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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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The Scientific World Journal
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ISSN (Online) 1537-744X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [340 journals]
  • Prevalence and Triggering Factors of Headache among Jordanian Adolescents
           in Al-Mafraq Region

    • Abstract: Aims. This study evaluates the epidemiology of headache and migraine among adolescents aged 12 to 15. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted to collect and analyze data from students in grades 7–10 over the course of one month, using a simple random sampling method. The overall number of participants in this study was 692, with an average age of 13.9 years (SD = 1.3). Descriptive measures and Fisher’s exact test were computed. Multivariate regression was calculated to assess the predictors of headache and migraine. Findings. Approximately one-half of the students reported having headaches: tension-type headaches (10.3%), migraines (4.8%), and other headache types (31.5%). Moreover, girl students in the age group of 14-15 reported more headaches and migraines. Conclusion. The prevalence of headache and migraine in Jordan is high and increasing as students grow older. Health education programs led by school nurses and other healthcare practitioners are urgently needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2023 06:50:00 +000
  • Exploring the Factors That Influence Stakeholder Participation in
           Decision-Making for the Moat System Restoration Project in Tianchang City,

    • Abstract: The driving factors have a critical effect on shaping stakeholder behavior toward participating in decision-making for river restoration initiatives. The participation of stakeholders is a vital determinant for increasing public confidence in the government and enhancing the acceptance of government decisions. Conversely, insufficient stakeholder participation in decision-making may lead to resistance to decisions on river restoration projects. Thus, the primary purpose of this investigation is to shed light on the complex interactions between the various drivers that underpin stakeholder participation in the context of the Moat System Restoration Project (MSRP). The extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) describes the relationships between seven drivers that have positively influenced stakeholder participation behaviors: stakeholder attitude, priority, risk perception, trust in government decisions, motivation, intention, and knowledge. The empirical underpinning of this research was obtained through a questionnaire survey conducted in Tianchang, China, encompassing a sample size of 473. The empirical findings discern that stakeholder attitudes vis-à-vis the MSRP favorably influence stakeholder participation behaviors. Additionally, stakeholder motivation and intention have been discerned as catalysts for heightened stakeholder participation behavior. These findings promise to furnish invaluable insights, benefit forthcoming river restoration initiatives, and equip decision-makers with a profound understanding of strategies to enhance stakeholder participation.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Nov 2023 08:20:00 +000
  • Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Phytochemicals from Tea and
           Agarwood Leaf Extracts against Isolated Bacteria from Poultry and Curd

    • Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly common, leading to a global health crisis. The effects of abusing antibiotics not only increase pathogenic resistance but also cause various diseases and syndromes. Gut microbiota contains many beneficial roles for health, while antibiotics kill both pathogens and gut microbiota which is considered one of the major side effects of antibiotics. In fact, new antibiotic compounds are needed in this urgent scenario; phytoremediation is the oldest but most effective method, and research on the antibacterial properties of several types of medicinal plants has already been conducted. Tea and agarwood plants are well known for their economic contribution in both beverage and cosmetic production, as well as for their medicinal value. In this study, tea and agarwood leaf extracts were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity against both pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Fresh tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves were collected in three varieties, namely, BT-6 from Sylhet, BT-7 from Moulvibazar, and BT-8 from Habiganj; also, green tea (nonfermented tea), black tea (fully fermented tea), and agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) were collected from Sylhet region of Bangladesh. Unlike commercial antibiotics, which have side effects on probiotics (beneficiary bacteria), leaf extract activities were analyzed to check if they had positive effects on probiotics that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract as well as dairy products. Potential beneficiary bacteria, Lysinibacillus macroides strain SRU-001 (NCBI accession no. MW665108), and pathogenic bacteria, Aeromonas caviae strain YPLS-62 (NCBI accession no. MW666783), were isolated from the small intestine of poultry and curd, respectively. Tea and agarwood leaves (5 g powder/80 mL methanol) with solvents were kept for seven days at room temperature, and extracts were applied for antimicrobial assays by the disc diffusion assay against the isolated bacteria. 50 µL of each leaf extract was examined against 50 µL of each bacterial culture, where gentamicin was a control. After 24 hours of incubation, tea and agarwood leaf extracts showed an 11–15 mm zone of inhibition against pathogenic A. caviae, while only BT-8 showed 7 mm (disc diameter 6 mm) against probiotic L. macroides. However, compared to leaf extracts, gentamicin showed a 27 mm zone of inhibition against both L. macroides strain SRU-001 and A. caviae strain YPLS-62 bacteria. This research clearly indicates that gentamicin kills both pathogenic and beneficiary bacteria, while leaf extracts from tea and agarwood plants contain antimicrobial activity against only pathogenic A. caviae but no effects on probiotic L. macroides. This outcome indicates not only the potential therapeutic values of tea and agarwood leaves as antibiotics over commercial antibiotics but also the chance of having pathogens in curd and potential beneficial bacteria from the poultry small intestine.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2023 11:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Fluorohydroxyapatite on Biological and Physical Properties of
           MTA Angelus

