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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Episteme Transversalis     Open Access  
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Advancement in Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sciences : Basic and Applied Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Law, Information and Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)

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Journal of King Saud University - Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.611
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1018-3647
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3301 journals]
  • Sugarcane juice mediated synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles,
           characterization and their antibacterial activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): A.P. Angeline Mary, A. Thaminum Ansari, R. Subramanian In this work, an environmental benign, sugarcane juice (SCJ) was applied as an eco-friendly stabilizing agent to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs). To produce CuO NPs, 2, 5 and 10 ml of juice were added during the synthesis. The produced CuO NPs were characterized using FTIR, which confirmed the transformation of functional groups through Cu-O. The XRD analysis confirmed the monoclinic crystalline structure and purity of the material. SEM images confirm the nanoparticles formation. Quantitative estimation of Cu, O and C present in samples were carried out by EDS. Square, rectangular, cubic cylindrical and spherical shaped particles observed from the TEM micrographs. Furthermore, Micro-raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were taken to assure the formation of CuO NPs. The results revealed that the SCJ is a good stabilizing agent which reduces the size of particles significantly at higher concentrations and altered shapes to spherical. Hence, it sugarcane juice could be applied as a green stabilizing agent to fabricate the CuO NPs. Antibacterial activity of CuO NPs was assessed against some pathogenic bacteria.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial analysis and
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): G. Eswaraiah, K. Abraham Peele, S. Krupanidhi, R. Bharath Kumar, T.C. Venkateswarulu In the present study, phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of selected mangrove species: Suaeda nudiflora, Lumnitzera racemosa, Ipomoea tuba and Avicennia alba was performed. The phenol found in all selected mangroves and tannins found in the species: Suaeda nudiflora, Ipomoea tuba and Avicennia alba and terpenoids present in Lumnitzera racemosa, Ipomoea tuba and Avicenia alba. The steroids and emodins were not found in all selected mangrove species. The antioxidant analysis proved that maximum inhibitory potential of leaf extract was obtained in Lumnitzera racemosa and minimum scavenging activity was found in Suaeda nudiflora. The leaf extract with different solvents was screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains: Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extracts from Squeeda nudiflora and Ipomoea tuba was shown highest zone of inhibition compared to other solvent extracts. The order of antimicrobial activity expressed as inhibitory zones of methanol> acetone> hexane observed for pathogenic strains. Further, thin layer chromatography (TLC) studies revealed presence of bioactive compounds in the extracts of the mangrove species.
       
  • Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of tellurite in MDA-MB-231 breast
           cancer cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Ayesha Noreen, Abdul Rehman Among different metallic compounds, tellurium (Te) was investigated as having anticancer properties. In the current investigation, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line was cultured with or without tellurite to measure live cells by crystal violet staining. TrxR systems can be acted as a leader for anticancer therapy by eliminating cancerous cells through inhibition of TrxR and glutathione reductase (GR). Oxidative stress, generated in higher concentration in tellurite exposed cells, leads to lower the cell reduced environment such as reduced glutathione GSH) and non-protein thiol. Tellurite exposed cells underwent both type of cell death via necrosis and apoptosis. The lateral was slowed as tellurite concentration increased which was measured by caspase-3 activity, thus this finding would be very useful for determination of type and extent of cell death occurred by tellurite via biochemical and morphological ways. By elucidating the role of tellurite in inducing cell death in carcinoma cells by increased production of reactive oxygen species, this method could be employed for the treatment of carcinoma cells.
       
  • Frictional self-contact problem of elastic rods

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Mourad Chamekh, Mohamed Ali Latrach, Yves Renard In this article, we studied the modeling of a hyperelastic rod during large displacements in the presence of a frictional self-contact described by the Coulomb’s law. Compared to other works the self-contact subject with friction is addressed as a problem in itself. This problem generates nonlinear constraints leading to difficulties in mathematical and numerical analysis. To relax the problem of these constraints, an augmented Lagrangian method was used. As a result, we overcame the implicit nature of the Signorini-Coulomb-self-contact formulas. We presented, on the one hand, a result of the existence of the solution. On the other hand, we have proposed an approach that can be useful for a numerical implementation of this problem.
       
  • Halotolerant PGPR: A hope for cultivation of saline soils

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Rameesha Abbas, Sumaira Rasul, Kashif Aslam, Muhammad Baber, Muhammad Shahid, Fathia Mubeen, Tahir Naqqash Salt stress is one of the rapidly growing environmental stresses all over the world. Globally, 22% of the total cultivated and 33% of the total irrigated agricultural area is subjected to salt stress, which is increasing rapidly by an average of 10% per year. Due to this reason, 50% of cultivatable area will be salt-affected in coming years. On the other hand, demand for food is increasing with the rise in population. Salts have detrimental effects on plants such as damage to photosynthetic machinery, growth retardation and ultimately yield loss. However, the rhizosphere of plants harbors a diverse community of microbes known as halo-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which have the potential to cope with salinity problem. These PGPR assist plants to withstand the increased concentration of salts by the production of different organic and inorganic compounds such as Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), ethylene, 1-Amino Cyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, volatile organic compounds (VOC), antioxidants etc.. The present review demonstrates the mechanisms of halo-tolerant PGPR that help plants to survive under saline conditions. We also highlighted some of the bacterial strains, which are successfully used in different forms on agriculturally important crops in salt affected soils. These halo-tolerant PGPR have the potential to work as defensive agents of plants by enhancing growth, productivity, tolerance and defense system under saline environments.
       
  • Silymarin as a therapeutic extract for intestinal and splenic injuries
           induced by microcystin-LR in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Ayman Al-hazmi, Anas Alomery, Leila Ait Abderrahim IntroductionMicrocystin-LR is a toxic compound produced by Cyanobacteria and responsible for to destruction of different types of human and animal tissues. These damages are treated by different flavonoids such as silymarin. Silymarin is a Silybum marianum extract that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer functions.Materials and methodsSixty male Balb/c mice 5–7 weeks-old classified into six groups; control (C), two toxin control groups (M6 and M12), silymarin control group (S) and two toxin silymarin groups SM6 and SM12. Blood samples were collected from each mousefor serum transaminases measurement. Intestinal and splenic homogenates were used for measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl derivative oxidation (CC), lipid peroxidants (LPO) and methylglyoxal (MG).ResultsTransaminases showed significant statistical differences between all six groups. Moreover, significant statistical differences were observed in PPI, GSH, LPO, CC and MG between six groups in Intestinal tissue. On splenic tissue, significant statistical differences were observed only in PPI and CC.ConclusionSilymarin has an antioxidant by induction of protein phosphatase I activity and increases reduced glutathione in microcystin-LR induced intestinal and splenic injuries.
       
  • Investigation of soil moisture content over a cultivated farmland in
           Abeokuta Nigeria using electrical resistivity methods and soil analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): S.A. Ganiyu, O.T. Olurin, M.A. Oladunjoye, B.S. Badmus A combined 1D and 2D electrical resistivity surveys as well as laboratory determination of soil moisture contents of topsoil in a University cultivated farmland is presented. Apparent resistivity data were measured along six traverses using Schlumberger and Wenner arrays while soil samples were collected from all traverses at depths of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m respectively. The ranges of resistivity and thickness of the topsoil, clayey sand and weathered layers are 78.0–1094.0 Ωm, 0.5–1.9 m; 110.0–275.0 Ωm, 1.1–11.9 m; and 19.0–274.0 Ωm, 1.1–14.0 m respectively. 2D resistivity inverted sections revealed three zones of resistivity anomalies: topsoil with resistivity 78.0–600.0 Ωm for traverses within the farmland and that of two traverses along the entrances to the farm. The second resistivity zone represents a clay region of high moisture content with resistivity values less than 25.0 Ωm. The third layer represents weathered/fractured layer with relatively high resistivity values ranging from 116 to 600 Ωm. The 1D resistivity models showed effective depths of more than 30.0 cm while the 2D image lines revealed that active water uptake zone extends to about 3.0 m depth. All the collected soil samples belong to sandy loam while the soil moisture content values ranged from 45 to 74% at different soil depths of 0.5–2.0 m. The study has shown that the integrated methods provide important methods for better management of soil water reserves for improved agricultural production.
       
  • Closed-form solution of optimal control problem of a fractional order
           system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Tirumalasetty Chiranjeevi, Raj Kumar Biswas A formulation and an analytical solution technique of fractional optimal control problem (FOCP) is presented in this paper. The performance index (PI) considered is a conformable fractional integral (CFI) function and is a function of both the state and the control variables. Dynamic behaviour of the system is described by conformable fractional differential equation (FDE). The necessary conditions of optimality and the general transversality condition in terms of Hamiltonian are obtained using variational approach. Both the fixed and free final end point conditions have been considered. An analytical solution technique is presented for solving the conformable FOCPs. To validate the formulation and solution scheme numerical examples are presented.
       
  • Resonance states completeness for relativistic particle on a sphere with
           two semi-infinite lines attached

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): I.V. Blinova, I.Y. Popov, A.I. Popov The paper is devoted to resonances playing an important role in direct and inverse scattering problems. A model of a relativistic particle on hybrid manifold consisting of a sphere with two semi-infinite wires attached is considered. The model is based on the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators. Completeness of resonance states in the space of square integrable functions on the sphere is proved. The proof uses the relation between the completeness and the factorization of the characteristic function in Sz.-Nagy functional model.
       
  • Hepatoprotective role of swimming against arsenic induced oxidative stress
           in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Madiha Habib, Sheharbano Bhatti, Shafiq ur Rehman, Numan Javed, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam, Naveed Shahzad, Zaigham Abbas ObjectiveArsenic is the most prevalent and common environmental contaminant, found in drinking water with varying concentrations. Inorganic arsenic is involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of present study was to determine the activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver of mice, changes with arsenic exposure and to determine whether it is associated with the induction of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we intended to determine whether swimming exercise can modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes in vivo rendering protection to the liver of mice during arsenic exposure.MethodsMouse model was established, mice were administrated with two different doses (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) of sodium arsenite. These mice underwent swimming exercise for about 8 weeks regularly. First group was negative control which received distilled water and no exercise. Group 2 and 4 were positive controls in which 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day of sodium arsenite were administered respectively, for 8 weeks. Group 3 and 5 underwent swimming exercise for 60 min daily along with 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day of sodium arsenite for same duration and act as treatment group.ResultsOur results revealed that arsenic level was higher (0.13 mg/L) in the liver of mice lacking exercise in comparison to the exercise group (0.04 mg/L). Similarly, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were found higher in mice lacking swimming exercises showing sodium arsenite had more severe pathological damages in liver as compared to the exercise groups. On the other hand, catalase (2.61 nmol/mg) and glutathione levels (1.25 nmol/mg) and expression of two antioxidant pathway genes i.e. NQO-1 and HO-1 were found elevated in exercise group.ConclusionThis study reveals that swimming alleviate the arsenic induced liver damages in mice through induction of Nrf2 antioxidant pathways. All these findings allowed us to speculate the involvement of swimming exercise which is responsible for hepato-protective activity.
       
  • Removal of reactive blue 203 dye photocatalytic using ZnO nanoparticles
           stabilized on functionalized MWCNTs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Marzieh Bagheri, Najme Rostami Najafabadi, Elham Borna In the present work, the performance of photocatalytic removal of reactive blue 203 (RB203) using three different additive as photocatalyst: ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO (NPs)), multi wall carbon nanotubes and ZnO (NPs) stabilized on Functionalized multi wall carbon nanotubes (ZnO (NPs)/MWCNTs) was investigated. For this purpose, firstly the surface of multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were acidified using sulfuric acid and nitric oxide and then ZnO (NPs) was stabilized on the MWCNTs surface to form ZnO (NPs)/MWCNTs. The structural properties of the ZnO (NPs)/MWCNTs were studied by using the results of Scanning Electron Microscope analysis (SEM). In addition, the effects of various influencing factors such as pH, temperature, dye concentration, UV radiation time, UV intensity and photocatalysts dosage were investigated on photocatalytic removal of RB203. The maximum dye removal was obtained at optimum condition which was pH = 10, 20 min radiation time, 50 mm lamp distance from catalyst level, and the UV radiation intensity of 23 mW/cm2. This condition was created in 100 ml of synthetic wastewater having dye concentration of 20 mg/L and catalyst mass of 5 mg/L. This experiment was carried out for all three additives and the removal efficiencies of 19%, 85.4% and 99.1% were attained for the additives of MWCNTs, ZnO (NPs) and ZnO (NPs)/MWCNT, respectively.
       
