Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 73 of 73 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Additive Manufacturing Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Manufacturing: Polymer & Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Manufacturing Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Technology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bio-Design and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
Biomanufacturing Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Centaurus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China Foundry     Open Access  
Circuit World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Cold Regions Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Technology Transfer and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Computer-Aided Design and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Conference Quality Production Improvement     Open Access  
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Control Theory and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cryoletters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Protocols in Essential Laboratory Techniques     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Research in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decision Making in Manufacturing and Services     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Design Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Economics of Innovation and New Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Emerging Materials Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Foresight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
FORMakademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Futures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Gender, Technology and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Green Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
History and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Human Factors in Design     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
i+Diseño : Revista científico-académica internacional de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Diseño     Open Access  
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Open Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Collaborative Intelligent Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IFAC Journal of Systems and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics (IJRSP)     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Información Tecnológica     Open Access  
Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Additive and Subtractive Materials Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Automation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Business and Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Design     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Digital Enterprise Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Embedded Systems and Emerging Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Materials and Manufacture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Instructional Technology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Learning Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture     Open Access  
International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International journal of materials research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Planning and Scheduling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Power and Energy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Production Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Service and Computing Oriented Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of System of Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technoentrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Technology and Design Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Technology and Globalisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technology Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Telecommunications & Emerging Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Wood Products Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Invention Disclosure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Control & Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Design Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Enterprise Transformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of High Technology Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of large-scale research facilities JLSRF     Open Access  
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Micromanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Production Research & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Remanufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (JSIR)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Technological Possibilism     Open Access  
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Technology Management in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of The Royal Society Interface     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Urban Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Jurnal Energi Dan Manufaktur     Open Access  
Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems     Open Access  
Lightweight Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Manufacturing Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Manufacturing Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Manufacturing Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Materials Circular Economy     Hybrid Journal  
Materials Science and Engineering: B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Materials testing. Materialprüfung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
MECCA Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars     Open Access  
Mechanics of Soft Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Métodos y Materiales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Micro and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Modern Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multimodal Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nano Select     Open Access  
NanoEthics     Hybrid Journal  
Nanomanufacturing and Metrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 531)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
New Techno-Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nonconventional Technologies Review     Open Access  
Perspectives on Global Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Plastics, Rubber and Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Production & Manufacturing Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Revista Produção Online     Open Access  
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Science China Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine / Scientia Canadensis : revue canadienne d'histoire des sciences, des techniques et de la médecine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Design Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Superhero Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)

        1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Micromanufacturing
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2516-5984 - ISSN (Online) 2516-5992
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Study of PID controller gain for active vibration control using FEM based
           particle swarm optimization in COMSOL multiphysics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sumit, R. Shukla, A. K. Sinha
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers are widely used to solve different control engineering problems. To know the dynamic behaviour of a working plant by mathematical modelling is quite challenging. Finite element method (FEM) is a well-known technique and broadly used for the modelling of engineering systems. This article presents the FEM-based heuristic approach to design and optimize the PID controllers. The ‘allowed area method’ has been used for the formulation of the objective function followed by the tuning of the PID controller. First, the proposed approach is tested on 2-degree of freedom (DOF) mass-spring-damper (MSD) system. FEM modelling of 2-DOF MSD system with PID controller has been carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics and coupling of particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been carried out with the FEM model of the MSD system, for the optimization of PID controller gain. The FEM results are in good agreement with the analytical one. Next, the established method is applied to design and optimize the PID controller gain to control the vibration of a cantilever beam using piezoelectric actuator. Similar to the MSD system, FEM modelling of PID controller for the smart beam has been carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics, and the coupling of PSO is carried out with the FEM model of the smart beam for the optimization of PID controller gain. Simulation of the uncontrolled and controlled responses of the smart beam is carried out at the optimum controller gain for free vibration and step excitation. The piezoelectric actuator of smart beam has successfully damped the vibration within approximately 2.5 s.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T06:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984221086439
       
  • Editorial

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      Authors: Kapil Gupta, J Ramkumar, Ritwik Verma
      Pages: 105 - 105
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 105-105, November 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-11-25T05:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211063652
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Experimental characterization of conformal hydrodynamic nanopolishing of a
           machined single crystal sapphire cavity

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      Authors: Prashant Kumar, Rinku Mittal, Ramesh K. Singh, Suhas S. Joshi
      Pages: 118 - 126
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 118-126, November 2021.
      Sapphire is an important ceramic material which finds applications in fields such as temperature sensing, optics, electronics, and ceramic bearings. Polishing of sapphire has always been a difficult task for industries and research communities. Hydrodynamic polishing (HDP) is one of the prominent methods used for polishing of hard and profiled surfaces, whereas rigid tool-based methods such as diamond turning, grinding, and honing have many limitations. The HDP process involves deterministic flow of abrasive particles in the slurry between the workpiece surface and a rotating soft tool to obtain the desired surface finish. A novel experimental setup has been fabricated to realize the conformal hydrodynamic nanopolishing on single crystal sapphire cavity. In this study, the experiments were conducted to understand the effect of abrasive particle size, basicity of slurry, and change in temperature of slurry on the polishing of machined sapphire cavity. The effect of the initial surface roughness of the machined cavity on conformal hydrodynamic nanopolishing has also been investigated. A microcrack/pit-free surface has been found after the final polishing of the sapphire cavity. An improvement of 21% is found in surface finish after the final polishing using abrasive particle size of 0.06 µm. Abrasive slurry with higher basicity (pH 13) does not improve the surface finish. By heating the abrasive slurry to a temperature of 70°C–75°C, surface finish improves by ∼26% as compared to improvement of ∼ 21% at room temperature polishing.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-15T06:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015372
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Nanosecond and sub-nanosecond laser-assisted microscribing of Cu thin
           films in a salt solution

