Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8810 journals)
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INTERNAL MEDICINE (180 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 180 of 180 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abdomen     Open Access  
ACP Hospitalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACP Internist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACP Journal Club     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Clinica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acute and Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
American Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy & Physiology : Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Colorectal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 392)
AORN Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Bone & Joint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Death & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Liver Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Clinical Thyroidology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CNE Pflegemanagement     Hybrid Journal  
Communication Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Current Hepatology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research: Integrative Medicine     Open Access  
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Internist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 603)
Diabetes Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 578)
Diabetes Internacional     Open Access  
Diabetes Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Egyptian Liver Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Spine Journal     Open Access  
EMC - Aparato Locomotor     Hybrid Journal  
Endovascular Neuroradiology / Ендоваскулярна нейрорентгенохірургія     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eNeuro     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Translational Myology     Open Access  
European Radiology Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
HemaSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatology Communications     Open Access  
Hepatoma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Human Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases     Open Access  
Innere Medizin up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Internal Medicine Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Anatomy and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JAMA Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 364)
JCSM Clinical Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JHEP Reports     Open Access  
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
JMV - Journal de Médecine Vasculaire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
JOP. Journal of the Pancreas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Basic & Clinical Physiology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cancer & Allied Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives     Open Access  
Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy     Open Access  
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Liver : Disease & Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Internet Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Pancreatic Cancer     Open Access  
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Vektor Penyakit     Open Access  
La Revue de Medecine Interne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Lege artis - Das Magazin zur ärztlichen Weiterbildung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Liver Cancer International     Open Access  
Liver Research     Open Access  
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics     Open Access  
Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MYOPAIN. A journal of myofascial pain and fibromyalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuro-Oncology Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Neurobiology of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neurointervention     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Neuromuscular Diseases     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alcohol     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oncological Coloproctology     Open Access  
Open Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Pleura and Peritoneum     Open Access  
Pneumo News     Full-text available via subscription  
Polish Archives of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Prostate International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Fonoaudiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical     Open Access  
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Child Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Schlaf     Hybrid Journal  
Schmerzmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of the Foot & Ankle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SciMedicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thieme Case Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Urologie     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Barriers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
US Cardiology Review     Open Access  
Vascular and Endovascular Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ожирение и метаболизм     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acute and Critical Care
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2586-6052 - ISSN (Online) 2586-6060
Published by Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Lung Transplantation in a Patient with Pre-transplant Colonization of
           Extensively ...

    • Abstract: Colonization of the pre-transplant lung by multidrug-resistant bacteria affects short- and long-term outcomes of lung transplantation. However, there are no case reports on the colonization of a pre-transplant lung by drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. We report a case of extensively drug resistant (XDR) A. baumannii colonization in the tracheobronchial tree that caused severe infectious complications after bilateral lung transplantation. A 23-year-old man diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) 4 years earlier with a history of allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted to the hospital with dyspnea. Due to progressive hypercapnic respiratory failure, long-term mechanical ventilation was started after a tracheostomy was performed, and the patient underwent a bilateral lung transplantation to treat end-stage BOS. After the transplantation, the colonization of XDR A. baumannii caused severe bacterial pneumonia in the early postoperative period. Combined treatment with colistin and meropenem led to recovery from the pneumonia but caused drug-induced renal failure. Because many centers are willing to transplant candidates who are on mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal life support, the incidence of XDR A.baumannii colonization of pretransplant lungs is expected to increase. Further studies are needed to examine pre-transplant management strategies in patients colonized with XDR A. baumannii.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Early Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Massive Aspiration during
           Anesthesia Induction

    • Abstract: Although the incidence is not high in the general surgical population, pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents can result in serious long-term morbidity and mortality. We report a case of early use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to correct severe hypoxemia refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation in a patient with massive aspiration of gastric contents immediately followed by acute lung injury during general anesthesia induction.A 64-year-old woman diagnosed with stomach cancer was scheduled for elective diagnostic laparoscopy. Although there was no sign of gastrointestinal tract obstruction and midnight Nil per Os (NPO) was performed before the operation, pulmonary aspiration occurred during the induction of anesthesia. Despite the endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation, severe hypoxemia with hypercapnea persisted. Medical team agreed with applying veno-venous (VV) ECMO, and her blood gas analysis results became stable. ECMO was weaned successfully 9 days after the first aspiration event had occurred. Based on this case, early application of extracorporeal life support can have survival benefits.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in a Trauma
           Patient with Hypovolemic Shock

    • Abstract: Hemorrhagic shock is one of the most common causes of death in patients with multiple trauma and therefore rapid control of bleeding is the main strategy to save these patients.Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been applied in several trauma cases and because of the effectiveness of this procedure it has been adopted in the trauma field. Herein, we report the first successful case of REBOA in Korea performed on a 46-year-old man with hemorrhagic shock after a fall from a height of 14-stories.The patient visited our hospital emergency room with hypovolemic shock, we performed Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta under bed side blind technique. His vital sign was stabilized after procedure, then we could performed endovascular bleeding control. The patient was discharged on his 33rd in-hospital day without invasive procedure and major scar.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Subclavian Artery Laceration Caused by Pigtail Catheter Removal in a
           Patient with Pneumothorax

    • Abstract: We report a case of subclavian artery laceration caused by the removal of a pigtail pleural drainage catheter in a patient with a pneumothorax. The patient was successfully resuscitated through diagnostic angiography with subsequent balloon occlusion and primary repair of the injured subclavian artery. Although pigtail drainage of a pneumothorax is known to be safe and effective, proper insertion and removal techniques should be emphasized to reduce the risk of complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Multiple System Atrophy Manifested by Bilateral Vocal Cord Palsy as an
           Initial Sign

    • Abstract: A 71-year-old male initially presented with vocal cord palsy and underwent tracheostomy. After thorough examination, urogenital dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and Parkinsonism were found, which led to the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). After the tracheostomy, bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation was required during the night due to nocturnal hypoxemia. Night-time hypoxemia is related to central sleep apnea, which is one of the manifestations of MSA. This is the first case of MSA manifested by bilateral vocal cord palsy as an initial sign in Korea. This case supports the notion that MSA should be taken into consideration when vocal cord paralysis is observed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Critical Case of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Induced by Hyperemesis

    • Abstract: Wernicke's encephalopathy is a reversible but potentially critical disease caused by thiamine deficiency. Most patients complain of symptoms such as ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and confusion. Heavy alcohol drinking is commonly associated with the disease, but other clinical conditions also can provoke it. In pregnant women, hyperemesis gravidarum can lead to the depletion of body thiamine due to poor oral intake and a high metabolic demand. We report a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy following hyperemesis gravidarum in a 36-year-old female at 20 weeks of pregnancy, who visited our hospital because of shock with vaginal bleeding. This case suggests that although the initial presentation may include atypical symptoms (e.g., shock or bleeding), Wernicke's encephalopathy should be considered, and thiamine replacement should be performed in pregnant women with neurologic symptoms and poor oral intake.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Transfusion Associated Hyperkalemia and Cardiac Arrest in an Infant after
           Extracorporeal ...

    • Abstract: Cardiac arrest associated with hyperkalemia during red blood cell transfusion is a rare but fatal complication. Herein, we report a case of transfusion-associated cardiac arrest following the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in a 9-month old infant. Her serum potassium level was increased to 9.0 mEq/L, soon after the newly primed circuit with pre-stored red blood cell (RBC) was started and followed by sudden cardiac arrest.Eventually, circulation was restored and the potassium level decreased to 5.1 mEq/L after 5 min. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) priming is a relatively massive transfusion into a pediatric patient. Thus, to prevent cardiac arrest during blood-primed ECMO in neonates and infants, freshly irradiated and washed RBCs should be used when priming the ECMO circuit, to minimize the potassium concentration. Also, physicians should be aware of all possible complications associated with transfusions during ECMO.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Management of Airway Emergency in a Patient with Esophageal

    • Abstract: A 60-year-old man with advanced esophageal cancer was admitted for surgical placement of a feeding jejunostomy tube before commencement of chemoradiotherapy. His esophageal cancer had directly invaded the posterior tracheal wall, inducing a nearly total obstruction of the distal trachea. On the day before the surgery, respiratory failure developed due to tumor progression and tracheal edema. Tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were attempted without success. Application of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) corrected the patient's respiratory acidosis and relieved his dyspnea.With full ECMO support, he underwent tracheal stent insertion. Two hours later, he was weaned from ECMO support uneventfully. This was a successful case of tracheal stenting for airway obstruction under rescue veno-venous ECMO.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome following Tattooing

    • Abstract: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening illness that is mainly caused by toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Although TSS is classically known to be associated with tampon use, the number of TSS cases with non-menstrual causes such as skin and soft tissue infection has been increasing. Tattooing can result in several complications such as localized and systemic infections, inflammatory skin eruptions and neoplasms. We recently experienced a 26-year-old man diagnosed with typical TSS following tattooing. He complained of fever, chills and erythematous rash at tattoo site. Subsequently, the patient developed sign of shock. The skin cultures on the tattoo site were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was successfully treated with vasopressor infusion and intravenous antibiotics and was discharged without complications. On discharge from the hospital 7 days later, desquamations on the tattoo site, fingers and toes were observed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Fixed Pupillary Light Reflex due to Peripheral Neuropathy after Liver

    • Abstract: A 46-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after liver transplantation. About an hour later after the ICU admission, she had no pupillary light reflex. Both pupils were also fixed at 5 mm. Patients who undergo liver transplantation are susceptible to neurologic disorders including hepatic encephalopathy, thromboembolism and intracranial hemorrhage. Abnormal pupillary light reflex usually indicates a serious neurologic emergency in these patients; however, benign neurologic disorders such as peripheral autonomic neuropathy or Holmes-Adie syndrome should also be considered. We experienced a case of fixed pupillary light reflex after liver transplantation diagnosed as peripheral autonomic neuropathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Lung Transplantation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by
           Influenza Pneumonia

