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FORENSIC SCIENCES (43 journals)

Showing 1 - 39 of 39 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colombia Forense     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
Forensic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Forensic Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Forensic Science International : Mind and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International : Synergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Animals and Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Forensische Psychiatrie, Psychologie, Kriminologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Journal of Forensic Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychology Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forensic Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Journal of Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Sri Lanka Journal of Forensic Medicine, Science & Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Forensic Science     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Forensic Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.407
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1860-8973 - ISSN (Online) 1860-8965
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Blood transfusion causing false positive PEth

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      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Analysis of degradation products of nerve agents in biological fluids by
           ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose The detection of hydrolysis products of nerve agents (alkyl methylphosphonic acids; RMPAs) in biological samples from victims is important to confirm exposure to nerve agents. However, analysis of RMPAs is difficult due to their high hydrophilicity. The aim of this study was to develop ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (IC–MS/MS) methods using commercially available equipment and columns to analyze RMPAs in human urine and serum with high sensitivity and without using complicate techniques. Methods A Dionex IonPac AS11-HC anion-exchange column was used to analyze six RMPAs (MPA, EMPA, IMPA, iBuMPA, CHMPA, and PMPA). For pretreatments of biological fluids, we developed two pretreatment methods (Method 1: dilution and ultrafiltration; Method 2: removal of chloride ions with Ag cartridges). Results Six RMPAs including highly hydrophilic methylphosphonic acid and ethyl methylphosphonic acid could be analyzed with sufficient retention times and peak shape. The detection limits of RMPAs were improved using Dionex OnGuard II Ba/Ag/H cartridges and MetaSEP IC–Ag cartridges (urine: 0.5–5 ng/mL; serum: 1–5 ng/mL). These methods were also applied to the test samples for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Biomedical Proficiency Tests. Conclusions RMPAs could be sufficiently analyzed by IC–MS/MS. In addition, the limits of detection were superior to those obtained in our previous study involving LC–MS/MS or derivatization–LC–MS/MS method. For analysis of biological samples, an appropriate pretreatment method can be chosen according to the amount of sample available for analysis and expected RMPA concentrations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
       
  • Phase I-metabolism studies of the synthetic cannabinoids PX-1 and PX-2
           using three different in vitro models