    • Abstract: Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of addition of fluorohydroxyapatite (FHI) on biological and physical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro, experimental study, nano-FHI powder was first synthesized, and the morphology and chemical structure of particles were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Three groups were evaluated in this study: MTA Angelus, MTA modified with 10% FHA, and MTA modified with 15% FHA. After mixing, the materials were applied to ring molds (10 mm diameter, 1 mm height), and the setting time of the three groups was evaluated according to ISO6876 and ASTMC266-03 with a Gillmore needle. The pH was measured using a pH meter at 24 and 48 hours and 7 days after mixing. The cytotoxicity of the materials was assessed in freshly mixed form and after 1 and 7 days using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay according to ISO10993-5. Data were analyzed by one-way and repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = 0.05). Results. The addition of FHA to MTA significantly decreased the initial setting time ( 
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 10:50:01 +000
  • Molecular Identification and Antioxidant Activity Determination among
           Coffee Varieties Cultivated in Nepal

    • Abstract: Coffee is the most popular beverage containing numerous phytochemical components that have antioxidant activity capable of scavenging free radicals. Antioxidant and phenolic contents have considerable benefits for human health. The aim of this study was the molecular identification of 9 coffee samples from the Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal, and the determination of the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of green and roasted coffee beans. Molecular identification was performed using ITS-specific PCR followed by sequencing and phylogenetic tree construction using the maximum parsimony method. The DPPH assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity, and the Folin–Ciocalteu (F-C) assay was used to determine the total phenolic content. All the samples belonged to the taxa Coffea arabica. The antioxidant activity in roasted beans varied from 2.49 to 4.62 AAE mg/g and from 1.4 to 3.9 AAE mg/g in green beans. The total phenolic content varied from 2.58 to 3.38 GAE mg/g and from 4.16 to 5.36 GAE mg/g for the roasted beans and green beans, respectively. The data revealed that the highest antioxidant content (4.62 AAE mg/g) was found in roasted coffee and that the highest phenolic content (5.36 GAE mg/g) was found in green coffee. The study concludes that roasting increases the antioxidant activity but decreases the phenolic content of coffee.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 06:50:01 +000
  • Eichhornia crassipes Efficacy in Secondary Wastewater Treatment in the
           Western Highlands of Cameroon

    • Abstract: Wastewater treatment using lagoons technology is recognised to have potential to protect the environment and preserve water resources. The implementation requires mastery of ecological conditions of operation and management of the plants used. We aimed to contribute to the implementation of macrophyte-based lagoons for wastewater treatment in the Western Highlands of Cameroon. We used two sets of four lagoons in series; one was vegetated with E. crassipes, while the other served as the control. Each set constituted an anaerobic, two facultative, and maturation lagoons. Each lagoon system was supplied with primary-treated domestic wastewater from the wastewater treatment plant of the University of Dschang, Cameroon, at a hydraulic loading rate of 1.13 m3/day. Monthly wastewater samples were collected from the inflow and outflow of each lagoon for physicochemical and bacteriological analyses, and plant growth was assessed biweekly for six months spanning the dry and rainy seasons. Macrophyte lagoons showed positive plant growth during both seasons. The highest plant height (10.67 and 25.21 cm), longer roots (11.3 and 37.41 cm), and the highest number of new buds (14 and 20 buds) were obtained during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Plants were significantly ( 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 16:05:00 +000
  • Spatio-Temporal Change of Land Use/Land Cover and Vegetation Using
           Multi-MODIS Satellite Data, Western Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Land use and land cover (LULC) change and variability are some of the challenges to present-day water resource management. The purpose of this study was to determine LULC and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) fluctuations in western Ethiopia during the last 20 years. The first part of the study used MODIS LULC data for the change analysis, change detection, and spatial and temporal coverage in the study region. In the second part, the study analyzes the NDVI change and its spatial and temporal coverage. In this study, The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were applied to determine LULC and NDVI changes over four different periods. Evergreen broadleaf forests, deciduous broadleaf forests, mixed forests, woody savannas, savannas, grasslands, permanent wetlands, croplands, urban and built-up lands, and water bodies are the LULC in the period of analysis. The overall classification accuracy for the classified image from 2001 to 2020 was 85.4% and the overall kappa statistic was 81.2%. The results indicate a substantial increase in woody savannas, deciduous broadleaf, grasslands, permanent wetlands, and mixed forest areas by 119.6%, 57.7% 45.2%, 37%, and 21.3%, respectively, followed by reductions in croplands, water bodies, savannas, and evergreen broadleaf forest by 90.1%, 19.8%, 13.2%, and 4.8%, respectively, for the catchment between 2001 and 2020. The result also showed that the area’s vegetation cover increased by 64% from 2001 to 2022. This study could provide valuable information for water resource and environmental management as well as policy and decision-making.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 13:35:01 +000
  • Investigation on Bacterial Growth and pH in Milk after the Expiration Date

