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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Episteme Transversalis     Open Access  
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access  
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Advancement in Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sciences : Basic and Applied Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Law, Information and Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)

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Journal of Advanced Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.741
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-1224 - ISSN (Online) 2090-1232
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3304 journals]
  • Determination of excitation temperature in laser-induced plasmas using
           columnar density Saha-Boltzmann plot

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Ali Safi, S. Hassan Tavassoli, Gabriele Cristoforetti, Stefano Legnaioli, Vincenzo Palleschi, Fatemeh Rezaei, Elisabetta Tognoni In exploiting the analytical capabilities of plasma-based spectroscopy method, the evaluation of plasma parameters, particularly the plasma temperature, is a crucial step. In this work, a modified Saha-Boltzmann plot, which uses the columnar densities of atomic and ionic ground levels, is utilized to calculate the plasma temperature in a laser-induced plasma from an aluminum alloy target. The columnar densities are here calculated by quantifying the self-absorption of resonance lines. It is demonstrated that this is a promising method for accurate determination of plasma temperature. To validate the capability of this technique, plasma emission is measured at different gate delay times. For each delay, excitation temperature is calculated both by the conventional Saha-Boltzmann plot (by using the excited states) and by exploiting the new Columnar Density Saha–Boltzmann (CD-SB) plot. The results suggest that at later times of the plasma evolution, the CD-SB plot can be more suitable for the determination of plasma temperature than conventional Saha-Boltzmann plot. These findings provide a new approach for physical characterization of plasmas and give access to a wealth of information about the state of plasma.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Realization of fractional-order capacitor based on passive symmetric
           network

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Mourad S. Semary, Mohammed E. Fouda, Hany N. Hassan, Ahmed G. Radwan In this paper, a new realization of the fractional capacitor (FC) using passive symmetric networks is proposed. A general analysis of the symmetric network that is independent of the internal impedance composition is introduced. Three different internal impedances are utilized in the network to realize the required response of the FC. These three cases are based on either a series RC circuit, integer Cole-impedance circuit, or both. The network size and the values of the passive elements are optimized using the minimax and least mth optimization techniques. The proposed realizations are compared with well-known realizations achieving a reasonable performance with a phase error of approximately 2o. Since the target of this emulator circuit is the use of off-the-shelf components, Monte Carlo simulations with 5% tolerance in the utilized elements are presented. In addition, experimental measurements of the proposed capacitors are preformed, therein showing comparable results with the simulations. The proposed realizations can be used to emulate the FC for experimental verifications of new fractional-order circuits and systems. The functionality of the proposed realizations is verified using two oscillator examples: a fractional-order Wien oscillator and a relaxation oscillator.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Studying the effects of haplotype partitioning methods on the
           RA-associated genomic results from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis
           Consortium (NARAC) dataset

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Mohamed N. Saad, Mai S. Mabrouk, Ayman M. Eldeib, Olfat G. Shaker The human genome, which includes thousands of genes, represents a big data challenge. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease with a genetic basis. Many single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association methods partition a genome into haplotype blocks. The aim of this genome wide association study (GWAS) was to select the most appropriate haplotype block partitioning method for the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) dataset. The methods used for the NARAC dataset were the individual SNP approach and the following haplotype block methods: the four-gamete test (FGT), confidence interval test (CIT), and solid spine of linkage disequilibrium (SSLD). The measured parameters that reflect the strength of the association between the biomarker and RA were the P-value after Bonferroni correction and other parameters used to compare the output of each haplotype block method. This work presents a comparison among the individual SNP approach and the three haplotype block methods to select the method that can detect all the significant SNPs when applied alone. The GWAS results from the NARAC dataset obtained with the different methods are presented. The individual SNP, CIT, FGT, and SSLD methods detected 541, 1516, 1551, and 1831 RA-associated SNPs respectively, and the individual SNP, FGT, CIT, and SSLD methods detected 65, 156, 159, and 450 significant SNPs respectively, that were not detected by the other methods. Three hundred eighty-three SNPs were discovered by the haplotype block methods and the individual SNP approach, while 1021 SNPs were discovered by all three haplotype block methods. The 383 SNPs detected by all the methods are promising candidates for studying RA susceptibility. A hybrid technique involving all four methods should be applied to detect the significant SNPs associated with RA in the NARAC dataset, but the SSLD method may be preferred because of its advantages when only one method was used.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Therapeutic potential of endothelial progenitor cells in a rat model of
           epilepsy: Role of autophagy

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Shimaa O. Ali, Nancy N. Shahin, Marwa M. Safar, Sherine M. Rizk Epilepsy is one of the most well-known neurological conditions worldwide. One-third of adult epileptic patients do not respond to antiepileptic drugs or surgical treatment and therefore suffer from the resistant type of epilepsy. Stem cells have been given substantial consideration in the field of epilepsy therapeutics. The implication of pathologic vascular response in sustained seizures and the eminent role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in maintaining vascular integrity tempted us to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of EPCs in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced rat model of epilepsy. Modulation of autophagy, a process that enables neurons to maintain an equilibrium of synthesis, degradation and subsequent reprocessing of cellular components, has been targeted. Intravenously administered EPCs homed into the hippocampus and amended the deficits in memory and locomotor activity. The cells mitigated neurological damage and the associated histopathological alterations and boosted the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. EPCs corrected the perturbations in neurotransmitter activity and enhanced the expression of the downregulated autophagy proteins light chain protein-3 (LC-3), beclin-1, and autophagy-related gene-7 (ATG-7). Generally, these effects were comparable to those achieved by the reference antiepileptic drug, valproic acid. In conclusion, EPCs may confer therapeutic effects against epilepsy and its associated behavioural and biochemical abnormalities at least in part via the upregulation of autophagy. The study warrants further research in experimental and clinical settings to verify the prospect of using EPCs as a valid therapeutic strategy in patients with epilepsy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Endogenous orientation of visual attention in auditory space

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Gaetana Chillemi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Angelo Quartarone, Carmen Terranova, Adriana Salatino, Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Raffaella Ricci Visuospatial attention is asymmetrically distributed with a leftward bias (i.e. pseudoneglect), while evidence for asymmetries in auditory spatial attention is still controversial. In the present study, we investigated putative asymmetries in the distribution of auditory spatial attention and the influence that visual information might have on its deployment. A modified version of the Posner task (i.e. the visuo-audio spatial task [VAST]) was used to investigate spatial processing of auditory targets when endogenous orientation of spatial attention was mediated by visual cues in healthy adults. A line bisection task (LBT) was also administered to assess the presence of a leftward bias in deployment of visuospatial attention. Overall, participants showed rightward and leftward biases in the VAST and the LBT, respectively. In the VAST, sound localization was enhanced by visual cues. Altogether, these findings support the existence of a facilitation effect for auditory targets originating from the right side of space and provide new evidence for crossmodal links in endogenous spatial attention between vision and audition.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleUsing an visuo-audio spatial task, a novel version of the Posner task, we support the idea that auditory and visual attentional systems are governed by modality-specific processes and provide novel evidence for audiovisual links in endogenous covert spatial attention.
       
  • Trehalase localization in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum
           of mouse brains

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): L. Halbe, A. Rami The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is biosynthesized in several species but not in vertebrates. However, trehalase, the enzyme required for its cleavage, has been observed in different mammalian organs. Even in humans, trehalase was detected in the gastrointestinal tract and the kidney. Trehalase is an intrinsic glycoprotein of the small intestine and kidney that transports trehalose and hydrolyses it to two glucose molecules. To our knowledge, no information is available about the in vivo distribution and localization of trehalase in the mammalian brain. Here, we report the occurrence and distribution of trehalase in vivo in the mouse brain using Western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques. Using an antibody against trehalase, we demonstrated that the enzyme showed a band with a molecular mass of approx. 70 kDa in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and olfactory bulbs. Strong trehalase immunoreactivity was found in the perikarya and dendrites of neurons located in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells and mitral cells. Interestingly, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum showed higher immunoreactivity than neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The distribution of trehalase appeared to be mainly related to neurons and was not detected in astrocytes. Independent of the presence of trehalose in neurons, the trehalase levels in neurons should have physiological significance. Investigating whether the interactions between trehalose and trehalase act on brain energy metabolism or have other not-yet-identified effects would also be interesting.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Reversal of carbapenem-resistance in Shewanella algae by
           CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Zong-Yen Wu, Yao-Ting Huang, Wen-Cheng Chao, Shu-Peng Ho, Jan-Fang Cheng, Po-Yu Liu Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is a growing threat to human health. Of particular concern is resistance to carbapenem, which is an antimicrobial agent listed as critically important by the World Health Organization. With the global spread of carbapenem-resistant organisms, there is an urgent need for new treatment options. Shewanella algae is an emerging pathogen found in marine environments throughout the world that has increasing resistance to carbapenem. The organism is also a possible antibiotic resistance reservoir in humans and in its natural habitat. The development of CRISPR/Cas9-based methods has enabled precise genetic manipulation. A number of attempts have been made to knock out resistance genes in various organisms. The study used a single plasmid containing CRISPR/Cas9 and recE/recT recombinase to reverse an antibiotic-resistant phenotype in S. algae and showed blaOXA-55-like gene is essential for the carbapenem resistance. This result demonstrates a potential validation strategy for functional genome annotation in S. algae.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Impact of high strain rate deformation on the mechanical behavior,
           fracture mechanisms and anisotropic response of 2060 Al-Cu-Li alloy