  • Potential application of waste fruit peels (orange, yellow lemon and
           banana) as wide range natural antimicrobial agent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Muhammed Saleem, Mohammed Tariq Saeed The antimicrobial potential of three abundantly available fruits peel waste, (orange, yellow lemon and banana) was evaluated on wide range of microorganisms. Three solvents methanol, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water were used for extraction. The resultant extracts were used to test a six gram positive and six gram negative pathogenic bacteria in addition to two microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF) and two yeast species. Presence of trace metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and GC-MS Analysis was carried out to find out the total phenolic compounds, which may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity was assessed by the well-bore method, reflected by the diameter of the zones of growth inhibition. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was also determined to confirm the antimicrobial potential of extracts and get quantitative results. Results shows that among the used solvents the extracts exhibited better performance in the order of Distilled water > Methanol > Ethanol > Ethyl acetate which reflects the suitability of solvent for fruit peel extraction. Effectiveness of fruit peel extracts was evaluated and found Yellow lemon > Orange > Banana peel. It was found that gram negative bacteria are more sensitive to the extracts and among them Klebsiella pneumoniae show the highest sensitivity against extract of yellow lemon peel and show the highest zone of inhibition (28 ± 1.4 mm to 3.5 ± 1.3 mm). Similarly, the MIC value was found to be 130 µg/mL which is the least value among other tested microorganisms. This may be attributed to the presence of high concentrations of zinc, magnesium and total phenolic content in the extract of yellow lemon peel. As multidrug resistant strains of microorganisms are emerging and treatment of their infection is becoming difficult with time, infectious diseases are a global cause of increase in death rate. Present study confirms the potential of studied fruit peel waste to be used for therapeutic purpose to combat the multidrug resistant microorganism infection. This will also result in reduction of waste material, reusing it for beneficial purpose in an economical and environmental friendly manner.
       
  • Application of Beauveria bassiana using different baits for the control of
           grasshopper pest Dichroplus maculipennis under field cage conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Sebastian A. Pelizza, Yanina Mariottini, Leticia M. Russo, Florencia M. Vianna, Ana C. Scorsetti, Carlos E. Lange Dichroplus maculipennis is a widely distributed species, occurring in several countries of southern South America. Poisoned baits are effective for the control of insect pests. Adding attractants and phagostimulants could result in improved bait formulations, making bait treatment even more efficacious, for the control of grasshopper pests. The goal of the study was to determine, under laboratory bioassay and field cage conditions, the most effective treatment option using different baits with the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, for the control of the grasshopper pest D. maculipennis. In laboratory bioassays we observed significant differences (df = 11; f = 2.23; p 
       
  • Force analysis of unstable section of electrostatic spinning charged jet

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Liang Chen, Liang Zhiyong, Lu Li The basic mechanism of electrostatic spinning is rapid whipping of charged jet. An ideal model was established for the key part of electrostatic spinning mathematical model, which is visco-elastic behavior model of the unstable section of charged jet. Through mechanical analysis of the viscoelastic behavior model and calculation of its governing equations, the physical and dynamic properties of the unstable section of the charged jet in the three-dimension Cartesian coordinate system were obtained. It will have a theoretical effect on the development of electrostatic spinning technology.
       
  • Parturition affects test-positivity in sheep with subclinical
           paratuberculosis; investigation following a preliminary analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Antonia Mataragka, Kyriaki Sotirakoglou, Maria Gazouli, Kostas A. Triantaphyllopoulos, John Ikonomopoulos Within the context of an investigation focused at improving the effectiveness of test-and-removal for the control of ovine paratuberculosis, we recently conducted a preliminary study using ELISA and real time PCR to assess whether parturition affects test-positivity, in animals with subclinical paratuberculosis. Samples of faeces and blood were collected from 42 adult female animals, before (PP1) and after parturition (PP2), and before mating (PP3). In the preliminary stage of the analysis, only one of the animals tested reacted positively to ELISA (2.38%, 1 of 42), which corresponds to 2.8% of PCR-reactors (1 of 36). Therefore, the final stage the investigation was conducted using only real time PCR, which was applied to test samples of faeces collected from 85 animals, in 5 periods of sampling: 4–15/1–3 days (FP1/FP2) before and after parturition (FP3/FP4), and before mating (FP5). The result of the preliminary analysis indicated that PCR-positivity in terms of the number of shedders and the amount of MAP, is statistically significantly lower before parturition (PP1), whereas that of the final, higher in FP4 compared to FP5. Significantly higher levels of positivity in PP2 and FP4 were also recorded in connection with animals reacting positively to PCR more than once. In conclusion, in sheep with subclinical paratuberculosis, the period of 4–15 days postpartum is more suitable for the application of test-and-removal aiming to the control of the disease, using real time PCR. The use of ELISA for the same purpose is not recommended in the specific category of animals, due to low sensitivity.
       
  • Goodness-of-fit testing for the Cauchy distribution with application to
           financial modeling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): M. Mahdizadeh, Ehsan Zamanzade This article deals with goodness-of-fit test for the Cauchy distribution. Six new tests based on Kullback-Leibler information are proposed, and shown to be consistent. Monte Carlo evidence indicates that the tests have satisfactory performances against symmetric alternatives. An empirical application to quantitative finance is provided.
       
  • Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl by sweet melon peel
           extract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Mohammed Tariq Saeed, Muhammad Saleem, Soofia Usmani, Izhar Ahmed Malik, Faisal Ahmad Al-Shammari, Kashif Mairaj Deen Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by sweet melon (Cucumis melo L) peel (SM) extract in 1 M HCl solution was evaluated by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. Various SM extracts concentrations such as 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 g/l were added and corrosion rate (CR) of mild steel and inhibition efficiency (IE) were determined at various temperatures from 295 to 333 K. The appreciable decrease in CR with increase in SM extract concentration was observed at each temperature. However, the typically accelerated CR at each SM extract with the rise in temperature corresponded to the increased kinetic activities at the metal/electrolyte interface. By the addition of 0.5 g/l SM extract, ∼5 times lower CR of mild steel at high temperature (333 K) than in blank acidic solution confirmed its strong inhibitive efficacy. The relatively large variation in the anodic Tafel slope and progressive decrease in CR with an increase in the SM extract concentration validated the restricted dissolution of mild steel. The barrier characteristics of the SM extract layer and its chemical interaction with the surface was evaluated from the low activation energy (Ea) values that fluctuated from ∼20 to 23 kJ/mole. The increase in kad increased from 0.602 to 1.053 (g/l)−1 and decrease in ΔG°ad (−3.74 to −4.91 kJ/mole) with an increase in temperature from 295 to 333 K assured the spontaneous interaction of SM extract molecules with the steel surface.
       
  • Circular strongly partially-balanced repeated measurement designs in
           periods of two different sizes using method of cyclic shifts (Rule II)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Rida Jabeen, Rashid Ahmed, Muhammad Sajjad, H.M. Kashif Rashid, Abid Khan Strongly balanced repeated measurement designs may be used in medicine, pharmacology, animal sciences and psychology with unequal period sizes. To avoid a large number of subjects, strongly partially-balanced repeated measurement designs are preferred. In this article, some infinite series are developed to generate the minimal strongly partially-balanced repeated measurement designs in periods of two different sizes using method of cyclic shifts (Rule II).
       
  • Isolation, characterization, and multiple heavy metal-resistant and
           hexavalent chromium-reducing Microbacterium testaceum B-HS2 from tannery
           effluent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Amina Elahi, Mehvish Ajaz, Abdul Rehman, Stéphane Vuilleumier, Zaman Khan, Syed Zajif Hussain A Cr6+ resistant Microbacterium testaceum B-HS2, isolated indigenously from tannery wastewater, showed optimum growth at 37 °C and pH 7. M. testaceum B-HS2 could resist to Cr6+ (48 mM) and heavy metals upto 2 mM (As2+, Zn2+, Cu2+), 7 mM (Pb2+) and 1 mM (Cd2+, Ni2+). Maximum activity of chromate reductase was achieved at 40 °C at pH of 7 and was inhibited in presence of all the heavy metals tested. M. testaceum B-HS2 biosorption efficiency (q) for Cr6+ was 31, 38, 66 and 47 mM/g after 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Electron micrographs confirmed further the adsorption of metal leading to intracellular accumulation of Cr6+. Functional groups such as amide and carbonyl moieties which actively participated in Cr6+ adsorption were determined through FTIR spectroscopy, and intracellular accumulation was also confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Cr6+ presence triggers significant production of antioxidant enzymes [(Ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POX), Glutathione S-transferease (GST), and Catalase (CAT)]. Moreover, rise in glutathione and other non-protein thiol levels were determined which substantially neutralize Cr6+ generated oxidative stress. Pilot scale study revealed that M. testaceum B-HS2 was helpful in removing up to 96% Cr6+ from tannery effluent within 6 days and this microbial purified water is safe for the plant growth. Multiple heavy metal tolerance and high Cr6+ reduction potential make M. testaceum B-HS2 a candidate of choice to reclaim Cr6+ contaminated environment.
       
  • Investigation of erosion-corrosion of aluminium alloy composites:
           Influence of slurry composition and speed in a different mediums

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Gajendra Dixit In the present study, an effort has been taken to fabricate and compare the erosion-corrosion of aluminium alloy (ADC12) based composite as ADC12-7%SiC and ADC12-7%TiB2 in Basic, Acidic, Seawater and Aqueous atmosphere. TiB2 reinforced composite revealed better hardness when compared to that of SiC composite. Erosion-corrosion of aluminium alloy composites were performed at different erodent concentrations (40, 60, 80 wt%) and a speed of 1000, 1500 revolution per minute. It is marked by the study that composites show ameliorate wear resistance than alloy at all speeds and all concentrations except in Basic medium. Microstructural analysis elicited Al-Si interfaces to be a preferential site for corrosion attack. Addition of reinforcement reduces the metallic area for erodent attack; hence composites show less material loss than the alloy. Among composites, TiB2 reinforcement composite show ameliorates wear resistance irrespective of speed, slurry concentration, and slurry medium. However, regardless of the material, the material loss at 100 rpm is more than 1500 rpm in Basic media. Based on the analysis, Material removal has the following order in different mediums as; Basic > Acidic > Marine > Water.
       
  • Validation study of the reactor physics lattice transport code DRAGON5 &
           the Monte Carlo code OpenMC by critical experiments of light water
           reactors

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): H. El Yaakoubi, H. Boukhal, T. El Bardouni, L. Erradi, E. Chakir, K. Benaalilou, M. Lahdour, S. El Ouahdani, M. El Barbari The aim of this study is to validate the reactor physics lattice transport code DRAGON5 and the Monte Carlo code OpenMC by neutronic analysis of critical experiments of light water cores. In this work the analysis of integral parameters of five light water reactor critical experiments TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-1, BAPL-2, and BAPL-3 is achieved based on evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1. BAPL and TRX experiments provide experimental buckling and are suitable benchmark lattices for validating the deterministic reactor physics lattice transport code DRAGON5 and the stochastic OpenMC code as well as evaluating nuclear data library. The integral parameters of the abovementioned critical experiments are calculated using DRAGON5 and OpenMC codes. To assess our calculation scheme the calculated integral parameters are compared to the measured values as well as the earlier published MCNP results based on the Chinese evaluated nuclear data library CENDL-3.0. Our calculations led to results in good agreement with the experiment and the earlier MCNP calculation results. Therefore, this study reveals the potential validation of the reactor physics lattice transport code DRAGON5 and the Monte Carlo code OpenMC using ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library.
       