    • Abstract: Food waste is a serious national and global problem. Milk is one of the most frequently wasted food items. This study aims to determine how long postexpiration-pasteurized milk may still be safe to consume and what is the relationship between bacterial growth from the milk and time after expiration. The experiments were carried out by incubating milk with agarose gel. The results showed that the bacterial growth was relatively low for at least the first few days after expiration. The more the days passed after the expiration date, the more the bacteria grew from the milk. There was no significant difference in the bacteria colony numbers in the whole milk samples opened either on day 0 or day 5 of expiration. None of the fat-free milk samples collected on the later (1–10) days showed any statistically significant difference in bacterial growth compared to the samples collected on the day after expiration (day 0). The bacterial growth increased with the increasing fat content of the milk. In addition, the rate of bacterial growth from the milk correlated with the acidity of the milk that is measured by pH. No significant sensory changes could be detected in any of the milk samples immediately after opening on the day of expiration or for up to 10 days after expiration when the unopened cartons were kept refrigerated. However, within 24 hours of opening the carton, whole milk that has expired for 6 or more days and 2% milk that has expired for 8 or more days developed a sour taste and mildly pungent smell. This sensory change was accompanied by the formation of lumps and fat-water separation. Fat-free milk samples remained unchanged under the same conditions. The experimental results suggest that whole and 2% skim milk may be safe for consumption up to 5-6 days after expiration. Fat-free milk may be safe for consumption up to 10 days after expiration, possibly longer. This study devised a way to show that milk is still safe for consumption after expiration; it will help reduce food waste.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2023 10:35:01 +000
  • The Effect of Organic Solid Waste Compost on Soil Properties, Growth, and
           Yield of Swiss Chard Crop (Beta vulgaris L.)

    • Abstract: In Dilla town and the university compound, huge amounts of biodegradable solid waste (BDSW), which include food and farm and yard wastes, are generated from student and staff cafeterias and animal farms. Improper treatment and disposal of this waste resulted in contamination of surface water and soil, air pollution, and spreading of diseases. On the other hand, soil fertility of most arable lands of Dilla Zuria woreda is highly depleted due to low levels of soil fertility management practices and inorganic-based farming. These factors make a considerable contribution to the degradation of fertile soil and reduction of yield. Thus, the management of BDSW through composting is important to minimize environmental problems and improve the soil fertility of arable lands. However, the effects of BSWC compost on plant growth and crop yield are highly variable in different studies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of food waste compost (FWC) and leaf yard compost (LYC) at different application rates on the soil properties, growth, and yield responses of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.). Food waste, leaf and yard waste, and animal dung were collected and composted in a heap-composting method. The produced organic amendments were applied to soil at an application rate of 5, 10, and 15 t/ha, respectively. Two harvesting times were considered, and at each leaf harvesting time, plant growth parameters (height, leaf number, leaf area, and fresh weight) were analyzed; after the second harvesting time, soil properties were analyzed. Results indicated that increasing rates of FWC significantly ( 
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2023 04:50:00 +000
  • Moringa oleifera Use in Maintaining Oral Health and Its Potential Use in
           Regenerative Dentistry

    • Abstract: Phytomedicine refers to the use of naturally derived products to cure and mitigate human conditions. Natural products have the advantages of causing minimum side effects, being biocompatible, available, and economical, with a wide array of biological activities. Reports have described the use of natural products with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties to treat oral conditions and promote wound healing. Moringa oleifera, known as the “drumstick” or “horseradish” tree, is believed to have medicinal properties regarding a range of medical conditions, though there is limited information on its use in oral medicine. This narrative review focuses on the use of Moringa extracts in the management of oral conditions, including oral infections, inflammatory conditions, the remineralization of hard tissues, oral wound healing, and tissue regeneration, drawing from both in vitro and in vivo studies which indicate that the potential of Moringa extracts in supporting dentin-pulp regeneration after caries or trauma is worthy of more careful consideration.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2023 05:50:02 +000
  • Nutritional Composition and Phytochemical Evaluation of Some Selected Wild
           Edible Plants in Tach Gaint District, Northwestern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional, mineral, and phytochemical analyses of some selected wild edible plants from Tach Gaint District, Northwest Ethiopia. Proximate composition parameters (moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein, carbohydrate, and energy) were evaluated using the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, and elemental analysis was performed using the atomic absorption spectroscopy technique. Results from the nutritional analysis show that Erucastrum abyssinicum leaves had the highest crude protein content (17.47 ± 0.03 g/100 g), followed by Amaranthus graecizans (14.97 ± 0.03 g/100 g). The maximum moisture content (40.8 ± 0.00 g/100 g) and ash content (24.70 ± 0.15 g/100 g) were reported in the leaves of Amaranthus graecizans. The young shoots of Rumex abyssinicus had the highest crude fat content (14.07 ± 0.03 g/100 g) and the highest fibre content (34.70 ± 0.25 g/100 g), while the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica had the highest amount of utilisable carbohydrate (44.4 ± 0.00 g/100 g) and the estimated energy value (326.4 ± 0.00 Kcal/100 g). Calcium was detected in considerable proportions (754.9 ± 0.23 mg/100 g) followed by iron (31.63 ± 0.03 mg/100 g) in Urtica simensis leaves and zinc content (3.09 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) in young shoots of Rumex abyssinicus. Qualitative phytochemical screening, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, and tannins were found in the methanolic extract of the plants. The results of this study suggest that the consumption of such nutrient-rich wild edible plants could help add a remarkable amount of nutrient and mineral in the human diet.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 13:05:01 +000
  • Assessment of Phenol and Antioxidant Content of Olive Varieties and Their
           Potential Health Benefits for Colon Health