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      Authors: Sooraj Shiby, Nilesh J Vasa, Matsuo Shigeki
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 138-146, November 2021.
      Pulsed laser-based material removal is a preferred technique for microscribing of copper (Cu) film coated on polymers, as the pulse width limits the heat diffusion. However, experimental studies have shown that microscribing of Cu in air results in recast/redeposit formation and oxidation. Although the water medium can reduce these effects to a certain extent, the material removal rate is lesser for Cu. This article reports the influence of laser pulse duration on a hybrid method to enhance the pulsed laser-assisted microscribing of a copper thin film in the presence of an environmentally friendly sodium chloride salt solution (NaCl). The focused laser beam irradiation of Cu film results in ablation with a temperature of the zone well above the boiling point of Cu, which in turn, can assist in accelerating the chemical reaction. In this hybrid scribing technique, along with laser-based material removal, laser-activated chemical etching also helps in removing the material selectively. A sub-nanosecond laser with a pulse width of 500 ps (picosecond [ps] laser) and a nanosecond laser with a pulse width of 6 ns (nanosecond [ns] laser), with a wavelength of 532 nm, are used to understand the influence of laser pulse duration on this hybrid material removal mechanism. Hybrid microscribing with the ps- and ns lasers in salt solution resulted in an increase in the channel depth by ≈5 µm and ≈9 µm, respectively, compared to the channel depth obtained in deionized water. The theoretical model shows that during the ns laser ablation, the cooling rate is slower, resulting in a high temperature in the ablation zone for a longer duration and improved material removal.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T11:02:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211008168
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A Study of Fiber Laser Micro-Grooving of 316L Stainless Steel at Different
           Temperatures

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      Authors: A. Sen, B. Doloi, B. Bhattacharyya
      Pages: 147 - 156
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 147-156, November 2021.
      The present article deals with the generation of micro-grooves on 316L stainless steel (SS) by a nanosecond pulsed fiber laser system. Fabrication of micro-grooves on 316L SS has immensely contributed to the biomedical and automotive industries through improving the mechanical, lubrication, and corrosion resistance properties. In the present work, the considered process parameters are the preheating temperature (100°C and 200°C), along with the room temperature (24°C), cutting speed, sawing angle, pulse frequency, and laser power. The ranges of cutting speed and sawing angle are 0.1–1.1 mm s−1 and 0.1°–1°, respectively. Besides, pulse frequency and laser power vary from 55 kHz to 85 kHz and from 15 W to 45 W, respectively. The constant parameters are the pulse width of 99% and assist air pressure of 6 kgf cm−2. The variable parameters for the analysis are cut width and heat-affected zone (HAZ) width. The article aims to showcase a comprehensive study of fiber laser process parameters at different temperatures (preheated condition and room temperature) with variable sawing angles to produce better process control and bring about each considered process parameter’s critical value. The experimental results show that higher dimensions of cut width and HAZ width are observed at 200°C with the increment of sawing angle and laser power, compared to other temperatures. With the increment of cutting speed and laser power, the HAZ width tends to rise sharply. A significant drop in cut width and HAZ width dimensions is observed with the increment in pulse frequency for any temperature.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-01-26T09:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2516598420984362
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Experimental study on drilling characteristics of the hybrid
           sisal–jute fibre epoxy composites

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      Authors: Harpreet Singh, Bhishm Dewangan, P. K. Jain
      Pages: 157 - 168
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 157-168, November 2021.
      Natural fibre composites have received worldwide attention due to their good mechanical properties, lightweight and low density. Due to these advantages, the natural fibre composites have been used in various engineering applications. Drilling is one of the most frequent machining operations performed on hybrid sisal–jute polymer composites, to assemble the numerous structural components by using mechanical joining process. Furthermore, the machining of fibre reinforced composite material has attracted several researchers because of its non-homogeneous and anisotropic structure. The present research work concerns with the experimental studies on the drilling process of hybrid sisal–jute epoxy composite, using three different types of drill geometry (twist drill, step drill and core drill). The significance of the current work aims to reveal the effect of drill geometry configuration and drilling parameters in terms of drilling-induced force and damages (delamination and surface roughness) for the drilling of hybrid natural fibre composites. Drilling forces, drilling-induced damages and hole quality attributes were experimentally investigated for different drill geometries. The delamination and surface roughness type damages are revealed by microscopic analysis with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that twist drill is best suited for the hole- and force-induced damages.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T11:31:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015413
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effect of higher layer thickness on laser powder bed fusion built single
           tracks of Ni-Cr-Fe-Nb-Mo alloy

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      Authors: S. K. Nayak, S. K. Mishra, C. P. Paul, K. S. Bindra
      Pages: 169 - 178
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 169-178, November 2021.
      Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is one of the revolutionary technologies that can fabricate complex-shaped components by selective melting of the pre-placed powder layer, using high-power laser as directed by the input digital files. Generally, research on the LPBF process is called out for layer thickness (LT) up to 50 µm and smaller beam diameter (≤100 µm), but it has lower productivity. In LPBF, higher productivity can be achieved with higher LT (>50 µm), but it consists of various process instabilities. In the present work, parametric studies are performed by laying Ni-Cr-Fe-Nb-Mo single tracks, using LPBF at higher LT. The process parameters such as laser power (P), scan speed (v), and LT are varied among 150–450 W, 0.04–0.1 m s−1, and 80–160 µm, respectively, at three levels each. For the range of parameters under investigation, the maximum track width of 610 µm and aspect ratio of 7.63 are achieved at a P of 450 W and v of 0.04 m s−1 at 80 µm LT. It is observed that an increase in the energy density and layer thickness resulted in the reduction of track width and aspect ratio due to material vaporization occurring from poor heat conductivity due to unconventionally high powder layer thickness. It is also observed that the build rate increases with an increase in P, v, and LT. As single tracks are basic building blocks, the obtained results can provide an insight into the effect of process parameters on LPBF-built single tracks at higher LT for building engineering components of required width with higher build rate. Furthermore, the track dilution is also found to increase with the increase in P and decrease in v.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T03:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211036871
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effect of scan pattern on Hastelloy-X wall structures built by
           laser-directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing

