Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
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    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)
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    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 73 of 73 Journals sorted alphabetically
Techniques et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technological Forecasting and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Technology Analysis & Strategic Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Technology and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Technology in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Technology Transfer: fundamental principles and innovative technical solutions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Traitements et Materiaux     Free   (Followers: 18)
Tsinghua Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  

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Science China Materials
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2095-8226 - ISSN (Online) 2199-4501
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2484 journals]
  • Site-controlled interlayer coupling in WSe2/2D perovskite heterostructure

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      Abstract: Interlayer excitons (IXs) formed in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)/two-dimensional (2D) perovskite heterostructures are emerging as new platforms in the research of excitons. Compared with IXs in TMD van der Waals heterostructures, IXs can be robustly formed in TMDs/2D perovskite heterostructures regardless of the twist angle and thermal annealing process. Efficient control of interlayer coupling is essential for realizing their functionalities and enhancing their performances. Nevertheless, the study on the control of interlayer coupling strength between TMD and 2D perovskites is elusive. Therefore, we realize the control of interlayer coupling between monolayer WSe2 and (iso-BA)2PbI4 with SiO2 pillars in situ. An abnormal 10-nm blue shift and 2.5 times photoluminescence intensity enhancement were observed for heterostructures on the pillar, which was contrary to the red shift observed in TMD heterobilayers. We attributed the abnormal blue shift to the enhanced interlayer coupling arising from the reduced gap between constituent layers. In addition, IXs became more dominant over intralayer excitons with enhanced coupling. The interlayer coupling could be further engineered by tuning the height (h) and diameter (d) of pillars. In particular, an additional triplet IX showed up for the pillar with an h/d ratio of 0.6 due to the symmetry breaking of monolayer WSe2. The symmetry breaking also induced an anisotropic response of IXs. Our study is beneficial for tuning and enhancing the performance of IX-based devices, exciton localization and quantum emitters.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
       
  • Ordering silver nanowires for chiroptical activity

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      Abstract: With the development of chiral materials, remarkable progress has been made in the application fields of biology, chemistry, and physics in the past decades. Here we develop a solo-Ag-nanowire (NW)-based, bottom-up chiral construction strategy to fabricate a chiral plasmonic film with strong chiroptical activity in the purple-blue band. Finite-difference time-domain simulations predict that helical structures made by Ag NWs with certain interlayer angles possess strong chiroptical intensity. We then apply a Langmuir-Blodgett technique to construct the layered NW assemblies with both handedness via regulating interlayer angle direction. The Ag NW assemblies show the interlayer-angle-and film-thickness-dependent circular dichroism, reaching the highest anisotropic factor of 0.03. These new chiral structures will serve as ideal candidates for chiral sensors thanks to their specific plasmonic properties.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
       
  • Optimizing nanostructure and constructing heterostructure via Mo/W
           incorporation to improve electrochemical properties of NiCoP for hybrid
           supercapacitors

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      Abstract: Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) are promising battery-type electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs) due to their high electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Constructing TMPs with fast kinetics and stable structure is requisite to realize high-performance HSCs but remains a challenge. Herein, we incorporate Mo (or W) into NiCoP to form Ni-Co-Mo-P (or Ni-Co-W-P) heterostructures with a unique three-dimensional (3D) open morphology and modified electronic structure. Electrochemical analyses and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the incorporation of Mo/W enables NiCoP with optimized nanostructure, high conductivity, abundant reaction active sites and enhanced reaction kinetics. As a result, the designed Ni-Co-Mo-P heterostructure delivers a high areal capacity of 4.08 C cm−2 (703 C g−1) at 2 mA cm−2 and 3.25 C cm−2 at 30 mA cm−2 with a good cycling stability, superior to those of NiCoP and Ni-Co-W-P counterparts. The practical feasibility of the Ni-Co-Mo-P heterostructure is further demonstrated by an energy conversion and storage system consisting of commercial solar cell and Ni-Co-Mo-P//activated carbon (AC) device, which could obtain a high energy density of 53.3 W h kg−1 at a power density of 800 W kg−1. All-solid-state Ni-Co-Mo-P//AC device further illustrates the superior flexibility and makes a strong candidate for wearable energy storage electronics.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
       
  • In-situ electrochemical modification of pre-intercalated vanadium bronze
           cathodes for aqueous zinc-ion batteries