    • Abstract: In this study, four different olive fruit and leaf varieties collected in Jordan were assessed for quality using both chemical and biological methods. To quantify the phenol and antioxidant content in the olive fruit and leaf extracts, a validated UV method was employed. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruit and leaf extracts of the olive varieties were measured using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method, respectively. The researchers also conducted a biological assay against colon cells to examine the potential health benefits of the olive extracts. The results showed that the phenol content of the samples varied depending on the region they were collected from and that they contained a significant amount of antioxidants. Additionally, it was observed that the samples with higher antioxidant content had lower cell viability against colon cells. Overall, this study suggests that olive extracts may have potential health benefits for colon health and that the phenol and antioxidant content of the extracts can vary depending on the source of the olives.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2023 10:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Different Cleaning Regimes on Biofilm Formation of Acrylic-Based
           Removable Orthodontic Appliance: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cleaning regimes of acrylic-based removable orthodontic appliances on bacterial biofilm formation and whether the surface modification, i.e., polished acrylic fitting surface, reduces biofilm formation. Materials and Methods. This double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial involved thirty-nine orthodontic patients indicated for removable orthodontic appliances. The patients were allocated into three groups according to the cleaning method: brushing with a denture brush and chlorhexidine (CHX) toothpaste, Lacalut cleaning tablet, and a combination of both cleaning methods. Each patient wore an upper removable appliance containing eight wells fitted with eight detachable acrylic tiles (four polished and four unpolished) for seven days. Five types of oral microbiota were evaluated using selective growth media and biochemical tests. The biofilm cleaning efficacy was assessed using the colony-forming unit (CFU) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical Analysis. Data from the CFU using different cleansing regimes were compared, following log transformation, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The polished and unpolished tiles were compared for biofilm formation on each cleansing method using an independent t-test. Results. There was no significant difference among the three cleaning methods on the polished or unpolished tiles. However, in polished tiles, streptococci were significantly reduced in all cleaning methods, whereas staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus were markedly decreased in brushing and combination cleaning methods. However, the total number of anaerobic bacteria was significantly reduced in polished tiles using the combination method only. Conclusions. Polishing the fitting surface of an acrylic-based orthodontic appliance reduced the tested bacterial biofilm formation and may enhance cleaning efficiency. Brushing and combination methods showed superior cleaning effects compared to cleaning tablets. This trial is registered with NCT05707221.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2023 10:05:01 +000
  • The Wetting Deformation Model of Rockfill and Its Two Methods for
           Simulating Rockfill Dam Collapse Settlement

    • Abstract: The wetting deformation of the upstream dam shell material during the impoundment of the core wall rockfill dam seriously affects the safety of the dam. Based on the proposed wetting model, this paper proposes its corresponding two methods to simulate the collapse settlement of the rockfill dam: the initial strain method and the initial stress method. By simulating the collapse settlement of the Guanyinyan core wall rockfill dam, it is found that the simulated result using the initial stress method is in good agreement with the field monitoring data, while the displacement simulated using the initial strain method is larger. The distribution of displacement contours simulated using the initial strain method is obviously inconsistent in the area where the wetting deformation occurs, and the simulation results of the initial stress method are more reasonable. With the rise in the water level, the wetting deformation of the upstream dam shell material causes the tensile stress zone at the top of the dam. Therefore, the wetting deformation is the direct cause of the crack at the top of the dam, and the initial stress method should be preferred in the simulation of the wetting deformation of rockfill materials.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2023 05:20:01 +000
  • Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Properties of Essential Oils from Wild
           and Cultivated Artemisia campestris L., an Endemic Plant in Morocco

    • Abstract: The Asteraceae family is well known for its toxic and repellent activity against mosquitoes. In this study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of both wild and cultivated Artemisia campestris L. plants were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), a pest mosquito widely suspected to be the vector responsible for West Nile virus transmission. The research aims at comparing the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of cultivated and wild A. campestris EOs. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts and were analyzed using GC-MS. Furthermore, the larviciding experiment was carried out following the standard WHO protocol. The result showed that wild and cultivated plant EOs differed only quantitatively, while the qualitative profile revealed a nearly identical chemical composition. Camphor (18.98%), car-3-en-5-one (11.25%), thujone (6.36%), chrysanthenone (6.24%), filifolone (4.56%), and borneol (3.56%) dominate the wild plant EO. Camphor (21.01%), car-3-en-5-one (17%), chrysanthenone (10.15%), filifolone (7.90%), borneol (3.38%), and thujone (3.08%) are the major compounds of the cultivated plant. Cultivation did not affect the EO production since the yield of the cultivated plant was 0.5 ± 0.1% and 0.6 ± 0.2% for the wild plant. The cultivated A. campestris EO had the highest insecticidal activity (LC50 = 9.79 µg/ml), and no significant difference was noticed between wild and cultivated A. campestris EO in terms of LC90. These findings could pave the way for a new method of producing biocides to control major disease vectors and offer a potential alternative for pest control.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2023 10:20:01 +000
  • Phytochemistry, Biological, and Toxicity Study on Aqueous and Methanol
           Extracts of Chromolaena odorata