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      Authors: A. N. Jinoop, S. K. Nayak, S. Yadav, C. P. Paul, R. Singh, J. Ganesh Kumar, K. S. Bindra
      Pages: 179 - 188
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 179-188, November 2021.
      This article systematically analyzes the effect of scan pattern on the geometry and material properties of wall structures built using laser-directed energy deposition (LDED)-based additive manufacturing. Hastelloy-X (Hast-X), a nickel superalloy, is deposited using an indigenously developed 2-kW fiber laser–based LDED system. The wall structures are built using unidirectional and bidirectional scan patterns with the same LDED process parameters and effect of scan pattern on the geometry, microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Hast-X wall structures built using LDED. The wall width is higher for samples deposited with the bidirectional pattern at the starting and ending points as compared to walls built with the unidirectional pattern. Further, the range of width value is higher for walls built with bidirectional strategy as compared to walls built with unidirectional strategy. Wall height is more uniform with unidirectional deposition at the central region, with the range and standard deviation for walls built using bidirectional deposition at 3 and 2.5 times more than unidirectional deposition, respectively. The deposition rate for bidirectional deposition is two times that of unidirectional deposition. The microstructure of the built walls is cellular/dendritic, with bidirectional deposition showing a finer grain structure. Elemental mapping shows the presence of elemental segregation of Mo, C and Si, confirming the formation of Mo-rich carbides. Micro-hardness and ball indentation studies reveal higher mechanical strength for samples built using the bidirectional pattern, with unidirectional samples showing strength lower than the conventional wrought Hast-X samples (197 HV). This study paves a way to understand the effect of scan pattern on LDED built wall structures for building intricate thin-walled components.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-27T06:01:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211036312
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Simultaneous improvement of microgeometry and surface quality of spur and
           straight bevel gears by abrasive flow finishing process

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      Authors: Anand Petare, Neelesh Kumar Jain, I. A. Palani
      Pages: 189 - 206
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 189-206, November 2021.
      This article reports on influence of extrusion pressure, abrasive particle size and volumetric concentration on simultaneous reduction of surface roughness and microgeometry errors of spur and straight bevel gear by abrasive flow finishing (AFF) process. A vertical configured experimental apparatus was developed for two-way AFF and developed fixtures for finishing gears. Experimental investigations were conducted to identify optimum parametric combination, using response surface methodology, based on Box–Behnken design approach. Results revealed that higher values of abrasive particle size and volumetric concentration yield more percentage decrease in surface roughness and microgeometry error. Roughness profile, bearing area curve, microhardness, surface morphology, and wear resistance of the gear having best quality finishing were studied. Surface morphology analysis of the flank regions of the best finished spur and straight bevel gears found them to be smooth and free from cracks and burrs. Reciprocating wear test results revealed higher wear resistance of the AFF finished gears as compared to the unfinished gears. AFF also enhanced microhardness of the finished gears, which would enhance their operating performance and service life. This study shows that AFF is a flexible, economical, productive, easy to operate, and sustainable nontraditional process for precision finishing of gear that can simultaneously improve microgeometry, surface finish, microhardness, surface morphology, wear resistance, and residual stresses of the finished gears. Gear manufacturers and users will be benefited by the outcome of this study.JEL codes: C00, C20
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T04:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211021010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • On the improvement of process performance of hard turning using
           vibration-assisted machining

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      Authors: Pranesh Dutta, Gaurav Bartarya
      Pages: 207 - 215
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 207-215, November 2021.
      In hard turning, the cutting forces are large, which leads to tool wear and tensile nature of residual stresses. Vibration-assisted machining (VAM), where the tool is provided with a low amplitude vibration at significantly high frequency, might improve the process performance of hard turning in terms of cutting forces, residual stress, etc., as VAM helps in reduction of cutting forces and tool wear significantly. To improve the machining operation, a comparative study of VAM with conventional machining is undertaken to study and improve the hard turning performance. A two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) model is developed to understand the effect of process parameters better and to study the effect on machining performance by applying one-dimensional ultrasonic vibration to the tool. The model developed is validated with results from a previous work for continuous hard turning conditions. The effect of vibrations induced in cutting velocity direction is studied on the cutting forces and residual stresses induced on the machined workpiece. The ratio of cutting velocity to critical vibrating velocity is an important process parameter that affects the average cutting forces during hard turning using VAM. The nature of cutting force and temperature for a complete cycle of vibration is also studied. The simulation results establish that hard turning using VAM yields lower average cutting forces and more compressive residual stresses in comparison to conventional hard turning.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211008059
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Surface finishing requirements on various internal cylindrical components:
           A review

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      Authors: Talwinder Singh Bedi, Ajay Singh Rana
      Pages: 216 - 228
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 216-228, November 2021.
      Modern technology requires producing of a sustainable product with a high surface accuracy. In applications where the surface quality is highly considerable in various internal cylindrical components requires technology to manufacture an ultrafine surface finish. There is, in general, a probability of inducing errors into products by the traditional finishing processes (such as grinding/honing), which lead to failure. Preferably with some evidence in the main text. Further, the advanced finishing processes are developed, where the finishing forces can be controlled by varying the power output. Instead of a solid abrasive tool, the smart polishing fluid is used, which gets activated under the magnetic fields. In this manuscript, the material removal under different internal surface finishing processes is elaborated, which helps in improving the surface quality of various industrial components. Also, the surface quality produced on various industrial components after traditional as well as advanced finishing processes are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T03:53:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211035504
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Design analysis and fabrication of side-drive electrostatic micromotor by
           UV-SLIGA

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      Authors: Rahul Shukla, Gowtham Beera, Ankit Dubey, Varun P. Sharma, P. Ram Sankar, Rajnish Dhawan, Pragya Tiwari, A. K. Sinha
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based electrostatic micromotor is designed and fabricated. Finite element analysis is done and various parameters affecting the torque are studied. Maximum torque is achieved at 120° phase angle. The effect of change in voltage, micromotor height and frequency is analysed and discussed. UV-SLIGA, a microfabrication technique, is used for the fabrication of electrostatic micromotor of height 30µm and higher. UV lithography is conducted by both positive AZ P4620 and negative (SU-8 10 and SU-8 2150) photoresists. Copper (Cu) is used as a sacrificial layer to release the rotor (the movable part) of the electrostatic micromotor. Electroformed nickel (Ni) is used for making stator, rotor and axle, whereas chromium (Cr) is used as a seed layer. The micromotor is fabricated with a stator-rotor pole having configuration ratio of 3:2. The gap between the rotor and axle is 20 µm. Wet chemical etching is used to etch the deposited metal layers (Cr, Ni and Cu). Challenges such as the adhesion between the photoresist mould and substrate, cracks, seepage and misalignment are faced during the microfabrication. These challenges are overcome by optimizing the various parameters. The fabrication of electrostatic micromotor is done successfully and the results are discussed in the article.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T03:27:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211045201
       