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Ali Abd El-Aty, Yong Xu, Shi-Hong Zhang, Sangyul Ha, Yan Ma, Dayong Chen Since AA2060-T8 was introduced in the past few years, investigating the mechanical response, fracture mechanisms, and anisotropic behaviour of AA2060-T8 sheets under high strain rate deformation has been crucial. Thus, uniaxial tensile tests were performed under quasi-static, intermediate, and high strain rate conditions using universal testing machines as well as split Hopkinson tensile bars. The experimental results showed that the ductility of AA2060-T8 sheets was improved during high strain rate deformation because of the adiabatic softening and the inertia effect which contribute to slow down the necking development, and these results were verified by the fracture morphologies of high strain rate tensile samples. Furthermore, the strain rate hardening influence of AA2060-T8 was significant. Therefore, the Johnson–Cook constitutive model was modified to consider the effects of both strain and strain rates on the strain hardening coefficient. The results obtained from the improved Johnson–Cook constitutive model are in remarkable accordance with those obtained from experimental work. Thus, the improved Johnson–Cook model can predict the flow behavior of AA2060-T8 sheets at room temperature over a wide range of strain rates. The results of the present study can efficiently be used to develop a new manufacturing route based on impact hydroforming technology (IHF) to manufacture sound thin-walled-complex shape components from AA2060-T8 sheets at room temperature.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Advanced DNA fingerprint genotyping based on a model developed from real
           chip electrophoresis data

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Helena Skutkova, Martin Vitek, Matej Bezdicek, Eva Brhelova, Martina Lengerova Large-scale comparative studies of DNA fingerprints prefer automated chip capillary electrophoresis over conventional gel planar electrophoresis due to the higher precision of the digitalization process. However, the determination of band sizes is still limited by the device resolution and sizing accuracy. Band matching, therefore, remains the key step in DNA fingerprint analysis. Most current methods evaluate only the pairwise similarity of the samples, using heuristically determined constant thresholds to evaluate the maximum allowed band size deviation; unfortunately, that approach significantly reduces the ability to distinguish between closely related samples. This study presents a new approach based on global multiple alignments of bands of all samples, with an adaptive threshold derived from the detailed migration analysis of a large number of real samples. The proposed approach allows the accurate automated analysis of DNA fingerprint similarities for extensive epidemiological studies of bacterial strains, thereby helping to prevent the spread of dangerous microbial infections.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigation of RC-DTH air hammer performance using CFD approach with
           dynamic mesh method

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Xinxin Zhang, Yongjiang Luo, Liming Fan, Jianming Peng, Kun Yin Reverse circulation down-the-hole (RC-DTH) air hammers have been widely used in construction and mining activities owing to their high drilling efficiency and good dust control performance. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach with the dynamic mesh method for evaluating the performance of RC-DTH air hammers. Nine stages of operating conditions of the RC-DTH air hammer are described herein to better understand the operating mechanism of the RC-DTH air hammer. Dynamic layering, sliding interfaces, as well as user-defined functions were employed to update the mesh in dynamic mesh modelling. The influences of rebound coefficient, input air pressure, and piston mass on the performance of RC-DTH air hammers were studied. It was found that increasing the rebound coefficient and input air pressure can improve the impact performance of RC-DTH air hammers, whereas increasing input air pressure can reduce energy efficiency and increase energy consumption. In addition, simulation results indicate that increasing the input air pressure may increase the stroke of the piston; the piston mass should be optimally selected to match the designed geometric parameters to avoid a significant drop in performance. The CFD approach with the dynamic mesh method shows superiority in evaluating the performance of RC-DTH air hammers.Graphical abstractPerformance analysis of RC-DTH air hammer using CFD approach with dynamic mesh method.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Shedding light on gene therapy: Carbon dots for the minimally invasive
           image-guided delivery of plasmids and noncoding RNAs - A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Reza Mohammadinejad, Arezoo Dadashzadeh, Saeid Moghassemi, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Ali Dehshahri, Abbas Pardakhty, Hosseinali Sassan, Seyed-Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Ali Mandegary Recently, carbon dots (CDs) have attracted great attention due to their superior properties, such as biocompatibility, fluorescence, high quantum yield, and uniform distribution. These characteristics make CDs interesting for bioimaging, therapeutic delivery, optogenetics, and theranostics. Photoluminescence (PL) properties enable CDs to act as imaging-trackable gene nanocarriers, while cationic CDs with high transfection efficiency have been applied for plasmid DNA and siRNA delivery. In this review, we have highlighted the precursors, structure and properties of positively charged CDs to demonstrate the various applications of these materials for nucleic acid delivery. Additionally, the potential of CDs as trackable gene delivery systems has been discussed. Although there are several reports on cellular and animal approaches to investigating the potential clinical applications of these nanomaterials, further systematic multidisciplinary approaches are required to examine the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution patterns of CDs for potential clinical applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A review of the sustainable methods in imparting shrink resistance to wool
           fabrics

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Mohammad M. Hassan, Christopher M. Carr Wool fiber is a natural protein fiber, which is used for the manufacturing of apparels, and floorcoverings because of its excellent fire retardancy, stain-resistance, antistatic and odor control properties along with exceptional warmth and resilience. However, wool fiber has several serious demerits, such as garments made of wool fibers extensively shrink during their laundering. To overcome this problem, wool fibers, especially those are used in apparel, are frequently shrink-resist treated to make them machine-washable. A wide range of treatments including oxidative, enzymatic, radiation, polymeric coatings, sol-gel coatings, and plasma treatments have been investigated to make wool fiber shrink-resistant. In this review, the mechanisms of wool fiber shrinkage, the research carried out until recently to make wool fiber shrink-resistant, and the current status of the sustainable alternatives developed, have been compiled and presented. The various methods investigated have been critically discussed with their merits and demerits, shrink-resist performance, and their shrink-resistance mechanisms. The chemistry and synthesis of various polymers used for the shrink-resistance and their reactions with wool fiber have been outlined. This review also includes the current challenges to make shrink-resist treatments green and sustainable, and also the future directions to meet these challenges. Some of the treatments investigated may affect the biodegradability of wool fibers, especially those are based on coating with synthetic polymers. A sustainable alternative polymeric coating based on sustainably produced polymeric resins, especially bio-based resins, needs to be developed so that the future treatments become sustainable.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Alcohol dehydrogenase of Candida albicans triggers differentiation of
           THP-1 cells into macrophages

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 18Author(s): Yanglan Liu, Yuxue Ou, Luping Sun, Wenqing Li, Jinghong Yang, Xiaohuan Zhang, Yan Hu Candida albicans proteins located on the cell wall and in the cytoplasm have gained great attention because they are not only involved in cellular metabolism and the maintenance of integrity but also interact with host immune systems. Previous research has reported that enolase from C. albicans exhibits high immunogenicity and effectively protects mice against disseminated candidiasis. In this study, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) of C. albicans was cloned and purified for the first time, and this study focused on evaluating its effects on the differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The morphological features of THP-1 cells exposed to ADH were similar to those of phorbol-12-myristate acetate-differentiated (PMA-differentiated) macrophages. Functionally, ADH enhanced the adhesion, phagocytosis, and killing capacities of THP-1 cells. A flow cytometric assay demonstrated that ADH-induced THP-1 cells significantly increased CD86 and CD11b expression. The production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α by cells increased in the presence of ADH. As expected, after pretreatment with a MEK inhibitor (U0126), ADH-induced THP-1 cells exhibited unaltered morphological features, eliminated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, prevented CD86/CD11b upregulation and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine increase. Collectively, these results suggest that ADH enables THP-1 cells to differentiate into macrophages via the ERK pathway, and it may play an important role in the immune response against fungal invasion.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A review on the plant microbiome: Ecology, functions and emerging trends
           in microbial application