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      Abstract: Vanadium bronzes have been well-demonstrated as promising cathode materials for aqueous zinc-ion batteries. However, conventional single-ion pre-intercalated V2O5 nearly reached its energy/power ceiling due to the nature of micro/electronic structures and unfavourable phase transition during Zn2+ storage processes. Here, a simple and universal in-situ anodic oxidation method of quasi-layered CaV4O9 in a tailored electrolyte was developed to introduce dual ions (Ca2+ and Zn2+) into bilayer δ-V2O5 frameworks forming crystallographic ultra-thin vanadium bronzes, Ca0.12Zn0.12V2O5·nH2O. The materials deliver transcendental maximum energy and power densities of 366 W h kg−1 (478 mA h g−1 @ 0.2 A g−1) and 6627 W kg−1 (245 mA h g−1 @ 10 A g−1), respectively, and the long cycling stability with a high specific capacity up to 205 mA h g−1 after 3000 cycles at 10 A g−1. The synergistic contributions of dual ions and Ca2+ electrolyte additives on battery performances were systematically investigated by multiple in-/ex-situ characterisations to reveal reversible structural/chemical evolutions and enhanced electrochemical kinetics, highlighting the significance of electrolyte-governed conversion reaction process. Through the computational approach, reinforced “pillar” effects, charge screening effects and regulated electronic structures derived from pre-intercalated dual ions were elucidated for contributing to boosted charge storage properties.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
       
  • Multi-touch cobalt phosphide-tungsten phosphide heterojunctions anchored
           on reduced graphene oxide boosting wide pH hydrogen evolution

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      Abstract: Multi-interface engineering is deemed as an effective strategy to boost catalytic activity via electronic structure modulation. However, it is still a big challenge due to the phase-separation tendency. Herein, we designed CoP-WP heterojunctions with multi-touch interfaces using Co8W18, a definite structure polyoxometalate-based polynuclear cobalt molecular cluster, as a precursor. The CoP-WP heterojunctions anchored on reduced graphene oxide (CoP-WP/rGO) were obtained by growing Co8W18 on GO followed by phosphorization. The intrinsic {Co-O-W} coordination modes in Co8W18 are conducive to the formation of the multiple interfaces between CoP and WP. The abundant intimate interfaces in CoP-WP heterojunctions promote the electron transfer from WP to CoP, thus regulating the interfacial electronic structure and optimizing the hydrogen adsorption free energy (ΔGH*), as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the integration of rGO provides CoP-WP/rGO with a large surface area and high conductivity, aiding mass transport and charge transfer. CoP-WP/rGO exhibits remarkable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with low overpotentials of 96, 130, and 138 mV at 10 mA cm−2 in alkaline, acidic and neutral media, respectively, and has long-term durability. Our discovery provides an opportunity to design heterojunction materials with multi-coupled interfaces at low-cost and efficient HER catalysts.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
       
  • Oxygenated boron-doped carbon via polymer dehalogenation as an
           electrocatalyst for high-efficiency O2 reduction to H2O2

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      Abstract: The direct electrochemical synthesis of H2O2 from O2 is currently the most promising alternative to energy-intensive industrial anthraquinone oxidation/reduction methods. However, its widespread use is hampered by the lack of efficient low-cost electrocatalysts. In the current study, oxygenated boron-doped carbon (O-BC) materials were realized via a green synthetic strategy involving polymer dehalogenation and employed as electrode materials for the electrochemical synthesis of H2O2via a 2e− oxygen reduction. The catalytic activity of the O-BC materials was optimized through systematic variation of the boron source (H3BO3) dosage and annealing temperature. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the optimal sample (O-BC-2-650) exhibited a selectivity of 98% for the 2e− oxygen reduction to H2O2 and an average H2O2 production rate of 412.8 mmol gcat−1 h−1 in an H-type alkaline electrolyzer. Density functional theory simulations indicated that the functionalization of active B sites with one oxygen atom provides the lowest Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) of 0.03 eV for the hydrogenation of *O2, while functionalization with zero or two O atoms results in much larger ΔG values (0.08 and 0.10 eV, respectively). Thus, this work details a new type of green, low-cost, and metal-free electrocatalyst for H2O2 production.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
       
  • Light-driven self-assembly of cyanostilbene derivative with reversible
           chirality in aqueous media