    • Abstract: Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate.Although many therapeutic trials have been performed for improving the mortality of severe ARDS, limited strategies have demonstrated better outcomes. Recently, advanced rescue therapies such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) made it possible to consider lung transplantation (LTPL) in patients with ARDS, but data is insufficient. We report a 62-year-old man who underwent LTPL due to ARDS with no underlying lung disease. He was admitted to the hospital due to influenza A pneumonia-induced ARDS. Although he was supported by ECMO, he progressively deteriorated. We judged that his lungs were irreversibly damaged and decided he needed to undergo LTPL. Finally, bilateral sequential double-lung transplantation was successfully performed. He has since been alive for three years. Conclusively, we demonstrate that LTPL can be a therapeutic option in patients with severe ARDS refractory to conventional therapies.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Massive Hemoptysis due to Acute Mitral Regurgitation with Sporadic Primary
           Mitral Valve Prolapse

    • Abstract: The most common cardiac cause of massive hemoptysis is mitral stenosis. Mitral regurgitation is rarely complicated by massive hemoptysis. A 48-year-old man with no significant medical history was admitted to our hospital with hemoptysis and production of 500 mL of blood within 24 hours. A pan-systolic murmur was found on chest examination. A chest computed tomography showed airspace consolidation in the right upper and middle lobes, with faint bilateral ground glass opacity. Echocardiography revealed mitral valve prolapse and grade IV mitral regurgitation. The patient was diagnosed with sporadic primary mitral valve prolapse. After mitral valve repair surgery, the patient recovered fully.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Colchicine Poisoning Treated with Granulocyte Colony Stimulating
           Factor and Transfusion

    • Abstract: Colchicine poisoning is rare but can cause potentially life-threatening toxic complications such as hypovolemic shock, cardiovascular collapse and multiple organ failure.In this case report, we describe a case of a 20-year-old female who presented to the emergency department after suicidal ingestion of a toxic dose of colchicine. She developed thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and acute respiratory distress syndrome that required blood transfusion and administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor for the prevention of infectious complications. With regard to the clinical manifestations of colchicine toxicity, we discussed suggested mechanisms.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Immunoglobulin Treatment in Severe Cryptogenic Organizing
           Pneumonia Caused by ...

    • Abstract: In connective tissue diseases, autoantibodies cause pulmonary interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and patients require treatment with an immunosuppressive agent such as a steroid. Dermatomyositis is an incurable, uncommon form of connective tissue disease that occasionally causes diffuse pulmonary inflammation leading to acute severe respiratory failure. In such cases, the prognosis is very poor despite treatment with high-dose steroid. In the present case, a 46-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea. He was diagnosed with dermatomyositis combined with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) with respiratory failure and underwent treatment with steroid and an immunosuppressive agent, but the COP was not improved.However, the respiratory failure did improve after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, which therefore can be considered a treatment option in cases where steroids and immunosuppressive agents are ineffective.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Management of Cyanide Intoxication with Extracorporeal Membrane
           Oxygenation and Continuous ...

    • Abstract: Cyanide intoxication results in severe metabolic acidosis and catastrophic prognosis with conventional treatment.Indications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are expanding to poisoning cases. A 50-year-old male patient arrived in the emergency room due to mental change after ingestion of cyanide as a suicide attempt 30 minutes prior.He was comatose, and brain stem reflexes were absent.Initial laboratory analysis demonstrated severe metabolic acidosis with increased lactic acid of 25 mM/L. Shock and acidosis were not corrected despite a large amount of fluid resuscitation with highdose norepinephrine and continuous renal replacement therapy. We decided to apply ECMO and CRRT to allow time for stabilization of hemodynamic status. After administration of antidote infusion, although the patient had the potential to progress to brain death status, vital signs were improved with correction of acidosis. We considered the evaluation for organ donation. We report a male patient who showed typical cyanide intoxication as lethal metabolic acidosis and cardiac impairment, and the patient recovered after antidote administration during vital organ support through ECMO and CRRT.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Presentation of Catheter-Related Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    • Abstract: Central venous catheterization is a common diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in modern clinical practice.Pseudoaneurysms of the subclavian artery are rare and usually occur immediately after the causative event, whether the cause was trauma or a medical procedure. Here we report the rare case of a 71-year-old woman with delayed presentation of catheter-related subclavian pseudoaneurysm.The patient was treated for aspiration pneumonia with respiratory failure in another hospital. The patient's chest wall swelling began two weeks after the initial catheterization in the other hospital, probably because of slow leakage of blood from the injured subclavian artery caused by incomplete compression of the puncture site and uremic coagulopathy. She was successfully treated with ultrasound-guided thrombin and angiography-guided histoacryl injection without stent insertion or surgery. Her condition improved, and she was discharged to her home.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Unexpected Multiple Organ Infarctions in a Poisoned Patient

    • Abstract: Predisposing factors for venous thrombosis can be identified in the majority of patients with established venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, an obvious precipitant may not be identified during the initial evaluation of such patients. In the present case, a 47-year-old female presented to the emergency department of our hospital after ingesting multiple drugs. She had no VTE-related risk factors or previous episodes, nor any family history of VTE.After admission to the intensive care unit sudden hypoxemia developed, and during the evaluation cerebral, renal, and splenic infarctions with pulmonary embolisms were diagnosed.However, the sources of the emboli could not be identified by transthoracic echocardiography or computed tomography angiography. Protein C deficiency was identified several days later. We recommend that hypercoagulable states be taken into consideration, especially when unexplained thromboembolic events develop in multiple or unusual venous sites.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Nasogastric Tube Syndrome: Why Is It Important in the Intensive Care

    • Abstract: Although the nasogastric tube (NGT) is widely used in critically ill patients, most intensivists do not give much thought to it or its possible complications. NGT syndrome is a rare but fatal complication characterized by throat pain and vocal cord paralysis in the presence of NGT. Recently, we experienced a case of NGT syndrome developed in an 86-year-old female twelve days after NGT insertion. We immediately removed the NGT and secured the airway by tracheostomy. She was treated successfully with an intravenous antibiotic, steroid and proton pump inhibitor and the syndrome did not recur after reinsertion of the NGT.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Peripheral Arterial Tumorous Embolism after Lung Cancer Surgery

    • Abstract: Systemic tumor embolisms after pulmonary resections for malignancy are rare, but usually severe and sometimes fatal.Here, we report a case of a 70-year-old woman who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer and subsequently developed acute arterial occlusion of the lower extremities caused by a tumorous embolus.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis after Lung Transplantation

    • Abstract: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but fatal complication after solid organ transplantation. Acquired forms of HLH are described in association with severe sepsis, autoimmune disorders, malignancy, immune-compromised states, infections, and solid organ transplantation. We experienced a case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after bilateral lung transplantation. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperbilirubinemia were noted and became aggravated 50 days after transplantation. Diagnosis of HLH was based on clinical and laboratory findings of splenomegaly, cytopenia, elevated ferritin, elevated interleukin-2 receptor, and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow.Other features such as elevated bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer which can be present in HLH were also noted. The patient was immediately treated with etoposide and dexamethasone. Despite aggressive therapy, the patient deteriorated and died. Awareness of the diagnostic criteria of HLH after lung transplantation is important for clinicians.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Management of Cardiac Arrest following Anaphylactic Reaction to
           Cisatracurium Using ...

    • Abstract: Anaphylactic reaction during the perioperative period typically exhibits rapid onset, varying clinical manifestations, and an expected mortality rate of 1.5-9%.Neuromuscular blocking agents are the leading cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. Here, we report a severe case of anaphylaxis that developed in a 66-year-old man due to cisatracurium administration. And he was successfully managed by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the patient was successfully weaned off 24 hours later.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Critically Ill
           Postoperative Patient

    • Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a transient condition characterized by altered mental status, seizure, headache, and visual disturbance with typical neuro-imaging findings in the bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Clinicians should be aware of this syndrome because delayed diagnosis and treatment result in irreversible neurologic deficits. We present the case of a 77-year-old male diagnosed with PRES in the setting of postoperative critical illness caused by small-bowel strangulation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Complicated Scrub Typhus

    • Abstract: Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi . Although early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve the prognosis for the majority of patients, life-threatening complications are not uncommon. Here, we present a case of successful veno-veno-type extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for scrub typhus-induced complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis and multi-organ dysfunction.To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in complicated scrub typhus in Korea.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-3350, Colyte) Poisoning due to Intra-Peritoneal
           Leakage in an Elderly ...