    • Abstract: The medicinal plant Chromolaena odorata is traditionally used by people living in different communities of Nepal and the globe against diabetes, soft tissue wounds, skin infections, diarrhea, malaria, and several other infectious diseases. The present study focuses on the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses and antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and toxicity of the plant for assessing its pharmacological potential. The extracts of flowers, leaves, and stems were prepared using methanol and distilled water as the extracting solvents. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were estimated by using the Folin–Ciocalteu phenol reagent method and the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities were assessed using the DPPH assay and α-glucosidase inhibition assay. A brine shrimp assay was performed to study the toxicity, and the antibacterial activity test was performed by the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, and coumarins as secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of leaves and flowers displayed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content with 182.26 ± 1.99 mg GAE/g, 128.57 ± 7.62 mg QE/g and 172.65 ± 0.48 mg GAE/g, 121.74 ± 7.06 mg QE/g, respectively. The crude extracts showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 32.81 ± 5.26 µg/mL and 41.00 ± 1.10 µg/mL, respectively. The methanol extract of the leaves was found to be effective against bacterial strains such as K. pneumoniae (ZOI = 9.67 ± 0.32 mm), B. subtilis (ZOI = 15.00 ± 0 mm), and E. coli (7.3 ± 0.32 mm). The methanol extract of the flowers showed the most α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 227.63 ± 11.38 µg/mL), followed by the methanol extract of leaves (IC50 249.50 ± 0.97 µg/mL). The aqueous extract of the flowers showed the toxic effect with LC50 107.31 ± 49.04 µg/mL against the brine shrimp nauplii. In conclusion, C. odorata was found to be a rich source of plant secondary metabolites such as phenolics and flavonoids with potential effects against bacterial infection, diabetes, and oxidative stress in humans. The toxicity study showed that the aqueous extract of flowers possesses pharmacological activities. This study supports the traditional use of the plant against infectious diseases and diabetes and provides some scientific validation.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2023 05:20:00 +000
  • Diagnosis and Prevalence (1975–2010) of Sudden Death due to Atlantoaxial
           Subluxation in Cervical Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Literature Review

    • Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting synovial joints and tendons, can potentially impact various organs within the body. One notable complication associated with RA is upper cervical spine instability, medically termed atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS). This condition can lead to adverse consequences, including chronic myelopathy and acute mechanical compression of the medulla oblongata, with the potential for sudden death. While AAS may often remain asymptomatic, some nonspecific symptoms, such as neck pain, have been documented. Severe atlantoaxial subluxation can trigger more distinct symptoms, including delayed occipital pain attributed to the compression of the exiting C2 nerve root. Recent studies have elucidated a spectrum of symptoms preceding sudden death, encompassing vertigo, dizziness, convulsions, dysphagia, disorientation, and seizures. Remarkably, some cases have reported sudden death occurring during sleep. Historical data reveal a fluctuating incidence of this phenomenon, with eleven cases reported between 1969 and 1975 and six cases documented between 1990 and 2010. Notably, one of the most prevalent causes of sudden mortality in individuals with RA is the acute mechanical damage inflicted upon the medulla oblongata due to atlantoaxial subluxation.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Oct 2023 09:35:00 +000
  • Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies and Biological Activity of
           Curculigo latifolia Plant Organs for Natural Skin-Whitening Compound

    • Abstract: Curculigo latifolia (family Amaryllidaceae) is used empirically for medicinal purposes. It is distributed throughout Asian countries, especially Indonesia. This study aimed at standardizing the C. latifolia plant, analyzing its phytochemical profile, and evaluating its pharmacological effects. The powder from each organ (root, stem, and leaves) was standardized organoleptically and microscopically. Samples were extracted by graded maceration using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The extracts were determined for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Antioxidant (radical scavenging and metal ion reduction) and antityrosinase activities were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Extracts were analysed for phytochemical profiles by LC-ESI-MS. The highest TPC and TFC were found in the ethanolic extract of the root organ (68.63 ± 2.97 mg GAE/g) and the ethyl acetate extract of the stem (14.33 ± 0.71 mg QE/g extract). High antioxidant activities were found in the ethanolic root extract (20.42 ± 0.33 µg/mL) and ethanolic stem extract (45.65 ± 0.77 µg/mL) by DPPH• and NO• assays, respectively. The ion reduction activity (by CUPRAC assay) was most significant in the ethyl acetate stem extract (390.42 ± 14.49 µmol GAEAC/g extract). Ethanolic root extract was the most active in inhibiting tyrosinase (IC50 value of 108.5 µg/mL). The correlation matrix between TPC and antioxidant activities showed a moderate to robust correlation, whereas the TPC and antityrosinase activity showed a robust correlation. The TFC and antioxidant or antityrosinase activities showed a weak to moderate correlation. The LC-ESI-MS data identified major phenols in the active extracts, including methyl 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoate, quercetin, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid-1, and curculigoside. Overall, this study suggests that extracts from the C. latifolia plant offer potent antioxidant and antityrosinase activities, allowing them to be used as natural antioxidants and candidates for skin-lightening compounds.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2023 11:35:00 +000
  • Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Health Professions Students
           towards Hepatitis B and C