  • Morpho- physiological status of fenugreek seedlings under NaCl stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Bardees M. Mickky, Muhammad A. Abbas, Nada M. Sameh Salinity is one of the main factors affecting seed germination and seedling growth. An in vitro experiment was conducted to assess the ability of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) to germinate and cope with salt stress. Fenugreek seeds were germinated in presence of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl for 2 and 5 days; and the seedlings were evaluated for their morpho- physiological features. Data revealed that seedling dry mass and seedling mass vigor index (SMVI) were non- significantly affected by salinity at both ages, seedling fresh mass was adversely affected only at the first age, while germination percent, germination index, seedling length and seedling length vigor index were all suppressed by salinity at both ages. Salinity could also hit the seedlings cellular membranes as indicated by enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane injury with subsequent less membrane stability at the two ages. As a strategy to withstand stress, water extracts of the seedlings had higher osmotic pressure under salinity; with increased amount of total soluble sugars, proline, citric acid as well as sodium and chloride especially at the first age. Induced activity of some antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, ascorbic peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded at both ages under most of the checked salt concentrations. Moreover, correlation coefficient was determined between each parameter of the estimated morpho- physiological criteria and SMVI. Also, the degree by which the estimated criteria contributed to overall seedling performance was statistically computed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Phosphate solubilization by Trichoderma koningiopsis (NBRI-PR5) under
           abiotic stress conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Ashmita Tandon, Touseef Fatima, Anshu, Deepali Shukla, Pratibha Tripathi, Suchi Srivastava, Poonam C. Singh Phosphate (P) solubilizing fungi contribute considerably in microbial phosphate mobilization. However, effects of different abiotic stresses on P solubilization mechanisms in Trichoderma are largely unexplored. In the present study we selected a P solubilizing Trichoderma to study the mechanism of P solubilization under alkaline and drought conditions. Among 33 Trichoderma isolates (NBRI-PR1–NBRI-PR33), NBRI-PR5 was selected after screening for stress tolerance, antagonistic activity against phyto-pathogens and P solubilization. The selected strain, Trichoderma koningiopsis (NBRI-PR5) was characterized and identified using ITS and tef1 sequencing (Accession no. JN375992). Results show that NBRI-PR5 uses different mechanisms of P solubilization under in-vitro alkaline and drought conditions. NBRI-PR5 produced organic acids for solubilizing insoluble tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) at high pH stress. In drought conditions NBRI-PR5 accumulated poly-phosphate in its mycelia and produced alkaline phosphatase enzyme for P solubilization. The study concludes that T. koningiopsis employs different mechanisms of P solubilization in different stress conditions and therefore, it can be used in management of stressed soils.Graphical abstractSchematic representation of phosphate solubilization mechanisms present in T. koningiopsis NBRI-PR5 under alkaline and drought stress conditions. Organic acid produced by NBRI-PR5 gets dissociated and provide H+ ions which shifts the equilibrium towards HPO42− and provide soluble HPO42− available to plants. Different shades of the colour bar representing organic acids shows the concentration of the organic acids produced in the conditions mentioned in the parenthesis. The anions released from the organic acids form salts with the metal cations (Ca+2) resulting in crystalline encrustation on fungal hypha. Under drought conditions NBRI-PR5 accumulates P in the form of polyphosphate granules, which releases soluble P (PO43−) through enzymatic activity. This PO43− is made available to plants in the form of HPO4−2 and H2PO4−1 through different physico-chemical alterations in soil.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy as a tool for predicting
           antioxidant activity of propolis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Matheus Augusto Calegari, Bruno Bresolin Ayres, Larrisa Macedo dos Santos Tonial, Severino Matias de Alencar, Tatiane Luiza Cadorin Oldoni The propolis chemical composition is complex, varied, and closely related to characteristics of the vegetation and location where the hives are located. The objective of this work was to determine the antioxidant activity through FRAP methodology in propolis (raw, macerated, ethanolic extract and concentrated ethanolic extract) using a rapid and non-destructive method namely Fourier transform near-infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy. By the results obtained for the antioxidant activity it can be verified that the samples of propolis present a very diversified chemical profile, for the FRAP methodology the samples of propolis collected in Três Barras – SC and Campo Magro – PR showed the highest activities: 1.8 × 103 and 1.6 × 103 μmol of Fe2+ g−1 respectively. It was possible to conclude that the macerated propolis presented the best multivariate calibration model established with the Savitzky-Golay (SG) + Constant Offset Elimination (COE) preprocessed spectra, where the R2 and 0.95 and 113 for FRAP determination. The error values RMSEC, RMSECV and RMSEE were 73, 1.3 × 102 and 81 μmol Fe2+ g−1, respectively. The FRAP model for macerated propolis was validated and can be used for quantification of antioxidant activity of new extracts of propolis, being useful as an alternative to rapid analysis, reducing waste generation and cost.
       
  • Characterization of an Ascochyta disease of the invasive vine Araujia
           hortorum E. Fourn. (Apocynaceae)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Gustavo Hernán Ramírez, Freda Elizabeth Anderson Araujia hortorum E. Fourn. is native to South America, where it is a valued species. In contrast, in other parts of the world where it was introduced as an ornamental, it has become an invasive weed. In New Zealand, it has been targeted for biological control, and this motivated field surveys for fungal pathogens in its native range in Argentina. The etiology of a frequently encountered disease was studied. Affected plants showed round necrotic leaf spots, and sometimes defoliation. Pathogenicity tests were conducted, and Koch’s postulates were completed. Ascochyta araujiae Speg. was identified as the causal agent. Through inoculation tests conducted on other species within the Apocynaceae it was shown that this pathogen is not highly specific. All five non-target species tested were found to be susceptible to the disease.
       
  • GC–MS analysis for compound identification in leaf extract of Lumnitzera
           racemosa and evaluation of its in vitro anticancer effect against MCF7 and
           HeLa cell lines

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): G. Eswaraiah, K. Abraham Peele, S. Krupanidhi, M. Indira, R. Bharath Kumar, T.C. Venkateswarulu The aim of present study is to analyze and separate bioactive constitutes of methanol leaf extract from Lumnitzera racemosa by Gas chromatography–Mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) and further to test for in vitro anticancer activity on MCF 7 and HeLa cancer cells using MTT assay. GC–MS analysis of L. racemosa leaf extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds mainly: furfurals and fatty acids. The bioactive compounds present in L. racemosa revealed significant cytotoxic activity against MCF 7 with IC50 value, 46.098 µg/mL and HeLa cells with IC50 value of 59.497 µg/mL. The leaf extracts of L. racemosa has high anticancer activity on MCF 7 cells in comparison with HeLa cell lines.
       
  • Molecular docking studies on the interaction of NCI anticancer analogues
           with human Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic
           subunit

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): David Ebuka Arthur, Adamu Uzairu The Research entails the screening of 119 NCI anticancer compounds on lipid kinase P13K-gamma (4FA6) in order to identify chemical agent that best inhibits P13K-gamma a class IB phosphoinositide which is a pro-survival signaling pathway critical in the development of cancer in white blood cells (leukocyte). The Result reported included binding energy (Kcal/mol), inhibition constant and pictorial representation of the docked poses for the most active compounds. The significance of the interaction types involved were highlighted as well as the influence of their frequency on the value of their binding energy calculated using the monte Carlo algorithm from ICM-Pro molsoft program.
       
  • Mathematical modelling of a tidal power station with diesel and wind units

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Alexander Baykov, Andrey Dar'enkov, Andrey Kurkin, Elena Sosnina Hybrid power plants with renewable sources, having different frequencies and voltages of generated electricity, require coordination of its parameters on the basis of semiconductor converters. This causes the appearance of current and voltage harmonics in the electrical network. Analysis of the power characteristics of a hybrid power plant based on mathematical modeling will allow one to properly develop the power plant structure and select the parameters of the individual elements of its power part and control system. The article is devoted to the application of mathematical modeling for the analysis of the generated energy quality of a tidal power station with auxiliary diesel and wind units. The mathematical models for the analysis of the power indices of a tidal power station with diesel-wind aggregates are presented. Various designs of a power electrical part based on power electronic converters of electric power parameters having a microprocessor control system are considered. A detailed possibility analysis of the tidal aggregates operating modes is illustrated.
       
  • On the exponential solutions to three extracts from extended fifth-order
           KdV equation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Aly R. Seadawy, R.I. Nuruddeen, K.S. Aboodh, Y.F. Zakariya An extended fifth order Korteweg-de-Vries (efKdV) equation is an important equation in fluids dynamics for the description of nonlinear wave processes, and contains quite a number of KdV-type equations including the Sawada-Kotera equation, the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon equation, the Lax equation, the Kaup-Kuperschmidt equation and the Ito equation among others. However, in this paper, we examine the efKdV by extracting three different fifth order Korteweg-de-Vries (fKdV) equations. Solitary wave solutions to the extracts are found by means of an exponential function ansatz specifically constructed for the study. The obtained solutions can be used in description of shallow-water waves.
       
  • Effect of silicon carbide addition on the microstructure, hardness and
           densification properties of spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn-Al alloy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Katlego M. Mampuru, Emmanuel Ajenifuja, A.P.I. Popoola, Olawale Popoola Effect of silicon carbide (SiC) additions on the physico-chemical properties of nickel-zinc-aluminium (Ni-Zn-Al) alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering technique is investigated. Elemental powder matrix samples were prepared with different amounts of SiC (1–4 wt%) and were mixed in a tubular mixer for 5 h at 49 rpm. The metal-ceramic composite powders were pressed and sintered at 850 °C with 100 °C/min heating rates, 10 min holding time and a pressure of 50 MPa. Hard disk-shaped metal matrix composite pellets (ᴓ = 40 mm, thickness = 5 mm) were obtained. Chemical, physical and microstructural properties of sintered composite samples were studied. The results show that SiC addition particles influence the physical and microstructural characteristics metal matrix composites. The samples demonstrated significant increase in relative density (83–96.53%) and hardness (132–228.36 HV) with increase in SiC additions. Compositional analysis indicated predominant nickel and silicon carbide in identified phases.
       
  • In-silico modelling studies on some C14-urea-tetrandrine derivatives as
           potent anti-cancer agents against prostate (PC3) cell line

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Mustapha Abdullahi, Adamu Uzairu, Gideon A. Shallangwa, Paul Mamza, David Ebuka Arthur, Muhammad Tukur Ibrahim Insilico modelling studies was executed on twenty-four (24) novel C14-urea-tetrandrine compounds as inhibitors of prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. The molecular structure of each compound was correctly drawn using ChemDraw software, then optimized using Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G*) at ground state with Spartan 14 V1.1.4 software. Accordingly, the optimized structures were numerically represented by computing diverse molecular descriptors using PaDEL calculator. The entire data set results were divided into training and test set. A multi-linear regression model based on genetic function approximation in selecting statistically significant descriptors was built from the training set. The resultant QSAR model (R2train = 0.8075, Q2LOO = 0.6866, R2test = 0.6147, cRp2 = 0.7397) was adequately validated using the leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation method, MLR Y-randomization test, bias-variance estimation (bootstrapping), and it was accepted due to its statistical significance based on threshold values of accepting QSAR model globally. Compound 1 and 11 as the best inhibitors were docked with B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) crystal structure so as to explore the kind of interactions in each stable complex formed. The results revealed binding scores of −8.7 kcal/mol for the ligand (compound 1) and −9.3 kcal/mol for the ligand (compound 11) which is the highest. It was observed also that both inhibitors made hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interaction with the amino acid residue of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein which control cell death in prostate cancer. The present findings could be useful in designing and synthesizing new C14-urea-tetrandrine with better inhibitory potentials against prostate (PC3) cell line.
       
  • Prospects of nanostructured composite materials for energy harvesting and
           storage

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Idowu D. Ibrahim, Emmanuel R. Sadiku, Tamba Jamiru, Yskandar Hamam, Yasser Alayli, Azunna A. Eze In the 21st century, energy demand and the attendant environmental degradation, are among the most challenging issues. The concern is due to the high dependence, globally on fossil fuels as a form of energy generation. Over 6.5 billion people worldwide require approximately 13 Terawatts of energy for their day-to-day needs. In order to achieve the required energy demand, there is a need to diversify into other forms of energy; in this case, renewable energy. In so doing, there is the need to study, extensively, alternative materials and sources needed for energy generation, storage, distribution and application. There has been a significant advancement in energy generation, conversion and storage, such as fuel cells and solar cells, photovoltaic cells, supercapacitors, batteries, etc. The emergence of nanostructured and composite materials has resulted in some significant contributions towards the improvement in the energy industry development. Renewable energy, such as wind and solar energies, depend considerably, on the environmental conditions, which are not always stable. Hence, in order to harness the energy from these sources and to adequately store such energy, there is a need for a high-performance energy conversion and storage system for the energy generation process. In this regard, carbon nanomaterials, metallic sulphides, titanium oxide and many other nanostructured materials have been studied, to a large extent, for energy conversions and storage devices. The importance of nanostructured and composite materials has shown, from researches, to resolve the issues surrounding energy from generation to storage.
       
  • Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in alluvial plains of
           river Yamuna in northern India: An insight of controlling processes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Lakhvinder Kaur, Madhuri S. Rishi, Sakshi Sharma, Bhavika Sharma, Renu Lata, Gagandeep Singh Groundwater chemistry of an aquifer is influenced by several physical and chemical factors as well as their inter-ionic relationship prevailing in any area. To assess the factors influencing the chemical composition of groundwater in Panipat district, Haryana, India, a semi-arid alluvial region, different parameters including potential hydrogeochemical weathering as well as their ionic indices and conventional graphical methods were employed. The groundwater analysis data did not explicitly show the dominance of a single rock mineral dissolution process. The inter-ionic relationship between Ca2++Mg2+ and SO42− + HCO3– also indicated that the carbonate and silicate weathering were invariably prevailing in the region. The chloro-alkali indices have shown that Ca2+ and Mg2+ were replaced by K+ and Na+ of surrounding aquifer rock material in 51.1% of groundwater samples. However, there were strong indications of the influence of reverse ion exchange in rest of the data. The piper diagram represented the Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−-SO42− type water, indicating an excess of alkaline earths over alkalies (Ca2+ + Mg2+>Na+ +K+) and excess of stronger acidic anions over the weaker acidic anions (Cl−+ SO42− > CO3–+HCO3–). The factor analysis indicated that the weathering of aquifer rock material and anthropogenic activities are the main controlling factors in the region.
       
  • Investigation of the structural sensitive behavior of Cu-3Si-xMn ternary
           alloys

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Kingsley C. Nnakwo, Christopher N. Mbah, Cynthia C. Daniel-Mkpume The structural sensitive properties of Cu-3Si-xMn ternary alloys with six different manganese contents were properly studied. The refining effect of manganese addition on the cored dendritic grains of air-cooled cast Cu-3Si alloy was investigated. The microstructure of the Cu-3Si-xMn alloys was also analyzed by using an Optical Microscope (OM) and Carl ZEISS Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The elemental composition analysis was properly performed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that manganese addition refined the cored dendritic grains of Cu-3Si alloy. The ductility, tensile strength and Brinell hardness of Cu-3Si alloy were increased by 78.7%, 1,011.8%, and 106.1% respectively. The fine grains induced the improvements of the mechanical properties. Cu-3Si-xMn alloy showed ductility of 16.8%, a tensile strength of 378 MPa and hardness of 371 BHN. Manganese addition reduced the electrical conductivity of Cu-3Si alloy from 46.3% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) to 38.6 %IACS.
       