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Stéphane Compant, Abdul Samad, Hanna Faist, Angela Sessitsch Plants have evolved with a plethora of microorganisms having important roles for plant growth and health. A considerable amount of information is now available on the structure and dynamics of plant microbiota as well as on the functional capacities of isolated community members. Due to the interesting functional potential of plant microbiota as well as due to current challenges in crop production there is an urgent need to bring microbial innovations into practice. Different approaches for microbiome improvement exist. On the one hand microbial strains or strain combinations can be applied, however, field success is often variable and improvement is urgently required. Smart, knowledge-driven selection of microorganisms is needed as well as the use of suitable delivery approaches and formulations. On the other hand, farming practices or the plant genotype can influence plant microbiota and thus functioning. Therefore, selection of appropriate farming practices and plant breeding leading to improved plant-microbiome interactions are avenues to increase the benefit of plant microbiota. In conclusion, different avenues making use of a new generation of inoculants as well as the application of microbiome-based agro-management practices and improved plant lines could lead to a better use of the plant microbiome. This paper reviews the importance and functionalities of the bacterial plant microbiome and discusses challenges and concepts in regard to the application of plant-associated bacteria.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The soybean rhizosphere: metabolites, microbes, and beyond—A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Akifumi Sugiyama The rhizosphere is the region close to a plant’s roots, where various interactions occur. Recent evidence indicates that plants influence rhizosphere microbial communities by secreting various metabolites and, in turn, the microbes influence the growth and health of the plants. Despite the importance of plant-derived metabolites in the rhizosphere, relatively little is known about their spatiotemporal distribution and dynamics. In addition to being an important crop, soybean (Glycine max) is a good model plant with which to study these rhizosphere interactions, because soybean plants have symbiotic relationships with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and secrete various specialized metabolites, such as isoflavones and saponins, into the soil. This review summarizes the characteristics of the soybean rhizosphere from the viewpoint of specialized metabolites and microbes and discusses future research perspectives. Secretion of these metabolites is developmentally and nutritionally regulated and potentially alters the rhizosphere microbial communities.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Driving factors of epiphytic bacterial communities: A mini-review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Rudolf O. Schlechter, Moritz Miebach, Mitja N.P. Remus-Emsermann Bacteria establish complex, compositionally consistent communities on healthy leaves. Ecological processes such as dispersal, diversification, ecological drift, and selection as well as leaf surface physicochemistry and topology impact community assembly. Since the leaf surface is an oligotrophic environment, species interactions such as competition and cooperation may be major contributors to shape community structure. Furthermore, the plant immune system impacts on microbial community composition, as plant cells respond to bacterial molecules and shape their responses according to the mixture of molecules present. Such tunability of the plant immune network likely enables the plant host to differentiate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic colonisers, avoiding costly immune responses to non-pathogenic colonisers. Plant immune responses are either systemically distributed or locally confined, which in turn affects the colonisation pattern of the associated microbiota. However, how each of these factors impacts the bacterial community is unclear. To better understand this impact, bacterial communities need to be studied at a micrometre resolution, which is the scale that is relevant to the members of the community. Here, current insights into the driving factors influencing the assembly of leaf surface-colonising bacterial communities are discussed, with a special focus on plant host immunity as an emerging factor contributing to bacterial leaf colonisation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a root pathogen induce different
           volatiles emitted by Medicago truncatula roots

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Dorothée Dreher, Susanne Baldermann, Monika Schreiner, Bettina Hause Plants are in permanent contact with various microorganisms and are always impacted by them. To better understand the first steps of a plant’s recognition of soil-borne microorganisms, the early release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from roots of Medicago truncatula in response to the symbiont Rhizophagus irregularis or the pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches was analysed. More than 90 compounds were released from roots as detected by an untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach. Principal component analyses clearly distinguished untreated roots from roots treated with either R. irregularis or A. euteiches. Several VOCs were found to be emitted specifically in response to each of the microorganisms. Limonene was specifically emitted from wild-type roots after contact with R. irregularis spores but not from roots of the mycorrhiza-deficient mutant does not make infections3. The application of limonene to mycorrhizal roots, however, did not affect the mycorrhization rate. Inoculation of roots with A. euteiches zoospores resulted in the specific emission of several sesquiterpenes, such as nerolidol, viridiflorol and nerolidol-epoxyacetate but application of nerolidol to zoospores of A. euteiches did not affect their vitality. Therefore, plants discriminate between different microorganisms at early stages of their interaction and respond differently to the level of root-emitted volatiles.Graphical abstractUsing non-targeted metabolite profiling, we show that Medicago truncatula roots grown in an aeroponic cultivation system emit specific volatiles in response to two soil-born microorganisms, the symbiont Rhizophagus irregularis and the pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Impact of treating chronic hepatitis C infection with direct-acting
           antivirals on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: The debate continues
           – A mini-review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Mohamed El Kassas, Tamer Elbaz, Mohamed Salaheldin, Lobna Abdelsalam, Ahmed Kaseb, Gamal Esmat Hepatitis C virus clearance is expected in more than 95% of patients treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). However, an extensive debate about the impact of DAAs on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently ongoing. This review aimed to explore currently available evidence about the relationship between DAAs and HCC development. The American studies and some European studies clearly showed no relation, while the Japanese and Egyptian studies and the other European studies showed an increased risk of developing HCC after DAA exposure. These conflicting results may be due to geographical and ethnic variations and differences in the design and inclusion criteria among the studies. After reviewing the data from these different studies, it seems that some patients are at increased risk of developing HCC after DAA exposure. Identifying those at increased risk is very important for the management of HCC in light of the potentially major consequences of HCC for the patients’ quality of life and the subsequent major burden imposed on healthcare resources.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Non-invasive assessment of graft fibrosis post-liver transplant in
           patients with hepatitis C virus infections

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Zakaria Mohran, Ahmed El Dorry, Mahmoud S. Elmeteini, Nadia A. Abdelkader, Hany M. Dabbous, Mohsen I. Abbas
       
  • Levels of ischemia-modified albumin and malondialdehyde in chronic
           hepatitis C patients and their relation to the response to direct-acting
           antiviral arugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Raghda E. Farag, Mohamed E. Mohamed, Azza A. El Baiomy, Amr S. Tawfik
       
  • Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in hepatitis C-infected patients with Child B
           decompensated cirrhosis: Real life results

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Hassan S. Hamdy, Mohamed Salaheldin, Ahmed Ghalwash, Amr M. Abbas
       
  • Contribution of infiltrating monocytes to HCV-induced hepatic fibrosis and
           carcinogenesis: Immunohistochemical study

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Noha A. Amin, Mohamed D. El Talkawy, Tarek S. Aboushousha, Eman G. El Ahwany, Mona K. Zoheiry, Nora E. El-Bassiouni
       
  • Cutoff point for standard tube agglutination test in the diagnosis of
           human brucellosis in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Samy Zaky, Mohamed Azab, Raied H. Mansour, Essam A. El-Moselhy, Aly M. Bersy, Nabil H. Omar, Eman Abdelrazik, Hassan Shikshaky, Dina Johar, Amin Abdel Baki, Mahmoud A.M. Abd Elall
       
  • A study of the effect of argon plasma coagulation followed by endoscopic
           band ligation in comparison to endoscopic band ligation alone for the
           treatment of bleeding gastric antral vascular ectasia in cirrhotic
           patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Hanan Abdelhaleem, Ibrahim Mostafa, Mohammed S. Abdelbary, Gamaleldin Elatar, Mahmoud Abdo, Ali Abdel Rahim, Nancy N. Fanous, Ahmed El-Mikkawy, Mohamed Abdel Hamid
       
  • Trends in liver biopsy in Egyptian patients over three decades

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Tarek Aboushousha, Moataz Hassanein, Ahmed Abdel Hady, Noha Helal, Mohamed Eltalkawy
       
  • The association between the Ras Association Domain Family 1 Isoform A
           polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma in an Egyptian population

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Faten M. El-Shanawani, Ola A. El-Sesy, Amaal A. Abd El-Aal, Marwa N. El-Fiki
       