    • Abstract: Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 is the most frequently used lavage solution for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or elective surgery because its large molecular weight means that it is poorly absorbed. However, if it leaks into the peritoneal cavity, complications may arise. Few published studies have assessed the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PEG. Moreover, no published clinical data regarding complications due to the intra-peritoneal leakage of PEG-3350 could be found. We report on an elderly patient who developed the poisoning caused by leaking of PEG-3350 during bowel preparation. It resulted in severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperosmolality and a high anion gap, but it was effectively treated with early continuous renal replacement therapy after surgery.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Is Body Mass Index a Useful Prognostic Factor for Critically Ill

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    • Abstract: Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition's high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Evaluation of Informed Consent for Withholding and Withdrawal of Life
           Support in Korean ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to analyze the process and characteristics of withholding or withdrawal of life support (WLS) in Korean intensive care units (ICUs).METHODS: This was a single-centered retrospective analysis of patients who died in the ICUs of a tertiary hospital in Korea from January to December 2012. WLS informed consents and clinical data were analyzed.RESULTS: Of 285 deaths during the study period, informed consents for WLS were obtained from 228 patients (80.0%).All WLS decisions were made by family members after the patient's loss of decision-making capacity. Decisions were made most frequently by the patient's son (50.6%). Patients in the WLS group were older than those in the non-WLS group, and older age was associated with the WLS decision.Thirty-seven patients (16.2%) died within one hour of WLS approval, and 182 patients (79.8%) died on the day of WLS approval. The most frequently withheld life support modality was chest compression (100%), followed by defibrillation (95.9%) and pacemaker insertion (63.3%).CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive and invasive life support measures were those most frequently withheld or withdrawn by decision-makers in Korean ICUs. The most common proxy was the son, rather than the spouse.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Pharmacotherapeutic Problems and Pharmacist Interventions in a Medical
           Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Interest in pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team is increasing.However, studies examining pharmacist interventions in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) are limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to describe the current status of pharmacist interventions and to identify common pharmacologic problems requiring pharmacist intervention in the MICU.METHODS: Between September 2013 and August 2014, a retrospective, observational study was conducted in the 22-bed MICU at a university hospital. Data were obtained from two trained pharmacists who participated in MICU rounds three times a week. In addition to patient characteristics, data on the cause, type, related drug, and acceptance rate of interventions were collected.RESULTS: In 340 patients, a total of 1211 pharmacologic interventions were performed. The majority of pharmacologic interventions were suggested by pharmacists at multidisciplinary rounds in the MICU. The most common pharmacologic interventions were adjustment of dosage and administration (n = 328, 26.0%), followed by parenteral/enteral nutritional support (n = 228, 18.1%), the provision of drug information (n = 228, 18.1%), and advice regarding pharmacokinetics (n = 118, 9.3%). Antimicrobial agents (n = 516, 42.6%) were the most frequent type of drug associated with pharmacist interventions. The acceptance rate of interventions was 84.1% with most accepted by physicians within 24 hours (n = 602, 92.8%).CONCLUSIONS: Medication and nutritional problems are frequently encountered pharmacotherapeutic problems in the MICU. Pharmacist interventions play an important role in the management of these problems.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Adequacy of a Conventional Mechanical Ventilator as a Ventilation
           Method during ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We conducted this study to verify whether a mechanical ventilator is adequate for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).METHODS: A self-inflating bag resuscitator and a mechanical ventilator were used to test two experimental models: Model 1 (CPR manikin without chest compression) and Model 2 (CPR manikin with chest compression). Model 2 was divided into three subgroups according to ventilator pressure limits (P(limit)). The self-inflating bag resuscitator was set with a ventilation rate of 10 breaths/min with the volume-marked bag-valve procedure. The mode of the mechanical ventilator was set as follows: volume-controlled mandatory ventilation of tidal volume (Vt) 600 mL, an inspiration time of 1.2 seconds, a constant flow pattern, a ventilation rate of 10 breaths/minute, a positive end expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O and a maximum trigger limit. Peak airway pressure (P(peak)) and Vt were measured by a flow analyzer.Ventilation adequacy was determined at a Vt range of 400-600 mL with a P(peak) of < or = 50 cmH2O.RESULTS: In Model 1, Vt and P(peak) were in the appropriate range in the ventilation equipments. In Model 2, for the self-inflating bag resuscitator, the adequate Vt and P(peak) levels were 17%, and the P(peak) adequacy was 20% and the Vt was 65%. For the mechanical ventilator, the adequate Vt and P(peak) levels were 85%; the P(peak) adequacy was 85%; and the Vt adequacy was 100% at 60 cmH2O of P(limit).CONCLUSIONS: In a manikin model, a mechanical ventilator was superior to self-inflating bag resuscitator for maintaining adequate ventilation during chest compression.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Polymyxin B Immobilized Fiber Hemoperfusion in Refractory Intra-abdominal
           Septic Shock

    • Abstract: The effects of direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B immobilized fiber (PMX) treatment for septic shock have been recently reported. However, little evidence of a true benefit on clinical outcomes, including mortality, is available. Herein, we report three cases of intra-abdominal infection associated with refractory septic shock Case 1 was Escherichia coli peritonitis after a colectomy. PMX treatment improved the hemodynamic parameters and lactic acid levels of the patient. In case 2, secondary peritonitis was associated with septic or cardiogenic shock. Septic cardiomyopathy was assumed to be the cause of shock. 24 hours after the use of PMX, cardiac contractility assessed by echocardiography returned to baseline. In case 3, a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma and neutropenia was found to be gastroenteritis and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia.Intravenous meropenem was administered for 3 days.Hemodynamic parameters improve after the twice use of PMXOverall, the change of serial sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) was more significant in surgical cases as compared to the medical case at 72 hours after PMX administration. All patients were discharged from the hospital. In addition to early resuscitation efforts and infection source control, PMX treatment may be beneficial to patients with refractory intra-abdominal infection associated with septic shock.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Will the Taper Shaped Cuff Replace the Conventional High Volume-Low
           Pressured Cuff on ...

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Incidentally Discovered Deep Neck Infection in a Septic Patient

    • Abstract: We incidentally discovered a case of deep neck infection during the treatment of a patient who presented with complaints of decreased consciousness, abdominal distension, and electrolyte imbalance. The patient had neither clinical symptoms nor radiologic findings indicative of deep neck infection; rather, the findings indicated intra-abdominal sepsis and adrenal crisis, for which the symptomatic treatment was provided. When the expected improvement was not observed, we retrospectively reviewed the patient's test records and discovered deep neck infection. Empiric parenteral antibiotic therapy and infection source control, as appropriate for this patient, were administered within 72 hours of hospital admission, without which the condition may have proved fatal. In this report we discuss the best approach for the management of unresolved infectious disease and review the clinical features of deep neck infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Obstructive Fibrinous Tracheal Pseudomembrane Presented with Atelectasis

    • Abstract: Obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane (OFTP) is a rare condition usually associated with endotracheal intubation. Airway obstruction caused by OFTP may occur after endotracheal tube extubation and can lead to severe respiratory distress. It is a rare but potentially fatal complication. In this report, we present a case of OFTP presented with atelectasis that caused dyspnea after extubation and was successfully treated by mechanical removal using a rigid bronchoscope.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Selection of Treatment for Large Non-Traumatic Subdural Hematoma Developed
           during Hemodialysis

    • Abstract: A 49-year-old man with end-stage renal disease was admitted to the hospital with a severe headache and vomiting. On neurological examination the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 15 and his brain CT showed acute subdural hematoma over the right cerebral convexity with approximately 11-mm thickness and 9-mm midline shift. We chose a conservative treatment of scheduled neurological examination, anticonvulsant medication, serial brain CT scanning, and scheduled hemodialysis (three times per week) without using heparin. Ten days after admission, he complained of severe headache and a brain CT showed an increased amount of hemorrhage and midline shift. Emergency burr hole trephination and removal of the hematoma were performed, after which symptoms improved. However, nine days after the operation a sudden onset of general tonic-clonic seizure developed and a brain CT demonstrated an increased amount of subdural hematoma. Under the impression of persistent increased intracranial pressure, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) in order to control intracranial pressure. Management at the ICU consisted of regular intravenous mannitol infusion assisted with continuous renal replacement therapy. He stayed in the ICU for four days. Twenty days after the operation he was discharged without specific neurological deficits.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Life-Threatening Acute Fulminant Myocarditis Following a Coffee Diet

    • Abstract: Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium caused by various infectious or noninfectious triggers.Although viral infections are important causes of myocarditis, some drugs or toxins can also cause myocarditis. We report a case of life-threatening fulminant myocarditis which followed an extensive coffee diet program.Despite medical treatment, the patient was not able to maintain hemodynamic stability. She was supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and completely recovered 3 months later.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Isolated Chylopericardium after Mitral Valve Replacement: the First
           Description of Adult Heart ...

    • Abstract: Isolated chylopericardium as a complication of cardiac surgery is very rare. Two cases of chylopericardium have been previously reported in Korea; both patients suffered from chylopericardium after a corrective cardiac surgery for a congenital heart disease such as atrial or ventricular septal defect. We report a case of chylopericardium in a 55-year-old mitral valve replacement patient. The reason for chylopericardium was unclear, but it might have been related with the damaged lymph nodes and blunt dissection of the thymus. While most chylopericardium cases require surgical intervention, we managed this chylopericardium case with a low-fat diet for 3 days.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Fatal Case of a Large Abdominal Wall Muscle Hematoma Secondary to
           Low-Molecular-Weight ...

    • Abstract: The use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) can lead to major life threatening complications, including hematomas.Abdominal wall muscle hematomas are rarely fatal, and encompass a wide spectrum of severity depending on size, etiology, and associated complications; but because of their rarity may be misdiagnosed clinically. We report a fatal case of an 80-year-old female who received LMWH after an episode of pulmonary thromboembolism and was subsequently diagnosed with a large right abdominal wall hematoma complicated with hypovolemic shock and acute kidney injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Characteristics of the Development of Pneumothorax in
           Mechanically Ventilated Patients ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax (PTX) can occur as a complication of positive pressure ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients who developed PTX during mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU).RESULTS: Of the 326 patients admitted (208 men and 118 women; mean age, 65.3 +/- 8.74 years), 15 (4.7%) developed PTX, which was MV-associated in 11 (3.3%) cases (6 men and 5 women; mean age, 68.3 +/- 9.12 years) and procedure-associated in 4. Among the patients with MV-associated PTX, the underlying lung diseases were acute respiratory distress syndrome in 7 patients, interstitial lung disease in 2 patients, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2 patients. PTX diagnosis was achieved by chest radiography alone in 9 patients and chest computed tomography alone in 2 patients. Nine patients were using assist-control mode MV with the mean applied positive end-expiratory pressure, 9 +/- 4.6 cmH2O and the mean tidal volume, 361 +/- 63.7 ml at the diagnosis of PTX. Two patients died as a result of MV-associated PTX and their systolic pressure was below 80 mmHg and heart rates were less than 80/min. Ten patients were treated by chest tube insertion, and 1 patient was treated by percutaneous pigtail catheter insertion.CONCLUSIONS: PTX can develop in patients undergoing MV, and may cause death. Early recognition and treatment are necessary to prevent hemodynamic compromise in patients who develop PTX.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Respiratory Complications Associated with Insertion of Small-Bore Feeding
           Tube in Critically ...