  • Influence of light wavelengths, light intensity, temperature, and pH on
           biosynthesis of extracellular and intracellular pigment and biomass of
           Pseudomonasaeruginosa NR1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Naziya N. Mohammad Aziz Rehman, Prashant P. Dixit The purpose of the present study was to check whether the light is an inducing agent or not for the intracellular and extracellular pigment production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR1' Is the produced pigment a photoprotective in nature' The aim of the present research study was to evaluate the influence of different light wavelengths, light intensity, temperature, and pH on biomass and intracellular and extracellular pigment production. A strain of Pseudomonas that was thermoalkalophilic and produces red non-diffusible intracellular and green-diffusible extracellular pigment was isolated, until now no one has reported this type of strain. For determining the effect of different light wavelengths, we introduced and designed a novel ‘selective light wavelength method’, which gave us better results than previously used glass paper wrapping method. Extracellular pigment production was found maximum under darkness, red and blue light wavelengths. Same results were obtained in glass paper wrapping method, but the concentration of pigment produced by bacteria was greater in our method which suggests us that the ‘selective light wavelength method’ is better (for pigment yield) between these methods.The outcome of this study refutes the photo protective role of extracellular pigment, claimed by many researchers. Red and light wavelength was found to suppress the intracellular pigment production. Extracellular pigment production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR1 was maximum in darkness with 4.042 ± 0.03 OD/mL and minimum in green light (Glass paper plates (GPP), 2.151 ± 0.24 OD/mL; Selective lamp plates (SLP), 2.232 ± 0.28 OD/mL). Maximum intracellular pigment (SLP, 4.672 ± 0.15 OD/mL; GPP, 4.395 ± 0.03 OD/mL) and biomass concentrations (Selective lamp method-830 ± 5.7 µg/0.01 L; Glass paper method, 810 ± 2.88 µg/0.01 L) were achieved under yellow light wavelength. Minimum intracellular pigment yield (GPP, 2.124 ± 0.01 OD/mL; SLP, 2.252 ± 0.0 OD/mL and biomass yield (Glass paper method, 363.3 ± 3.33 µg/0.01 L; selective lamp method-385 ± 2.88 µg/0.01 L) was recorded under red light wavelength. Direct relationship was observed between biomass production and intracellular pigment production. Maximum extracellular (3.548 ± 2.2 OD/mL) and intracellular pigment (3.856 ± 0.02 OD/mL) and biomass concentration (800 ± 1.44 µg/100 mL) were observed when pH was 7. The intracellular pigment concentration (3.698 ± 0.01 OD/ml) and biomass production (656 ± 3.05 µg/ml) were maximal at a temperature of 30 °C. The maximum concentration of extracellular pigment was recorded at 35 °C (3.924 ± 0.04 OD/ml).
       
  • Biological and toxicological evaluation of aerial parts extracts of
           locally grown Cleome austroarabica

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Afaf M. Weli, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Noorulhuda H. Al Baiti, Anil Philip, Amzad Hossain, Syed Abdullah Gilani, Nadia Banioraba The current study was conducted to prepare different polarities extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities from the aerial parts of Cleome austroarabica (C. austroarabica) which was collected from the initial campus of the University of Nizwa. The coarse powder was extracted with direct methanol by using a maceration method. The extract residue was fractionated by using various organic solvents with increasing polarity. The agar disc and brine shrimp lethality (BSL) bioassays were used to assess the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the aerial extracts of C. austroarabica. Four concentrations (2000, 1000, 500, 250 µg/ml) of each extract were used to determine the antimicrobial activity against two Gram (+) bacteria: Staphylococcus aurous (S. aurous), Enterococcus faecalis (E. aurous) and two Gram (−) bacteria: Haemophilus Influenza (H. Influenza), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Brine shrimp organisms were used to assess the cytotoxic activities of various polarities aerial extracts and the fractions of chloroform extract. The antimicrobial activity results showed that all polarities extracts at different concentrations did not give any activity against the tested bacteria. The cytotoxic activity of all polarities aerial extracts displayed activity within the value of LC50 385.25–640.25 μg/ml in the order of chloroform > hexane > hydro alcoholic > ethyl acetate > methanol extract. However, the isolated all chloroform fractions showed high LC50 activity compared to control. The further extensive study will be needed to confirm the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the crude extracts and to isolate the active ingredients from the highest activity aerial extracts.
       
  • Governing factors influence on rock slope stability – Statistical
           analysis for plane mode of failure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Tarun Kumar Raghuvanshi The present study was carried out to understand the relative influence of governing factors on slopes having potential plane mode of failure. For the present study secondary data for seventeen slope sections having potential plane mode of failure was procured from varied geological and geographical environment. The governing factors that were considered for statistical analysis are; slope-angle (αf), upper-slope angle (αs), dip of potential failure plane (αp), dip of tension-crack (αt), slope-height (h), cohesion (C), angle of friction (φ) and height of the water in tension-crack (Zw). Initially, factor of safety (FoS) was determined for all possible anticipated adverse conditions to which slopes may be subjected. Later, sensitivity analysis was undertaken to know the relative importance of the governing factors on FoS. Further, one-way Analysis-of-Variance (ANOVA) was applied to examine the statistical significance of these governing factors on FoS under static and dynamic conditions. The results clearly showed that all the slope sections are unstable when saturated under static and dynamic conditions. Further, statistical analysis results showed that all considered governing factors are statistically significant for slope stability assessment however; their relative importance varies from one slope type to another. In terms of order of importance, factors ‘αp’, ‘Zw’, ‘αf’ and ‘h’ revealed as the most significant factors while factors ‘αt’, ‘φ’, ‘αs’ and ‘C’, though significant but are relatively lower in the order of importance. The relative order of importance deduced from sensitivity analysis may be helpful in decision making to workout optimum stabilization measure for a particular slope.
       
  • Hydrodynamic stability and heat and mass transfer flow analysis of MHD
           radiative fourth-grade fluid through porous plate with chemical reaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): S.M. Arifuzzaman, Md. Shakhaoath Khan, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Sk. Reza-E-Rabbi, Pronab Biswas, Ifsana Karim Present report intends to analyse heat and mass transfer characteristics of naturally convective hydromagnetic flow of fourth-grade radiative fluid resulting from vertical porous plate. The impression of non-linear order chemical reaction and heat generation with thermal diffusion are also considered. The coupled fundamental equations are transformed into a dimensionless arrangement by implementing finite difference scheme explicitly. After initiating the stability test, the governing equations are converged for Prandtl number, Pr ≥ 0.43 and Schmidt number, Sc ≥ 0.168. The impact of dimensionless second, third and fourth-grade parameters with diversified physical parameters are being exhibited graphically on different flow fields. An interesting fact is observed that as the grade of fluid develops it starts to diminish the velocity fields, but a complete opposite scenario is examined for temperature fields. In addition, for advanced visualisation, the impression of thermal radiation is being observed through streamlines and isothermal lines. In which, the respective parameter upsurges the momentum as well as the thermal boundary layers respectively.
       
  • Dynamic behaviors of a fractional order nonlinear oscillator

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Mobin Kavyanpoor, Saeed Shokrollahi In the present paper, the primary resonance of a special type of nonlinear Duffing oscillator with fractional-order derivative is studied by the averaging method. First, the parametric amplitude-frequency equation is obtained, and then, the effects of the some parameters such as fractional order, nonlinear coefficients and force amplitude on the system dynamics are investigated. Moreover, experimental test were performed on the case study and a suitable model is identified. The obtained results are very useful in the nonlinear identification field.
       
  • Soliton solutions of (3 + 1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries
           Benjamin–Bona–Mahony, Kadomtsev–Petviashvili
           Benjamin–Bona–Mahony and modified Korteweg de
           Vries–Zakharov–Kuznetsov equations and their applications in water
           waves

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Kalim Ul-Haq Tariq, A.R. Seadawy In this article, the analytical solution of (3 + 1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation, Kadomtsev–Petviashvili Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries–Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation have been extracted. These results hold numerous traveling wave solutions that are of key importance in elucidating some physical circumstance. The technique can also be functional to other sorts of nonlinear evolution equations in contemporary areas of research.
       
  • New operational matrix of derivative for solving non-linear fractional
           differential equations via Genocchi polynomials

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Abdulnasir Isah, Chang Phang In this research, new operational method based on Genocchi polynomials for numerical solutions of non-linear fractional differential equations (NFDEs) is proposed. The Genocchi operational matrix of fractional derivative is first constructed by using some important properties of Genocchi polynomials. These operational matrices together with the collocation method are used to reduce the NFDEs into a system of non-linear algebraic equations. The error bound for this proposed method is shown. Some examples are given to display the simplicity and accuracy of the proposed technique.
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Bioconversion of corn straw to ethanol by cellulolytic yeasts immobilized
           in Mucuna urens matrix

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Blessing Adebola Adelabu, Sarafadeen Olateju Kareem, Flora Oluwafemi, Idowu Abideen Adeogun Production of bioethanol from corn straw by cellulolytic yeasts immobilized on Mucuna urens was investigated. Yeast isolates were screened for amylase, cellulase and ethanol production. Effect of bead size, inoculum load, substrate concentration, pH and bead reusability were studied. Bioethanol production was optimum with 4 mm bead size, 10% substrate concentration, pH 4.5 and 10% inoculum load. Maximum ethanol production (55.27 g/L) was achieved by immobilized Saccharomyces diaststicus. Immobilized yeast cells were re-used repeatedly without obvious loss of activity. This study showed that yeasts immobilized on Mucuna urens can effectively utilize lignocellulolytic materials and produce ethanol from it.
       
  • Integral transform solution of micropolar magnetohydrodynamic oscillatory
           flow with heat and mass transfer over a plate in a porous medium subjected
           to chemical reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Fabio A. Pontes, Helder K. Miyagawa, Péricles C. Pontes, Emanuel N. Macêdo, João N.N. Quaresma The main goal of the present work is to show the procedure, application and main features of the hybrid numerical-analytical approach known as GITT (Generalized Integral Transform Technique) by solving an unsteady, one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillatory flow of a micropolar and incompressible fluid with heat and mass transfer through a permeable vertical plate embedded in a porous medium in the presence of chemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the studied model was obtained from the equation of motion and the mass and energy balances by considering laminar and incompressible flow subjected to a constant transverse magnetic field with constant physical properties. Convergence analysis was performed and presented to illustrate the consistency of the integral transform technique. Linear and angular velocities distribution, temperature and concentration profiles were generated and numerically verified with an approximate solution found in the literature and with the results of the method of lines (MOL) with good agreement. The effects of some governing parameters, namely, dimensionless time, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, permeability and chemical reaction parameters, on these fields were presented. The effects of these parameters on the local skin friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number were also critically evaluated. Therefore, results show that the linear velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field parameter, while the angular velocity increases with increasing the same and the linear and angular velocities and the concentration field decrease as the Schmidt number increases while the temperature field decreases with increasing Prandtl number.
       
  • The variational Adomian decomposition method for solving nonlinear two-
           dimensional Volterra-Fredholm integro-differential equation

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): F.A. Hendi, M.M. Al-Qarni This paper outlines the coupling of variational iteration method (VIM) with Adomian decomposition method (ADM) for solving nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integro-diffierential equation (V-FIDE), this method is called variational Adomian decomposition method (VADM). Some numerical examples are introduced to verify that the method handles the difficulty of nonlinear term, red reduces the computational size and accelerates the convergence.
       
  • Plane failure in rock slopes – A review on stability analysis
           techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Tarun Kumar Raghuvanshi In stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations ‘plane mode’ of rock failure is very common. The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, depends on the geometry, rock type, potential failure plane characteristics, groundwater conditions, dynamic loading and the surcharge conditions. The slope may demonstrate these conditions in a simple uniform manner or there may be complex conditions owing to variability in the slope geometry and heterogeneity in the slope material. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, can be assessed by different methods which can be broadly classified as conventional and numerical methods. Conventional methods include; kinematic methods, empirical methods, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods, whereas numerical methods include continuum, discontinuum and hybrid methods. Each of these methods has their own advantage and limitations owing to the slope conditions, application requirement and capability of an expert. In this paper a comprehensive review on governing parameters and various stability analysis techniques for plane mode of failure in rock slopes is presented.
       