  • Presentation and outcome of Egyptian patients with primary Budd Chiari
           Syndrome related to Behçet’s disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohammad A. Sakr, Mohga A. Reda, Ahmed S. Abdelmoaty, Hend E. Ebada, Zeinab M. Hefny, Zakaria H. Ibrahim
       
  • Liver stiffness reduction and serum fibrosis score improvement following
           sofosbuvir-based therapy of HCV/HIV co-infected patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Hassan El-Garem, Mohammad Mohey, Doaa Ghaith, Neveen H. Abou El-Soud, Mohamed AbdAllah, Heba Omar, Aisha Elsharkawy, Walid Kamal, Ahmed Cordie, Gamal Esmat
       
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Helicobacter pylori isolated
           from Egyptian endoscopic units

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Moselhy S. Mansy, Kamel A. Al-Ghrei, Samy Zaky, Mohammed S. Abdulrahman
       
  • Malignant obstructive jaundice: The National Cancer Institute (Cairo
           University) review of 232 patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Ashraf S. Zakaria, Mohammed G. Ramadan, Nelly H. Ali Eldin, Ali H. Mebed
       
  • Inflammatory biomarkers as prognostic indicators of liver cirrhosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Naglaa A. Tawfik, Naglaa A. EL-gendy, Hanaa A. Abou elhassan, Eman E. Ebrihem, Rayyh A.M. Saleh
       
  • Improvement in liver functions tests for chronic hepatitis C patients
           treated with direct acting antivirals

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohamed M. El Kassas, Mohamed A. Alboraie, Mohammad E. Soliman, Ahmed F. Sherief, Inas M. Moaz, Adel El Tahan, Mohamed Ibrahim, Nermeen S. Abdeen, Sameera Ezzat
       
  • Impact of schistosomiasis on the performance of real time elastography for
           the staging of fibrosis in chronic HCV patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Aisha M. Elsharkawy, Shaimaa M. Raslan, Mohamed A. Mohey, Mohamed M. Hassany, Mahmood M. Magdy, Mohammad S. Marie, Bahaa A. Elkelany, Gamal E. Esmat
       
  • Evaluation of the role of miRNA 122a and telomerase in hepatocellular
           carcinoma patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Khaled M. Mohammad, Nihal M.S. El-Assaly, Nadida A.H. Goher, Walaa A. Rabea
       
  • Evaluation of different regimens of new direct-acting antiviral drugs for
           the treatment of recurrent hepatitis C virus infection after liver
           transplantation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohga A. Reda, Mohammed M. Bahaa, Iman F. Montasser, Mostafa A. Shamkh
       
  • Evaluation of red cell distribution width to platelet ratio as a novel
           noninvasive index for predicting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic
           hepatitis C

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Iman Ramzy, Rabab Fouad, Rabab Salama, Zeinab Abdellatif, Aisha Elsharkawy, Naglaa Zayed, Marwa Elsharkawy, Wafaa El Akel, Nader Gamal
       
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocytes in chronic HCV Egyptian
           patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Marwa Hassan, Mona Zoheiry, Heba M. Khalil, Eman EL-Ahwany, Tarek Aboushousha, Hoda Abu-Taleb, Mohamed D. El-Talkawy, Ali Abdel Rahim, Mohamed Elzallat
       
  • Changes in HCV awareness in Egypt over the last decade in relation to
           changes in HCV prevalence and demographic characteristics

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Doa’a A. Saleh, Marwa Khairy, Walied K. Elhossary, Mostafa G. Gamil, Gamal Esmat
       
  • Association between a single nucleotide polymorphism of toll-like receptor
           4 and the response to direct-acting antiviral therapy in patients with
           chronic hepatitis C

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mahmoud M. El-Bendary, Ahmed Y. El-Shabrawi, Walaa E. Shabana, Mohammed H. Zaghloul
       
  • Cerebrospinal fluid Lipocalin 2 as a marker for the detection of acute
           bacterial meningitis

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Eman M. Barakat, Doaa Z. Zaky, Mohamed S. Abdelhamid, Mentallah A. Shaaban, Hegazy A. Haddad
       
  • Association between an epidermal growth factor gene functional
           polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma in a cohort of Egyptian patients
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Bothaina A. Madkour, Ola M. Mahmoud, Omar M. Sabry, Mohammed A. Aboul Ezz
       
  • Bacteremia as a predictor of early TIPS stent occlusion in Egyptian Budd
           Chiari Syndrome Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohamed A. Sakr, Eman M. El Gindy, Nadia A. Abdelkader, Mohamed S. Ghazy, Hany M. Dabbous, Marwa M. Shabban, Ahmed S. Abdelmoaty, Ahmed F. Sherief
       
  • A selective inhibitor of the Polo-box domain of Polo-like kinase 1
           identified by virtual screening

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Sara Abdelfatah, Angela Berg, Madeleine Böckers, Thomas Efferth Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a member of the Polo-like kinase family, plays an important regulatory role in mitosis and cell cycle progression. PLK1 overexpression is correlated with tumourigenesis and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Therefore, the identification of novel compounds that inhibit PLK1 would provide attractive therapeutic approaches. Although some PLK1 kinase inhibitors have been developed, their application has been limited by off-target effects. PLK1 contains a regulatory domain named the Polo-box domain (PBD), which is characteristic only for the Polo-like kinase family. This domain represents an alternative therapeutic target with higher selectivity for PLK1. In this study, we applied in silico virtual drug screening, fluorescence polarization and microscale thermophoresis to identify new scaffolds targeting the PBD of PLK1. One compound, 3-{[(1R,9S)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)-6-oxo-7,11-diazatricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2,4-dien-11-yl]methyl}benzonitrile (designated compound (1)), out of a total of 30,793 natural product derivatives, inhibited the PLK1 PBD with high selectivity (IC50: 17.9 ± 0.5 µM). This compound inhibited the growth of cultured leukaemia cells (CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000) and arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase, which is characteristic for PLK1 inhibitors. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that treatment with compound (1) disrupted spindle formation due to the aberrant localization of PLK1 during the mitotic process, leading to G2/M arrest and ultimately cell death. In conclusion, compound (1) is a selective PLK1 inhibitor that inhibits cancer cell growth. It represents a chemical scaffold for the future synthesis of new selective PLK1 inhibitors for cancer therapy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Concerted catalytic and photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants
           over CuS/g-C3N4 catalysts under light and dark conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Youliang Ma, Jing Zhang, Yun Wang, Qiong Chen, Zhongmin Feng, Ting Sun Organic pollutants in industrial and agricultural sewage are a serious threat to the environment and human health. Achieving continuous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants under light and dark conditions would have exciting implications for practical sewage treatment. In this paper, CuS/g-C3N4 composite catalysts with CuS nanoparticles anchored on g-C3N4 sheets were successfully fabricated via a simple solvothermal reaction. The morphology, structure, optical absorption characteristics, electron–hole recombination rate, and degradation performance of the as-prepared CuS/g-C3N4 catalysts were investigated in detail. The results confirmed that the as-fabricated CuS/g-C3N4 catalysts exhibited high Fenton-like catalytic degradation efficiencies in the dark, and rapid concerted Fenton-like catalytic, direct H2O2 photocatalytic and CuS/g-C3N4 photocatalytic degradation activities under visible light. Thus, the as-fabricated CuS/g-C3N4 catalysts can degrade organic pollutants continuously during both day and night. These degradation properties, along with the simple catalyst fabrication process, will facilitate the practical application of this system in the continuous removal of organic pollutants.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Saving DNA from museum specimens: The success of DNA mini-barcodes in
           haplotype reconstruction in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Sandra M. Velasco-Cuervo, Elkin Aguirre-Ramirez, Jenny Johana Gallo-Franco, Ranulfo González Obando, Nancy Carrejo, Nelson Toro-Perea The fragmentation of DNA in historical specimens is very common, so obtaining sequences that allow molecular identification and the study of diversity is quite challenging. In this study, we used preserved and fresh specimens of the fruit fly genus Anastrepha, a genus of economic impact of fruit crops of the Neotropic. From these specimens, we evaluated: (1) the success PCR amplification rates of mini-barcodes fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and (2) the usefulness of mini-barcodes in the reconstruction of haplotypes for the identification of species and the diversity analysis. We used 93 specimens from 12 species, which had been preserved in 70% ethanol for more than 20 years. Internal primers were designed in the COI region and primers available in the literature were also evaluated. We obtained amplifications for 62.36% of the samples processed, and reconstructed haplotypes between 171 bp and 632 bp. Variable amplification rates between combinations of primers and between species were obtained, and molecular identification of some museum specimens was achieved. It was also possible to compare the haplotypes obtained in four species from which both fresh and museum samples were available. Our results also show the importance of the adjustment of the primers for the amplification, allowing to amplify fragments of up to 400 bp. The use available resources in biological collections is key to increasing knowledge of species of interest, and by means of the amplification of mini-barcodes, short sequences can be obtained that allow the molecular identification of specimens and the reconstruction of haplotypes with multiple purposes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Probing the complex thermo-mechanical properties of a 3D-printed
           polylactide-hydroxyapatite composite using in situ synchrotron X-ray
           scattering