    • Abstract: Small-bore flexible feeding tubes decrease the risk of ulceration of the nose, pharynx, and stomach compared with large-bore and more rigid tubes. However, small-bore feeding tubes have more respiratory system complications, such as pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, and pneumonia, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to confirm the correct position of feeding tubes. Chest X-ray is the gold standard to detect tracheal malpositioning of the feeding tube. We present three cases in which intubated patients exhibited an altered mental state. An assistant guide wire was used at the insertion of small-bore feeding tubes. These conditions are thought to be potential risk factors for tracheobronchial malpositioning of feeding tubes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    • Abstract: We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Liver Laceration with Hemoperitoneum after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    • Abstract: It is well known that external chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is frequently associated with various complications. These complications predominantly involve trauma to the heart, lungs, and chest wall, whereas cases involving intra-abdominal injury are much less frequent. The present report describes a rare case of a female patient with severe hemoperitoneum associated with liver injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although emergent angiography and embolization of the hepatic artery were performed and transfusion of various kinds of blood products was done continuously, the patient expired the next day.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Is Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Necessary for Community

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients

    • Abstract: In most cases, patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) have suffered from severe trauma, undergone major surgery or been treated for a serious medical illness.Although they often experience more intense pain than general ward patients, they are frequently unable to communicate their experiences to health care providers, thus preventing accurate assessment and treatment of their pain.If appropriate measures are not taken to treat pain in critically ill patients, stress response or sympathetic overstimulation can lead to complications. The short-term consequences of untreated pain include higher energy expenditure and immunomodulation. Longer-term, untreated pain increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder.Because pain is quite subjective, the accurate assessment of pain is very difficult in the patients with impaired communication ability. The current most valid and reliable behavioral pain scales used to assess pain in adult ICU patients are the Behavioral Pain Scale and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool. Once pain has been accurately assessed using these methods, various pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies should be performed by the multidisciplinary care team. Accurate assessment and proper treatment of pain in adult ICU patients will improve patients outcome, which reduces the stress response and decreases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Current Status of Medical Decision-Making for Dying Patients in a
           Medical Intensive Care ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many terminally ill patients die while receiving life-sustaining treatment. Recently, the discussion of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care units (ICUs) has increased. This study is aimed to evaluate the current status of medical decision-making for dying patients.METHODS: The medical records of patients who had died in the medical ICU from March 2011 to February 2012 were reviewed retrospectively.RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were enrolled. Their mean age was 65.8 +/- 13.3 years and 73.0% were male. The most common diagnosis was acute respiratory failure, and the most common comorbidity was hemato-oncologic malignancy. Withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment including do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders was discussed for 64 (71.9%) patients. In almost all cases, the discussion involved a physician and the patient's family. No patient wrote advance directives themselves before ICU admission. Of the patients for whom withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment was discussed, the decisions were recorded in formal consent documents in 36 (56.3%) cases, while 28 (43.7%) cases involved verbal consent. In patients granting verbal consent, death within one day of the consent was more common than in those with formal document consent (85.7% vs.61.1%, p < 0.05). The most common demand was a DNR order.Patients died 2.7 +/- 1.0 days after the decision for removal of life-sustaining treatment.CONCLUSIONS: The decision-making for life-sustaining treatment of dying patients in the ICU very often involves conflict. There is a general need to heighten our sensitivity on the objective decision-making based on patient autonomy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Optimal Dose of Midazolam for Promoting Sleep in Critically Ill
           Patients: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many critically ill patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep disruption.Midazolam is commonly used for the sedation of critically ill patients. This pilot study is aimed to identify the optimal dose of midazolam for achieving sound sleep in critically ill patients.METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the medical ICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Polysomnography recording was performed over 24 hours to assess the quantity and quality of sleep in patients sedated with midazolam.RESULTS: A total of five patients were enrolled. Median total sleep time was 494.0 (IQR: 113.5-859.0) min. The majority of sleep was stage 1 (median 82.0 [IQR 60.5-372.5] min) and 2 (median 88.0 [60.5-621.0] min) with scant REM (median 10.0 [6.0-50.5] min) and no stage 3 (0.0 min) sleep.The median number of wakings in 1 hour was 16.1 (IQR: 7.6-28.6). The dose of midazolam showed a positive correlation with total sleep time (r = 0.975, p = 0.005).CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate quantity of sleep in critically ill patients was achieved with a continuous infusion of 0.02-0.03 mg/kg/h midazolam. However, the quality of sleep was poor. Further study is required for the promotion of quality sleep in such patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Interruption of Chest Compression for Central Venous Catheterization
           during Cardiopulmonary ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Peripheral venous catheterization (PVC) is a less invasive and time consuming technique than central venous catheterization (CVC); however, for patients in circulatory collapse or receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), PVC cannot be achieved easily. CVC can provide not only a more effective administration route for medication, but also important hemodynamic information.Owing to the possibility of CPR interruptions and complications, CVC is recommended only after the failure of PVC. This observational study is aimed to evaluate the risks and benefits of CVC during CPR.METHODS: This retrospective observational study was performed in the emergency department (ED) of a university hospital. Adult patients without a pulse on arrival were consecutively enrolled if subclavian CVC was performed at the beginning of CPR. Patients who already had an established intravenous route or had severe chest injuries on arrival were excluded. Closed-circuit television was used to evaluate the frequency of compression interruption. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax, an acute mechanical complication associated with subclavian CVC, was investigated using chest X-ray after CPR.RESULTS: During a 6-month period, 35 patients underwent CPR and 31 of these received subclavian CVC. Among the patients, one patient experienced iatrogenic pneumothorax (3.8%), and 13 CPR interruptions occurred in 10 subjects during subclavian CVC.CONCLUSIONS: During CPR in 31 patients, one iatrogenic pneumothorax was caused by subclavian CVC, and CPR interruptions were observed in approximately 30% of cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Usefulness of Intensivist-Performed Bedside Drainage of Pleural
           Effusion via ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: There has been little data reporting the usefulness of intensivist-performed bedside drainage of pleural effusion via ultrasound (US)-guided pigtail catheter. The objective of this study is to clarify the usefulness and safety of these methods in comparison with radiologist-performed procedures.METHODS: Data of patients with pleural effusion treated with US-guided pigtail catheter drainage were analyzed. All procedures were performed from September 2012 to September.2013 by a well-trained intensivist or radiologist.RESULTS: Pleural effusion was drained in 25 patients in 33 sessions. A radiologist performed 21 sessions, and an intensivist performed 12 sessions. Procedures during mechanical ventilation were performed in 15 (71.4%) patients by a radiologist and in 10 (83.3%) by an intensivist (p = 0.678). The success rate was not significantly different in radiologist- and intensivist-performed procedures, 95.2% (20/21) and 83.3% (10/12), respectively (p = 0.538). The average duration for procedures (including in-hospital transfer) was longer in radiologist-performed cases (p = 0.001). Although the results are limited because of the small population size, aggravation of oxygenation, CO2 retention, and decrease of mean arterial blood pressure were not statistically different in the groups.Pigtail-associated complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax, hepatic perforation, empyema, kink in the catheter, and subcutaneous hematoma were not found.CONCLUSIONS: Intensivist-performed bedside drainage of pleural effusion via ultrasound (US)-guided pigtail catheter is useful and safe and may be recommended in some patients in an intensive care unit.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy in Critically Ill Patients Taking
           Antiplatelet Agents

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) has been considered as an alternative to surgical tracheostomy in intensive care units (ICU), and is widely used for critically ill patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation. Few studies have reported on PDT performed in critically ill patients taking antiplatelet agents. Our goals are to assess not only the feasibility and safety of PDT, but also bleeding complications in the patients receiving such therapy.METHODS: In a single institution, PDTs were performed by pulmonologists at the medical ICU bedside using the single tapered dilator technique and assisted by flexible bronchoscopy to confirm a secure puncture site. From March 2011 to February 2013, the patients' demographic and clinical data, procedural parameters, outcomes and complications were analyzed and compared complications between patients taking antiplatelet agents and those not.RESULTS: PDTs were performed for 138 patients; the median age was 72 years, mean body mass index was 20.3 +/- 4.8 kg/m2, and mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 24.4 +/- 9.4. Overall, the procedural success rate was 100% and the total procedural time was 25 +/- 8.5 min. There were no periprocedural life-threatening complications, and no statistical difference in the incidence of bleeding complications between patients who had taken antiplatelet agents and those had not (p = 0.657).CONCLUSIONS: PDT performed in critically ill patients taking antiplatelet agents was a feasible procedure and was implemented without additional bleeding complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Scrub Typhus:
           Clinical Experiences ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical course and outcome of patients who were diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by scrub typhus and who received ventilator care in the intensive care units (ICU) of two university hospitals.METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all adult ventilated patients who were diagnosed with ARDS caused by scrub typhus.RESULTS: Eleven (1.7%) of 632 scrub typhus patients were diagnosed with ARDS (median age 72; seven were male). Eight patients had underlying diseases, the most common of which was hypertension (four patients). Eight patients (72.7%) were admitted in November. The most common chief complaints of the patients were fever and rash (63.6%). All patients had skin eschar and rash; seven were treated for shock. On the day of diagnosis with ARDS, the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score was 20 (range 11-28) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 7 (range 4-14). All patients had PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg, high serum aspartate aminotransferase level (> 40 IU/L), and hypoalbuminemia (< 3.3 g/dl). Nine patients were treated with doxycycline on the day of admission. Their median lengths of stay in the ICU and hospital were 10 (range 4-65) and 14 (4-136) days, respectively. The mortality rate during treatment in the hospital was 36.4%.CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the risk of ARDS among patients diagnosed with scrub typhus was at least 1.7%, with a hospital mortality rate of 36.4%.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Torsades de Pointes during Treatment of Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    • Abstract: Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is caused by persistent tarchyarrhythmias and is characterized by ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure.Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually reversible via treatment. The cornerstone in the management of disease in these patients is to achieve a normal heart rate. We report a torsades de pointes during treatment of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Intravenous magnesium sulfate and potassium were administrated, but torsades de pointes was repeated. After overdrive right ventricular pacing, torsades de pointes was terminated. Careful monitoring of the QT interval and serum electrolyte and drug levels in such patients is warranted during treatment of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Optimal Organ Donation