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      Abstract: Purpose Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), highly metabolized substances, are rarely found unmodified in urine samples. Urine screening relies on SC metabolite detection, requiring metabolism knowledge. Metabolism data can be acquired via in vitro assays, e.g., human hepatocytes, pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), cytochrome P450 isoforms and a fungal model; or in vivo by screening, e.g., authentic human samples or rat urine. This work describes the comprehensive study of PX-1 and PX-2 in vitro metabolism using three in vitro models. 5F-APP-PICA (PX-1) and 5F-APP-PINACA (PX-2) were studied as they share structural similarity with AM-2201, THJ-2201 and 5F-AB-PINACA, the metabolism of which was described in the literature. Methods For SC incubation, pHLM, cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and the fungal model Cunninghamella elegans LENDNER (C. elegans) were used. PX-1 and PX-2 in vitro metabolites were revealed comprehensively by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry measurements. Results In total, 30 metabolites for PX 1 and 15 for PX-2 were detected. The main metabolites for PX-1 and PX-2 were the amide hydrolyzed metabolites, along with an indole monohydroxylated (for PX-1) and a defluorinated pentyl-monohydroxylated metabolite (for PX-2). Conclusions CYP isoforms along with fungal incubation results were in good agreement to those obtained with pHLM incubation. CYP2E1 was responsible for many of the metabolic pathways; particularly for PX-1. This study shows that all three in vitro assays are suitable for predicting metabolic pathways of synthetic cannabinoids. To establish completeness of the PX-1 and PX-2 metabolic pathways, it is not only recommended but also necessary to use different assays.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Quantitation of sibutramine in human hair using gas
           chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose An analytical method for quantitation of sibutramine in human hair using gas chromatography (GC)–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was newly established. In this article, a case is presented, in which a 3.5-year-old male child accidentally ingested chocolate-like product containing sibutramine, showing various symptoms; he could survived the crisis. About 1 month after the incident, his scalp hair sample was subjected to analysis for the causative sibutramine. Method After cryo-grinding for the hair sample, target compound was extracted with methanol, and the solvent layer was evaporated to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in methanol and analyzed by GC–MS/MS, using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with a deuterated isotope internal standard. Results The substance was identified as sibutramine; its concentration in the hair sample of the child was 58.6 pg/mg. The calibration curve of sibutramine in hair samples had a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 20–200 pg/mg (r > 0.99); the extraction recovery rate 85.2–91.8%; the interday and intraday precision and accuracy (bias) examined not greater than 9.6%. Sibutramine in human hair had good stability under 3 different storage conditions at room (20 °C), refrigerated (4 °C) and frozen ( – 20 °C) temperatures for at least 7 days. Conclusions It should be expected that the method established in this study would contribute to rapid determinations of sibutramine. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing quantitation of sibutramine in an authentic human hair sample by GC–MS/MS.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Qualitative analysis of 7- and 8-hydroxyzolpidem and discovery of novel
           zolpidem metabolites in postmortem urine using liquid
           chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose Zolpidem (ZOL) is a hypnotic sometimes used in drug-facilitated crimes. Understanding ZOL metabolism is important for proving ZOL intake. In this study, we synthesized standards of hydroxyzolpidems with a hydroxy group attached to the pyridine ring and analyzed them to prove their presence in postmortem urine. We also searched for novel ZOL metabolites in the urine sample using liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQMS) and liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QqTOFMS). Methods 7- and 8-Hydroxyzolpidem (7OHZ and 8OHZ, respectively) were synthesized and analyzed using LC-QqQMS. Retention times were compared between the synthetic standards and extracts of postmortem urine. To search for novel ZOL metabolites, first, the urine extract was analyzed with data-dependent acquisition, and the peaks showing the characteristic fragmentation pattern of ZOL were selected. Second, product ion spectra of these peaks at various collision energies were acquired and fragments that could be used for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were chosen. Finally, MRM parameters were optimized using the urine extract. These peaks were also analyzed using LC-QqTOFMS. Results The presence of 7OHZ and 8OHZ in urine was confirmed. The highest peak among hydroxyzolpidems was assigned to 7OHZ. The novel metabolites found were zolpidem dihydrodiol and its glucuronides, cysteine adducts of ZOL and dihydro(hydroxy)zolpidem, and glucuronides of hydroxyzolpidems. Conclusions The presence of novel metabolites revealed new metabolic pathways, which involve formation of an epoxide on the pyridine ring as an intermediate.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Facile determination of natural cannabinoids in cannabis products using a
           conventional fully porous particle column and isocratic high-performance
           liquid chromatography with diode-array detector

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      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00630-0
       
  • Difficulties interpreting concentrations in fatal cases: example of
           2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine

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      Abstract: Purpose Death related to the use of drugs is evident when drugs are detected in biological matrices within toxic levels, but sometimes it can be less obvious. Intoxications after 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (DOC) use are occurring but up to date, only one fatality has been reported. Here we present the case of a young woman admitted to hospital as she presented vomiting, convulsions and cardiorespiratory arrest. Methods Blood ethanol concentration was determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and toxicological screenings (blood, gastric content and hair samples) were performed using liquid chromatography with diode array detection, gas chromatography or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Results Her health state declined with cardiac troubles, organs failure and cerebral edema till death occurring 4 days later. The autopsy revealed the presence of hemorrhagic infiltration inside the left ventricle, pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic infiltration of the terminal ileum. The analysis of biological fluids confirmed the presence of DOC (< 10 ng/mL in cardiac blood sample), buprenorphine, cocaine and cannabis metabolites. The analysis of hair highlighted a history of drugs abuse. Conclusion In the absence of evident identified cause, the hypothesis of a death due to acute drugs use within a history of chronic consumption of drugs has been put forward. The concentration of some substances such as new psychoactive substances can be low in biological matrices but the toxic effects can be additive and lead to death even within young people, hence the importance of the knowledge of consumption history.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00628-8
       
  • First liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry method for
           the determination of cocaine on banknote dust