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      Abstract: In summary, we presented a design strategy for a chiral, amphiphilic, and photoswitchable molecule, using cholesterol, sulfonate, and cyanostilbene. The molecule could self-assemble to the trans-isomer in aqueous solution, which is accompanied by strong CD signals. Both trans- and cis-isomers are thermally stable, and the high conversion photoswitching between the trans- and cis-isomers with good fatigue resistance and reversibility, can be achieved using different wavelengths of UV irradiation. Furthermore, the optical chirality-CD was also modulated by UV irradiation. According to the TEM images and dynamic light scattering data, the photoswitching process involves self-assembly/disassembly from approximately 150 nm spherical particles to 18 nm irregular particles. We proposed a rational strategy using light-driven self-assembly for a molecular photoswitch in which optical chirality can be modulated by light irradiation in aqueous media.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Low-field-induced spin-glass behavior and controllable anisotropy in
           nanoparticle assemblies at a liquid-air interface

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      Abstract: Stacking nanoscale-building blocks into one-dimensional (1D) assemblies with collective physical properties is a frontier in designing materials. However, the formation of 1D arrays using weak magnetic fields and an in-depth understanding of their magnetic properties remain challenging. Here, low-dimensional assemblies of iron oxide nanocubes with a disordered arrangement are fabricated at the diethylene-glycol/air interface in the presence of assembly fields (0/1/3/5/30/50 mT). Ring-shaped assemblies gradually transform as the assembly field increases from 0 to 50 mT, first to a porous network consisting of elongated assemblies and then to an aligned array of filaments, in which the aligned filaments are formed when the assembly field is ≥3 mT and duration t > 14 min. Spin-glass characteristics and static (dynamic) anisotropy factors ∼2(3) are achieved by tuning the strength of the assembly field. In the presence of a relatively weak assembly field, the interplay between dipolar interactions and disorder with respect to magnetic easy axis alignment leads to spin-glass characteristics. The alignment of the magnetic easy axes and the strength of the dipolar interactions increase with increasing assembly field, resulting in the disappearance of spin-glass characteristics and enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy. This study presents a strategy for obtaining magnetic assemblies with spin-glass behavior and controllable anisotropy while shedding light on the magnetic interactions of low-dimensional assemblies.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Regenerated hydrogel electrolyte towards an all-gel supercapacitor

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      Abstract: Electrolyte regeneration is an important goal for environmental protection and sustainable development efforts. Herein, we report a facile strategy inspired by the transformation of edible dough from flour to regenerate hydrogel electrolytes from their dehydrated copolymer granules (CGs) via direct addition of water or salt solution. With the aid of heating, this procedure is efficient, relatively quick, and easily implemented. The dehydrated CGs are lightweight, reusable and stable under long-term storage. Even after 5 cycles of dehydration and regeneration, the regeneration efficiency of the hydrogel electrolytes, as evaluated based on retention of mechanical strength, is over 60%. The regenerated electrolytes possess considerable ionic conductivity, reprocessability, and 3D-printability. Furthermore, an all-gel supercapacitor assembled from the regenerated hydrogel electrolyte and activated carbon electrode with CGs as binder demonstrates excellent interfacial compatibility. The assembled all-gel supercapacitor can maintain 98.7% of its original specific capacitance after 100 bending tests, and can operate in a wide temperature range spanning from −15 to 60°C. This work may provide a new access to the development of renewable materials for various applications in the fields of intelligent devices, wearable electronics and soft robotics.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Selective inactivation of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro and in vivo
           through metabolic labelling

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      Abstract: Bacterial infections are grave threats to human health, particularly those caused by the most common Gram-positive bacteria. The massive administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat various bacterial infections has led to the evolution and spread of drug resistance. As a universal antimicrobial technique unapt to induce drug resistance, photothermal therapy (PTT) is attracting extensive attention in recent years. However, its unspecific killing capability and side effects towards adjacent mammalian cells severely impede the practical applications. Herein, we proposed a metabolic engineering strategy to selectively inactivate Gram-positive bacteria by PTT. A bioorthogonal photothermal agent was prepared by the conjugation of IR-780 iodide and dibenzo-cyclooctyne (IR780-DBCO). Upon pre-metabolizing with 3-azido-D-alanine, Gram-positive bacteria rather than Gram-negative ones, such as Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), could be specifically tied up by the explosive IR780-DBCO via copper-free click chemistry. Thereafter, they spontaneously detonated under 15 min near-infrared light irradiation and inactivated nearly 100% Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. Moreover, superbug VRE-induced infection was significantly inhibited by this approach in a mouse skin wound model. This metabolic labelling-based photothermal ablation strategy specific to Gram-positive microbes would stimulate the development of precise anti-bacterial candidates for preclinical applications.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Superior cycling stability of H0.642V2O5·0.143H2O in rechargeable
           aqueous zinc batteries