  • Urinary tract anti-infectious potential of DFT-experimental composite
           analyzed ruthenium nitrosyl complex of N-dehydroacetic
           acid-thiosemicarbazide

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Jan Mohammad Mir, N. Jain, P.S. Jaget, W. Khan, P.K. Vishwakarma, D.K. Rajak, B.A. Malik, Ram C. Maurya Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are counted among serious health problems affecting large number of people each year. UTIs are the second most common infections. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel nitrosyl complex of Ru(II) that has been found effective against some selected gram negative bacteria, E. coli and Pseudomonas. It has been found that the activity was pronounced more against Pseudomonas than E. coli. Hence, the complex may be seen effective agent against UTI. On characterizing the complex by virtue of combined experimental-DFT scope, a suitable octahedral structure has been suggested. Molecular specification under B3LYP functional, LanL2DZ basis set for Ru atom and 6–31g(d,p) for all other atoms were employed. Electron density plots and geometrical optimization were the main theoretical insights. Elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, cyclic voltammetry and TGA were the characterization techniques made comparable to computed data. From overall study it may be culminated that both the experimental and theoretical outcomes have been found in good agreement with each other.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Local fractional Sumudu decomposition method for linear partial
           differential equations with local fractional derivative

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): D. Ziane, D. Baleanu, K. Belghaba, M. Hamdi Cherif In the paper, a combined form of the Sumudu transform method with the Adomian decomposition method in the sense of local fractional derivative, is proposed to solve fractional partial differential equations. This method is called the local fractional Sumudu decomposition method (LFSDM) and is used to describe the non-differentiable problems. It would be interesting to apply LFSDM to some well-known problems to see the benefits obtained.
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of
           poly(phenoxy-imine)s containing peril and tert-butyl units

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): İsmet Kaya, Bekir Süleyman Sandal, Hatice Karaer Schiff bases were obtained by condensation reactions of 2-aminophenol and 4-aminophenol with 4-isopropenylcyclohex-1-ene-1-carbaldehyde (peril aldehyde) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. Then, polymers of these compounds were prepared via oxidative polymerization method in THF in the presence of NaOCl as an oxidant. The structures of compounds were confirmed by some techniques such as FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV–vis. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to calculate the HOMO−LUMO energy levels and electrochemical band gaps (Eg′) of compounds. Electrochemical band gaps (Eg′) values of P1, P2, P3 and P4 polymers were found as 2.61, 2.65, 2.89 and 2.28 eV, respectively. Furthermore, TGA and DSC were employed to determine thermal properties of the Schiff bases and polymers. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of polymers were also determined in DMSO. Then, we found that their number-average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) as well as polydispersity index (PDI) values by the size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Finally, we carried out their solubility tests in acetone, THF, chloroform, acetonitrile, methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and DMSO.
       
  • Microsystem based Energy Harvesting (EH-MEMS): Powering pervasivity of the
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Jacopo Iannacci The paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) appears to be the common denominator of all distributed sensing applications, providing connectivity, interoperability and communication of smart entities (e.g. environments, objects) within a pervasive network. The IoT demands for smart, integrated, miniaturised and low-energy wireless nodes, typically powered by non-renewable energy storage units (batteries). The latter aspect poses constraints as batteries have a limited lifetime and often their replacement is impracticable. Availability of zero-power energy-autonomous technologies, able to harvest (i.e. convert) and store part of the energy available in the surrounding environment (vibrations, thermal gradients, electromagnetic waves) into electricity to supply wireless nodes functionality, would fill a significant part of the technology gap limiting the wide diffusion of efficient and cost effective IoT applications. Given the just depicted scenario, the realisation of miniaturised Energy Harvesters (EHs) leveraging on MEMS technology (MicroElectroMechanical-Systems), i.e. EH-MEMS, seems to be a key-enabling solution able to conjugate both main driving requirements of IoT applications, namely, energy-autonomy and miniaturisation/integration.This short review outlines the current state of the art in the field of EH-MEMS, with a specific focus on vibration EHs, i.e. converters capable to convert the mechanical energy scattered in environmental vibrations, into electric power. In particular, the issues in terms of conversion performance arising from EHs scaling down, along with the challenge to extend their operability on a frequency range of vibrations as wider as possible, are going to be discussed in the following.
       
  • The Stokes’ second problem for nanofluids

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Naeema Ishfaq, W.A. Khan, Z.H. Khan In this paper, a nanofluid version of the Stokes’ second problem is investigated. For this purpose, a homogeneous model is considered with nano-sized Cu particles suspended in water. The governing equations are first transformed in dimensionless form and then solved by Laplace transform. Exact solutions corresponding to the dimensionless velocity and temperature due to both cosine and sine oscillations of an infinite flat plate are presented. It is concluded that both skin friction coefficient and density of nanofluids increases with an increase of nanoparticles volume fraction. Also the dimensionless temperature increases by increasing the Eckert number and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles.
       
  • Inhibition of X80 steel corrosion in oilfield acidizing environment using
           3-(2-chloro-5,6-dihydrobenzo[b][1]benzazepin-11-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine
           and its blends

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Ekemini B. Ituen, James E. Asuquo Corrosion of X80 steel was investigated in simulated acidizing fluids containing different concentrations of 3-(2-chloro-5,6-dihydrobenzo[b][1]benzazepin-11-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine (3CDA) at different temperatures using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. X80 steel used corroded at higher rates in the uninhibited acid solution than in the inhibited solutions. Inhibition efficiency of 3CDA was highest (88.8%) at 10 × 10−5 M concentration at 30 °C and decreased as temperature decreased. Some intensifiers were added to improve the inhibition efficiency at high temperatures. The 3CDA acts as mixed type inhibitor and adsorbs spontaneously on steel surface by physical and chemical interactive forces. Techniques such as FTIR, SEM and EDAX were also employed to characterize the potential of 3CDA as efficient steel corrosion inhibitor for oilfield application.
       
  • Development, structural investigation, DNA binding, antimicrobial
           screening and anticancer activities of two novel quari-dentate VO(II) and
           Mn (II) mononuclear complexes

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Laila H. Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed M. Abu-Dief, Azza A. Hassan Abdel-Mawgoud Two novel VO(II) and Mn(II) imine chelates derived from the condensation of o-phenylenediamine (PN) with 3-ethoxysalicylaldehyde(ES) were synthesized. The prepared ESPN imine ligand and its chelates were investigated via different analytical and physicochemical tools. Correlation between all the obtained results, the parent ligand behaves as tetra-dentate ONNO ligand and coordinates to Mn(II) and VO(II), in octahedral and square pyramidal geometry, respectively. Also, the prepared compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities on different pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results show that the complexes have a stronger antimicrobial activity in comparison with its ligand. Moreover, the interaction of the prepared metal chelates with CT-DNA was detected utilizing spectral studies, viscosity and gel electrophoreses measurements. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that, the binding affinity with CT-DNA for ESPN > ESPNV complex. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of the tested compounds on human colon carcinoma cells, hepatic cellular carcinoma cells and breast carcinoma cells has been examined. From these results it was found that the investigated complexes have effective cytotoxicity against growth of carcinoma cells with respect of its imine ligand.
       
  • Development and validation of stability indicating HPLC method for
           determination of adrenaline tartrate

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon, Nongnaphat Duangdee, Savita Chewchinda, Orapan Poachanukoon, Kumpol Amnuaypattanapon Epinephrine (Adrenaline) is a lifesaving medication of the treatment of anaphylaxis and cardiac resuscitation. For out of hospital emergency treatment, some prefilled syringe and auto-injector device has been developed and prescribed to patients. In order to predict shelf life of the developed device, a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for determine the amount of adrenaline tartrate. Separation was carried out using a 2.6 µm Kinetex Biphenyl column, with 50 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate adjusted to pH 3.0 as a mobile phase and a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, at 25 °C and detected at 279 nm. Parameters for the validation included accuracy, precision, linearity, and limit of quantitation and detection. The developed HPLC method was precise, with lower than 2% relative standard deviation. The accuracy of the method, represented by recovery studies ranged between 99.25% and 101.81%. Stress testing was carried out to demonstrate specificity of the method. The developed method could separate the potential degradation products from the adrenaline tartrate peak. This proposed method was suitable and practical for analysis the content of adrenaline tartrate in pharmaceutical products and could be of benefit for prediction shelf life of adrenaline tartrate in developed auto-injector device.
       
  • Some new linear representations of matrix quaternions with some
           applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Zeyad Al-Zhour In this paper, we construct several new attractive and interested linear representations of matrix quaternions by using Kronecker structures in order to obtain the general partitioned linear representation form of matrix quaternions. In addition, we present the general solutions of three important partitioned quaternions systems by using our new representations and Kronecker structure. These systems are: the partitioned linear quaternion equations, general linear matrix quaternion system and coupled Sylvester matrix quaternion system.
       
  • Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of two-phase gas-liquid
           flows in stirred-tank reactors

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): D.P. Karadimou, P.A. Papadopoulos, N.C. Markatos This paper presents the mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of the turbulent, two-phase flow of liquid and gas in a gas-induced agitated stirred-tank reactor, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The reactor used as an application demonstration of the developed model is the ozone-induced one, first designed and modeled by Yang et al. (1999). A three-dimensional (3D), transient, Euler-Euler two-phase flow model is developed and used to investigate the turbulent flow and mixing of liquid and bubbles in the stirred-tank reactor, applying the sliding mesh approach. Turbulence is simulated by means of several available models, the Renormalization Group (RNG) k-ε model being the one finally recommended as the most appropriate of the ones studied, for the present application. Two-way coupling between the two phases is modeled by means of appropriate inter-phase interaction relations. The study focused on bubbles of one size group (mean aerodynamic diameter of 2.5E-03 m), but it is easily extended to any number of sizes. It is concluded that the predicted overall flow field pattern and the mixing of both phases around the two blades of the simulated baffled stirred vessel, as well as inside and outside of the main tube of the reactor, are physically plausible, appear reasonably accurate, and are, therefore, satisfying.
       
  • Microring resonator made by ion-exchange technique for detecting the CO2,
           H2O, and NaCl as cladding layer

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Iraj S. Amiri, M.M. Ariannejad, V. Kouhdaragh, S.A. Seyedi, P. Yupapin A system of Microring Resonator (MRR) based the comb-like sensor devices has been simulated. We present a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) ring resonator based on refractive index sensor. The novelty of the architecture lies in the capability to sense the shifts of multiple peaks simultaneously with an MRR waveguide. The behavior of optical MRRs, especially when functioning as refractive index sensors, is studied. Resonant wavelength, i.e. the wavelength at which the transmission spectrum exhibits a dip (peak) depends on the geometrical characteristics of the circular waveguide and the effective refractive index of the propagating mode. The previous studies have shown that the depth and vertical symmetry of buried waveguides are noticeably affected by the field perturbation. One of cost effective and low loss methods can be the technology known as ion-exchange which uses the glass substrates and the AgNO3/NaNO3 salt-melt at different temperatures and duration can be deposited on the glass substrates. Afterward, an MRR was designed on the glass substrates, where the effect of the carbon dioxide (CO2), Dihydrogen oxide (H2O), and sodium chloride (NaCl) as the cladding on the ion-exchange waveguide studied. Within the compare of the resonance in drop port and throughput port, it can understand that they roughly have the same distance of wavelength in the resonance. H2O is one of the materials showing higher Qfactor and FSR while it was in drop port also in throughput CO2 was the highest in these parameters.
       
  • Development of some useful generators to obtain partially neighbor
           balanced designs

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Muhammad Rizwan Shahid, Rashid Ahmed, Farrukh Shehzad, Yousaf Shad Muhammad Neighbor balanced designs are robust to neighbor effects, therefore, these designs are used to balance out the neighbor effects. If a large number of experimental material is required for combinatorial neighbor balance then partially neighbor balanced designs should be recommended. In this study, some useful generators are developed to obtain the partially neighbor balanced designs in linear blocks of sizes 3–7.
       
  • An extended differential form of Hilbert’s inequality

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 31, Issue 1Author(s): Nizar Kh. Al-Oushoush In this paper we introduce the extention of the differential form of Helbert’s integral inequality, and the reverse form of it.
       
  • Standardization of an efficient protocol for isolation of RNA from
           Cuminum cyminum

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Poonam Kanani, Yogesh M. Shukla, Arpan R. Modi, N. Subhash, Sushil Kumar Cumin is one of the oldest seed species and second most popular after black pepper. Till date molecular work into cumin has been principally related to studying diversity based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular aspects. Molecular aspects in cumin are restricted to DNA marker. But for more advanced study with profundity it is to bring forth the understanding related to transcriptome level studies. The prerequisite for such sophisticated strategy is high quality RNA. Here, we had attempted different RNA extraction procedures for fulfilling the basic preconditions for such studies. In this study we have used five different protocols to achieve high quality RNA from cumin. The RNA was isolated from root and shoot tissues using different extraction methods viz. Trizol method, CTAB Method, Quiagen RNAesy plant mini kit, QIAsymphony (Direct RNA extraction machine) and Phenol: choloroform method. Quality and quantity were assessed using Nanodrop [for quantity (ng/µL) at A260/280 and A260/230)], Qiaxcel [for RNA integrity score (RIS)] and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis (for intactness). RNA was converted into cDNA and visualized on agarose gel followed by real time PCR analysis to conform the quality of RNA. Eventually, the phenol chloroform extraction method was found to be most efficient for RNA extraction in terms of high yield and good quality.
       