  • Plasma polishing processes applied on optical materials: A review

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      Authors: Hari Narayan Singh Yadav, Manjesh Kumar, Abhinav Kumar, Manas Das
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, the surface quality of the material is crucial for industry and science. With the development of micro-electronics and optics, the demand for surface quality has become more and more rigorous, making optical surface polishing more and more critical. Plasma polishing technology is conceived as an essential tool for removing surface and subsurface damages from traditional polishing processes. The plasma processing technology is based on plasma chemical reactions and removes atomic-level materials. Plasma polishing can easily nano-finish hard-brittle materials such as ceramics, glass, crystal, fused silica, quartz, Safire, etc. The optical substrate with micro-level and nano-level surface roughness precision is in demand with the advancement in optics fabrication. The mechanical properties of super-finished optics materials are being used to fulfill the requirement of modern optics. This article discusses the processing of different types of freeform, complex and aspheric optical materials by the plasma polishing process used mainly by the optical industry. The plasma polishing devices developed in the last decade are thoroughly reviewed for their working principles, characteristics and applications. This article also examines the impact of various process parameters such as discharge power, rate of gas flow, mixed gas flow ratio and pressure on the plasma polishing process.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T01:30:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211038882
       
  • Chemomechanical magnetorheological finishing: Process mechanism, research
           trends, challenges and opportunities in surface finishing

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      Authors: Yogendra Kumar, Harpreet Singh
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Chemomechanical magnetorheological finishing (CMMRF) has emerged as a nanofinishing method that combines the characteristics of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and magneto-rheological finishing (MRF). The CMMRF process was designed to take into account both the chemical and mechanical effects that occur during the finishing process. In the field of material processing science, this article delves into the fundamentals of the CMMRF method. The potential research patterns linked to CMMRF are assessed and their benefits are determined. Furthermore, the challenges of improving CMMRF process capabilities, as well as the wide futuristic opportunities of the research sector, are emphasised, along with meeting all industrial needs. The findings of this analysis paper will also aid researchers in the field of advanced finishing in identifying process realisation for better results.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T03:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211038878
       
  • Micromechanical analysis of effective mechanical properties of
           graphene/ZrO2-hybrid poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

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      Authors: Ankit Rathi, S. I. Kundalwal
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the tensile properties of two-phase and three-phase graphene/ZrO2-hybrid poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites are investigated by developing finite element model using ANSYS. Primarily, the effective elastic properties of two- and three-phase graphene/ZrO2-hybrid PMMA nanocomposites (GRPCs) are estimated by developing mechanics of material (MOM) model. Results indicated that the effective elastic properties of GRPCs increase with an increase in the volume fraction of graphene. Also, the stiffness of GRPCs is increased by 78.12% with increasing in the volume fraction of graphene from 0.1 to 0.5 Vf. The incorporation of an additional ZrO2 interphase significantly improved the mechanical performance of resulting GRPCs.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T04:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211038861
       
  • Study of metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon as an alternative to
           dry etching for the development of vertical comb-drives

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      Authors: Varun P. Sharma, Rahul Shukla, C. Mukherjee, Pragya Tiwari, A. K. Sinha
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCEtch) has recently emerged as a promising technique to etch anisotropic nano- and microstructures in silicon by metal catalysts. It is an economical wet chemical etching method, which can be a good alternative to deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE) process in terms of verticality and etch depth. In the present study, gold is used as a metal catalyst and deposited using physical vapour deposition. It has already been demonstrated that (100) p-type Si wafer can be etched with vertical and smooth side walls. Effects of varying concentrations of etchant constituents and various other parameters, that is, porosity of deposited Au, surface contaminants, oxide formation, metal catalyst, etching time, role of surface tension of additives on the etch depth and surface defects are studied and discussed in detail. By increasing the hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration from 7.5 M to 10 M, lateral etching is reduced and the microstructure’s width is increased from 17 µm to 18 µm. Porous defects are suppressed by decreasing the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration from 1.5 M to 1 M. On increasing the etching time from 30 min to 60 min, the microstructures are over-etched laterally. Smoother side walls are fabricated by using the low-surface-tension additive ethanol. The maximum etch depth of 2.6 µm is achieved for Au catalyst in 30 min. The results are encouraging and useful for the development of vertical comb-drives and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-08-06T03:27:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211033422
       
  • Effect of tool rotation on the fabrication of micro-tool by
           electrochemical micromachining

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      Authors: Abhinav Kumar, H. N. S. Yadav, Manjesh Kumar, Manas Das
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) uses anodic dissolution in the range of microns to remove material. Complex shapes that are difficult to machine on hard materials can be fabricated easily with the help of EMM without any stresses on the workpiece surface and no tool wear. Fabrication of microfeatures on microdevices is a critical issue in modern technologies. For the fabrication of microfeatures, precise micro-tools have to be fabricated. In this present study, EMM milling is used for the fabrication of micro-tools. For this, an EMM setup has been designed. Tungsten carbide tools with an initial diameter of 520 µm have been selected and are electrochemically machined to reduce their diameter. The tool and workpiece are connected as anode and cathode, respectively. The electrolyte solution used for this investigation is sodium nitrate. A comparative analysis of the effect of tool rotation over both machining accuracy and surface finish has been performed.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-07-29T03:49:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211031687
       
  • On microstructural and mechanical properties of 21-4-N nitronic steel
           joint developed using microwave energy