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      Abstract: To increase the service life of rechargeable batteries, transition metal oxide hosts with high structural stability for the intercalation of carrier ions are important. Herein, we reconstruct the crystal structure of a commercial V2O5 by pre-intercalating H+ and H2O pillars using a facile hydrothermal reaction and obtain a bi-layer structured H0.642V2O5·0.143H2O (HVO) as an excellent host for aqueous Zn-ion batteries. Benefiting from the structural reconstruction, the irreversible “layer-to-amorphous” phase evolution during cycling is considerably less, resulting in ultra-high cycling stability of HVO with nearly no capacity fading even after 500 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. Moreover, a synthetic proton and Zn2+ intercalation mechanism in the HVO host is demonstrated. This work provides both a facile synthesis method for the preparation of V-based compounds and a new viewpoint for achieving high-performance host materials.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Bio-inspired hydrogel-based bandage with robust adhesive and antibacterial
           abilities for skin closure

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      Abstract: Although conventional suturing techniques are commonly used in assisting wound closure, they do pose limited conduciveness and may lead to secondary injury to wound tissues. Inspired by marine organism mussels, we designed and manufactured a bio-inspired hydrogel-based bandage with tough wet tissue adhesion to substitute traditional surgical suture, accelerate wound healing and avoid infection. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) was modified with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and glycidyl methacylate, then introduced into the acrylic acid-co-acrylamide hydrogel matrix with robust mechanical properties. The hydrogel bandage showed strong chemical linkage adhesion (70 ± 2.1 kPa), which is 2.8 times that of commercial tissue adhesive fibrin glue (25 ± 2.2 kPa). The hydrogel bandage can not only maintain the self-stability, but is also capable of self-tuning adhesive strength in the range of 14–70 kPa to achieve different adhesion effects by tuning constituent ratio. The bandage has desirable compression properties (0.7 ± 0.11 MPa) and tensile elongation (about 25 times), which ensures its resistance to damages, especially in joint spaces. Secondly, the bandage was endowed with antioxidant and endogenous broad-spectrum antibacterial properties with its catechol structure. Results also demonstrated excellent cell compatibility and blood compatibility, certifying its eligible biological safety profile. In a rat full-thickness cutaneous deficiency model, we can clearly observe that the bandage possesses the ability to promote wound healing (only need 6 days). Above all, this research provides a new strategy for the emergency treatment of liver hemostasis and myocardial repair during disaster rescue.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • High- and low-temperature dual ferroelasticity in a new hybrid crystal:
           (Me3NCH2CH2OH)4[Ni(NCS)6]

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      Abstract: #摘要 本文报道了一例具有反XeF4结构的新型杂化晶体(Me3NCH2-CH2OH)4[Ni(NCS)6], 其分子组分的较复杂有序-无序转变使得该化合 物在269和360 K发生两步可逆相变. 这两步相变伴随着P21/n–P4/mnc–Bmab的空间群变化, 即分别属于正常的降温对称性破缺和反常的升温 对称性破缺现象, 因此使得该化合物可在低温和高温均展现出铁弹性 (自发极化强度分别为0.0603和0.0073). 这种不同寻常的高低温双铁弹 性的发现和研究, 有助于加深对反常对称性破缺相变的理解, 并为今后 在分子杂化晶体中探索高温铁性材料提供重要线索.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Muscle-inspired ion-sensitive hydrogels with highly tunable mechanical
           performance for versatile industrial applications