    • Abstract: The current study sought to establish the attitude and knowledge level of medical science students in Tibah University towards hepatitis B and C. A cross-sectional study involving 369 students drawn from the faculties of medicine, dentistry, applied medical sciences, pharmacy, nursing, and medical rehabilitation sciences was conducted where a standardised questionnaire was used to determine the attitude and knowledge level of undergraduate students drawn from the college of medicine in Tibah University, Saudi Arabia, regarding viral infections. With a mean of 0.71, 0.69, and 0.66 and a standard deviation (SD) of 0.24, 0.34, and 0.24 for virology and transmission, symptoms and clinical outcomes, and treatment and prevention, respectively, the knowledge level of the health professions students towards hepatitis B and C infections was significant. The knowledge level about the infections was higher among male students than among female students. Similarly, students in their final years of medical school had significantly higher knowledge levels about hepatitis B and C than their counterparts in their first years of medical school. There was also a positive correlation between the attitude of the health professions students towards the disease and their knowledge levels of the disease. Findings indicate that enhanced instruction on the nature, virology, transmission, symptoms, treatment, clinical outcomes, and prevention of hepatitis B and C can help improve the knowledge levels and attitude of the health professions students towards the disease and its management.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2023 13:50:03 +000
  • Pharmaceutical Assessment of the Impact of the Method of Extraction on the
           Suitability of Pectin from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Peels as a
           Suspending Agent in Oral Liquid Formulations

    • Abstract: Natural polymers such as pectin have gained increased utilization in pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors because they are affordable, easily accessible, nontoxic, and chemically modifiable, with the potential to be biodegradable and biocompatible. Musa paradisiaca (plantain) peels make up 30–40% of the overall weight of the fruit. The extraction of pectin from these residues can therefore be viewed as a possible waste of wealth. This study, therefore, focused on evaluating the suspending properties of pectin obtained from Musa paradisiaca (plantain) peels (through acid and alkaline extraction) and presented an alternative suspending agent in the pharmaceutical formulation of suspensions. The unripe peels of Musa paradisiaca were acquired and authenticated at the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. Pectin was extracted from the peels using both acid and alkaline extraction processes, respectively, characterized, and evaluated for its phytochemical properties. Different concentrations of the acid and alkaline pectin extracts were employed as a suspending agent in paracetamol suspensions, using acacia gum as a standard. The pectin yields obtained were 4.88% and 7.61% for the acid and alkaline extraction processes, respectively, while phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, and phenols in both extracts. The alkaline pectin extract recorded higher equivalent weight, degree of esterification, ash content, and crude content than the acid pectin extract, while FTIR identified similar functional groups in both acid and alkaline pectin extracts. The test suspensions reported significant differences ( 
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 07:35:00 +000
  • Preliminary Study on the Antibacterial Activities and Antibacterial Guided
           Fractionation of Some Common Medicinal Plants Practices in Itum Bahal,
           Kathmandu Valley of Nepal

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plant practices by a traditional healer of the Newar community in Itum Bahal, Kathmandu, Nepal. The antibacterial activities of the methanolic extract (1 mg/disc) of fifteen medicinal plants were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella typhi CCM 5445) using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were calculated for the different fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, and acetone) of the plants having a significant antimicrobial effect. Only Quercus infectoria G. Olivier (galls) and Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Müll.Arg. (seeds) exhibited prominent antibacterial effects. The acetone fraction from Q. infectoria had the strongest antibacterial effect, with a 41.00 mm inhibition zone against S. aureus. In contrast, the ethyl acetate fraction in M. repandus exhibited the highest efficacy, producing a 29.00 mm inhibition zone against S. typhi. In a similar manner, in the case of Q. infectoria, the acetoe fraction depicted the lowest MIC (0.19 mg/mL) and MBC (0.98 mg/mL) values against S. aureus, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction of M. repandus was most significant, showing the lowest MIC and MBC of 0.25 and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively, against S. typhi. This study suggested that the acetone extract of Q. infectoria galls can be used as a potential source against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas the ethyl acetate extract of M. repandus seeds could serve as a useful source to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, extensive scientific investigation is mandatory to ensure the proper use of folk medicines.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 11:35:01 +000
  • First Clinical Nutrition Outpatient Consultation: A Review of Basic
           Principles in Nutritional Care of Adults with Hematologic Disease

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. Hematological disorders (HD) affect millions of people annually worldwide. Nutritional care is essential in acute or chronic HD, especially in controlling metabolic and gastrointestinal disorders that affect the nutritional status of individuals. Methods. A bibliographic survey was carried out between 2020 and 2022 using two databases: PubMed/MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the information source Academic Google, irrespective of language or geography. Results. In the first nutrition consultation (FNC), there should be an investigative direction focused on nutritional interventions in the short, medium, and long term. The record in the patient’s medical record is relevant for carrying out the consultation, according to the recommendations of the normative councils of medicine and nutrition. The main steps to be followed are the investigation of the presence of food allergies and intolerances; the drugs/nutritional supplements in use; changes in the digestive tract; the presence or absence of picamalacia; and socioeconomic and lifestyle data. In addition, it is necessary to carry out laboratory evaluations, semiological assessment, anthropometric assessment, and assessment of food consumption. In the end, the nutritional approach should be composed of calculation of energy and macronutrient and micronutrient needs, intervention in nutritional status deviations, nutritional guidelines, and nutritional therapeutic planning of return, focusing on adherence to treatment. Conclusion. The first nutrition consultation may represent investigative steps that help the clinical nutritionist in the management, allowing a longitudinal and specific nutritional therapeutic planning for patients assisted in large reference centers for hematological disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 08:50:01 +000
  • Influence of Different Extraction Methods on the Changes in Bioactive
           Compound Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Solid-State Fermented
           Coffee Husk Extracts