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      Authors: Shivani Bhandari, Shivani Gupta, Radha Raman Mishra, Apurbba Kumar Sharma, Navneet Arora
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      In the current experimental work, an effort has been made to explore the feasibility of fusion joints of 21-4-N nitronic steel employing microwave heating. These fusion joints were developed inside a domestic microwave applicator operating at 900 W. Microwave energy was used to fabricate the joints in hybrid heating mode by converting electromagnetic energy into heat at 2.45 GHz. Charcoal and SiC plates were used as susceptor and separator, respectively, and nickel powder was used as the interface material. The developed joints were characterized for their microstructural and mechanical properties. The microstructures indicate a complete fusion of nickel interfacing powder with the faying surfaces. XRD results show the formation of metallic nitrides and carbide phases (Cr2N, Fe3N, and Fe2C) and the FeNi phase at the weld zone. Furthermore, the observed average tensile strength of the fusion joints was approximately 61% of base metal. The reduction in the stress and elongation compared to the base metal were 38.67% and 12.68%, respectively. The average microhardness of the microwave joints was monitored as 407 ± 69.27 HV. The results indicate the feasibility of fusion joints of nitronic steel using microwave energy.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T04:09:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211033427
       
  • Effect of process parameters on flexural strength and surface roughness in
           fused deposition modeling of PC-ABS material

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      Authors: Shrikrishna Pawar, Dhananjay Dolas1
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most commonly used additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, which has found application in industries to meet the challenges of design modifications without significant cost increase and time delays. Process parameters largely affect the quality characteristics of AM parts, such as mechanical strength and surface finish. This article aims to optimize the parameters for enhancing flexural strength and surface finish of FDM parts. A total of 18 test specimens of polycarbonate (PC)-ABS (acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene) material are printed to analyze the effect of process parameters, viz. layer thickness, build orientation, and infill density on flexural strength and surface finish. Empirical models relating process parameters with responses have been developed by using response surface regression and further analyzed by analysis of variance. Main effect plots and interaction plots are drawn to study the individual and combined effect of process parameters on output variables. Response surface methodology was employed to predict the results of flexural strength 48.2910 MPa and surface roughness 3.5826 µm with an optimal setting of parameters of 0.14-mm layer thickness and 100% infill density along with horizontal build orientation. Experimental results confirm infill density and build orientation as highly significant parameters for impacting flexural strength and surface roughness, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T10:15:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211031115
       
  • The effect of spray angle on the microstructural and mechanical properties
           of plasma sprayed8YSZ thermal barrier coatings

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      Authors: Nikhil R. Kadam, G. Karthikeyan, Dhananjay M. Kulkarni
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are favorable for better protection of gas turbines and aero engines at high temperatures. The TBCs were fabricated using NiCrAlY bond coat and 8% wt. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) topcoat onto the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 800 by atmospheric plasma spray. In this article, the investigation of microstructural and mechanical properties of 8YSZ TBCs with the effect of spray angle has been discussed. The microstructural and elemental analyses were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The porosity analysis was conducted based on SEM image analysis using a gray scale threshold. Mechanical properties such as coating hardness, surface roughness, and thickness are measured by indentation, surface profilometer, and optical microscopy. The result shows the effect of the spray angle over the coating surface in terms of pores and microcracks. The influence of the spray angle leads to different grain growth resulting in the shadow region. A large number of defects and a decrease in coating hardness were observed for 60 degrees pray angle compared to the 90 degrees pray angle. A large number of defects led to developing rough surfaces, resulting in low hardness and increased porosity. The experimental results showed that the plasma sprayed 8YSZ TBC with a 90 degree spray angle can improve the durability and performance of the TBCs, as it has better microstructural and mechanical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-06-05T03:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211016323
       
  • Image processing algorithm for detection, quantification and
           classification of microdefects in wire electric discharge machined
           precision finish cut surfaces

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      Authors: P. M. Abhilash, D. Chakradhar
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to create an image processing algorithm that categorises the wire electric discharge machine (WEDM) processed finish cut surfaces, based on surface microdefects. The algorithm also detects the defect locations and suggests alternate parameter settings for improving the surface integrity. The proposed automated analysis is more precise, efficient and repeatable compared to manual inspection. Also, the method can be used for automatic data generation to suggest parameter changes in closed loop systems. During the training phase, mean, standard deviation and defect area fraction of enhanced binary images are extracted and stored. The training dataset consists of 27 WEDM finish cut surface images with labels, ‘coarse’, ‘average’ and ‘smooth’. The trained model is capable of categorising any machined surface by detecting the microdefects. If the machined surface image is not classified as a smooth image, then alternate input parameter settings will be suggested by the model to minimise the microdefects. This is done based on the Euclidean distance between the current image datapoint and the nearest ‘smooth’ class datapoint.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T04:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015410
       
  • Experimental investigations on finishing of a brass specimen by
           magneto-rheological honing technique

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      Authors: Chinu Kumari, Sanjay Kumar Chak
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Magneto-rheological abrasive honing (MRAH) is an unconventional surface finishing technique that relies on abrasives mixed with a unique finishing fluid, which changes its characteristics on magnetic field application. This process imparts nanometric-level surface finish with a significant amount of uniformity. Rotating motion of the workpiece and continuous reciprocation of the finishing fluid in the MRAH process are recognized as the major aspects for adopting this process in finishing non-magnetic materials. The finishing obtained through the MRAH process relies on the workpiece’s material properties and process parameters such as concentration of abrasives in finishing fluid, rotational speed of the workpiece, and magnetic field strength/magnetizing current. To study the efficacy of MRAH process, a parametric study was conducted by performing few experiments on a brass workpiece. Design of experiment approach was adopted to plan the experiments, and the effect of different values of magnetizing current, the concentration of abrasives, and rotational speed on the surface finish were analyzed through the application of analysis of variance (ANOVA). From ANOVA, the rotational speed was found as the most significant parameter with a contribution of 48.90% on % reduction in roughness value (%∇Ra). Around 57% of roughness reduction was obtained at the optimized value of process parameters.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T03:05:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015785
       
  • Experimental investigation on stir casting of a metal matrix composite
           material