    • Abstract: We report a case of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for donor organ preservation in a brain-dead patient following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A 43-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation. Spontaneous circulation was restored after 8 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.ECMO was implemented because of hemodynamic deterioration.The patient then underwent coronary angiography and was implanted with a drug-eluting stent because of occlusion at the proximal portion of the right coronary artery. After 144 hours, brain death was established, and ECMO support for optimal oxygen delivery was sustained until organ retrieval after consent for donation was received from the family.Liver and kidneys were successfully transplanted to three recipients, respectively.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage Identified in the Early Stage after Applying
           Extracorporeal Membrane ...

    • Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support can extend the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but neurologic complications may develop. Cardiac arrest is a fairly common complication following severe intracranial hemorrhage; this complication is encountered both out-of-hospital and in-hospital with variable frequency. To prevent cerebral complications, to detect the cause of cardiac arrest, and to guide further treatment, early neuroimaging study is needed.Herein, we report a case of intracranial hemorrhage identified after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in which the cause of the hemorrhage was not clear.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Complicated Pulmonary Pseudocyst Following Traumatic Lung Injury Rescued
           by Extracorporeal ...

    • Abstract: Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma that usually appears immediately in children or young adults and is characterized by a single or multiple pulmonary cystic lesions on chest radiography and has spontaneous resolution of the radiologic manifestations.However, we experienced a case of a delayed complicated pulmonary pseudocyst in a 17-year-old boy following severe traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome rescued by Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In this case, the pseudocyst appeared on the 12th day after trauma and transformed into an infected cyst. Veno-venous ECMO was successfully maintained for 20 days without anticoagulation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Dual Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support for Bridging Lung
           Transplantation in Acute ...

    • Abstract: When patients with severe respiratory failure are treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), severe pulmonary hypertension due to right ventricular (RV) failure is possible. This is a serious complication that requires immediate therapeutic intervention. We report an extraordinary experience of additional venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support for RV failure in a patient who was being treated with VV-ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. While waiting for lung transplantation, he was placed on VV-ECMO and developed RV failure. After insertion of additional VA ECMO, RV dysfunction was dramatically improved. He underwent heart-lung transplantation after 23 days of dual ECMO support.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Recovery from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Long-Run
           Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    • Abstract: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung disease associated with high mortality despite recent advances in management. Significant advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) devices and management allow short-term support for patients with acute reversible respiratory failure and can serve as a bridge to transplantation in patients with irreversible respiratory failure. When ARDS does not respond to conventional treatment, ECMO and the interventional lung assist membrane (iLA) are the most widely used complementary treatment options. Here, we report a clinical case of an adult patient who required prolonged duration venovenous (VV)-ECMO for severe ARDS resulting in improvement while waiting for lung transplantation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Chylous Ascites in a Patient with Sepsis Caused by Bilateral Pneumonia

    • Abstract: Chylous ascites is a rare form of ascites characterized by milky peritoneal fluid rich in triglycerides due to the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneal cavity. This affliction occurs as a result of a disruption of lymph flow associated with traumatic injury or obstruction of the lymphatic system. There are various causes of chylous ascites, such as lymphatic anomalies, malignancy, cirrhosis, infection, trauma, surgery, and nephrotic syndrome. We report a rare case of an 81-year-old male with sepsis caused by bilateral pneumonia who presented with chylous ascites.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Cardiogenic Shock in a Patient with Intermediate Coronary Artery Disease
           due to Preoperative Spasm

    • Abstract: The best management strategy for angiographically intermediated coronary artery diseases remains controversial. Lesions, when coupled with spasm, can lead to catastrophic results and cardiogenic shock. We report a case of a 62-year-old man who had an intermediate coronary artery disease presenting with cardiogenic shock due to coronary spasm during a preoperative period.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Adrenal Insufficiency Associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    • Abstract: Acute adrenal insufficiency (AAI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients is rare and may be frequently underestimated as simple ACS, since symptoms of AAI are nonspecific.Physicians should be fully aware of the possibility of occult AAI combined with ACS, if clinical suspicion is high.Herein, we report a rare case of a 67-year-old female patient with concomitant AAI and drug eluting stent fracture-induced ACS. To our knowledge, there have been no case reports of AAI associated with ACS in Korea.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Myocardial Infarction during the Subacute Phase of Refractory and
           Incomplete Kawasaki ...

    • Abstract: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, systemic vasculitis of childhood. The early mortality of KD results from coronary complications, mainly aneurysmal thrombosis with myocardial infarction, and the subacute phase of KD has the highest risk of mortality. Although there have been reports of ischemic heart disease as late cardiologic sequelae of KD in young adults, acute myocardial infarction caused by coronary complications in the subacute phase of KD is rare. We experienced one pediatric patient who developed coronary artery aneurysm and acute myocardiac infarction (AMI) during the subacute phase of incomplete and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-nonresponsive KD. The patient was given a good prognosis due to close monitoring and early recognition of AMI. Physicians should carefully monitor KD patients who do not respond to initial IVIG therapy and who show progressive coronary artery dilatation. If such a patient complaints of chest pain and the ECG shows hyperacute T waves, the physician should suspect development of AMI.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aortic Arch

    • Abstract: A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is rare. We report a case of mycotic aneurysm that developed in the aortic arch. An 86-year-old man was admitted with fever and general weakness. Blood culture yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged aortic arch, and computed tomography scan revealed an aneurysm in the aortic arch. The patient was treated only with antibiotics and not surgically. The size of the aneurysm increased rapidly, resulting in bronchial obstruction and superimposed pneumonia. The patient died of respiratory failure.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Lipid Emulsion in the Successful Resuscitation of Local Anesthetic
           Toxicity after Ankle Block

    • Abstract: Unexpected occurrence of local anesthetic toxicity is not rare and can cause fatal complications that do not respond to any known drug of intervention. Recently, the successful use of lipid emulsion for local anesthetic toxicity has been reported and recommended as a rescue method for cardiac or neurologic complications. We report a case of seizure attack and respiratory arrest successfully recovered with the use of intravenous lipid emulsion. Clinicians must be aware of the beneficial role of lipid emulsion in cases of local anesthetic toxicity.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Bridging Hemostasis Using a Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube in
           Massive Rectal Variceal Bleeding

    • Abstract: Life-threatening rectal variceal bleeding is a rare complication of liver cirrhosis. Various therapeutic interventions including endoscopic variceal ligation and percutaneous transvenous obliteration have been proposed to control significant rectal variceal bleeding. However, these definite hemostasis modalities are not readily available and require an experienced endoscopist or interventional radiologist. Therefore, bridging therapy to control active bleeding is necessary especially in patients with massive bleeding. We report a case of massive rectal variceal bleeding in which a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube was effective at stopping the bleeding until percutaneous transvenous obliteration could be performed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Obstructive Fibrinous Tracheal Pseudomembrane: An Update

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Do We Successfully Achieve Therapeutic Hypothermia'

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • How to Enhance Critical Care in Korea: Challenges and Vision