    • Abstract: In brewing coffee, a huge amount of food waste is generated; that waste, coffee husks in particular, should be comprehensively exploited. They offer a rich source of bioactive compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of extraction methods on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of such waste. Coffee husks in this study were fermented with S. cerevisiae based on a solid-state fermentation technique. The study method included ethanolic or water extraction with varied controllable factors, i.e., temperature (60, 100°C) and extraction technique. Bioactive contents were investigated with the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was investigated with DPPH and FRAP assays. Results show that yields were the highest in the extract of fermented coffee husks at 100°C. The highest levels of bioactive contents (total trigonelline content at 3.59% and antioxidant activity at 23.35% (DPPH) and 25.9% (FRAP)) were found in the ethanolic extract of fermented coffee husks at 60°C. The bioactive content and bioactivity, including antioxidant activity, depended on different raw materials, preparation methods, and extraction conditions. This study illustrates the potential for using food waste such as coffee husks as a sustainable source of bioactive compounds or bioactive extracts.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 08:20:01 +000
  • Understanding the Association of Self-Efficacy, Mood, and Demographics
           with Physical Activity in Syrian and Iraqi Refugees: A Cross-Sectional
           Study in Jordan

    • Abstract: Objective. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the influence of sociodemographic factors on physical activity among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. In addition, it sought to determine the predictive ability of self-efficacy and mood in relation to the level of physical activity in this population. Methods. A convenient sample of refugees residing in Jordanian cities was collected. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire pack consisting of a demographic data sheet, a physical activity level questionnaire, the Brunel Mood Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze demographic details, while the chi-square test examined the association between physical activity and demographic factors. The independent t-test assessed differences in self-efficacy and mood subscales in relation to physical activity. Logistic regression analysis was employed to identify potential predictors of the two categories of physical activity. Results. Most participants reported low levels of physical activity. The frequency of moderate-to-high physical activity was higher in male participants, those with higher education, better health, and higher income. Compared to participants of low physical activity, those in the moderate-to-high physical activity category expressed significantly higher mean score of self-efficacy but lower mean scores of tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion, indicating better mood. The logistic regression analysis for physical activity indicated that the model was significant for education, income, good health perception, self-efficacy, and one mood subscale (vigor), with these variables collectively accounting for 11–18% of the variance ( value
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2023 12:05:01 +000
  • Molecular Docking Study of the C-10 Massoia Lactone Compound as an
           Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agent against Candida tropicalis

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is now considered a global health problem because it reduces the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the highest mortality rate is associated with infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, with approximately 700,000 deaths worldwide each year. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of C-10 massoia lactone to inhibit the growth of fungi and C. tropicalis biofilm, and molecular docking studies were performed to determine the nature of the inhibition. The study was conducted using the microdilution method for antifungal and antibiofilm testing and designed with a molecular docking approach. Furthermore, an analysis using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed to evaluate the mechanism of effect. The results obtained showed that C-10 massoia lactone can inhibit the growth of fungi by 84.21% w/v. Meanwhile, the growth of C. tropicalis biofilm in the intermediate phase was 80.23% w/v and in the mature phase was 74.23% w/v. SEM results showed that C-10 massoia lactone damaged the EPS matrix of C. tropicalis so that hyphal formation was hindered due to damage to fungal cells, resulting in a decrease in attachment, density, and lysis of C. tropicalis fungal cells. Based on molecular docking tests, C-10 massoia lactone was able to inhibit biofilm formation without affecting microbial growth, while docking C-10 massoia lactone showed a significant binding and has the potential as an antifungal agent. In conclusion, the C-10 massoia lactone compound has the potential as an antibiofilm against C. tropicalis, so it can become a new antibiofilm agent.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2023 12:05:01 +000
  • Internet Addiction and Sleep Disorders among Medical Students

    • Abstract: Background. Considering the increasing use of the Internet in Iranian society, especially among students, and the importance of sleep quality, the present study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and Internet addiction among medical students in Shiraz. Methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample included students of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were selected by a multistage sampling method in 2018. Each faculty was considered to be stratified, and the samples were selected from all strata by simple random sampling. A total of 400 student questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The level of sleep disturbance was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate Internet addiction. Cronbach’s alpha for PSQI and IAT was 0.77 and 0.93, respectively. Results. 109 (%28.9) and 58 (%14.4) of all the people under study were at risk of Internet addiction or poor sleep quality, respectively. The highest percentage of poor sleep quality was in those who were addicted to the Internet (60%), but the lowest percentage was observed in the group without addiction (27%). In addition, there was a significant correlation between Internet addiction and subjective sleep quality (r = 0.191,  = 0.05), sleep latency (r = 0.129,  = 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.119,  = 0.01), habitual sleep efficiency (r = 0.186,  = 0.05), sleep disturbances (r = 0.169,  = 0.01), use of sleeping medication (r = 0.203,  = 0.05), and daytime dysfunction (r = 0.188,  = 0.05). Conclusion. These findings help national health officials and planners in Iran to design appropriate and effective interventions to improve students’ health and prevent Internet addiction.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Sep 2023 10:05:01 +000
  • Application of Protein-Protein Interaction Network Analysis in Order to
           Identify Cervical Cancer miRNA and mRNA Biomarkers