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      Authors: Himanshu Kumar, S. Shiva
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, Al7075 matrix with SiC as reinforcement particle was developed and the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness, and impact strength was investigated. Aluminum is preferred as a matrix phase because Al alloys have low density and good ductility. Silicon carbide is chosen as a reinforcement phase due to its brittle and hard properties to enhance the wear properties. Mechanical properties of aluminum metal matrix have been tested at different temperatures and holding time. It shows an ultimate tensile strength of 121 N/mm2 at 800°C processing temperature and 20 mins of holding time. At a processing temperature of 850°C, it shows maximum hardness and impact strength. Among all the fabrication processes, stir casting is chosen because stir casting process is the simplest and cheapest for fabricating metal matrix composites (MMCs). Microelectronic and aerospace packaging industry requires a material with optimum hardness and impact strength to prevent the material from wear and impact during material handling. These MMCs will be a replacement for traditionally used materials such as W-Cu, BeO, and Kovar in packaging application.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T12:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015761
       
  • Study of surface crack density and microhardness of Aluminium 6061 alloy
           machined by EDM with mixed powder and assisted magnetic field

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      Authors: Arun Kumar Rouniyar, Pragya Shandilya
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Magnetic field assisted powder mixed electrical discharge machining (MFAPM-EDM) has emerged as hybrid electrical discharge machining (EDM) technique which improves machining performance by the addition of powder in dielectric and under the influence of magnetic field. In the present article, Aluminium 6061 alloy was machined through fabricated MFAPM-EDM set-up considering the one-parameter-at-a-time method. The individual effect of process parameters, namely pulse on duration (PON), pulse off duration (POFF), discharge current (IP), magnetic field strength (MF) and powder concentration (PC) on surface crack density (SCD) and micro hardness (MH) has been studied. Pulse on duration was observed as the most dominating process parameter accompanied by peak current, powder concentration and magnetic field for both SCD and MH. Lower SCD (0. 0063 µm/µm) and higher MH (188. 21 HV) on machined surface were observed at PON= 90 µsec, POFF=45 µsec, IP=13 A, PC =10 g/l and MF= 0. 3 T. Machining of AA6061 with MFAPM-EDM process revealed 85% and 76% improvement in SCD and MH, respectively. XRD analysis witness an increase in MH due to the presence of oxide as well as carbide layer on machined surface.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T08:34:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211016445
       
  • In-plane compression behavior of FDM-manufactured hierarchical and hybrid
           

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      Authors: Ashish Kumar Mishra, Arvind Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      The infrastructure safety and response to the natural or man-caused calamities has always been a top consideration for any modern project. Impact energy absorption is one such area where advanced measures are being adopted to prevent any damage to the infrastructure from any impact caused by vehicles or other elements. Honeycomb structures have been primarily used in such high impact energy absorption applications. With the advent of modern additive manufacturing practices, drastic modifications to the simple honeycombs generally used are possible, thus expanding the reach and capability of these structures. In this article, in-plane uniaxial compression performance of hybrid and hierarchical hexagonal honeycombs has been studied in the context of strain energy absorption for in-plane impact such as the case of vehicle collision to the pillars of flyover or bridges. The polylactic acid (PLA) filament has been used to manufacture the honeycombs through fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing technique. Simple hexagonal honeycombs have been studied first at low deformation speed to understand the deformation mechanics under uniaxial compression and its dependence on the unit cell dimensions and cell wall thickness. The effect of transition to the hybrid and hierarchical hexagonal honeycombs on the compression deformation has been highlighted next. While the hierarchical structures show better energy absorption capabilities and plateau stress, the hybrid hexagonal honeycombs show their high loadresistance. Dependence of the mechanical performance of such structures on the unit cell dimensions, orientation and wall thickness has also been examined through detailed experimental analysis.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T03:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015412
       
  • Pulsed Nd:YAG laser machining of nitinol: An experimental investigation

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      Authors: B. Muralidharan, K. Prabu, G. Rajamurugan
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Nickel–Titanium (Ni-Ti) shape memory alloy, commonly called nitinol alloys, finds its primary application in the production of biomedical implants, mainly because of itsrare properties such asshape memory, superelasticity and superior biocompatibility. Laser cutting is anon-traditional machining process for the production ofparts with close tolerances andcomplex geometry. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) of nitinol is associated with more heat-affected zone (HAZ) and recast layer thickness. This article aims to study nitinol’s machining characteristics by alaser source with good beam quality to have a less HAZ, recast layer and striations. Experiments were designed and carried out using central composite designs (CCD) by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Analysis based on the different parameters chosen was conducted to determine the parameters; effects, including laser power, frequency and cutting speed concerning the surface roughness. From the results, it is observed that the presence of HAZ is measured up to1. 48 mm from the machined surface. The topography analysis reveals that the striation is identified at high speeds, with less pulse overlapping by columnar micro channels, which can be reduced at high pulse frequency.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T03:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015482
       
  • Fabrication of microfluidic channel of polydimethylsiloxane using X-ray
           lithography and its surface nanostructuring

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      Authors: Puspen Mondal, Shweta Saundarkar, Nitin Khantwal, Pragya Tiwari, A. K. Srivastava
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      The microfluidic devices have attracted considerable attention for their wide range of applications in healthcare, disease diagnosis, and environmental monitoring. We present the fabrication technique, surface wetting, and bonding of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device that will be used as an electroosmotic micromixerfor biomolecules. This technique essentially requires micromold preparation and casting of PDMS. The hardened mold was fabricated on SU-8 using X-ray lithography (XRL) beamline, BL-7, Indus-2 as the synchrotron radiation source at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology(RRCAT). The PDMS casting and thermal cross-linking was performed by spin-coating, followed by heating with specific thermocycle. This cross-linked PDMS was bonded with smooth surfaces that were treated with different reactive plasmas using a deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) system. In a micro fluidic channel, the flow is usually a highly ordered laminar flow and due to lack of turbulence the mixing is very difficult for larger molecules such as peptides, proteins and high-molecular-weight nucleic acids.Here, we propose a microscale mixing device where active mixers are moved by external forces, such as an applied electric field. The dimensions of the fabricated device were generated through computer simulation using the finite-element based COMSOL Multiphysics 5. 4 software. The hydrophobic nature of PDMS hinders the mobility of biomolecules through the microchannel. In this work, plasma-induced surface wettability of PDMS with application of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and oxygen (O2) gas recipes was investigated. As a result, the SF6 plasma–treated microchannels became stable hydrophilic and exhibited an increased adhesion or reduced air-bubble trapping during filling with aqueous solutions.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T03:13:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015760
       