  • Identification of bioactive compounds in leaf extract of Avicennia alba by
           GC-MS analysis and evaluation of its in-vitro anticancer potential against
           MCF7 and HeLa cell lines

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): G. Eswaraiah, K. Abraham Peele, S. Krupanidhi, R. Bharath Kumar, T.C. Venkateswarulu The current study focused on GC-MS analysis for identification of bioactive compounds in leaf extract of mangrove plant, Avicennia alba and the leaf extract of Avicennia alba was tested for cytotoxicity against MCF 7 and HeLa cell lines. The spectral properties (GC-MS) of each separated compound were determined and found the different compounds namely terpenoids, di-terpene alcohols, tri-terpenes and phenolic compounds. GC-MS analysis proved that the leaf extract of Avicennia alba contain a high content of phenolic compounds. The methanol extract showed potent cytotoxicity against Human breastadeno carcinoma (MCF7) and HeLa cell lines, the viability of cancerous cells is reduced to 44.68% for MCF 7 and 35.89% for HeLa cells. The high anticancer activity was found against HeLa cell lines than MCF 7 cell lines.
       
  • Optimization of adsorption of metal ions from a ternary aqueous solution
           with activated carbon from Acacia senegal (L.) Willd pods using Central
           Composite Design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Abdulmalik A. Adetokun, Sani Uba, Zaharaddeen N. Garba Activated carbon was prepared from Acacia senegal using H3PO4, it was characterized using FTIR, SEM and BET. Optimization of adsorption of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead from ternary solution with the adsorbent was carried out using Design Expert software and the model validated. FTIR analyses showed the presence of some functional groups such as OH and CC which usually aid adsorption. SEM micrograph showed presence of pores of various sizes on the carbon surface, also responsible for adsorption of molecules of various sizes. BET analyses reported the carbon to have surface area of 427.5 m2/g, width of 5.839 nm signifying a mesopore responsible for various degrees of adsorption. The optimum factors which were responsible for 98.54%, 100.00% and 99.96% adsorption of Cd, Cr and Pb respectively predicted by the model were 145.06 mg/L, 144.15 mg/L, 63.83 mg/L, 8.0, 0.17 g and 8.46 min as initial concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, pH, dosage and contact time respectively. The optimum factors were further validated with coefficient of determination R2 ranging from 0.8267 to 0.9775. These models were also used to predict maximum adsorption of Cd, Cr and Pb from tannery water and ABU dam water, 73%, 82.54% and 87.23% were obtained as the experimental percentage removal of Cd, Cr and Pb respectively from ABU water, while removal from tannery wastewater stood at 62.75%, 85.2% and 77.83% for Cd, Cr and Pb respectively. Acacia senegal pod has been demonstrated to be an efficient precursor in activated carbon production for water treatment.
       
  • In vitro free radical scavenging activities of aerial parts’ aqueous
           extract and extract fractions of Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch. in
           relation to total phenolics and flavonoid contents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Anwesa Chaudhuri, Sanjib Ray Discovery of new antioxidants of plant origin is of current interest. Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch. is a traditionally used medicinal plant. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activities of aerial parts’ aqueous extract of A. latifolia (AAEAL) and its organic solvent extract fractions in relation to their total phenolics and flavonoid contents. The AAEAL was fractionated with the organic solvents like petroleum ether (AAEALPE), chloroform (AAEALCH), ethyl acetate (AAEALEA), and n-butanol (AAEALNB). For the determination of antioxidant activity of AAEAL and its extract fractions, Fe3+ ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and total antioxidant assays were performed and the total phenolics and flavonoid contents were also estimated. The EC50 of the ferric ion reduction by AAEALEA and ascorbic acid were calculated as 90.8 ± 4.70 and 84.86 ± 7.22 µg/mL respectively. The IC50 of DPPH free radical scavenging with AAEALEA and ascorbic acid were calculated as 19.5 ± 0.5 and 18.35 ± 1.15 µg/mL respectively. The overall data indicate that the AAEALEA possesses the highest total antioxidant activity (37.85 ± 1.55 µg ascorbic acid equivalents/100 µg dry extract matter), the highest total phenolics (65.89 ± 1.33 mg tannic acid equivalent phenolics/100 mg dry extract) and flavonoid (30.67 ± 0.28 mg quercetin equivalent flavonoids/100 mg dry extract) contents. The antioxidant activities were also positively correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoid contents of the extract fractions. In summary, AAEAL may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and its ethyl acetate extract fraction seems to be equally effective to the ascorbic acid as an antioxidant.
       
  • Exact and approximate solutions of a phase change problem with moving
           phase change material and variable thermal coefficients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Abhishek Kumar Singh, Ajay Kumar, Rajeev This article explores a phase change problem in a one-dimensional infinite domain x≥0 including the time-dependent speed of a phase change material. In this problem, the Dirichlet type of boundary condition is considered, and the thermal conductivity and specific heat are assumed as linear functions of temperature. In case of α=β, the exact similarity solution to the problem is established, and its existence and uniqueness are also deliberated. For all α and β, we also present an approximate approach based on spectral shifted Legendre collocation method to solve the problem. The approximate results thus obtained are likened with our exact solution for different parameters and it is shown through tables. From this study, it can be seen that the approximate results are adequately accurate. The impact of different parameters appearing in the considered model on temperature profile and tracking of moving phase-front is also studied.
       
  • A phytopharmacological review on the Omani medicinal plant: Ziziphus
           jujube

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Mohammad Amzad Hossain Flavonoids are natural antioxidants; that may prevent stress, reduce LDL cholesterol, platelet clump, and ischemic damage. Since the discovery of flavonoids as the significant natural antioxidant, they are known as biological modifiers. They can modify the human’s reaction as well as ingredients. They are also instrumental in preventing the oxidative stress and free radical damage. About 25% of prescription drugs are available in the market to treat diseases are derived from nature. Numerous scientists are working with available natural resources to discover new drugs which can be used as medicine to cure or prevent different curable and incurable diseases. The scientific and medical community within the Sultanate of Oman has considered potential natural resources within the Gulf region for purpose to aid medical research. There is an abundant of unexplored plants, marine, and animal sources. Some of them have indicated potential pharmacological activity which can be used to discover new medicines to treat diseases. Ziziphus jujube (Z. jujube) is a medium size native plant which is available in Oman. It is belongs to Rhamnaceae classification and is traditionally used by the local community for the treatment of joint pain, dandruff, acne, chronic constipation, antiseptic, sedative, hypnotic and cardiac diseases. Previous studies have shown that this particular plant has various active principles which can affect biological activity. In addition, the previous research indicated that the plant extracts and isolated principles also contain significant activity. The plant has several varieties of species globally and one of the most common species is known as Z. jujube. Various biological studies have been conducted by scientists on the locally grown selected plant. However, due to lack of unavailable facilities, some of the parameters have not been able to be investigated as of yet. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize the previous reported phytopharmacological status of the selected plant species. Also, this review will help to encourage other scientist to continue the work on the selected plant species particularly within the realm of the toxicity and bioactivity. In conclusion, the plant extracts and active principles might be used in the near future as potential drugs to cure different ailments.
       
  • Significance of core analysis and gamma-ray trends in depositional facies
           interpretation and reservoir evaluation of Cenomanian sequence, Alam
           El-Shawish East Oil Field, North Western Desert, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Adel Abdelmoneim El-Tehiwy, Mohamed Ibrahim El-Anbaawy, Nabil Hussein Rashwan The present paper aims to evaluate the sedimentological model of the study Cenomanain sequence in terms of electrofacies interpretation and depositional facies architecture to reveal the spatial distribution of the reservoir facies characterization. The influence of depositional lithofacies types on reservoir characterization of the Cenomanian Bahariya Formation and Abu Roash “G” Member was investigated using the integration of available core data and petrophysical evaluation from seven wells in Alam El-Shawish East Oil Field, North Western Desert, Egypt. Careful log interpretation and correlation enable differentiation of the study sequence into ten sedimentary cycles. The stacking of the recognized facies types in the available cored interval, form fifteen depositional facies associations from which fluvial, estuarine and shoreline-shallow shelf models were constructed. This facies information has been used to calibrate the log response, particularly the gamma-ray trends, as an aid to interpret the depositional environment of the non-cored intervals. However, the generalized log pattern shows micro-variations in log shape and trend based on the location relative to depositional environment and consequently major modified gamma-ray patterns were proposed depending on the cored facies architecture. Therefore, precautions must be taken into consideration in extrapolating the present patterns to any similar heterogeneous sequence due to the effects of variable diagenetic and facies type constraints on log response. It is indicated that hydrocarbons could be accumulated within shoreface and barrier tidal inlet complex near or within the depositional sequence boundary surfaces along the Upper Bahariya Member and the upper unit of Abu Roash “G” Member. The associated fine siliciclastics (mudstone and shale) of tidal lagoon and/or shoreface delta facies may be acted as local source rock and trap seals. Based on reservoir characterization data supplemented by well logs interpretation of the cored and non-cored intervals, further reservoir beds could be recommended as potential prospecting targets.
       
  • Optimal fourth- and eighth-order of convergence derivative-free
           modifications of King’s method

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Obadah Said Solaiman, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim, Ishak Hashim Starting by King’s method, we propose a modified families of fourth- and eighth-order of convergence iterative methods for nonlinear equations. The fourth-order method requires at each iteration three function evaluations, while the eighth-order methods both need four function evaluations. The proposed methods are derivative-free. Based on the conjecture of Kung and Traub, the new methods attain the optimality with efficiency index 1.587 for the fourth-order method and 1.68 for the eighth-order methods. The convergence analyses of the methods are given, and comparisons with some well-known schemes having identical order of convergence demonstrate the efficiency of the present techniques.
       
  • Boundedness and asymptotic stability of nonlinear Volterra
           integro-differential equations using Lyapunov functional

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Miled El Hajji In this paper, I consider Lyapunov functionals combined with the Laplace transform to obtain boundedness results regarding the solutions of the nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equationsx′(t)=A(t)x(t)+B(t)+∫0tC(t,s)f(x(s))ds+g(x(t)).Asymptotic stability results regarding the zero solution are carried out for the case where B(t) is identically zero. Numerical examples are proposed to perform the given results.
       
  • Evaluation of amplitude difference referencing technique with terahertz
           metasurfaces for sub-micron analytes sensing

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Ibraheem Al-Naib Terahertz metasurfaces with subradiant modes that allow excitation of a high-quality factor are potential candidates for label-free sensing of thin-film biomolecules. Nevertheless, sensing sub-micron analytes are rather difficult due to the normalization method that has been used so far. Here, we evaluate an amplitude difference referencing technique that exploits the response of the uncoated metasurface structure as a reference. Amplitude difference percentage has been calculated by subtracting the frequency response of coated metasurface from the frequency response of the uncoated metasurface for different analyte thicknesses. To our surprise, we observe significantly large values of the amplitude difference that can be easily measured using conventional terahertz time-domain spectrometers. In future, this technique can be utilized to detect analytes with sub-micron thickness and could be exploited across the electromagnetic spectrum.
       
  • An efficient modification of the decomposition method with a convergence
           parameter for solving Korteweg de Vries equations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): H.O. Bakodah, M.A. Banaja, B.A. Alrigi, A. Ebaid, R. Rach In the present paper, an efficient modification the convergence parameter based on the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) is proposed and investigated for a class of nonlinear evolution equations; specifically, the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equations. We show that the proposed analysis possesses increased accuracy when compared to the standard ADM. Moreover, the optimal value of such a convergence parameter is determined by minimizing the averaged residual error. For such a convergence parameter value, an approximate solution is found to be closer to the available exact solution than the corresponding approximate solution without a convergence parameter for the same number of solution components. The approach proposed may be readily extended to other nonlinear differential and integral equations.
       
  • Effects of endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on
           biological, reproductive parameters and food preference of the soybean
           pest Helicoverpa gelotopoeon

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): M.L. Russo, A.C. Scorsetti, M.F. Vianna, N. Allegrucci, N.A. Ferreri, M.N. Cabello, S.A. Pelizza ObjectivesWe studied Beauveria bassiana ability to endophytic colonize soybean and its effects on some biological and reproductive parameters and on the food preference of Helicoverpa gelotopoeon, a polyphagous plague of several agronomic crops.MethodsA suspension of 1 × 108 conidia ml−1 of B. bassiana (LPSC 1098), was inoculated in soybean plants using the leaf spraying method. H. gelotopoeon survival, developement, fecundity and fertility were registered to evaluate fungal effect. Also, food preference was determined by the free-choice method.ResultsB. bassiana as an endophyte adversely affected the duration of the larval stages (L1, L2, L3, L4) and of the adult stages, as well as the total duration of the life cycle. Furthermore, the oviposition period, fecundity and fertility of H. gelotopoeon decreased. This is the first report of decreased consumption of soybean leaves by H. gelotopoeon due to endophytic B. bassiana.ConclusionsThis investigation shows that endophytic fungi could be considered as useful microorganisms for the integrated pest management.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Valorization of the Salvia officinalis L. of the Morocco bioactive
           extracts: Phytochemistry, antioxidant activity and corrosion inhibition

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Zakaria Khiya, Mohcine Hayani, Abderrahmane Gamar, Samira Kharchouf, Sanae Amine, Fatima Berrekhis, Amal Bouzoubae, Touria Zair, Fatima El Hilali The present study aims to determine the chemical composition of Salvia officinalis L., collected in Khenifra region (Morocco), have a phytochemical screening and to evaluate its antioxidant activity, as well as its corrosion inhibiting powers using two methods: the potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements.The phytochemical screening helped us to highlight the presence of polyphenols, catechics and Gallic tannins, flavonoids, saponins and Terpenoids. It showed that the methanolic extract was very rich in total phenols (1.044 ± 0.004 mg GAE/g of extract) and flavonoids (0.037 ± 0.003 mg EQ/g of extract). Leaves of Salvia officinalis L. were steam distilled using a Clevenger apparatus. The yield of essential oil was 4.13 ± 0.01%, and its analysis by GC–MS has identified 105 components with the dominance of Trans-Thujone (17.74%), 1,8-cineol (12.63%), Camphor (12.24%), Caryophyllene (9.87%), α-pinene (7.82%), Dehydra-Aromadendrane (7.29%), and Guaiol (7.03%). The results of antioxidant activity allowed the determination of IC50 (IC50 = 309.42 mg/ml) for the oil. The latter has shown an inhibition efficiency of 83.06% and 70.58% for the both methods respectively at a concentration of 4 g/l, the methanolic extract which has shown an inhibition efficiency of 91.62% and 49.70% respectively at the same concentration.
       
