitro study investigated the whitening potential of experimental toothpastes containing optical colorants in their formulations in comparison with commercial products. The chemical and physical characteristics of the toothpastes, the morphology, and elemental analysis of the enamel surface after treatment were also analyzed. Materials and Methods. One hundred twenty-five bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into five groups according to the treatment: (i) experimental PHTALOX dental gel (PHT); (ii) experimental blue silica dental gel (SDG); (iii) Sensodyne Whitening Repair & Protect (WRP); (iv) Sensodyne True White (STW); (v) Snow White Toothpaste (SWS). The whiteness index differences (ΔWID) and color alteration (CIELab-ΔE, CIEDE2000-ΔE00) were calculated after color change analysis using a spectrophotometer before and after the enamel treatment (n = 25). The surface and cross-sectional micromorphology were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. The elemental analyses were determined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The pH, particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index of toothpaste were evaluated. Data was statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey, 5%). Results. Whitening toothpastes containing optical colorants were effective for whitening the enamel, as whiter teeth were observed following treatment (higher means of ΔWID). In addition, when the parameters ΔEab and ΔE00 were evaluated, these toothpastes were graded as very good effectiveness (grade 4). Other toothpastes were graded as 3 (good effectiveness). PHT had a neutral pH and a larger mean particle size (412.8 nm). Elemental analysis demonstrated enamel with a silicon-enriched mineral layer on the enamel surface treated with SDG. The Ca/P ratio after enamel treatment varied from 1.74 (SWS) to 2.04 (SDG and WRP). Conclusions. Experimental whitening toothpastes containing optical colorants are effective at bleaching the enamel. The synergism among the different parameters analyzed seems to positively affect the color change after brushing with whitening toothpastes containing optical colorants.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 05:50:01 +000
  • Salt Consumption and Blood Pressure in Rural Hypertensive Participants: A
           Community Filed Trial

    • Abstract: Purpose. Hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. This study aimed to evaluate an intervention based on the Health Belief Model regarding the whole family’s salt consumption and blood pressure among hypertensive patients in rural areas in Iran. Methods. This clinical multicenter trial (clinical and community) with a control and an intervention group was conducted on the residents of 14 villages covered by 14 health houses. Totally, 200 hypertensive patients (n = 100 in each group) were selected via multistage random sampling. The intervention included a two-day workshop on blood pressure and reducing salt consumption based on HBM structures for health personnel and an eight-session workshop on how to reduce salt intake and blood pressure for mothers who were responsible for the families’ diets. Participants completed the questionnaires before and immediately after the intervention. Results. Compared to the control group, in the intervention group, a significant reduction was observed in salt consumption by the families (urine sodium and creatinine reduced by 35 mEq/l and 7.5 mg/dL, respectively). The results also revealed a significant decrease in blood pressure in the intervention group. Conclusion. The results showed that the mothers’ model-based education could effectively improve the diet of the whole family members and, as a result, reduce the associated diseases. The main advantage of this study was the involvement of the rural health personnel, which helped run longer and larger-scale health-promotion programs in the communities.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 06:05:00 +000
  • The Future Extreme Temperature under RCP8.5 Reduces the Yields of Major
           Crops in Northern Peninsular of Southeast Asia