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      Abstract: Purpose Prevalence measures of sociological interest concerning cocaine presence on banknotes are fraught with (i) the extreme variability of its concentration (seven orders of magnitude); (ii) the high number of banknotes needed for the statistical significance. Banknote dust from counting machines from a large and representative number of banknotes in circulation in a specific area represents the most eligible sample to ascertain cocaine circulation. No chromatographic method is available in this respect. This study aims at developing the first analytical methodology for the determination of cocaine in banknote dust samples. Methods This novel and straightforward approach consists of a simple methanol extraction followed by analytical determinations via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with a coefficient of determination of 0.996; maximum within-run and between-run precisions were, respectively, 1.85% and 5.20%. Limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 3 and 9 ng/mL with an overall process efficiency of 93.2%. The method developed was successfully applied to 9 banknote dust samples from local banknote counter machines. The found concentrations ranged from 2.18E + 02 to 2.31E + 03 μg of cocaine per gram of banknote dust and varied only one order of magnitude, much less than cocaine concentration on banknotes. Conclusions To have an idea of cocaine circulation in a geographical area, the sampling of banknote dust, compared to banknotes, consists of tremendous advantages in terms of statistical significance, higher cocaine concentrations, and lower variability: this is crucial from the sociological point of view.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00627-9
       
  • Fast and reliable profiling of cannabinoids in seized samples using the
           method of HPLC–DAD followed by chemometrics

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      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00625-x
       
  • 2-Methoxyqualone, a new recreational drug, discovered from a package
           seized by the police: a preliminary report

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      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00626-w
       
  • Simultaneous determination of diquat and its two primary metabolites in
           rat plasma by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass
           spectrometry and its application to the toxicokinetic study

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      Abstract: Purpose This study aimed to develop and validate an ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to simultaneously determine diquat (DQ) and its two primary metabolites in rat plasma and its application to the toxicokinetic study. Method The chromatographic separation of DQ and its two primary metabolites was performed with hydrophilic interaction chromatography column by adding formic acid and ammonium acetate in mobile phase in stepwise elution mode. DQ and its two primary metabolites were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode. Results The lower limit of quantification ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 ng/mL for DQ and its two primary metabolites was achieved by using only 50 μL of rat plasma. The maximum concentration (Cmax) was 977 ng/mL, half-life (t1/2) was 13.1 h, and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–t) was 2770 h*ng/mL for DQ, Cmax was 47.1 ng/mL, t1/2 was 25.1 h, and AUC0–t was 180 h·ng/mL for diquat monopyridone (DQ-M) and Cmax was 246 ng/mL, t1/2 was 8.2 h, and AUC0–t was 2430 h·ng/mL for diquat dipyridone (DQ-D), respectively. Conclusions The validated method was shown to be suitable for simultaneous determination of diquat and its two primary metabolites in rat plasma. This study is the first to study the toxicokinetics of DQ and its two primary metabolites.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00623-z
       
  • Chiral analysis of dextromethorphan and levomethorphan in human hair by
           liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose Methorphan exists in two enantiomeric forms including dextromethorphan and levomethorphan. Dextromethorphan is an over-the-counter antitussive drug, whereas levomethorphan is strictly controlled as a narcotic drug. Chiral analysis of methorphan could, therefore, assist clinicians and forensic experts in differentiating between illicit and therapeutic use and in tracing the source of the drug. Methods A method for enantiomeric separation and quantification of levomethorphan and dextromethorphan in human hair was developed and validated using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Hair was extracted in hydrochloric acid/methanol (1:20, v/v). The supernatant were separated using a Supelco Astec Chirobiotic™ V2 column (250 × 2.1 mm, i.d., 5 μm particle size) and analyzed on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Results The limits of detection for dextromethorphan and levomethorphan were 2 and 1 pg/mg, respectively; the lower limit of quantification was 2 pg/mg for both drugs. Good linearity (r > 0.995) was observed for both analytes over the linear range. Precision values were below 10% for both analytes; accuracy values ranged from 87.5 to 101%. The extraction recoveries were 78.3–98.4%, and matrix effects were 70.5–88.6%. This method was applied to human hair samples from 120 people suspected of methorphan use to further distinguish the drug chirality. Dextromethorphan was detected in all 120 samples at a concentration range of 2.7–19,100 pg/mg, whereas levomethorphan was not detected in any sample. Conclusions A sensitive quantitative method was established for the enantiomeric separation of dextromethorphan and levomethorphan in hair. This is the first study to achieve chiral analysis of methorphan in human hair.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00620-2
       