    • Abstract: The goal of critical care is to reverse patients' acute problems in effective and ethical ways with minimum costs.Unlike in other medical fields, the quality of Korean critical care has lagged behind that of advanced countries.Moreover, the level of critical care quality differs significantly between university hospitals. The suboptimal critical care level has multifactorial causes. The major challenge to Korean intensivists is, therefore, how to overcome barriers in the current critical care delivery system to improve outcomes for critically ill patients and reduce medical errors in error-prone Intensive Care Unit (ICUs). A long-term task force including all stakeholders should address the multifactorial barriers to better outcomes. The Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine should perform the central role to dismantle the barriers step by step with a long-term vision for a desirable critical care delivery system in our society. A capable critical care team with full-time intensivists is the most urgent requirement for proper, timely care in ICUs.Intensivists should focus on basic but essential management so scarcity of resources can be minimized. Publicity about ICU to the general public is also urgently required to draw the attention of medical policy makers to the current suboptimal level of our critical care system.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Implementing a Sepsis Resuscitation Bundle Improved Clinical Outcome: A
           Before-and-After Study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Unlike other diseases, the management of sepsis has not been fully integrated in our daily practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated training could improve compliance with a 6-h resuscitation bundle in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.METHODS: Repeated education regarding a sepsis bundle was provided to the intensive care unit and emergency department residents, nurses, and faculties in a single university hospital. The educational program was led by a multidisciplinary team. A total of 175 adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were identified (88 before and 87 after the educational program). Hemodynamic resuscitation bundle and timely antibiotics administration were measured for all cases and mortality at 28 days after sepsis diagnosis was evaluated.RESULTS: The compliance rate for the sepsis resuscitation bundle before the educational program was poor (0%), and repeated training improved it to 80% (p < 0.001). The 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group (16% vs. 32%, p = 0.040). Within the intervention group, patients for whom the resuscitation bundle was successfully completed had a significantly lower 28-day mortality than other patients (11% vs. 41%, p = 0.004).CONCLUSIONS: Repeated education led by a multidisciplinary team and interdisciplinary communication improved the compliance rate of the 6-h resuscitation bundle in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Compliance with the sepsis resuscitation bundle was associated with improved 28-day mortality in the study population.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase and Multidrug Resistance in Urinary
           Sepsis Patients Admitted ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The role of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing or multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms in patients with sepsis secondary to urinary traction infection (UTI) has not been investigated extensively in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting.METHODS: Patients with UTI sepsis admitted to the ICU were retrospectively enrolled in this study (January 2009-December 2012). We investigated the impact of ESBL-producing and ESBL-negative MDR organisms on hospital outcome.RESULTS: In total, 94 patients were enrolled (median age, 73.0 years; female, 81.9%), and ESBL-producing and ESBL-negative MDR organisms accounted for 20.2% (n = 19) and 30.9% (n = 29), respectively. Both patients with ESBL-producing and ESBL-negative MDR organisms were more likely to experience a delay in adequate antibiotic therapy than those with non-ESBL/non-MDR organisms (p < 0.001 and p = 0.032, respectively). However, only patients with ESBL-producing organisms showed a higher mortality rate (ESBL vs. ESBL-negative MDR vs. non-ESBL/non-MDR, 31.6% vs.10.3%.vs. 10.9%, respectively). In multivariate analyses, ESBL production was significantly associated with hospital mortality (odds ratio, 11.547; 95micro confidence interval, 1.047-127.373), and prior admission was a significant predictor of ESBL production.CONCLUSIONS: Although both ESBL-producing and ESBL-negative MDR organisms are associated with delayed administration of appropriate antibiotics, only ESBL production is a significant predictor of hospital mortality among patients with UTI sepsis in the ICU setting.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Characteristics of Respiratory Extracorporeal Life Support in
           Elderly Patients with ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) strategy is proposed to reduce the ventilator-induced lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As ECMO use has increased, a number of studies on prognostic factors have been published. Age is estimated to be an important prognostic factor. However, clinical evidences about ECMO use in elderly patients are limited. Therefore, we investigated clinical courses and outcomes of ECMO in elderly patients with ARDS.METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients with severe ARDS who required ECMO support. Study patients were classified into an elderly group (> or = 65 years) and a non-elderly group (< 65 years). Baseline characteristics, ECMO related outcomes and associated factors were retrospectively analyzed according to group.RESULTS: From February 2011 to June 2013, a total of 31 patients with severe ARDS were treated with ECMO. Overall, 14 (45.2%) were weaned from ECMO, 9 (29.0%) survived to the general ward and 7 (22.6%) survived to discharge. Among the 18 elderly group patients, 7 (38.9%) were weaned from ECMO, 4 (22.2%) were survived to the general ward and 2 (11.1%) were survived to discharge. Overall intensive care unit survival was inversely correlated with concomitant acute kidney injury or septic shock.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, ECMO outcome was poor in severe ARDS patients aged over 65 years. Therefore, the routine use of ECMO in elderly patients with severe ARDS is not warranted except in highly selective cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Thrombosis in the Left Ventricle after Implantable
           Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation: A ...

    • Abstract: This report describes a case of systemic thromboembolism caused by left ventricular (LV) thrombosis that developed after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). A 27-year-old male patient was diagnosed with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia, and underwent ICD implantation for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Two weeks after ICD implantation, the patient experienced renal infarction.Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a mobile thrombus at the LV apex, and automated function imaging demonstrated deteriorated LV function after ICD implantation. The RV was not placed by ICD and the mechanical force which was occurred by ICD that led to induced dyssynchronous motion of the LV apex may have resulted in a systemic thromboembolism.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Predicting Delayed Ventilator Weaning after Lung Transplantation: The Role
           of Body Mass Index

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Weaning from mechanical ventilation is difficult in the intensive care unit (ICU). Many controversial questions remain unanswered concerning the predictors of weaning failure. This study investigates patient characteristics and delayed weaning after lung transplantation.METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 17 lung transplantation patients from October 2012 to December 2013. Patients able to be weaned from mechanical ventilation within 8 days after surgery were assigned to an early group (n = 9), and the rest of the patients were assigned to the delayed group (n=8). Patients' intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were collected and analyzed, and conventional weaning predictors, including rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), were also assessed.RESULTS: The results of the early group showed a significantly shorter ICU stay in addition to a shorter hospitalization overall. Notably, the early group had a higher body mass index (BMI) than the delayed group (20.7 vs. 16.9, p = 0.004). In addition, reopening occurred more frequently in the delayed group (1/9 vs. 5/8, p = 0.05).During spontaneous breathing trials, tidal volume (TV) and arterial oxygen tension were significantly higher in the early group compared to the delayed weaning group, but differences in RSBI and respiratory rate (RR) between groups were not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: Low BMI might be associated with delayed ventilator weaning in lung transplantation patients. In addition, instead of the traditional weaning predictors of RSBI and RR, TV might be a better predictor for ventilator weaning after lung transplantation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparison of Morphine and Remifentanil on the Duration of Weaning from
           Mechanical Ventilation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel group study was performed to compare the effects of remifentanil and morphine as analgesic drugs on the duration of weaning time from mechanical ventilation (MV).METHODS: A total of 96 patients with MV in 6 medical and surgical intensive care units were randomly assigned to either, remifentanil (0.1-0.2 mcg/kg/min, n = 49) or morphine (0.8-35 mg/hr, n = 47) from the weaning start. The weaning time was defined as the total ventilation time minus the sum of controlled mode duration.RESULTS: Compared with the morphine group, the remifentanil-based analgesic group showed a tendency of shorter weaning time (mean 143.9 hr, 89.7 hr, respectively: p = 0.069). Secondary outcomes such as total ventilation time, successful weaning rate at the 7th of MV day was similar in both groups. There was also no difference in the mortality rate at the 7th and 28th hospital day.Kaplan-Meyer curve for weaning was not different between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: Remifentanil usage during the weaning phase tended to decrease weaning time compared with morphine usage.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Examination II and Sequential Organ
           Failure Assessment ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between acute physiologic and chronic health examination (APACHE) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and outcomes of post-cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH).METHODS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors treated with TH between January 2010 and December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. We captured all components of the APACHE II and SOFA scores over the first 48 hours after intensive care unit (ICU) admission (0 h). The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome measure was neurologic outcomes at the time of hospital discharge. Receiver-operating characteristic and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the predictability of outcomes with serial APACHE II and SOFA scores.RESULTS: A total of 138 patients were enrolled in this study. The area under the curve (AUC) for APACHE II scores at 0 h for predicting in-hospital mortality and poor neurologic outcomes (cerebral performance category: 3-5) was more than 0.7, and for SOFA scores from 0 h to 48 h the AUC was less than 0.7. Odds ratios used to determine associations between APACHE II scores from 0 h to 48 h and in-hospital mortality were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.23), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.23), and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07-1.30).CONCLUSIONS: APACHE II, but not SOFA score, at the time of ICU admission is a modest predictor of in-hospital mortality and poor neurologic outcomes at the time of hospital discharge for patients who have undergone TH after return of spontaneous circulation following OHCA.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effectiveness of Bradycardia as a Single Parameter in the Pediatric Acute
           Response System

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Various tools for the acute response system (ARS) predict and prevent acute deterioration in pediatric patients. However, detailed criteria have not been clarified. Thus we evaluated the effectiveness of bradycardia as a single parameter in pediatric ARS.METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who had visited a tertiary care children's hospital from January 2012 to June 2013, in whom ARS was activated because of bradycardia. Patient's medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, cardiologic evaluations, and reversible causes that affect heart rate.RESULTS: Of 271 cases, 261 (96%) had ARS activation by bradycardia alone with favorable outcomes. Evaluations and interventions were performed in 165 (64.5%) and 13 cases (6.6%) respectively. All patients in whom ARS was activated owing to bradycardia and another criteria underwent evaluation, unlike those with bradycardia alone (100.0% vs.63.2%, p = 0.016). Electrocardiograms were evaluated in 233 (86%) cases: arrhythmias were due to borderline QT prolongation and atrioventricular block (1st and 2nd-degree) in 25 cases (9.2%). Bradycardia-related causes were reversible in 202 patients (74.5%). Specific causes were different in departments at admission. Patients admitted to the hemato-oncology department required ARS activation during the night (69.3%, p = 0.03), those to the endocrinology department required ARS activation because of medication (72.4%, p < 0.001), and those to the gastroenterology department had low body mass indexes (32%, p = 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: Using bradycardia alone in pediatric ARS is not useful, because of its low specificity and poor predictive ability for deterioration. However, bradycardia can be applied to ARS concurrently with other parameters.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Air Leakage: Comparison
           of Cuff Designs