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Tan Sui, Enrico Salvati, Hongjia Zhang, Kirill Nyaza, Fedor S. Senatov, Alexei I. Salimon, Alexander M. Korsunsky Polylactide (PLA)-hydroxyapatite (HAp) composite components have attracted extensive attentions for a variety of biomedical applications. This study seeks to explore how the biocompatible PLA matrix and the bioactive HAp fillers respond to thermo-mechanical environment of a PLA-HAp composite manufactured by 3D printing using Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). The insight is obtained by in situ synchrotron small- and wide- angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques. The thermo-mechanical cyclic loading tests (0–20 MPa, 22–56 °C) revealed strain softening (Mullins effect) of PLA-HAp composite at both room and elevated temperatures (50 °C) due to the increased chain mobility. Above this temperature the deformation behaviour of the soft PLA lamella changes drastically. The thermal test (0–110 °C) identified multiple crystallisation mechanisms of the PLA amorphous matrix, including reversible stress-induced large crystal formation at room temperature, reversible coupled stress-temperature-induced PLA crystal formation appearing at around 60 °C, as well as irreversible heating-induced crystallisation above 92 °C. The shape memory test (0–3.75 MPa, 0–70 °C) of the PLA-HAp composite demonstrates a fixing ratio (strain upon unloading/strain before unloading) of 65% and rather a ∼100% recovery ratio, showing an improved shape memory property. These findings provide a new framework for systematic characterisation of the thermo-mechanical response of composites, and open up ways towards improved material design and enhanced functionality for biomedical applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Repin1 deficiency in liver tissue alleviates NAFLD progression in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Kerstin Abshagen, Lars Mense, Felix Fischer, Marie Liebig, Ute Schaeper, Gemma Navarro, Änne Glass, Marcus Frank, Nora Klöting, Brigitte Vollmar There is an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, which promote the development of non–alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease that can evolve into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Repin1 loss was previously shown to have beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism and obesity regulation. Herein, we characterized NAFLD in mice with hepatic deletion of Repin1 (LRep1−/−). For this purpose, liver disease was analysed in male LRep1−/− and wild-type mice treated with streptozotocin/high fat diet or a control diet over a period of 20 wks. Streptozotocin/high fat diet treated LRep1−/− mice showed a significant decrease in systemic and hepatic lipid accumulation, accompanied by diminished chronic inflammation and a subsequent reduction in liver injury. Remarkably, Repin1-deficient mice exhibited a lower tumour prevalence and tumour frequency, as well as a reduced liver weight/body weight index. A therapeutic approach using Repin1 siRNA in the early phase of NAFLD verified the observed beneficial effects of Repin1 deficiency. This study provides evidence that loss of Repin1 in the liver attenuates NAFLD progression, most likely by reducing fat accumulation and alleviating chronic tissue inflammation. Thus, modulating Repin1 expression may become a novel strategy and potential tool to inhibit NAFLD progression.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A standardised Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees aqueous extract prevents
           Lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive deficits through suppression of
           inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Dahiru Sani, Nasir I.O. Khatab, Brian P. Kirby, Audrey Yong, Shariful Hasan, Hamidon Basri, Johnson Stanslas Substantial evidence has shown that most cases of memory impairment are associated with increased neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, the potential of a standardised Andrographis paniculata aqueous extract (APAE) to reverse neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined in vivo. Rats were treated with APAE (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg−1, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS (1 mg·kg−1, i.p.)-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, while neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were assessed through the measurement of specific mediators, namely, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), antioxidant glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were also evaluated. LPS caused significant memory deficits in the 2-day MWM protocol, whereas pretreatment with standardised APAE dose-dependently improved performance in the MWM test. APAE treatment also blocked the LPS-induced hippocampal increase in the concentration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and production of ROS and TBARS and enhanced the activities of AChE and BChE. Furthermore, APAE enhanced the decrease in the levels and expression of hippocampal antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) following LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive deficit. The findings from these studies suggested that standardised APAE improved memory and had potent neuroprotective effects against LPS-induced neurotoxicity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Inflammatory breast cancer: Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
           and its target CYP1B1 correlates closely with Wnt5a/b-β-catenin
           signalling, the stem cell phenotype and disease progression

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Hossam T. Mohamed, Ramy Gadalla, Noura El-Husseiny, Hebatallah Hassan, Zhongyan Wang, Sherif A. Ibrahim, Mohamed El-Shinawi, David H. Sherr, Mona M. Mohamed The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression levels of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and its target gene CYP1B1 and to correlate their expression with Wnt5a/b-β-catenin, the CD44+/CD24(−/low) cancer stem cell (CSC) subset and factors associated with poor prognosis in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and non-IBC patients. The methods of analysis used were quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Compared to non-IBC tissues, IBC tissues exhibited the overexpression of AHR and its target gene/protein CYP1B1. AHR and CYP1B1 mRNA levels were associated with the poor clinical prognosis markers tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, cell proliferation and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, AHR expression correlated with the expression of Wnt5a/b and β-catenin signalling molecules, and Wnt5a mRNA expression was downregulated in the SUM149 human IBC cell line and the MDA-MB-231 non-IBC cell line upon inhibition of AHR. AHR gene knockout (CRISPR-Cas9) inhibits CYP1B1 and Wnt5a expression in the IBC cell line. The CD44+/CD24(−/low) subset was significantly correlated with the expression of AHR, CYP1B1, Wnt5a/b and β-catenin in IBC tissues. The overexpression of AHR and its target CYP1B1 correlated with the expression of Wnt5a/b and β-catenin, CSCs, and poor clinical prognostic factors of IBC. Thus, targeting AHR and/or its downstream target molecules CYP1B1 and Wnt5a/b may represent a therapeutic approach for IBC.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The maggot, the ethologist and the forensic entomologist: Sociality and
           thermoregulation in necrophagous larvae

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Cindy Aubernon, Valery Hedouin, Damien Charabidze Necrophagous insects are mostly known through forensic entomology. Indeed, experimental data investigating the effect of temperature on larval development underlies post-mortem interval estimations. However, such developmental studies rarely considered the behavior of maggots. In contrast, previous results supposed that calliphoridae larvae use behavioral strategies to optimize their development on carcasses. To test this idea, we analyzed the trade-off between thermal regulation (individual thermal preferences) and social behavior (aggregation) in Lucilia sericata larvae. The first set of experiments analyzed the behavior of third instars in response to thermal changes in their environment. The results demonstrated a clear thermoregulation behavior, supporting the assumption that larvae continuously move to reach a suitable internal temperature. The second set of experiments focused on the trade-off between thermal optimization and aggregation. The results showed a constant search for congeners and an attractiveness of aggregates, sometimes to the detriment of thermal optimization. Together, these results demonstrate a balance between behavioral thermoregulation and social strategies, two significant mechanisms for developmental optimization in necrophagous larvae. In conclusion, these findings highlights unexpected (social) strategies to cope with ephemeral resource and high selection pressure. They also raise important questions for forensic entomology.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optical properties and colorimetry of gelatine gels prepared in different
           saline solutions