  • Bio-physical effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR)
           on blood parameters, spermatozoa, liver, kidney and heart of albino rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): E.A. Adebayo, A.O. Adeeyo, M.A. Ogundiran, O. Olabisi Current study aimed at determining the consequence of Radiofrequency (≈1800 MHz) electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the histological, hematological and histochemical properties of selected tissues of rat and to assess morphological changes associated with such exposures. Three groups of thirty rats of which two groups of twenty rats were subjected to average radiation of ≈1.40 W/cm2 at 24 m from the base of two different telecommunications network mast for 5 weeks. Histochemical, hematological and histological analyses of the rats were afterward carried out on selected tissues of the experimental animals using standard procedures. Impacts of radiation were noted in the exposed groups of rats. There was rise in white blood cells with variations in other blood parameters; the sperm motility and sperm count of the exposed rats is lower than the control; the liver of the exposed rats shows pronounced dilated sinusoids, distorted architecture, hyperchromatic nuclei, congested central vein, with change of hepatocytes structure; the heart shows gross distortion of cardiac muscular architecture with distorted irregular cardiac muscle fibres and wider interfibres spaces; kidney showing hyperchromatic nuclei, gradual loss and degeneration of flattened squamous epithelial cells lining and testis shows grossly distorted seminiferous tubules and epididymis with loss of cellular structure and an area of inflammatory changes with complete absence of spermatozoa, which may lead to low fertility. This study shows that radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation may induce morphological changes in various tissues of living systems in rat.
       
  • Mathematical and numerical study of the concentration effect of red cells
           in blood

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Mourad Chamekh, Nabiha Brik, Malek Abid In this paper, a mathematical and numerical study of the effect of red blood cell concentration on a circular cross-section tube is presented. The considered PDE system use the Bingham model describing blood as a non-Newtonian fluid. This system consists of Navier-Stokes equations describing the behavior of fluid and advection-reaction-diffusion equations that take into account the influence of chemical reactions on transient flow behavior in the arteries. In particular, we present for this problem a local existence result. Finally, numerical tests are presented to treat blood flow in the case of fusiform aneurysms caused by abdominal aortic aneurysm disease.
       
  • Nonlinear integral models with delays: Recent developments and
           applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Natali Hritonenko, Yuri Yatsenko The authors examine contemporary integral dynamic models of biological, environmental, and technological systems with heterogeneous components. The models contain two-dimensional control functions, nonlinearities, and delays in system inputs. The paper demonstrates the versatility of integral equations and their importance to various applications. Connections and advantages of integral and differential models are discussed. A survey of optimal control strategies for such models is provided.
       
  • Local discontinuous Galerkin method for the nonlocal one-way water wave
           equation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Shuming Liu, Can Li In this paper, we develop a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for numerically solving the nonlocal one-way water wave equation. Based on the features of fractional derivative, the considered model is first coupled into a classical first derivative and a nonlocal fractional integral. Then LDG algorithm is used in space discretization by properly choosing the numerical fluxes. Numerical examples are provided to show the accuracy and effectiveness.
       
  • Histopathological changes and expression of transforming growth factor
           beta (TGF-β3) in mice exposed to gliotoxin

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Anaam Fuad Hussain, Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman, Batol Imran Dheeb, Abdulkareem Jasim Hashim, Eman Sabah Abd Alrahman, Sara Haitham Seddiq, Basim M. Khashman BackgroundGliotoxin (GT) is the prototype of a class of epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) which are secondary metabolites made by fungi organisms only e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus, characterized by a disulfide bridge across a piperazine ring with low molecular weight (326 Da),and its sulphur bridge imparts all known toxicity of these molecules. Its name was derived from its identification as a metabolite of Gliocladium fimbriatum as it is previously isolated. It had histopathological effects of human and animals tissues and thus may alter the immune response.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to evaluate the effect of GT on immunological and histological changes in lung, liver, and kidney in addition to morphological changes in colon using animal models.MethodologyMature male BALB/c mice were used in this study, animals were provided by Biotechnology researches center of Al-Nahrain University. To study the histological changes and expression of Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β3) in mice, animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with acute dose of both sample and standard gliotoxin with control group (received i.p. one dose of methanol 10%) and the mice of each group were sacrificed at day seven, each mouse was dissected and the organs lung, liver and kidney were collected then sectioned. Mice of another groups were administrated with one dose of sample gliotoxin through the lumen of the colon using a vinyl catheter positioned 5 cm from the anus, and the control group received methanol 10%, the mice were killed on day seven of administration to study the morphological changes in the colon.ResultsGross-examination showed clear pathological changes in examined organs of mice treated intraperitoneally with gliotoxin (i.p.) injection during seven days, lesions were seen in examined organs with groups of all concentrations of both sample and standard gliotoxin in comparing with control. After intrarectal administration, many signs for mycotoxicosis were observed, like shivering, redness around the anus and bristling of hair. Although of the aggressive behavior of mice and loss of activity at the day 6 of treatment was also reduced. In both sample and standard GT groups, the elevation at the high concentrations of the gliotoxin gave over TGF-β3 expression in liver, lung, and kidney.ConclusionsIt can be concluded that both of sample and standard gliotoxin showed the same effectiveness in vivo to induce histopathological changes and the immunohistochemical studies revealed that the increasing of TGF-β3 expression was in a significant relationship between the immunoreactive cell and its intensity with number and size of lesion in the same tissue at probability (P value) 
       
  • Validated spectrophotometric approach for determination of salbutamol
           sulfate in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms using oxidative coupling
           reaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Fadam M. Abdoon, Shatha Y. Yahyaa This study was aimed to find out a simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of salbutamol sulfate (SAL). The suggested method was based on the oxidative-coupling reaction of SAL with potassium iodate coupled with 4-amino-5-isopropyl-1-methyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (AMP). The formed red colour of the reaction product was measured at a maximum absorption wavelength of 499 nm against the blank solution. It was obeyed to Beer-Lambert's law over the concentration ranged of 2–32 μg mL−1 with a molar absorptivity of 9.165 × 103 L mol−1 cm−1. The suitability of the proposed method for determination of SAL in the presence of some interfering species was studied. The method revealed high sensitivity for determination of the selected drug. The percentage recoveries were in the range from98.8 to 100.4% with relative standard deviation less than 0.3%. The developed method was validated according the current ICH guidelines (ICH guidelines, 2005). Promising results using the proposed spectrophotometric method were recorded for determination of SAL in its pure form and pharmaceutical formulations.
       
  • Chemical composition and antioxidant and antibacterial activity of
           Platymiscium gracile Benth.: A species threatened by extinction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): José E. Cuellar, Janio Martínez, Benjamín Rojano, Jesús H. Gil, Diego Durango Sawdust of Platymiscium gracile Benth. (Fabaceae) was extracted by percolation using n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol sequentially. Then, fractions were screened for their phenolic contents and antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The phenolic contents ranged from 13,667 ± 773 (ethyl acetate fraction) to 36,350 ± 3049 mg GAE/100 g extract (hexane fraction). In general, all fractions displayed a significant antioxidant activity with values ranging from 20,055 ± 1341 and 194,919 ± 7163 μmol TE/100 g extract, 1785 ± 225 and 32,264 ± 326 mg AAE/100 g extract, 30,081 ± 1618 and 901,706 ± 20,393 μmol TE/100 g extract for the DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays, respectively. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified, corresponding to homopterocarpin, scoparone, 8-hydroxyhomopterocarpin, calycosin, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamaldehyde, medicarpin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamaldehyde, 8-methoxyhomopterocarpin, and oleanolic aldehyde acetate. Radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of isolated compounds showed that isoliquiritigenin exhibited the highest activity with values of 1173 ± 61 and 8104 ± 38 μmol TE/g for DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation assays, respectively, and presented 23.6 ± 0.7 mg AAE/g for reducing power assay. In addition, MIC values of isoliquiritigenin for S. aureus, B. cereus, and E. faecalis were 62.5 µg/mL (MIC value for Ampicillin® was 250 µg/mL against B. cereus). The results suggested that P. gracile might be an important source of metabolites with antibacterial and antioxidant activity; therefore, greater efforts should be made for the conservation of this species.
       
  • Azadirachta indica as a bio-material: Rapid synthesis of Cr5O12 shell
           nanoparticles to study its photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Karthiga Rajendaran, Rajarajan Muthuramalangam, Suganthi Ayyadurai A novel Cr5O12 nanoparticle were prepared by reducing K2Cr2O7 using Azadirachta indica plant extracts as a reducing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles shows orthorhombic phases with a band gap for 1.27 eV and it is further conformed by SEM. The average dimension of the nanoshell was about 56.99 nm. The FTIR spectrum explores the presence of the functional group of plant extract and Cr5O12. GC–MS of the aqueous extract shows the presence of many antioxidants in the leaf of Azadirachta indica. The photocatalytic performance was analyzed based on the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) dye. The rate constant k of AzI-Cr5O12 is found to be 3.93 × 10−2 s−1 and follows pseudo first-order kinetic at a catalyst dosage of 0.050 g/L with concentration of 20 µM of dye. Further, the antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Enterobacter.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Explicit finite difference analysis of an unsteady MHD flow of a
           chemically reacting Casson fluid past a stretching sheet with Brownian
           motion and thermophoresis effects

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Sk. Reza-E-Rabbi, S.M. Arifuzzaman, Tanmoy Sarkar, Md. Shakhaoath Khan, Sarder Firoz Ahmmed This study intends to elaborate the heat and mass transfer analysis of Casson nanofluid flow past a stretching sheet together with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects. The boundary layer approximations established the governing equations, i.e., time-subservient momentum, energy and diffusion balance equations. An explicit finite difference scheme was implemented as a numerical technique where Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6.a programming code is also developed for simulating the fluid flow system. In order to accurateness of the numerical technique, a stability and convergence analysis was carried out where the system was found converged at Prandtl number, Pr ≥ 0.062 and Lewis number, Le ≥ 0.025 when τ = 0.0005, ΔX = 0.8 and ΔY = 0.2. The non-dimensional outcomes are apprehended here which rely on various physical parameters. The impression of these various physical parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers along with concentration profiles are discussed and displayed graphically. In addition, the impact of system parameters on Cf, Nu and Sh profiles with streamlines and isothermal lines are also discussed.
       
  • Investigating the tangent dispersive solitary wave solutions to the Equal
           Width and Regularized Long Wave equations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): R.I. Nuruddeen, Khalid Suliman Aboodh, Khalid K. Ali In this paper, we analytically construct certain dispersive solitary wave solutions to the Equal Width (EW) and Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equations using the Modified Extended Tanh Expansion Method. The study also analyze the effect of Ux being the major difference between the two equations after restricting METEM to only tangent function solutions for one-to-one comparison. The Mathematica software is used for the computations as well as the graphical illustrations, respectively.
       
  • Existence and stability of fractional integro differential equation with
           non-instantaneous integrable impulses and periodic boundary condition on
           time scales

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Vipin Kumar, Muslim Malik The present paper is devoted to the study of existence and stability of fractional integro differential equation with non-instantaneous impulses and periodic boundary condition on time scales. This paper consists of two segments: the first segment of the work is concerned with the theory of existence, uniqueness and the other segment is to Hyer’s-Ulam type’s stability analysis. The tools for study include the Banach fixed point theorem and nonlinear functional analysis. Finally, in support, an example is presented to validate the obtained results.
       
  • Aggressiveness and genetic variability of Fusarium graminearum populations
           from the main wheat production area of Argentina

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): I. Malbrán, C.A. Mourelos, P.A. Balatti, G.A. Lori ObjectivesDifferences in aggressiveness and mycotoxin production were previously found among isolates of Fusarium graminearum, the main incitant of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, from Argentina. This study aims at evaluating the genetic diversity present in these isolates and its relationship with their aggressiveness.MethodsInter-simple sequence repeats polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) was used to asses the genetic variability present in 112 F. graminearum isolates from 28 localities of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was performed to examine the population structure.ResultsF. graminearum populations from Argentina showed a large genotypic variability. Seventy seven percent of the isolates included in the analysis were identified as a unique haplotype. The largest part of this variation resulted from genetic differences within (89%) rather than between populations (11%). The constructed dendrogram showed no genotype clustering according to geographic origin or aggressiveness of the isolates.ConclusionsA high genetic heterogeneity was found in the F. graminearum populations from Argentina. This diversity can possibly reflect the occurrence of high frequencies of sexual outcrosses in the field and gene flow.
       