  • Simultaneous laser doping and annealing to form lateral p–n junction
           diode structure on silicon carbide films

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      Authors: Emmanuel Paneerselvam, Sree Harsha Choutapalli, H. G. Prashantha Kumar, Nilesh J. Vasa, Daisuke Nakamura, M. S. Ramachandra Rao, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Tiju Thomas
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Laser-assisted doping of intrinsic silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and its influence on simultaneous annealing of the thin film is studied. PLD grown intrinsic SiC films are transformed to p-type SiC and n-type SiC, using laser-assisted doping in aqueous aluminum chloride and phosphoric solutions, respectively. Simultaneous doping and annealing of the SiC film are observed during laser-assisted doping. By precisely positioning the selectively doped region, lateral p–n diodes are formed on the SiC films without using any mask. Electric characteristics confirmed the formation of a lateral p–n diode structure. Numerical analysis of temperature distribution along the depth of the SiC films explains the mechanism of simultaneous doping and annealing during the laser treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T02:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211016281
       
  • Investigations on the actuation behaviour of friction stir–welded nickel
           titanium shape memory alloy using continuous fibre laser

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      Authors: S. S. Mani Prabu, I. A. Palani
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      The friction stir welding (FSW) is found to be an effective solid-state process to join Nickel Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy. The retention of shape memory effect has enabled the welded NiTi alloy to be exploited in various functional applications. In this article, the NiTi sheets of 1.2 mm thickness are welded using FSW. The tool selection, geometry design and process parameters required to weld NiTi sheets are explored. Interestingly, an attempt is made to actuate the welded NiTi alloy, using laser actuation technique. The laser beam is scanned over the sample at a particular speed, enabling the increase in temperature suitable for physical actuation. A minimum and maximum displacement of 10 mm and 28 mm are recorded for the laser powers of 10 W and 50 W, respectively. Apart from laser actuation, the dynamic mechanical analysis of the welded NiTi alloy is investigated.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T03:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211015409
       
  • An overview of magnetorheological polishing fluid applied in
           nano-finishing of components

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      Authors: Manjesh Kumar, Hari Narayan Singh Yadav, Abhinav Kumar, Manas Das
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Surface quality is the most crucial factor affecting the product lifespan and performance of any component. Most earlier technologies display accuracy in the micrometre or submicrometre range, surface roughness in the nanometre range, and almost no surface defects in the production of optical, mechanical and electronic parts. Such finishing methods incorporate a magnetic field to control the finishing forces using magnetorheological fluid as the polishing medium. Magnetorheological fluid (MR) consists of ferromagnetic and abrasive particles. It is a type of modern intelligent fluid. An optimum selection of magnetorheological fluid constituents and their volume concentration plays an essential role for the ultra-fine finishing of newly developed engineering products. Rheological characteristics of magnetorheological fluid can change rapidly and effortlessly with the support of an activated magnetic field. Traditional finishing methods are comparatively inferior in finishing complex freeform surfaces, due to the lack of controlling finishing forces and limitations of polishing tool movement over the complex freeform contour of the components. There are different types of processes based on the magnetorheological fluid including magnetorheological finishing, magnetorheological abrasive flow finishing, rotational magnetorheological abrasive flow finishing and ball end magnetorheological finishing. This article discusses the development of different types of magnetorheological-fluid-based finishing processes and their modes of operation. The MR fluid devices developed in the last decade are thoroughly reviewed for their working principles, characteristics and applications. This article also highlights the study of rheological characterization of magnetorheological fluid and its applications in different polishing methods appropriate for finishing various complex freeform components.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:39:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211008173
       
  • A comprehensive investigation on machining of composites by EDM for
           microfeatures and surface integrity

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      Authors: Suresh Gudipudi, Selvaraj Nagamuthu, Kanmani Subbu Subbian, Surya Prakasa Rao Chilakalapalli
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      In electro-discharge machining (EDM), the material removal takes place by precisely controlled sparks that occur between tool and workpiece separated with a spark gap in the presence of a dielectric. Generally, the non-contacting type and less material removal rates are attributed to attain a good surface finish and close dimensional tolerances during an EDM of monolithic metals and alloys. But the dimensional accuracy and surface integrity parameters would considerably affect during EDM of composites due to the existence of more than one material phase constituents. Therefore, the present work aims to study and optimize the performance characteristics under various EDM conditions employed in making rectangular channels on AA6061-B4C composite material. Initially, AA6061-4wt.%B4C composites were fabricated by ultrasonically assisted stir-casting, and the improved properties were obtained from various mechanical characterizations. The EDM experiments were conducted according to the full factorial experimental design. The three levels of input conditions such as discharge Current (I), discharge duration (T On), and discharge idle time (T Off) were considered. The considered output responses are material removal rate (MRR),taper (θ) of the machined channel, tool wear rate (TWR), average surface roughness (R) of the machined surface, and average recast layer thickness (ARLT) of the machined zone. These responses are co-related with multi-objective types in the sense that the MRR has to be maximized with all other responses minimized. Hence, principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with grey relation analysis (GRA) was used for optimization in which the results were normalized, and all the responses were converted into a single response named weighted grey relation grade (WGRG) for each trial. The experimental trial, which had the highest WGRG, was considered as a local optimum. The global optimum parameters were obtained by performing the Taguchi method (TM) (higher-the-better) for the maximization of WGRG. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to know the contribution of each EDM parameter toward the WGRG. The optimum levels of Current, T On, and T Off were identified as 8 A, 25 µs, and 36 µs, respectively. Results showed that all three input parameters significantly affected the WGRG, and a higher contribution of Current (52.11%) followed by the T On (26.72%) was observed. The interaction between the Current and T Off was found to be greater than other interactions. Taper values were observed to be reduced at the combination of 8 A discharge Current and 25 µs T On. None of the input parameters significantly affected the Ra, except for Current, which showed a slight effect. ARLT values showed an increasing trend of T On from 25 µs to 45 µs but decreased slightly at 65 µs for all Current levels. The moderate Current level 6 A was observed to be favorable in reducing ARLT when compared to low (4 A) and high (8 A) for all Ton values.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-12-08T03:40:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211063308
       