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohammad A.F. Basha Gelatine has been widely used in many multidisciplinary research fields due to its biocompatibility. Using saline solutions in the gelation of gelatine allows for new properties to be incorporated into the prepared gels. This study examined the optical and colour properties of gelatine gels prepared in saline solutions, containing three different metal chlorides (NiCl2·6H2O, CoCl2·6H2O, and CrCl3·6H2O) with concentrations of up to 50%, to prepare three groups of gels. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a loss in the helical structure of the metal-containing gelatine gels, and a shift in the amide bands towards lower wavenumbers. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the starting degradation temperatures (SDTs) of the prepared gelatine gels were found to be correlated to the concentration of the gelling solutions. All SDTs were above 250 °C, making these gels suitable for standing temperatures beyond the daily range. UV–vis spectroscopy showed that d-d transitions were responsible for the colour properties of the metal-containing gelatine gels. It is concluded that the studied properties and the measured parameters were found to depend on both salt type and concentration. With the current findings, the prepared gels can be used as optical thermometers, colour-selective corner cube retroreflectors, laser components, and coatings for OLEDs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • NiSn nanoparticle-incorporated carbon nanofibers as efficient
           electrocatalysts for urea oxidation and working anodes in direct urea fuel
           cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Nasser A.M. Barakat, Mohamed T. Amen, Fahad S. Al-Mubaddel, Mohammad Rezual Karim, Maher Alrashed Synthesis of NiSn alloy nanoparticle-incorporated carbon nanofibers was performed by calcining electrospun mats composed of nickel acetate, tin chloride and poly(vinyl alcohol) under vacuum. The electrochemical measurements indicated that utilization of tin as a co-catalyst could strongly enhance the electrocatalytic activity if its content and calcination temperature were optimized. Typically, the nanofibers prepared from calcination of an electrospun solution containing 15 wt% SnCl2 at 700 °C have a current density almost 9-fold higher than that of pristine nickel-incorporated carbon nanofibers (77 and 9 mA/cm2, respectively) at 30 °C in a 1.0 M urea solution. Furthermore, the current density increases to 175 mA/cm2 at 55 °C for the urea oxidation reaction. Interestingly, the nanofibers prepared from a solution with 10 wt% of co-catalyst precursor show an onset potential of 175 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at 55 °C, making this proposed composite an adequate anode material for direct urea fuel cells. Optimization of the co-catalyst content to maximize the generated current density resulted in a Gaussian function peak at 15 wt%. However, studying the influence of the calcination temperature indicated that 850 °C was the optimum temperature because synthesizing the proposed nanofibers at 1000 °C led to a decrease in the graphite content, which dramatically decreased the catalyst activity. Overall, the study opens a new venue for the researchers to exploit tin as effective co-catalyst to enhance the electrocatalytic performance of the nickel-based nanostructures. Moreover, the proposed co-catalyst can be utilized with other functional electrocatalysts to improve their activity toward oxidation of different fuels.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Tunable surface adsorption and wettability of candle soot coated on
           ferroelectric ceramics

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Gurpreet Singh, Moolchand Sharma, Rahul Vaish A ferroelectric Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.9Zr0.1O3 (BCZTO) ceramic was prepared using a solid-state reaction route. A coating of candle soot was provided on poled and unpoled BCZTO samples. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the graphite form of carbon in the candle soot. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy determined that the highest surface potentials were ∼34 mV and 1.5 V in the unpoled and poled BCZTO samples, respectively. The candle soot was found to adsorb ∼65%, 80%, and 90% of the methylene blue dye present in acidic, neutral, and basic media, respectively, within 3 h. In both the poled and unpoled cases, the BCZTO samples coated with candle soot showed greater adsorption capacities than the uncoated BCZTO sample. In the cases of poled samples coated with candle soot, the adsorption was found to be greater in the case of candle soot coated on a positively charged surface than that for candle soot coated on a negatively charged BCZTO surface in an acidic medium. In a basic medium, the adsorption was found to be greater in the case of candle soot coated on a negatively charged surface than that for candle soot coated on a positively charged BCZTO surface. The contact angle of the candle soot-coated BCZTO sample was found to be hydrophobic (∼149°). The contact angle decreased (∼149–133°) with an increase in temperature (30–70 °C) in the case of candle soot coated on the positive surface of a poled BCZTO sample. The contact angle increased (∼139–149°) with an increase in temperature (30–70 °C) in the case of candle soot coated on the negative surface of a poled BCZTO sample. Internal electric field-assisted (associated with ferroelectric materials) adsorption could be a potential technique to improve adsorption processes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A novel fiber Bragg grating system for eye tracking

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Sharath Umesh, Shweta Pant, Srivani Padma, Sumitash Jana, Varsha Vasudevan, Aditya Murthy, Sundarrajan Asokan Eye movement evaluation is vital for diagnosis of various ophthalmological and neurological disorders. The present study proposes a novel, noninvasive, wearable device to acquire the eye movement based on a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensor. The proposed Fiber Bragg Grating Eye Tracker (FBGET) can capture the displacement of the eyeball during its movements in the form of strain variations on a cantilever. The muscular displacement generated by the eyeball over the lower eyelid, by its swiveling action while moving the gaze on a target object, is converted into strain variations on a cantilever. The developed FBGET is investigated for dynamic tracking of the eye-gaze movement for various actions of the eye such as fixations, saccades and main sequence. This approach was validated by recording the eye movement using the developed FBGET as well as conventional camera-based eye tracker methodology simultaneously. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and the real-time applicability of the proposed FBGET as an eye tracking device. In conclusion, the present study illustrates a novel methodology involving displacement of lower eyelid for eye tracking application along with the employment of FBG sensors to carry out the same. The proposed FBGET can be utilized in both clinical and hospital environment for diagnostic purposes owing to its advantages of wear-ability and ease of implementation making it a point of care device.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Gaussian mixture model for texture characterization with application to
           brain DTI images

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Luminita Moraru, Simona Moldovanu, Lucian Traian Dimitrievici, Nilanjan Dey, Amira S. Ashour, Fuqian Shi, Simon James Fong, Salam Khan, Anjan Biswas A Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based classification technique is employed for a quantitative global assessment of brain tissue changes by using pixel intensities and contrast generated by b-values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A hemisphere approach is also proposed. A GMM identifies the variability in the main brain tissues at a macroscopic scale rather than searching for tumours or affected areas. The asymmetries of the mixture distributions between the hemispheres could be used as a sensitive, faster tool for early diagnosis. The k-means algorithm optimizes the parameters of the mixture distributions and ensures that the global maxima of the likelihood functions are determined. This method has been illustrated using 18 sub-classes of DTI data grouped into six levels of diffusion weighting (b = 0; 250; 500; 750; 1000 and 1250 s/mm2) and three main brain tissues. These tissues belong to three subjects, i.e., healthy, multiple haemorrhage areas in the left temporal lobe and ischaemic stroke. The mixing probabilities or weights at the class level are estimated based on the sub-class-level mixing probability estimation. Furthermore, weighted Euclidean distance and multiple correlation analysis are applied to analyse the dissimilarity of mixing probabilities between hemispheres and subjects. The silhouette data evaluate the objective quality of the clustering. By using a GMM in the present study, we establish an important variability in the mixing probability associated with white matter and grey matter between the left and right hemispheres.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Is dropwise condensation feasible' A review on surface modifications
           for continuous dropwise condensation and a profitability analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Marieke Ahlers, Alexander Buck-Emden, Hans-Jörg Bart The interest in surface treatments promoting dropwise condensation has grown exponentially in the past decades. Savings in the operating and maintenance costs of steam processes involving phase changes are promised. Numerous surface preparation methods allow the formation of droplets during condensation. However, stable dropwise condensation has been hardly realized in industrial applications. This review aims to highlight the surface preparation techniques that promote dropwise condensation. It emphasizes on their durability and the resulting stability of dropwise condensation. Furthermore, the possibilities of implementation at an industrial level are discussed, apart from evaluating the economic feasibility through a case study. Despite years of research and numerous surface design possibilities, dropwise condensation cannot be maintained: coating deterioration and fluctuating process conditions commonly lead to surface flooding within hours or weeks. A more profound understanding of the mechanisms of dropwise condensation and innovative design concepts for self-renewing heat transfer surfaces may diminish encountered challenges.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The validity of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) in
           the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): W.A. Abd El Monsef, N.A. Abdelkader, G.A. Ismail, M.M. El Gaafary, Y.A. Abd El Razek
       
  • The impact of the pharmaceutical care management model of hepatitis C
           medications on the cost at the health insurance level

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Fadia B. Al Mahdi, Almoutaz H. Hashim, Emad Aldin M. Albaba, Ohoud N. Salih, Reem J. Alkasam, Mahmoud H. Mosli, Ayman F. Alsulaimani
       
  • Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of different
           anorectal lesions

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohammed R. El Wakil, Ahmad F. Ahmad, Hussein H. Okasha, Ashraf M. El Bareedy, Sara M. Abd El Hakam, Enaam A. El Sayed
       
  • Response to direct-acting antiviral agents is affected by manifestations
           of portal hypertension in patients with chronic hepatitis C infections