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      Abstract: Human muscles are notably toughened or softened with specific inorganic ions. Inspired by this phenomenon, herein we report a simple strategy to endow hydrogels with comparable ion-responsive mechanical properties by treating the gels with different ionic solutions. Semi-crystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels are chosen as examples to illustrate this concept. Similar to muscles, the mechanical property of hydrogels demonstrates strong dependence on both the nature and concentration of inorganic ions. Immersed at the same salt concentration, the hydrogels treated with different ionic solutions manifest a broad-range tunability in rigidity (Young’s modulus from 0.16 to 9.6 MPa), extensibility (elongation ratio from 100% to 570%), and toughness (fracture work from 0.82 to 35 MJ m−3). The mechanical property well follows the Hofmeister series, where the “salting-out” salts (kosmotropes) have a more pronounced effect on the reinforcement of the hydrogels. Besides, the hydrogels’ mechanical performance exhibits a positive correlation with the salt concentration. Furthermore, it is revealed both the polymer solubility from amorphous domains and polymer crystallinity from crystalline domains are significantly influenced by the ions, which synergistically contribute to the salt-responsive mechanical performance. Benefitting from this feature, the hydrogels have demonstrated promising industrial applications, including tunable tough engineering soft materials, anti-icing coatings, and soft electronic devices.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Ultrasonic-assisted rapid cold welding of bulk metallic glasses

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      Abstract: Glass-forming ability is a long-standing concern in the field of metallic glasses (MGs), which greatly limits their maximum casting size and extensive applications. In this work, we report an ultrasonic-assisted rapid cold welding of bulk MGs without using any additives. MGs with various compositions are welded together under a 20,000-Hz high-frequency ultrasonic vibration without losing their amorphous nature. The ultrasonic technology offers the advantages of rapid bonding (< 1 s) at low temperature (near room temperature) and low stress (< 1 MPa). According to the phenomenon observed in the experiment, the activated fresh atoms diffuse through the broken channel port under continuous rupture of the oxide layer, and the ultrasonic vibration accelerates the atomic-diffusion process. Finally, stable bonding of the MG interface is realized. This universal ultrasonic-assisted welding process can realize the composition design of dissimilar MGs as well as tuning of new materials with new performance.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Rapid CO2 exfoliation of Zintl phase CaSi2-derived ultrathin free-standing
           Si/SiOx/C nanosheets for high-performance lithium storage

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      Abstract: Semiconducting silicon (Si) nanomaterials have great potential for the applications in electronics, physics, and energy storage fields. However, to date, it is still a challenge to realize the batch production of Si nanomaterials via efficient and low-cost approaches, owing to some long-standing shortcomings, e.g., complex procedures and time and/or energy consumption. Herein, we report a green and inexpensive method to rapidly obtain two-dimensional (2D) free-standing Si/SiOx nanosheets via the rapid thermal exfoliation of layered Zintl compound CaSi2. With the help of the rapid exfoliation reaction of CaSi2 in the atmosphere of greenhouse gas CO2, and the following mild sonication, 2D free-standing Si/SiOx nanosheets can be produced with very high yield. After applying the coating of a thin carbon outer layer, the electrodes of Si/SiOx/C nanosheets serving as the anodes for lithium-ion batteries exhibit ultrahigh reversible capacity and outstanding electrochemical stability. We expect this study will provide new insights and inspirations for the convenient and batch production of nanostructural Si-based anode materials towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Porous carbon matrix-encapsulated MnO in situ derived from metal-organic
           frameworks as advanced anode materials for Li-ion capacitors

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      Abstract: Conversion-type anode materials hold great potential for Li+ storage applications owing to their high specific capacity, while large volume expansion and poor electrical conductivity limit their rate and cycling performances. Herein, a bimetal ZnMn-based metal-organic framework (ZnMn-MOF) is engineered for in situ conversion of MnO-encapsulated porous carbon (MnO/PC) composite. The templating and activation effects of coordinated Zn endow the converted PC matrix with a highly porous structure. This enhances the compatibility of PC matrix with MnO particles, resulting in the full encapsulation of MnO particles in the PC matrix. More significantly, the PC matrix provides enough void space to buffer the volume change, which fully wraps the MnO without crack or fracture during repeated cycling. As a result, MnO/PC shows high charge storage capability, extraordinary rate performance, and long-term cycling stability at the same time. Thus MnO/PC exhibits high delithiation capacities of 768 mA h g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and 487 mA h g−1 at a high rate of 0.7 A g−1, combined with an unattenuated cycling performance after 500 cycles at 0.3 A g−1. More significantly, MnO/PC demonstrates a well-matched performance with the capacitive activated carbon electrode in a Li-ion capacitor (LIC) full cell. LIC demonstrates a high specific energy of 153.6 W h kg−1 at 210 W kg−1, combined with a specific energy of 71.8 W h kg−1 at a high specific power of 63.0 kW kg−1.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Anchoring ultrafine CoP and CoSb nanoparticles into rich N-doped carbon
           nanofibers for efficient potassium storage