    • Abstract: This study explores the impact of rising near-future temperatures on crop yields, particularly rice and maize, in northern Thailand between 2020 and 2029. The potential for high temperatures in northern Thailand between 2020 and 2029 under the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario indicates that Thailand experienced hot trends between 2020 and 2029 as measured by the annual maximum value of daily maximum temp (TXx), annual minimum value of daily maximum temp (TXn), annual minimum value of daily minimum temp (TNn), and annual maximum value of daily minimum temp (TNx). Northern Thailand had the most dramatic changes in TXn and TNn. Furthermore, TXn levels were found to be significantly higher in northern Thailand. The number of days when TX 
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 05:35:01 +000
  • Quality of Life, Depression, and Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Renal
           Replacement Therapies in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Despite improvements in renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), it continues to have serious negative impacts on quality of life (QOL) and emotional status. This study determines the association between demographic characteristics and the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress in Saudi Arabia. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants comprising hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and kidney transplantation (Tx) patients. They completed the Short Form-36 Survey and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS). The physical component summary (PCS) score was similar for HD (41.7) and PD (41.5), but higher among Tx (45.2). The mental component summary (MCS) score was similar between HD (48.0) and Tx (48.8), but lower in PD (42.3). The majority of patients in all groups had normal levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Overall, the study found that PCS was higher among Tx patients compared to HD and PD, while MCS was higher among HD and Tx patients than PD patients. Most patients’ levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were within the normal range. Those findings will provide policymakers and health managers with the significant factors which can affect the QOL of dialysis and Tx patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 08:50:05 +000
  • Acute and Subacute Toxicity Assessment of
           Andrographolide-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Complex via Oral and
           Inhalation Route of Administration in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    • Abstract: Objective. Acute and subacute toxicity analysis of AND-2-HyP-β-CYD complex was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats following oral and inhalation routes of administration. Methods and Results. Single dose acute toxicity was carried out at 2000 mg/kg of AND-2-HyP-β-CYD complex, while the doses of 200, 400, and 666 mg/kg were administered, over a period of 28 days under repeated dose oral toxicity study. Hence, LD50 (lethal dose) was found to be >2000 mg/kg in addition to NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 666 mg/kg. Correspondingly, single dose acute inhalation toxicity of AND-2-HyP-β-CYD complex was carried out at 5 mg/L/4 h/day and subacute inhalation toxicity at 0.5, 1, and 1.66 mg/L/4 h/day over a period of 28 days. The NOAEL and LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) were estimated to be 0.5 mg/L/4 h/day and 1 mg/L/4 h/day, respectively. Conclusion. The findings of the present study would further be useful in assessing and utilizing the medicinal and therapeutic benefits of AND-2-HyP-β-CYD complex.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 05:50:02 +000
  • Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity
           of Different Solvent Extracts of Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees Stem

    • Abstract: Plants have long been considered as a basis of medicines for different indigenous cultures around the globe. They continue as a prominent source of important phytoconstituents which exhibit significant biological activities. In this study, we performed the phytochemical screening, estimation of total phenolic and flavonoids, antioxidants, and antimicrobial activities of the stem bark of Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees using different solvents. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents ranged from 106.73 ± 1.62 mg GAE/g and 99.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g (methanol extract) to 65.59 ± 1.79 mg GAE/g and 29.98 ± 0.90 mg QE/g (n-hexane extract), respectively. The maximum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 39.86 ± 3.69 μg/mL was observed for methanol extract followed by aqueous (IC50 = 43.55 ± 6.16 μg/mL), ethyl acetate (IC50 = 44.30 ± 5.88 μg/mL), dichloromethane (IC50 = 71.50 ± 4.70 μg/mL), and the lowest activity was observed for n-hexane extract. The disc diffusion method revealed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited relatively higher activity against Salmonella typhi (ZOI = 13 mm), and moderate activities against Shigella sonnei, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI = 12 mm). The methanol and aqueous extracts showed nearly parallel and the n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts exhibited mild antibacterial activities. The results indicated that the polarity index of the extracting solvents amplified the biological activities of the extract. The study is helpful to support the validity of the traditional application of the plant as natural medicine.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 05:50:00 +000
  • Valorization of Moroccan Pistacia lentiscus L. Leaves: Phytochemical and
           In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Evaluation Compared to Different Altitudes

    • Abstract: This study examined the secondary metabolite content and the antioxidant activities of hydromethanolic P. lentiscus L. leaves extracts at different altitudes. The results indicated that the contents of polyphenols and flavonoids were significantly () high in the low altitude, unlike the Chl (chlorophyll), tannins, and ascorbic acid, which were reported to have higher content in the high altitude. These results showed that the P. lentiscus L. is more adaptable to higher elevations than low elevation, where the plant was probably stressed. On the other hand, the analyses of correlation between the antioxidant activity and phytochemical content affirmed that the antiradical activity (DPPH) correlated with the content of polyphenols; however, the total antioxidant activity is correlated with the flavonoid content. These results revealed the importance of P. lentiscus L. leaves as a natural antioxidant and gave an idea of the altitude effect on the biochemical parameters of leaves.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 05:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Artery Diameter and Velocity and Vein Diameter on Upper Limb
           Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes

    • Abstract: Objective. Haemodialysis is an important tool for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients to correct electrolyte disturbance and improve life quality. This requires a method of long-term vascular access. For many ESRD patients, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) formation is the optimal method of access. AVF success and patency are critical to allow access for haemodialysis. Failure to mature and thrombosis are key factors involved in AVF failure. Our aim is to report outcomes from a single-centre, retrospective study investigating the association between artery and vein measurements as well as intraoperative heparin use on autogenous upper limb AVF outcomes. Methods. This retrospective study analyses the influence of artery and vein diameter on AVF outcomes over a 12-month period, from 1 January 2019 through 31 December 2019. The key endpoint was AVF patency and functionality at 6 weeks postoperatively. Results. During our study period, 66 autogenous upper limb AVFs were formed in our tertiary vascular centre. This included 44 radiocephalic, 11 brachiocephalic, and 11 brachiobasilic AVFs. We report an association between minimum vein diameter >2.0 mm and arterial diameter >2.0 mm and AVF success and functionality. Our data did not support intraoperative heparin use as a measure to improve AVF success. Conclusion. This study suggests a statistically significant association between vein and artery diameter (>2.0 mm) with improved AVF patency at 6 weeks postoperatively. We did not observe benefit from intraoperative heparin use.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 05:35:01 +000
  • Duration of of Low-Temperature Storage, Clove Topping and Gibberellic Acid
           on Emergence, Yield and Yield Components of Garlic

    • Abstract: Dormancy of freshly harvested garlic cloves does not allow early emergence, and preplanting garlic clove treatment is critical for more than one cycle of production in a year. This field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of treating cloves on emergence, growth, and yield of “Tseday” variety during the main cropping season of 2014/2015 and off-season of 2015/16 at Haramaya University. The experiment was arranged in a factorial combination of four (cold stored at 7°C for the duration of 10, 20, and 30 days and stored at room temperature 21°C for 30 days as control), two (whole and topped clove), and four GA3 treatment at concentration of 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/l and distilled water treatment as second control laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The three main factors (clove type, cold storage duration, and GA3) and growing season showed significant influence on phenology, growth, bulb yield and yield components, and all size categories of cloves, while GA3 showed nonsignificant effect on days to emergence of cloves. Clove type interacted with cold storage duration and GA3, and cold storage duration interacted with GA3 significantly to influence all characters of the variety. In addition, the growing season also interacted with clove type and GA3 to influence all categories of clove size, bulb diameter, average bulb weight, and total bulb yield. The three main factors (clove type × cold storage duration × GA3) interaction significantly influenced all characteristics of the variety. However, 30 days of cold-stored and topped cloves reduced dormancy period and days to maturity by 18.84 and 19.50 days, respectively, and increased total bulb yield by 70.32% as compared to the control treatment. In addition, this treatment combination significantly increased most of the growth and bulb yield components, while the number and weight of small-sized cloves were decreased. Hence, it can be concluded that 30 days of cold storage and topping of cloves without soaking under GA3 could be recommended to enhance early emergence, good vegetative growth, and total bulb yield of the garlic variety both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 06:20:08 +000
  • The Quality of Counseling for Headache OTC Medications in German Community
           Pharmacies Using a Simulated Patient Approach: Are There Differences
           between Self-Purchase and Purchase for a Third Party'

    • Abstract: Background. In Germany—as worldwide—headache is one of the most frequent causes of self-medication. The dispensing of over-the-counter (OTC) medications may only be carried out by community pharmacies (CPs). In doing so, CPs have to ensure “adequate” counseling, for both self-purchase and purchase for a third party, which also occurs in everyday pharmacy practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of counseling for headache OTC medications in German CPs and, as the first study worldwide, to analyze whether and to what extent there are differences in counseling between self-purchase and purchase for a third party. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the covert simulated patient methodology (SPM) in all 42 CPs in the German big city Potsdam. With the help of 8 trained simulated patients (SPs), each CP was visited four times by a different SP. The SPs simulated in each CP two scenarios two times with the demand for an OTC medication against headache, which differed only in whether the demand was for themselves or for their boyfriend/girlfriend. Results. All 168 planned pharmacy visits (84 visits per scenario) were successfully carried out. Overall, the median counseling score was 3.0 out of 9 points (interquartile range [IQR 2.0]). There were no significant differences between the two scenarios (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; ,r = 0.053). In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, the counseling level and the different scenarios were not significantly associated (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.635, 95% CI = 0.673–3.972, ).Conclusions. Due to the partly considerable deficits in counseling of German CPs, policy-makers and the regional chambers of pharmacists are called upon to take appropriate measures to improve the quality of counseling. It is positive that no differences in counseling between self-purchase and purchase for a third party were found, but further verifying studies with a modified methodology are recommended.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 05:50:14 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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