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohamed A. Alboraie, Mohamed S. Abdelhamid, Mohamed M. Eltabbakh, Inas M. Moaz, Mohammad F. Abd Algaber, Ebada M. Said, Adel A. El Tahan, Mohamed M. El Badry, Amir M. Farid, Reem Y. El Sheemy, Ahmed F. Sherief, Amira M. Al Balakosy, Zainab A. Ali-Eldin, Mohamed M. El Kassas
       
  • Outcome of colonoscopic screening in potential liver transplant candidates

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 16Author(s): Mohammad A. Sakr, Soheir M. Abdelkader, Hend E. Ebada, Ahmed N. Bassuny, Hany M. Dabbous, Iman F. Montasser, Ahmed S. Abdelmoaty
       
  • pH-responsive and targeted delivery of curcumin via phenylboronic
           acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Mousumi Kundu, Pritam Sadhukhan, Noyel Ghosh, Sharmistha Chatterjee, Prasenjit Manna, Joydeep Das, Parames C. Sil Nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of bioactive natural compounds has recently been gaining much interest for breast cancer therapy. Herein, phenyl boronic acid (PBA)-conjugated and pH-responsive ZnO nanoparticles (diameter ∼ 40 nm) were synthesized for the tumor tissue-specific delivery of curcumin. PBA conjugation facilitates the targeted delivery of curcumin to the sialic acid overexpressed in breast cancer cell membranes. Curcumin-loaded ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-PBA-Curcumin) caused apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Further, in vivo intravenous (i.v.) administration of ZnO-PBA-Curcumin was found to effectively decrease tumor growth in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor-bearing mice via the enhanced accumulation of curcumin. Interestingly, ZnO-PBA-Curcumin did not show any signs of systemic toxicity. The cytotoxic potential of the nanohybrid ZnO-PBA-Curcumin is attributed to the combinatorial cytotoxic effects of curcumin and ZnO in cancer cells. Collectively, ZnO-PBA-Curcumin may represent a potential treatment modality for breast cancer therapy. This study provides insight into the tumor cell targeting mechanism using PBA functionalization, and the anticancer efficacy of curcumin-loaded pH-sensitive nanohybrids can be attributed to the differential oxidative stress-inducing properties of curcumin and Zn+2 ions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The impact of demagnetization on the feasibility of permanent magnet
           synchronous motors in industry applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): A.A. Adly, A. Huzayyin Permanent magnet (PM) motors are rapidly replacing the dominant induction motors in industrial applications including pumps, fans, and compressors. PM motors are also gaining ground in critical sustainable energy applications such as wind systems, photovoltaic pumping systems and electric vehicles. Compared to induction motors, PM have higher efficiency. In this paper, the financial feasibility of replacing induction motors by PM motors at various operating conditions was analyzed on a preliminary basis. The impact of partial demagnetization and full loss of excitation on the feasibility of the replacement was also preliminarily investigated. It is found that the feasibility of replacement was less sensitive to reduction in the life time of PM motors than reduction in efficiency due to partial demagnetization. While detailed and lengthy studies are planned in the future, investigation outcomes suggest that the replacement remains feasible despite risks of demagnetization when utilization rates are above 50%. Details of the investigation are reported in the paper.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Resolution-elastic neutron scattering by correlation techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): F. Mezei, M.T. Caccamo, F. Migliardo, S. Magazù Neutron scattering applications often require discriminating the elastic contribution from the inelastic contribution. For this purpose, correlation spectroscopy offers an effective tool with both pulsed and continuous neutron sources as well as several advantages: the analysis of the neutron velocity distribution can be carried out with a duty factor of 50%, independently on the resolution value; the best statistical accuracy for spectra where the elastic part encompasses most of the integrated intensity is provided. Depending on the statistical chopper position, correlation analysis can be used for both incoming and outgoing neutron velocity determination. Moreover, the correlation technique is very profitable for investigating weak signals in the presence of high background, which is often the case for small samples. To provide instrument flexibility and versatility, an innovative approach comprising tuning resolution by variable Resolution-Elastic Neutron Scattering (RENS) is proposed, offering further benefits by enabling systematic trading of intensity for resolution and vice versa. This study puts into evidence the advantages offered by the use of statistical chopper and of correlation technique for RENS in choosing the best compromise between resolution and beam intensity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A new perspective on the role of mathematics in medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Ahmed I. Zayed The aim of this expository article is to shed light on the role that mathematics plays in the advancement of medicine. Many of the technological advances that physicians use every day are products of concerted efforts of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. One of the ubiquitous applications of mathematics in medicine is the use of probability and statistics in validating the effectiveness of new drugs, or procedures, or estimating the survival rate of cancer patients undergoing certain treatments. Setting this aside, there are important but less known applications of mathematics in medicine. The goal of the article is to highlight some of these applications using as simple mathematical formulations as possible. The focus is on the role of mathematics in medical imaging, in particular, in CT scans and MRI.Graphical abstractThe Radon transform is the mathematical basis of computer tomography.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Pre-emergence application of (thio)urea analogues compromises the
           development of the weed species Bidens pilosa, Urochloa brizantha, and
           Urochloa decumbens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Dandara R. Muniz, Janaina S. Garcia, Taniris C. Braga, Ângelo de Fátima, Luzia V. Modolo Invasive species (weeds) contribute to great losses in crop productivity, and one of the strategies for controlling their distribution in the field involves the use of herbicides. However, the development of new formulations for the control of weeds is challenged by environmental issues, increases in the resistance of weeds to herbicides, and poor selectivity of herbicides towards invasive species. Here, by using pre-emergence experiments, we assessed the phytotoxicity of two (thio)urea analogues (2A10 and 2B2) against the weed species Bidens pilosa (a dicot), Urochloa brizantha and Urochloa decumbens (monocots). Similar to diuron (400 µM), which is a commercial urea analogue herbicide, the urea analogue 2A10 (>200 µM) was lethal to B. pilosa. Although 2A10 failed to disrupt the germination of U. brizantha seeds, this compound (≥600 µM) inhibited the accumulation of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids and resulted in the development of seedlings that presented relatively short roots and small, chlorotic leaves. Moreover, the thiourea analogue 2B2 (≥600 µM) reduced the germination percentage of U. decumbens seeds and delayed their germination, and at a concentration of 800 µM, this analogue impaired root growth and blocked the formation of lateral roots. The presence of an oxygen atom in the urea moiety of the 2A10 structure is critical for its marked activity against B. pilosa seeds, as 2B2 bears a sulphur atom instead and marginally inhibits seed germination. Neither 2A10 nor 2B2 was toxic to the non-weed species Lactuca sativa (lettuce; a dicot), and the latter even exerted beneficial effects by stimulating leaf expansion. Therefore, the evaluated (thio)urea analogues are promising for the design and development of new phytotoxic compounds for the pre-emergent control of the spread of B. pilosa (2A10) or the post-emergence control of U. brizantha (2A10) and U. decumbens (2B2).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Survival of occlusal ART restorations using high-viscosity glass-ionomer
           with and without chlorhexidine: A 2-year split-mouth quadruple-blind
           randomized controlled clinical trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Enas H. Mobarak, Mohamed M. Shabayek, Heba A. El-Deeb, Jan Mulder, Fayez M. Hassan, Wil J.M. Van der Sanden, Jo E. Frencken The study question was whether the use of high-viscosity glass-ionomer with chlorhexidine (HVGIC/CHX) for the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) prepared cavities could achieve a higher restoration survival percentage and be more effective for preventing dentine carious lesions adjacent to the restoration than the use of HVGIC without CHX. The study followed a split-mouth, quadruple-blind, randomized controlled clinical design and lasted 2 years. Patients with at least two small- to medium-sized occlusal cavities were included. The occlusal cavities were prepared according to the ART method and restored with HVGIC/CHX (test) and HVGIC (control). A replica of all restorations available and digital photographs were fabricated at baseline and after 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 years and evaluated by two examiners using the ART and Federation Dentaire International (FDI) restoration assessment criteria. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to test for significance between the survival percentages. A total of 100 subjects with an average age of 14.4 years participated. According to the ART restoration assessment criteria, the 2-year survival percentages of ART/HVGIC/CHX (96.8%) and ART/HVGIC (94.8%) did not differ significantly and no significant difference was found between the test (97.9%) and control (96.9%) groups according to the FDI restoration assessment criteria. Eight and five occlusal restorations failed according to the ART and FDI restoration criteria, respectively. No dentine carious lesions along the restoration margin were observed. The 2-year survival of ART restorations in both groups was high. The development of carious dentine lesions adjacent to the restoration was not observed in either treatment group. There is no evidence for modifying HVGIC by incorporating chlorhexidine in order to prevent dentine carious lesion development or to improve the survival of ART restorations in occlusal surfaces in permanent teeth. HVGIC without chlorhexidine can be used successfully to restore occlusal ‘ART-prepared’ cavities in permanent teeth.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optimal Control for a Fractional Tuberculosis Infection Model Including
           the Impact of Diabetes and Resistant Strains