  • Two DFSA cases involving midazolam clarified by the micro-segmental hair
           analyses

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      Abstract: Purpose In this study, an analytical procedure to identify trace amounts of drug in hair based on micro-segmental hair analysis was presented. The method also can be used to estimate the time of drug ingestion at daily precision by cutting a single hair into sub-millimeter segments which correspond to daily hair growth. Methods A method was established for efficient extraction of midazolam, one of the most frequently detected compound in drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases, from each 0.4-mm hair segment and validated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). Moreover, two DFSA cases were used to compare the micro-segmental hair analysis with the 1- cm segmental analysis method. Results The validation showed a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 pg/mm for midazolam, with intraday and interday accuracies (bias) from  − 5.2 to 0.9%. The micro-segmental hair analysis method was applied to proximal 1-cm hair segment including hair bulbs in two DFSA cases. The micro-segmental hair analysis results in case 1 showed midazolam in the S15–S17 (5.6–6.8 mm from hair bulb) in a concentration range from 0.5 to 0.9 pg/mm, and the concentrations of midazolam in all hair micro-segments (0–1 cm from the scalp) in case 2 were from 0.5 to 2.0 pg/mm. Conclusions Comparison with the conventional method revealed that micro-segmental hair analysis may enhance the utility of hair drug testing and strengthen probative force in DFSA cases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00621-1
       
  • Micro-segmental hair analysis: detailed procedures and applications in
           forensic toxicology

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      Abstract: Purpose Since the 1980s, the detection sensitivity of mass spectrometers has increased by improving the analysis of drugs in hair. Accordingly, the number of hair strands required for the analysis has decreased. The length of the hair segment used in the analysis has also shortened. In 2016, micro-segmental hair analysis (MSA), which cuts a single hair strand at a 0.4-mm interval corresponding to a hair growth length of approximately one day, was developed. The advantage of MSA is that the analytical results provide powerful evidence of drug use in the investigation of drug-related crimes and detailed information about the mechanism of drug uptake into hair. This review article focuses on the MSA technique and its applications in forensic toxicology. Methods Multiple databases, such as SciFinder, PubMed, and Google, were utilized to collect relevant reports referring to MSA and drug analysis in hair. The experiences of our research group on the MSA were also included in this review. Results The analytical results provide a detailed drug distribution profile in a hair strand, which is useful for examining the mechanism of drug uptake into hair in detail. Additionally, the analytical method has been used for various scenarios in forensic toxicology, such as the estimation of days of drug consumption and death. Conclusions The detailed procedures are summarized so that beginners can use the analytical method in their laboratories. Moreover, some application examples are presented, and the limitations of the current analytical method and future perspectives are described.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00619-9
       
  • The blood-to-plasma ratio and predicted GABAA-binding affinity of designer
           benzodiazepines

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      Abstract: Purpose The number of benzodiazepines appearing as new psychoactive substances (NPS) is continually increasing. Information about the pharmacological parameters of these compounds is required to fully understand their potential effects and harms. One parameter that has yet to be described is the blood-to-plasma ratio. Knowledge of the pharmacodynamics of designer benzodiazepines is also important, and the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modelling provides a fast and inexpensive method of predicting binding affinity to the GABAA receptor. Methods In this work, the blood-to-plasma ratios for six designer benzodiazepines (deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, etizolam, meclonazepam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam) were determined. A previously developed QSAR model was used to predict the binding affinity of nine designer benzodiazepines that have recently appeared. Results Blood-to-plasma values ranged from 0.57 for phenazepam to 1.18 to pyrazolam. Four designer benzodiazepines appearing since 2017 (fluclotizolam, difludiazepam, flualprazolam, and clobromazolam) had predicted binding affinities to the GABAA receptor that were greater than previously predicted binding affinities for other designer benzodiazepines. Conclusions This work highlights the diverse nature of the designer benzodiazepines and adds to our understanding of their pharmacology. The greater predicted binding affinities are a potential indication of the increasing potency of designer benzodiazepines appearing on the illicit drugs market.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00616-y
       