    • Abstract: Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the world’s most common and severe cancers. This cancer includes two histological types: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). The current study aims at identifying novel potential candidate mRNA and miRNA biomarkers for SCC based on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) and miRNA-mRNA network analysis. The current project utilized a transcriptome profile for normal and SCC samples. First, the PPI network was constructed for the 1335 DEGs, and then, a significant gene module was extracted from the PPI network. Next, a list of miRNAs targeting module’s genes was collected from the experimentally validated databases, and a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was formed. After network analysis, four driver genes were selected from the module’s genes including MCM2, MCM10, POLA1, and TONSL and introduced as potential candidate biomarkers for SCC. In addition, two hub miRNAs, including miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p, were selected from the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and reported as possible candidate biomarkers. In summary, six potential candidate RNA-based biomarkers consist of four genes containing MCM2, MCM10, POLA1, and TONSL, and two miRNAs containing miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p are opposed as potential candidate biomarkers for CC.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:35:00 +000
  • Silver Nanoparticles as an Intracanal Medicament: A Scoping Review

    • Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) release Ag ions with potent bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects. They have shown promising results as an intracanal medicament for removing Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a resistant bacterium associated with root canal failures. This review summarizes the role of AgNPs as an intracanal medicament. Original research articles on AgNPs as an intracanal medicament were searched in databases such as MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Embase, resulting in 24 studies. They showed that AgNPs effectively eliminated E. faecalis and reduced postoperative pain following root canal therapy. However, these effects should be further verified through clinical trials as most of the studies were in vitro.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2023 12:20:01 +000
  • MC1R Gene Variants and Their Relationship with Coat Color in South
           American Camelids

    • Abstract: In domestic camelids, fleece color is an essential characteristic because it defines the direction of production. Variants were determined in the MC1R gene that showed a relationship with coat color in alpacas and llamas at the level of the coding region. This report sequenced the MC1R gene from 290 alpacas (142 white, 84 black, 50 brown, and 14 light fawn), five brown llamas, nine vicuñas, and three guanacos to analyze the association between coat color and the MC1R gene among South American camelids. A total of nineteen polymorphisms were identified. Seven polymorphisms were significant; three of them were of nonsynonymous type (c.82A > G, c.376G > A, and c.901C > T), two were of synonymous type (c.126 T > C and c.933G > A), one was in the promoter region (−42C > G), and one was in the 3′ UTR (+5T > C). More polymorphisms were found in domestic camelids than in wild camelids. Besides polymorphism, the association of polymorphisms might cause white and dark pigmentation in the fleece of South American camelids. In addition, the MC1R protein would answer the pigmentation in alpacas.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2023 09:50:00 +000
  • Determinants of Stock Theft and Its Implication on Household Dietary
           Diversity in Semiarid Regions of Zimbabwe: Case of Gwanda District

    • Abstract: Stock theft is a major threat to livestock production in Africa and has been on the rise in recent years. Zimbabwe is no exception. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that contribute to stock theft in rural areas. The study used a mixed research design. The study was limited to wards 20 and 24 of Gwanda district of Matabeleland South Province. The linear regression model was used to analyze the factors that affected stock theft in rural areas. The majority (57.1%) of the interviewed household heads were males and aged below 50 years (55.8%) with an average household size of 5 members. On average, each household owned 5 cattle, 2 sheep, 17 goats, 4 donkeys, and 5 chicken. The participants kept livestock mainly for income generation, source of school fees, draught power, meat, milk, manure, and eggs. The major causes of livestock loss apart from stock theft were drought, disease outbreaks, trapped in mine holes, and predators. All the respondents practiced livestock identification which includes branding, ear notching, and the use of ear tags. The most vulnerable livestock species to stock theft were goats, cattle, donkeys, sheep, and chicken. Stock theft mostly takes place before midday and on Mondays and Wednesdays. It is at its peak levels in January and November. Goats and donkeys were the main stolen livestock species. The stolen livestock is mostly sold to meat processors. The distance from the border, the use of livestock identification tags, the total number of livestock units owned by the household, and the day of the week were significant in influencing the intensity of stock theft (). Stock theft does not directly affect household dietary diversity () because rural households do not use livestock for their nutritional benefit, particularly goats, sheep, and cattle. Thus, if dietary diversity is taken as a proxy for food security, it can be concluded that stock theft does not significantly affect the household’s food security status. Working in groups through neighborhood watch committees, livestock branding, tending livestock which reduces the time that the livestock roam freely unattended, and assisting the police with investigations whenever there is a case of stock theft were identified as important mitigation strategies. At the service provider level, it was suggested that the law enforcing needed to increase its efficiency to mitigate stock theft.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Aug 2023 04:05:01 +000
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