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): N.H. Sweilam, S.M. ALMekhlafi, D. Baleanu The objective of this paper is to study the optimal control problem for the fractional tuberculosis (TB) infection model including the impact of diabetes and resistant strains. The governed model consists of 14 fractional-order (FO) equations. Four control variables are presented to minimize the cost of interventions. The fractional derivative is defined in the Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo (ABC) sense. New numerical schemes for simulating a FO optimal system with Mittag-Leffler kernels are presented. These schemes are based on the fundamental theorem of fractional calculus and Lagrange polynomial interpolation. We introduce a simple modification of the step size in the two-step Lagrange polynomial interpolation to obtain stability in a larger region. Moreover, necessary and sufficient conditions for the control problem are considered. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the theoretical results.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Analytical and mathematical methods for revealing hidden details in
           ancient manuscripts and paintings: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Anna Tonazzini, Emanuele Salerno, Zienab A. Abdel-Salam, Mohamed Abdel Harith, Luciano Marras, Asia Botto, Beatrice Campanella, Stefano Legnaioli, Stefano Pagnotta, Francesco Poggialini, Vincenzo Palleschi In this work, a critical review of the current nondestructive probing and image analysis approaches is presented, to revealing otherwise invisible or hardly discernible details in manuscripts and paintings relevant to cultural heritage and archaeology. Multispectral imaging, X-ray fluorescence, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermography are considered, as techniques for acquiring images and spectral image sets; statistical methods for the analysis of these images are then discussed, including blind separation and false colour techniques. Several case studies are presented, with particular attention dedicated to the approaches that appear most promising for future applications. Some of the techniques described herein are likely to replace, in the near future, classical digital photography in the study of ancient manuscripts and paintings.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Contents of chlorogenic acids and caffeine in various coffee-related
           products

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Jong-Sup Jeon, Han-Taek Kim, Il-Hyung Jeong, Se-Ra Hong, Moon-Seog Oh, Mi-Hye Yoon, Jae-Han Shim, Ji Hoon Jeong, A.M. Abd El-Aty Coffee is the most popular beverage in the Republic of Korea, other than Korea's traditional green tea. Coffee contains many physiologically active substances, such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and caffeine. Previous studies have focused on the content of CGAs and caffeine in brewed coffee. This study quantified the total amounts of CGAs and caffeine using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector in 83 various coffee-related products, such as instant coffee, roasted and ground coffee sold in supermarkets, ready-to-drink coffee, and Americano coffee sold in franchise restaurants in the Republic of Korea. According to the results of this study, the coffee with the highest content of CGAs was unblended roasted and ground coffee sold in supermarkets, with a mean value of 194.1 ± 67.7 mg/serving, and the most caffeine-rich coffee was Americano coffee from coffee shops, with a mean value of 166.1 ± 37.5 mg/serving. The caffeine/CGA ratios were determined in various coffee beverages because they are useful parameters for estimating the human health. The lowest mean caffeine/CGAs ratio of 0.5 ± 0.1 was found in unblended ground coffee sold in supermarkets, and the highest mean ratio of 2.5 ± 1.4 was found in milk-added ready-to-drink coffee. Adult caffeine tolerance is defined as 400 mg a day in the Republic of Korea. However, this value highlights the importance of medicines, carbohydrate beverages, tea, chocolate, cocoa products, energy drinks and other sources of caffeine that can contribute to the total intake of caffeine.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Study of the feeding effect on recent and ancient bovine bones by
           nanoparticle-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and
           chemometrics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Z.A. Abdel-Salam, V. Palleschi, M.A. Harith This study aimed to exploit laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, enhanced by nanoparticles (NELIBS), as a fast, sensitive and low-cost technique, to correlate the elemental composition of recent and ancient bovine bone with the elemental composition of the fodder that has been fed to the cattle throughout their life. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (BS-Ag NPs) were used to enhance the emission intensity of the spectral lines in the LIBS spectra of contemporary and ancient bovine bones and fodder samples. The ancient bones are more than 4600 years old and belong to the 3rd dynasty of the old Egyptian Kingdom. Ag NPs were biosynthesized in a simple and inexpensive manner using potato (Solanum tuberosum) extract. As a validation technique for the NELIBS results, EDX spectra were successfully used, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) clearly discriminated between recent and ancient bovine bones. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA), as a multivariate analysis technique, was used to validate the spectroscopic data for the discrimination between different bone types, as well as between different fodders. According to the obtained results, NELIBS spectroscopy combined with PCA can be used as a reliable, accurate, and fast method for the discrimination between different bones and different fodder types as well as for the assessment of the feeding strategies of livestock. The present work demonstrated the potential of NELIBS technique combined with PCA in the interpretation of the influence of feeding regimes on the contemporary and archaeological bone samples.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Role of T lymphocytes and papain enzymatic activity in the protection
           induced by the cysteine protease against Schistosoma mansoni in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Hatem Tallima, Marwa Abou El Dahab, Rashika El Ridi Papain, an experimental model protease, was used to decipher the protective mechanism(s) of the cysteine peptidase-based schistosomiasis vaccine. To examine the role of T lymphocytes, athymic nude (nu/nu) and immunocompetent haired (nu/+) mice were subcutaneously (sc) injected with 50 µg active papain two days before percutaneous exposure to 100 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Highly significant (P 
       
  • Beneficial role of bioactive lipids in the pathobiology, prevention, and
           management of HBV, HCV and alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, and liver
           cirrhosis: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Undurti N. Das It has been suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatic damage and cirrhosis and associated hypoalbuminemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) are due to an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids. Increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production induced by HBV and HCV leads to a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency and hypoalbuminemia. Albumin mobilizes PUFAs from the liver and other tissues and thus may aid in enhancing the formation of anti-inflammatory lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory PGE2. As PUFAs exert anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects, the presence of adequate levels of PUFAs could inactivate HCV and HBV and prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis observed in cirrhosis. PUFAs, PGE1, lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins suppress TNF-α and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, exert cytoprotective effects, and modulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation to promote recovery following hepatitis, NAFLD and AFLD. Based on this evidence, it is proposed that the administration of albumin in conjunction with PUFAs and their anti-inflammatory products could be beneficial for the prevention of and recovery from NAFLD, hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. NAFLD is common in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that even these diseases could be due to alterations in the metabolism of PUFAs and other bioactive lipids. Hence, PUFAs and co-factors needed for their metabolism and albumin may be of benefit in the prevention and management of HBV, HCV, alcoholic hepatitis and NAFLD, and liver cirrhosis.Graphical abstractScheme showing possible role of HBV and HCV on cytokines, PUFA metabolism and development of hepatitis.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite from Nigella sativa L. waste
           (MNSA) for the removal of Coomassie brilliant blue dye from aqueous
           solution: Statistical design of experiments for optimization of the
           adsorption conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Nour T. Abdel-Ghani, Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby, El-Shaimaa A. Rawash, Eder C. Lima The present work was carried out to evaluate the removal of Coomassie brilliant blue dye by adsorption onto a magnetized activated carbon nanocomposite (MNSA) prepared from Nigella sativa L. (NS) waste. Different techniques, including infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption, were used to characterize MNSA to investigate its adsorption properties. Adsorption experiments were carried out by simultaneously optimizing four variables that usually present a strong effect in adsorption studies. A full 24 factorial design with 3 central points was used. The four independent variables were the initial pH of the dye solution (pH), the initial dye concentration (Co), the adsorbent mass (m), and the contact time (t). The sorption capacity (q) of the adsorbent and the percentage of dye removal (% Rem) from an aqueous solution were used as the responses of the factorial design. The results indicated that pH, Co, and m were essential factors for the overall optimization of both responses (q and % Rem) and that several interactions of two, three and four factors occurred. Based on the design of the experiments (DOE), the optimized conditions for adsorption were pH = 2.00, Co = 40.0 mg L−1, m = 30.0 mg, and t = 3.0 h. Under these conditions, both responses, q and % Rem, were maximized, with a desirability of 85.54%. The findings of this study could be useful for industrial wastewater treatment systems.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
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