  • Vascular plants census linked to the biodeterioration process of the
           Portuguese city of Mazagan in El Jadida, Morocco

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Jamila Dahmani, Meriem Benharbit, Mohamed Fassar, Rabia Hajila, Lahcen Zidane, Najib Magri, Nadia Belahbib Built in the early XVIth century, Mazagan is one of the first fortifications constructed in North Africa by Portuguese explorers on their way to India. Among the factors of degradation facing the Portuguese city, we were particularly interested in the action of plants that develop there. The objective of our study is to establish a list of plant species that develop on materials and to analyze the potential effects of that vegetation on substrate and thus on monument deterioration. We carried out a systematic sampling in Mazagan. After sampling and identification of plants, we established a list of 57 species belonging to 25 families and 54 genera. The Asteraceae family is the richest in species. The therophytes are the most represented in Mazagan with a proportion of nearly 53% followed by Hemicryptophytes that contain nearly 26% of the listed species. These two biological types may have a fasciculated or pivotal rooting that sinks into the substrate leading to its crumbling. Other biological types such as phanerophytes, chamaephytes and geophytes are no less harmful even if they are represented only in a small proportion: their generally pivoting roots destroy the substrate more quickly. The study site is colonized mainly by spontaneous plants, which represent nearly 81%. Naturalized plants like Lycium europaeum have become so invasive that they even settle on the side of walls. Maintenance measures must be undertaken in the city to control the spread of such destructive vegetation.
       
  • Three-dimensional modelling of gas-air mixture combustion process

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Gaukhar A. Kamalova, Kubaidolla K. Tulegenov, Karshyga B. Rakhmetova, Kenzhetai M. Ramazanova Study of high temperature flows is a rather complicated process. So, the objective of the paper is concluded in spatial modelling of gas-air mixture combustion at lateral injection of gas mixture into the canal from the rectangular hole. The authors suggested numerical model of spatial combustion of turbulent flows in a canal with a complicated configuration. In order to model a multi-component flow the authors used Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, enclosed with k-ε turbulence model. The velocities of chemical reactions are rather high, which allows describing these processes with source terms in the equations of the mass and energy balance. The numerical model is based on the control volume approach. The regularities of the flows were investigated in their dependence on the jet operating conditions. The results were compared with the calculations of the other authors. The behaviors of the velocities, temperature and concentration of gas components are set for the combustion and non-combustion conditions. The structures of the combustion zone are defined and investigated in the spatial canal with partially opened boundary, as well as influence of the operating conditions on the ignition behavior.
       
  • Mathematical modelling of combined pressure driven and electrokinetic
           effect in a channel with induced magnetic field: An exact solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Basant K. Jha, Michael O. Oni This article presents exact solution for pressure driven flow formation of electrically conducting fluid in a parallel plate channel formed by two horizontal parallel plates with electrokinetic effects and induced magnetic field. Using the Poisson–Boltzmann, Navier-Stokes equations and induction equation, the governing electric potential, momentum, induced magnetic field and energy equations for the present article are presented and transformed to their corresponding dimensionless form using suitable parameters. The governing dimensionless equations are solved exactly and graphical representation are presented. During the cause of graphical illustration, it is found that the role of electrokinetic effects and Hartmann number is to decrease the electric potential, fluid velocity, induced magnetic field and fluid temperature. A special case is found and discussed when the value of Hartmann number equals the Debye-Hückel parameter. It is interesting to note that heat transfer is independent on governing parameters for large value of Debye-Hückel parameter.
       
  • Subsampling rules for item non response of an estimator based on the
           combination of regression and ratio

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Carlos N. Bouza-Herrera
       
  • Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using KCC-1: Optimization by
           response surface methodology (RSM)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): R. Hasan, H.D. Setiabudi The performance of KCC-1 as adsorbent towards Pb(II) removal was investigated. The TEM, XRD, FTIR, and BET results proved that the synthesized KCC-1 contains fibrous silica structure with the surface area of 298.87 m2/g. The influence of prominent factors (initial concentration (X1), time (X2) and adsorbent dosage (X3)) on Pb(II) removal was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The most significant factor was the linear function of adsorbent dosage (X3), while the quadratic effect of time (X22) was the least significant factor. Maximum Pb(II) removal of 84.54% predictably and 83.06% experimentally were achieved under the optimal conditions (X1 = 281.7 mg/L, X2 = 80 min and X3 = 3.7 g/L). The feasibility of KCC-1 in Pb(II) removal was confirmed by its good performance during five cycles of reusability study. It is affirmed that the KCC-1 has a high potential to be used in adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Active paper packaging material based on antimicrobial conjugated
           nano-polymer/amino acid as edible coating

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Saber Ibrahim, Houssni El Saied, Mohamed Hasanin Conjugated amino acid with nano-biodegradable polymer was applied as ecofriendly and edible coating. Polystyrene sulfate (PSS) was highly investigated with dynamic light scattering (DLS) to measure the particle size and over charge (zeta potential measurements) of nano-polymer system as well as the homogeny of particle distribution in presence and absence of Lysine mixture (AA). In addition, topographical structure of the coating was studied for PSS, AA and conjugated one as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Antimicrobial test cleared that the prepared conjugate described as broad-spectrum antibacterial agent as well as antifungal with different concentrations. The hydrophilic active ingredient is absorbed into fiber, distributed homogenously and kept out the fiber loaded with antimicrobial properties over all areas. Tensile strength of the paper sheets coated with uni-layer 200 µ thickness presented good improving in physical and mechanical properties of coated paper sheets as well as gives more fiber condensation according to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) topography.
       
  • Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of avocado
           (Persea americana) fruit and seed extract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Maha I. Alkhalf, Wafa S. Alansari, Eman Ahmed Ibrahim, Manal E.A. ELhalwagy Avocado (Persea americana) seeds represent under-utilised resources and waste issues in avocado processing. This study was produced to compare the lipid contents of the avocado bulb and seed. The study also evaluated the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potentiality of each extract. Oleic acid was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid in a chloroform/methanol extract of P. americana fruit and seed. The seed extract was richer with sterol compounds than the fruit extract. The extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities against cell line of colon cancer (HCT116) and cell line of liver cancer (HePG2) in a dose-dependent manner. It also exhibited powerful scavenging of free radical by using- DPPH and ABTS. IC50 of seed extract against the aforementioned cancer cell lines was more or less near the values of a reference drug (sorafinib). In conclusion, P. americana seed extract has more powerful effects than avocado bulb extract. The seeds should not be neglected.
       
  • Investigation and comparative study of the quantum molecular descriptors
           derived from the theoretical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of two
           new macromolecular polyepoxide architectures TGEEBA and HGEMDA

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): R. Hsissou, F. Benhiba, M. Khudhair, M. Berradi, A. Mahsoune, H. Oudda, A. El Harfi, I.B. Obot, A. Zarrouk Our objective is to compare the performance of the quantum parameters of two new synthesized multifunctional polymeric architectures: triglycidyl ether ethylene of bisphenol A (TGEEBA) and hexaglycidyl ethylene of methylene dianiline (HDEMDA). Calculations have been performed with Gaussian software package and the prediction of the quantum molecular descriptors of the two new macromolecular matrices are namely: the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), the energy of the lowest molecular orbital (ELUMO), the ionization potanial (IP), the electron affinity (EA), gap energy (ΔE), softness (σ), electronegativity (χ), hardness (ƞ), the electrophilic character (ω) and the function of the transferred electrons of coating on the surface of the metal (ΔN), etc. These were calculated by the functional density theory method (DFT) with 6–311 G (d, p) basis sets. The local reactivity of two polymers has been studied through the Fukui indices. Indeed, we conclude that the matrix HGEMDA has a low value of the adsorption energy than that of the TGEEBA, indicating that this polymer has a high adsorption capacity on the metal surface. Finally, the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation are in very good agreement with the data of the theory of the DFT.
       
  • m-Polar fuzzy ideals of BCK/BCI-algebras

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Anas Al-Masarwah, Abd Ghafur Ahmad The notions of m-polar fuzzy subalgebras and m-polar fuzzy (closed, commutative) ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of m-polar fuzzy subalgebras and m-polar fuzzy (commutative) ideals are considered. Relations between m-polar fuzzy subalgebras, m-polar fuzzy ideals and m-polar fuzzy commutative ideals are discussed.
       
  • Molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationship study
           of anti-ulcer activity of quinazolinone derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Muhammad baba Muh'd, Adamu Uzairu, G.A. Shallangwa, Sani Uba Proton pump inhibitors portray the first choice for treating various ulcer diseases because it inhibits H+/K+-ATPase enzyme, by covalently binding to a cysteine residue of either potassium or proton pump, therefore this enzyme is a validated target for anti-ulcer drugs. A Quantitative structure-affinity relationship (QSAR) and molecular docking analysis were carryout on 30 quinazolinone derivatives as H+/K+-ATPase inhibitors. QSAR study was performed using Material studio software version 8.0, while molecular docking analysis of all the novel quinazolinone derivatives was performed using Autodock vina version 4.0 of Pyrx software. The QSAR result reveal a strong correlation value of R2 = 0.9131, R2adj = 0.8914, Q2LOO = 0.8038 and R2 pred = 0.8946 which showed a highly predictive and statistically significant model. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the ligand 25 bind tightly deep to H+/K+-ATPase (protein target). Because of the high binding affinity of −9.3 kcal/mol. This research has revealed a significant correlation between binding score and biological activities of the molecules, and the results are even better than the one proposed by other authors, more also, both results of quantitative structure-affinity relationship (QSAR) and docking studies agree with each other which give chance for design and synthesis of novel anti-ulcer agents exhibiting good action against the receptor (H+/K+-ATPase) Furthermore, the present study prove more potent drugs than the ones already marketed.
       
  • Collocation method for Convection-Reaction-Diffusion equation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - ScienceAuthor(s): Shokofeh Sharifi, Jalil Rashidinia A collocation method based on B-spline is developed for solving Convection-Reaction-Diffusion equation subjected to Dirichlet’s boundary conditions. The method comprises an explicit finite difference associated with extended cubic B-spline collocation method. We analyze the convergence and stability of the presented method. The proposed method is applied to various test examples and results are reported in Tables. The obtained numerical results have been compared with the results of the existing methods. Numerical results verify the efficiency and applicability of the scheme.
       
  • Existence theorems for a nonlinear second-order distributional
           differential equation

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 30, Issue 4Author(s): Wei Liu, Guoju Ye, Dafang Zhao, Delfim F.M. Torres In this work, we are concerned with existence of solutions for a nonlinear second-order distributional differential equation, which contains measure differential equations and stochastic differential equations as special cases. The proof is based on the Leray–Schauder nonlinear alternative and Kurzweil–Henstock–Stieltjes integrals. Meanwhile, examples are worked out to demonstrate that the main results are sharp.
       
  • Asymptotic stability and boundedness criteria for nonlinear retarded
           Volterra integro-differential equations

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 30, Issue 4Author(s): Cemil Tunç In this article, we construct new specific conditions for the asymptotic stability (AS) and boundedness (B) of solutions to nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations (VIDEs) of first order with a constant retardation. Our analysis is based on the successful construction of suitable Lyapunov–Krasovskii functionals (LKFs). The results of this paper are new, and they improve and complete that can be found in the literature.
       
  • Validation of BEAMnrc Monte Carlo model for a 12 MV photon beam

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 30, Issue 4Author(s): Maged Mohammed, T. El Bardouni, E. Chakir, M. Saeed, Al Zain Jamal, Lahdour Mohamed Accurate dose calculation in the treatment planning system (TPS) process is the most important step to succeed the radiation therapy. For this purpose, Monte Carlo method is a powerful tool for dose calculation. This study aims to validate Monte Carlo BEAMnrc model of Saturne43 Linac head to simulate 12 MV photon beam. To validate MC model, the dose distributions were calculated by BEAMnrc simulation and then the results obtained were compared against measurements. This requires to adjust the parameters of the initial electron beam incident on the target, such as mean energy, beam radius and mean angular spread. Our approach has been suggested to determine the initial electron beam parameters. The dose distribution (percent depth dose and lateral profile) has been calculated for 10 × 10 cm2 field size in a homogeneous water phantom of 40 × 40 × 40 cm3. The results obtained are compared with measured data using gamma index criteria which were fixed within 1.5%-1 mm accuracy. Using phase space technique as a sub-source allows us to reduce the simulation time by a factor of 6. Good agreement between calculated and measured dose has been achieved when the mean energy, beam width and mean angular spread were 11.8 MeV, 1.5 mm and 0.5°, respectively. So, Monte Carlo based- BEAMnrc code is suitable to be used in the process of treatment planning system for calculating dose distribution.
       
 
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