  • Parametric studies on laser additive manufacturing of copper on stainless
           steel

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      Authors: S. Yadav, C. P. Paul, A. K. Rai, A. N. Jinoop, S. K. Nayak, R. Singh, K. S. Bindra
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Laser additive manufacturing using directed energy deposition (LAM-DED) technique is one of the recent techniques for fabricating engineering components directly from 3D CAD model data using high power lasers. In this respect, LAM-DED of copper (Cu) and stainless steel (SS) is an enduring research area. However, LAM-DED of Cu is challenging due to higher thermal conductivity, lower absorption to infrared radiation and oxide formation tendency. The present work reports an experimental investigation to evaluate the effect of process parameters on the track geometry, contact angle, inter-diffusion and micro-hardness of Cu tracks deposited on SS 304L substrate using LAM-DED. Analysis of variance is used to estimate the contribution percentage of process parameters on the track geometry. Further, Cu bulk structures are deposited at an identified combination of process parameters and they are subjected to optical microscopy for microstructural characterisation. Further, finite-element-based numerical simulation is performed to understand the temperature distribution during the processing of Cu bulk structures on SS304L and the temperature results are co-related with the microstructural transformation during the processing. This investigation paves a way to understand the effect of processing parameters for building Cu bulk structures on SS Substrate using LAM-DED.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T04:27:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211047525
       
  • Pulsed-flow microchannel heat sink: Simulation and experimental validation

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      Authors: S. K. Singh, H. S. Mali, S. Suryawanshi, S. Singh
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      Microchannel heat dissipation devices were first conceptualized in 1981 and since then are at the forefront of cooling techniques for a variety of applications, extending from computer chips and turbine blades to lasers and optical systems. However, much of the research is concentrated on steady flow of a cooling fluid through the channels. In this article, transient two-dimensional (2D) simulation for heat transfer in microchannels under a pulsed-flow condition is carried out. For validation of simulation results, a novel heat sink device is designed and fabricated, using milling and micro-electric discharge machining (EDM) technique. The fabricated device is then tested to evaluate the effect of a variable flow rate on the heat transfer characteristics when the flow is pulsating. It is found that the numerical results underpredict slightly as compared to actual experimental results. Results indicate a higher temperature at the outlet of the heat sink device for lower pulse frequency, and as pulse frequency increases, the outlet temperature decreases.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T03:37:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211058625
       
  • A numerical model for tool–chip friction in intermittent orthogonal
           machining

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      Authors: Akash Saini, Anshu Dhar Jayal
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a novel model to study the influence of surface textured cutting tools in near-micromachining conditions. The model utilizes the Challen and Oxley’s asperity deformation model (Van Luttervelt et al., CIRP Ann Manuf Technol, 1998, vol. 47, pp. 587–626; Arrazola et al., CIRP Ann Manuf Technol, 2013, vol. 62, pp. 695–718) paired with an approach to a priori estimate of the interfacial film formation at the tool–chip interface. The procedure considers the chemical effect of the environment, along with the mechanical aspects of the surface texture of the cutting tool’s rake surface. Model performance, in terms of predicting machining forces and coefficient of friction, was validated with existing experimental data (Anand et al., Proceedings of the international conference on advancements and futuristic trends in mechanical and materials engineering, 5–7 October 2012, pp. 661–666). The outcome trend of the proposed model approximately matches with the experimental results. Further, the model tries to explain the impact of cutting tool’s surface roughness on overall tool–chip friction while performing intermittent cutting in the near-micromachining regime.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T04:09:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211048121
       
  • Micro-machining: An overview (Part II)

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      Authors: Vijay Kumar Jain, Divyansh Singh Patel, J. Ramkumar, Bijoy Bhattacharyya, Biswanath Doloi, Biplab Ranjan Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Sarath Sankar E. S., Anshu Dhar Jayal
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Journal of Micromanufacturing, Ahead of Print.
      This article on ‘Micro-machining: An Overview (Part II)’ is in continuation to ‘Micro-machining: An Overview (Part I)’ published in this journal (Journal of Micromanufacturing). It consists of four parts, namely, electrochemical micro-texturing, electrochemical spark micro-machining, molecular dynamics simulation and sustainability issues of micro-machining processes.Electrochemical micro-texturing (ECMTex) deals with various techniques developed for micro-texturing on different types of workpiece-surfaces, namely, flat, curved and free-form surfaces. Here, basically two categories of techniques have been reviewed, namely, with mask and without mask. It also deals with ‘single point tool micro-texturing’ which turns out to be a single-step technique requiring minimum time, but the accuracy and repeatability obtained after micro-texturing need to be critically analysed. For mass production, one needs to go for sinking kind of ECMTex processes.Electrochemical spark micro-machining (ECSMM) is an interesting hybrid (ECM+EDM) process which can be applied for electrically conducting as well as electrically non-conducting materials. However, the work reported in this article deals only with the electrically non-conducting materials for which this process was initially developed. This process has a lot of potential for theoretical work to be done. In this article, two theories of sparking/discharging have been briefly mentioned: single bubble discharging/sparking and single surface discharging. It also dicusses its applications for different types of electrically non-conducting materials.Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) of micro-/nano-machining processes is very important, but it is very cumbersome to understand at atomic/molecular scale. In these processes, the material behaviour at micro-/nano-level machining is completely different as compared to bulk-machining (macro-machining) processes. Hence, some fundamentals of MDS have been discussed. It just gives the idea of available techniques, softwares and models for different types of processes. However, there is the need of further research work to be done for clearly understanding the MDS of micro-/nano-machining.In the end, the sustainability of micro-machining issues have been discussed, mainly based on the energy consumption per unit mass of production. It is concluded that the advanced micro-manufacturing processes are highly energy-intensive processes, and they need further studies to be done for making them more suitable from sustainability point of view.At the end of each section, some potential areas of research for enhancing the accuracy and repeatability, and minimising the production time of each process have been discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Micromanufacturing
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T04:23:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25165984211045244
       
 
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