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      Abstract: Transition-metal compounds have received extensive attention from researchers due to their high reversible capacity and suitable voltage platform as potassium-ion battery anodes. However, these materials commonly feature a poor conductivity and a large volume expansion, thus leading to underdeveloped rate capability and cyclic stability. Herein, we successfully encapsulated ultrafine CoP and CoSb nanoparticles into rich N-doped carbon nanofibers (NCFs) via electrospinning, carbonization, and phosphorization (antimonization). The N-doped carbon fiber prevents the aggregation of nanoparticles, buffers the volume expansion of CoP and CoSb during charging and discharging, and improves the conductivity of the composite material. As a result, the CoP/NCF anode exhibits excellent potassium-ion storage performance, including an outstanding reversible capacity of 335 mA h g−1, a decent capacity retention of 79.3% after 1000 cycles at 1 A g−1 and a superior rate capability of 148 mA h g−1 at 5 A g−1, superior to most of the reported transition-metalbased potassium-ion battery anode materials.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Flexible polytriphenylamine-based cathodes with reinforced energy-storage
           capacity for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

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      Abstract: Owing to the excellent redox reversibility and structural diversity, polytriphenylamine (PTPAn) has been regarded as one of the promising cathode candidates for sodium-ion batteries. However, it still suffers from the bulk aggregation and low operating capacity in practical applications. Assisted by the in-situ polymerization, leaf-like PTPAn nanosheets are uniformly introduced on the surface of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) to form the free-standing CNF@PTPAn composite electrodes. Interestingly, the formation mechanism of the leaf-on-branch structure of CNF@PTPAn composites is systematically explored, confirming that the controlling of oxidation rate and growth degree plays crucial roles in tuning the morphology and active material content of the composite electrodes. Supported by the capacity-cutting analysis, the effective coupling between the active PTPAn and conductive CNFs can provide fast electron/ion-shuttling channels and deepen the electrochemical reaction process. At 50 mA g−1, the capacity of the optimized CNF@PTPAn composite can reach 105 mA h g−1, with a stable rate capability of 78 mA h g−1 even at 400 mA g−1 after 500 cycles in a half cell. The detailed kinetic analysis confirms that the ion-storage behaviors in the low-voltage region can be tailored for the improved capacitive contribution and diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile, the flexible CNF-based full cell with CNF@PTPAn as the cathode and CNFs as the anode exhibits a high energy density of 60 W h kg−1 at 938 W kg−1. Based on this, the rational design is expected to provide more possibilities to obtain advanced freestanding electrode systems.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • High-performance salt-resistant solar interfacial evaporation by flexible
           robust porous carbon/pulp fiber membrane

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      Abstract: Solar evaporation has emerged as an attractive technology to produce freshwater by utilizing renewable solar energy. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop efficient solar steam generators with good flexibility, low cost and remarkable salt resistance. Herein, we prepare flexible, robust solar membranes by filtration of porous carbon and commercial paper pulp fiber. The porous carbon with well-defined structures is prepared through controlled carbonization of biomass/waste plastics by eutectic salts. We prove the synergistic effect of porous carbon and paper pulp fiber in boosting solar evaporation performance. Firstly, the porous carbon displays a high light absorption, while the paper pulp fiber with good hydrophilicity effectively promotes the transport of water. Secondly, the combination between porous carbon and paper pulp fiber reduces the water vaporization enthalpy by 20%, which is important to significantly improve the evaporation performance. As a proof of concept, the porous carbon/paper pulp fiber membrane possesses a high evaporation rate of 1.8 kg m−2 h−1 under 1 kW m−2 irradiation. Thirdly, the good flexibility and mechanical property of paper pulp fiber enable the solar membrane to work well under extreme conditions (e.g., after 20 cycles of folding/stretching/recovery). Lastly, due to the super-hydrophilicity and superwetting, the hybrid membrane exhibits the exceptional salt resistance and long-term stability in continuous seawater desalination, e.g., for 50 h. Importantly, a large-scale solar desalination device for outdoor experiments is developed to produce freshwater. Consequently, this work provides a new insight into developing advanced flexible solar evaporators with superb performance in seawater desalination.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
 
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