  • Comparison of serum and whole blood concentrations in quetiapine overdose
           cases

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to compare whole blood and serum concentrations of quetiapine in acute poisoning cases. Authentic whole blood and respective serum samples were routinely collected from patients diagnosed with blood poisoning at our University Hospital. Accordingly, whole blood and serum paired samples from nine patients (one male and eight female patients) were analyzed for quetiapine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Quetiapine concentrations in whole blood and serum samples ranged widely from 5.4 to 2780 ng/mL and 9.9 to 2500 ng/mL, respectively. The whole blood/serum concentration ratio was 0.5–1.1 and increased together with an increase in whole blood and serum quetiapine concentrations. The ratio was reversed at around 2500 ng/mL to > 1. Our findings suggest that whole blood concentrations are more useful than serum concentrations in diagnosing quetiapine poisonings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00618-w
       
  • Histological paraffin-embedded block: a good alternative specimen to
           detect the use of opiates at least 20 years ago

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      Abstract: Purpose Since the solely certain remnants of a performed autopsy are formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, stored in the archives of every institute of legal medicine, we managed to extract molecules of toxicological interest from these specimens. Methods We assessed the analysis of ten fresh liver samples collected from heroin-related deaths and then histologically processed the same samples. The embedded blocks were then extracted by means of a new extracting method and the eluates were measured. We also selected five toxicological cases of heroin-related fatalities that were examined 20 years ago, collected the toxicological result documents of the analysis that were carried out at the time and then processed the corresponding FFPE liver samples that were stored in the archives. Results We managed to isolate heroine-related metabolites from 20-year-old paraffin-embedded blocks and calculated ratios to evaluate the performance of our new extraction. Conclusions According to our study, it is feasible to carry out a toxicological examination on old histological samples and, therefore, this matrix can be considered as a new alternative specimen for chemical-analytical evaluations of past cases or when fresh samples are not available anymore. The new extractive method was evaluated as efficient in treating these complex, paraffin-embedded samples. It was surprising that the target compounds could be quantitated from FFPE bocks created as long as 20 years ago.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00614-0
       
  • Determination of abamectin in heart blood and urine following lethal
           intoxication: a case report

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      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00617-x
       
  • Comparison between human liver microsomes and the fungus Cunninghamella
           elegans for biotransformation of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-424 having
           a bromo-naphthyl moiety analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose JWH-424, (8-bromo-1-naphthyl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone, is a synthetic cannabinoid, which is a brominated analogue of JWH-018, one of the best-known synthetic cannabinoids. Despite the structural similarity to JWH-018, little is known about JWH-424 including its metabolism. The aim of the study was to compare human liver microsomes (HLM) and the fungus Cunninghamella elegans as the metabolism catalysts for JWH-424 to better understand the characteristic actions of the fungus in the synthetic cannabinoid metabolism. Methods JWH-424 was incubated with HLM for 1 h and Cunninghamella elegans for up to 72 h. The HLM incubation mixtures were diluted with methanol and fungal incubation mixtures were extracted with dichloromethane and reconstituted in methanol before analyses by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Results HLM incubation resulted in production of ten metabolites through dihydrodiol formation, hydroxylation, and/or ipso substitution of the bromine with a hydroxy group. Fungal incubation led to production of 23 metabolites through carboxylation, dihydrodiol formation, hydroxylation, ketone formation, glucosidation and/or sulfation. Conclusions Generally, HLM models give good predictions of human metabolites and structural analogues are metabolised in a similar fashion. However, major hydroxy metabolites produced by HLM were those hydroxylated at naphthalene instead of pentyl moiety, the major site of hydroxylation for JWH-018. Fungal metabolites, on the other hand, had undergone hydroxylation mainly at pentyl moiety. The metabolic disagreement suggests the necessity to verify the human metabolites in authentic urine samples, while H9 and H10 (hydroxynaphthalene), H8 (ipso substitution), F22 (hydroxypentyl), and F17 (dihydroxypentyl) are recommended for monitoring of JWH-424 in urinalysis.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00612-2
       
  • Determination of cyanide in blood by GC–MS using a new high selectivity
           derivatization reagent 1,2,3,3-tetramethyl-3H-indolium iodide

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      PubDate: 2022-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-021-00610-w
       
 
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