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently developed taper-shaped cuffs (TG cuffs) of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are known to have a more potent sealing effect than cylindrical high-volume low-pressure cuffs (HL cuffs) of conventional ETTs. The aim of this study was to compare TG cuffs with HL cuffs of ETTs in a bench-top model with regard to air leakage under various positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP).METHODS: HL cuffs and TG cuffs made from PVC were included (HL group vs. TG group). A model trachea with an internal diameter (ID) of 22 mm was attached to a test lung. The test lung was ventilated using an anesthesia respirator with volume controlled mode and PEEPs of 0, 5, 10, or 15 cm H2O.Using spirometry, percentages of expired to inspired tidal volumes (TVe/i) were calculated as a measure of air leakage.RESULTS: With regard to PEEPs, the HL group showed significantly higher air leakage compared to the TG group (p < 0.0001), and a higher PEEP resulted in greater air leakage (p < 0.0001). Air leakage with higher PEEP was greater in the HL group than in the TG group at ID 7.0 mm and 7.5 mm (p = 0.0467, p = 0.0045).CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the superior sealing ability of the TG cuff during ventilation at various PEEPs.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Prognostic Value and Optimal Sampling Time of S-100B Protein for Outcome
           Prediction in Cardiac ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value and optimal sampling time of serum S-100B protein for the prediction of poor neurological outcomes in post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH).METHODS: We prospectively measured serum S100 calcium binding protein beta subunit (S-100B protein) levels 12 times (0-96 hours) after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The patients were classified into two groups based on cerebral performance category (CPC): the good neurological outcome group (CPC 1-2 at 6 months) and the poor neurological outcome group (CPC 3-5). We compared serial changes and serum S-100B protein levels at each time point between the two groups and performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the prediction of poor neurological outcomes.RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study.S-100B protein levels peaked at ROSC (0 hour), decreased rapidly to 6 hours and maintained a similar level thereafter. Serum S-100B protein levels in the poor CPC group (n = 22) were significantly higher than in the good CPC group (n = 18) at all time points after ROSC except at 4 hours. The time points with highest area under curve were 24 (0.829) and 36 (0.837) hours. The cut-off value, the sensitivity (24/36 hours) and specificity (24/36 hours) for the prediction of poor CPC at 24 and 48 hours were 0.221/0.249 ug/L, 75/65% and 82.4/94.1%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Serum S-100B protein was an early and useful marker for the prediction of poor neurological outcomes in post-CA patients treated with TH and the optimal sampling times were 24 and 36 hours after ROSC.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Change in Red Cell Distribution Width as Predictor of Death and Neurologic
           Outcome in Patients ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of change in red cell distribution width (RDW) during hospital stays in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was investigated.METHODS: Patients treated with TH after OHCA between January 2009 and August 2013 were reviewed. Patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were assessed according to Utstein Style. Hematologic variables including RDW, hematocrit, white blood cell count, and platelets were also obtained. RDW changes during the 72 hours after ROSC were categorized into five groups as follows: Group 1 (-0.8-0.1%), Group 2 (0.2-0.3%), Group 3 (0.4-0.5%), Group 4 (0.6-0.8%), and Group 5 (>0.8%).RESULTS: A total of 218 patients were enrolled in the study.RDW changes during the 72 hours after ROSC in Group 4 (HR 3.56, 95% CI 1.25-10.20) and Group 5 (HR 5.07, 95% CI 1.73-14.89) were associated with a statistically significant difference in one-month mortality. RDW changes were associated with statistically significant differences in neurologic outcome at 6 months after ROSC (Group 3 [HR 2.45, 95% CI 1.17-5.14], Group 4 [HR 2.79, 95% CI 1.33-5.84], Group 5 [HR 3.50, 95% CI 1.35-7.41]). Other significant variables were location of arrest, cause of arrest, serum albumin, and advanced cardiac life support time.CONCLUSIONS: RDW change during the 72 hours after ROSC is a predictor of mortality and neurologic outcome in patients treated with TH after OHCA.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Total Unilateral Obstruction by Sputum Immediately after Tracheal

    • Abstract: A 25-year-old man developed tracheal stenosis due to prolonged intubation for five days. Immediately after bougienage, his left lung was not possible to ventilate and emergency tracheostomy was performed to produce ample space for airflow. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed that his left main bronchus was totally obstructed by sputum at the entrance of the superior and inferior lobar bronchi.Inadequate airway clearance increases the risk of infection and airway obstruction. We suggest chest physiotherapy be applied to all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), especially patients with tracheal stenosis, due to its positive impact on pulmonary functional ability and ICU stay.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Traumatic Liver Injury: Factors Associated with Mortality

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We postulate that a delay in the implementation of hepatic arterial embolization for traumatic liver injury patients will negatively affect patient prognosis. Our work also seeks to identify factors related to the mortality rate among traumatic liver injury patients.METHODS: From January 2008 to April 2014, patients who had been admitted to the emergency room, were subsequently diagnosed with traumatic liver injury, and later underwent hepatic arterial embolization were included in this retrospective study.RESULTS: Of the 149 patients that underwent hepatic arterial embolization, 86 had the procedure due to traumatic liver injury. Excluding the 3 patients that were admitted to the hospital before procedure, the remaining 83 patients were used as subjects for the study. The average time between emergency room arrival and incidence of procedure was 164 min for the survival group and 132 min for the non-survival group; this was not statistically significant (p = 0.170).The average time to intervention was 182 min for the hemodynamically stable group, and 149 min for the hemodynamically unstable group, the latter having a significantly shorter wait time (p = 0.047). Of the factors related to the mortality rate, the odds ratio of the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) was 18.48 (p < 0.001), and that of albumin level was 0.368 (p = 0.006).CONCLUSIONS: In analyzing the correlation between mortality rate and the time from patient admission to arrival for hepatic arterial embolization, there was no statistical significance observed. Of the factors related to the mortality rate, GCS and albumin level may be used as prognostic factors in traumatic liver injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Green Urine after Propofol Infusion in the Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Urine discoloration occurs in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to many causes such as medications, metabolic disorders, and infections. Propofol is advocated as one of the first line sedatives in the ICU, but it is not well known to the intensivists that propofol can induce urine color change. We experienced two cases of green urine after propofol infusion. Propofol should be warranted as the cause of urine discoloration during ICU stay.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Cardiac Arrest due to Recurrent Ventricular Fibrillation Triggered by
           Unifocal Ventricular ...

    • Abstract: A 51-year-old male patient was referred for a sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Upon arrival, he was conscious and had no chest pain complaints. There was no abnormality in initial electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. However, episodes of recurrent ventricular fibrillation (VF) were documented on rhythm monitoring. Each VF episode was triggered by an isolated monomorphic ventricular premature complex (VPC).Suspecting idiopathic VF, emergency radiofrequency catheter ablation was planned for the VPCs. However, when coronary angiography was performed to exclude silent ischemia, the results showed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery posterolateral branch, which is thought to supply the left ventricular inferior and septal wall. After successful reperfusion, VF episodes and the triggering VPCs disappeared. We are documenting this case to emphasize the potential for silent myocardial infarction to cause out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest even in a patient without any symptom or sign of acute coronary syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Kawasaki Disease with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after
           Intravenous Immunoglobulin Infusion

    • Abstract: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. We report a case of KD with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion. Lung manifestations associated with KD have previously been reported in the literature. Although IVIG infusion is an effective therapy for acute KD, there are some reported complications related to IVIG infusion: hypotension, aseptic meningitis, acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia, etc. The case of KD reported here was treated with IVIG and aspirin. A few days after recovery from KD, the patient developed fever and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of relapse KD was made and retreated with IVIG infusion. However, the patient developed ARDS four days after the second IVIG infusion. The patient recovered from ARDS after nine days of ICU care, which included high frequency oscillation ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide, steroid treatment and other supportive care.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Methemoglobinemia Caused by an Inert Ingredient after Intentional
           Ingestion of Pesticide

    • Abstract: We report two cases of toxic methemoglobinemia caused by an inert ingredient in pesticide product after intentional ingestion of pesticide. First, 51-year-old male visited to the emergency department (ED) after the ingestion of pesticide in a suicide attempt. Initial methemoglobin (MetHb) level was 25.6%. We did not know the cause of methemoglobinemia at that time. Second, 56-year-old female visited to the ED after the ingestion of the same pesticide in a suicide attempt. MetHb level after 30 minutes was 16.1%. The patients were treated with methylene blue. We contacted to the Korean Rural Development Administration and estimated that magnesium nitrate was more likely to cause methemoglobinemia. This report highlights the importance of considering the possibility of methemoglobinemia caused by inert ingredient in pesticide and early antidotal therapy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Lobar Bronchial Rupture with Persistent Atelectasis after Blunt Trauma

    • Abstract: Rupture limited to the lobar bronchus from blunt trauma is especially rare, and the symptoms are light so diagnosis is difficult. In a patient who visited the hospital complaining of shortness of breath after falling down, atelectasis continued in the chest x-ray. Four days after visiting the hospital, a left upper lobar bronchial rupture was diagnosed through a bronchoscopy and 3 dimensional chest computerized tomography. When diagnosis is delayed in the case of a rupture limited to the lobar bronchus, bronchial obstruction can occur from the formation of granulation tissue, so regular monitoring is important. Therefore, when atelectasis continues after blunt trauma, it is important to differentially diagnose a lobar bronchial rupture through tests such as bronchoscopy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Erratum: Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Scrub
           Typhus: Clinical ...

    • Abstract: The title of page 189 should be corrected.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extraction of Endobronchial Tooth by Flexible Bronchoscopy Using Fishnet
           Basket in Patients of ...

    • Abstract: Foreign body aspiration into the tracheobronchial tree can cause serious problems. Tooth aspiration can occur during emergency endotracheal intubation. However, removal of a tooth from the airway is difficult because of the round shape and smooth surface of the tooth. Here, I report extraction of a tooth from the airway by flexible bronchoscopy using fishnet basket in intensive care patients. The procedure was performed in six patients. All patients were critically ill with an artificial airway (n = 4; endotracheal tube, n = 2; tracheostomy tube). The tooth location was right bronchial tree in three patients and left bronchial tree in three patients. Tooth extraction failed in two patients because the teeth were impacted in the distal bronchus during bronchoscopy. There was no complication such as life threatening arrhythmia or hypoxemia during the procedure. Using flexible bronchoscopy with a fishnet basket, we were able to extract aspirated teeth from patients with an artificial airway.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Presenting as Diffuse Alveolar

    • Abstract: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical intravascular hemolytic anemia with schistocytosis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure.Pulmonary involvement in HUS is known to be rare. We present the case of a 25-year-old male with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and myocarditis followed by atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. In this case, successful treatments included steroid pulse therapy for the fatal alveolar hemorrhage and plasma exchange for the hemolytic uremic syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • One Hundred Seven Days of ECMO as a Bridge to Lung Transplantation: The
           Longest Duration Among ...

    • Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a means for supporting adequate gas exchange in patients with severe respiratory failure and is the only therapeutic option for ventilation-refractory patients awaiting lung transplantation. Moreover, defining the patients likely to benefit from ECMO as a bridge to transplantation has recently become a point of interest. Here, we report a case of prolonged ECMO support to a patient awaiting lung transplantation. A 66-year-old woman was diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia and was placed on veno-venous (VV) ECMO due to unsatisfactory gas exchange despite maximal ventilator care. She underwent bilateral lung transplantation after 99 days of ECMO and was successfully weaned from it on the 107th ECMO day. This is the longest period of ECMO support to be reported among elderly patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Use of a Peripheral Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenator in a
           Patient with Chronic ...

    • Abstract: Myocardial dysfunction can occur during severe sepsis and may accelerate in the condition of chronic decompensated heart failure. A 26-year-old female in remission from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with shock due to chronic heart failure combined with pneumonia. The patient was initially stabilized using a peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) with antibiotics therapy, followed by left ventricular venting due to pulmonary edema that was complicated by left ventricular distension. Here, we report the successful application of ECMO to a patient with pneumonia underlying doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Although septic conditions remained unclear indication of ECMO, it might be considered a valuable therapeutic option in patients with chronic heart failure.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Is Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy Safe to Perform in the Intensive
           Care Unit'

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

    • Abstract: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly emerging infectious disease, caused by a novel species of Phlebovirus of Bunyaviridae family, in China, South Korea, and Japan. SFTS is primarily known as a tick-borne disease, and human-to-human transmission is also possible in contact with infectious blood. Common clinical manifestations include fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia as initial symptoms, and multiple organ dysfunction and failure manifest with disease progression.Whereas disease mortality is reported to be 12% to 30% in China, a recent report of cumulative SFTS cases indicated 47% in Korea. Risk factors associated with SFTS were age, presence of neurologic disturbance, serum enzyme levels, and elevated concentrations of certain cytokines. Diagnosis of SFTS is based on viral isolation, viral identification by polymerase chain reaction, and serologic identification of specific immunoglobulin G. Therapeutic guideline has not been formulated, but conservative management is the mainstream of treatment to prevent disease progression and fatal complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Safety and Feasibility of Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy Performed
           by Intensive Care Trainee

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) performed by an intensivist in critically ill patients is currently popular. Many studies support the safety and feasibility of PDT. However, there is limited data on the safety and feasibility of PDT performed by intensive care trainees.METHODS: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of PDT performed by intensive care trainees and to compare these with those performed by intensivists, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and adverse events of all prospectively registered patients who underwent PDT by ICT or intensivists in intensive care units (ICUs) from August 2010 to August 2013.RESULTS: In the study period, 203 patients underwent PDT in ICUs; 139 (68%) by trainees and 64 (32%) by intensivists.There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics including demographics, laboratory findings, and parameters of mechanical ventilation between the two groups. Procedure times and outcomes of the patients were not different between the two groups. The majority of complications observed in 24 hours after PDT were bleeding; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (trainee 10.8% vs. intensivist 9.4%, p = 0.758).There was no procedure-related death in the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: PDT performed by intensive care trainees was safe and feasible. However, further well-designed studies should be conducted to confirm our results.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Closed-Suction Catheter with a Pressure Valve Can Reduce Tracheal
           Mucosal Injury in Intubated ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endotracheal suctioning is associated with complications that include bleeding, infection, hypoxemia, cardiovascular instability, and tracheal mucosal injury.Recently, a closed-suction catheter with a pressure valve (Acetrachcare, AceMedical Co., Republic of Korea) was developed. We hypothesized that this new catheter might reduce tracheal mucosal injury compared to a conventional closed-suction catheter (Trachcare, Kimberly-balla RD, USA).METHODS: This prospective, randomized study enrolled medical and surgical patients who required mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Patients were randomized into two groups: one group was suctioned with the conventional closed-suction catheter (CCC) and the other group was suctioned with the closed-suction catheter with pressure valve (CCPV). Bronchoscopy was performed 48 hours later, and the severity of tracheal mucosal injury was graded on a 5-point scale, as follows: 0 = normal; 1 = erythema or edema; 2 = erosion; 3 = hemorrhage; and 4 = ulceration or necrosis.RESULTS: A total of 76 patients (37 with CCPV and 39 with CCC) were included. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding demographic characteristics, changes in hemodynamic parameters during suction, incidence of pneumonia, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or ICU mortality. On bronchoscopic evaluation, the use of the CCPV led to a significant decrease in tracheal mucosal injury (median tracheal mucosal injury grade 1 [IQR 0-1] vs.2 [IQR 1-3], p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the novel closed-suction catheter with pressure valve may reduce tracheal mucosal injury compared to conventional catheters.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Efficacy of Electroencephalographic Monitoring for the Evaluation of
           Intracranial Injury during ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neurological complications are a serious concern during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in neonates and infants. However, evaluating brain injury during ECMO has limitations. Herein, we report our experience with bedside electroencephalographic monitoring during ECMO support and compared this to post-ECMO brain imaging studies and immediate neurologic outcomes.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data for 18 children who underwent ECMO. From these subjects, we reviewed the medical records of 10 subjects who underwent bedside EEG monitoring during ECMO support. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical details of the ECMO course, electroencephalographic monitoring, brain imaging results, and neurologic outcomes.RESULTS: The median age was 4 months (range: 7 days-22 months), the median weight was 5 (3.6-12) kg, and the median length of ECMO therapy was 86 (27-206) hours. Eight patients (80%) were weaned successfully, and seven (70%) survived to discharge. Those with normal to mildly abnormal electroencephalographic findings had non-specific to mildly abnormal brain computed tomography findings and no neurologic impairment. Those patients with a moderately to severely abnormal electroencephalograph had markedly abnormal brain computed tomography findings and remained neurologically impaired.CONCLUSIONS: Normal electroencephalographic findings are closely related to normal or mild neurologic impairment. Our results indicate that electroencephalographic monitoring during ECMO support can be a feasible tool for evaluating brain injury although further prospective studies are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Implementation of a Rapid Response System in the Department of
           Internal Medicine

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A rapid response system (RRS) aims to prevent unexpected patient death due to clinical errors and is becoming an essential part of intensive care. We examined the activity and outcomes of RRS for patients admitted to our institution's department of internal medicine.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients detected by the RRS and admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) from October 2012 through August 2013. We studied the overall activity of the RRS and compared patient outcomes between those admitted via the RRS and those admitted conventionally.RESULTS: A total of 4,849 alert lists were generated from 2,505 medical service patients. The RRS was activated in 58 patients: A (Admit to ICU), B (Borderline intervention), C (Consultation), and D (Do not resuscitate) in 26 (44.8%), 21 (36.2%), 4 (6.9%), and 7 (12.1%) patients, respectively. Low oxygen saturation was the most common criterion for RRS activation. MICU admission via the RRS resulted in a shorter ICU stay than that via conventional admission (6.2 vs. 9.9 days, p = 0.018).CONCLUSIONS: An RRS can be successfully implemented in medical services. ICU admission via the RRS resulted in a shorter ICU stay than that via conventional admission.Further study is required to determine long-term outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Inter-Hospital Transportation of Patients on Extracorporeal Life Support:
           A Single Center Experience

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an effective life-saving tool for patients in refractory cardiac or respiratory failure. Although transportation of patients on ECLS is challenging, it is necessary in some instances. We report our initial experience of transporting patients on ECLS.METHODS: The study period was between January 2004 and August 2013. We reviewed our ECLS database and identified four patients who were transported to our institution on ECLS. We excluded patients who were not transported by our ECLS team.RESULTS: There were no clinically significant events during transportation. ECLS indications included acute respiratory distress syndrome in two patients, stress-induced cardiomyopathy induced by pneumonia sepsis in one patient, and cardiac arrest caused by amyloid cardiomyopathy in another patient. One patient was transported by helicopter and three patients were transported in an oversized ambulance. Three patients were successfully weaned off ECLS and discharged without significant complications.CONCLUSIONS: Inter-hospital transport can be safely performed by an experienced ECLS team. Successful transport may improve patient outcome and the ECLS programs of both referring and referral hospitals.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Mortality and Morbidity in Severely Traumatized Elderly Patients

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: As the population ages, the elderly will constitute a prominent proportion of trauma patients. The elderly suffer more severe outcomes from injuries compared with the young. In this study, we examined the relationship between mortality and complications with age.METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of 256 major trauma patients (Injury Severity Score> 15) admitted to an emergency center over a two-year period. Age-dependent mortality and complications were evaluated.RESULTS: Of 256 patients, 209 (81.6%) were male and the mean age was 47.2 years. There was a trend between increasing age and increasing mortality, but this was not statistically significant. Increasing age was correlated with frequency of complications.CONCLUSIONS: Age was confirmed to be an independent predictor of mortality in major trauma. We documented that elderly trauma patients suffer from complications more frequently compared with their younger counterparts.Appropriate and specific triage and management guidelines for elderly trauma patients are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Therapeutic Hypothermia after Decompressive Craniectomy in Malignant
           Cerebral Infarction

    • Abstract: Decompressive hemicraniectomy followed by subsequent therapeutic hypothermia can reduce mortality in patients with malignant cerebral infarction without significantly increasing risk. We report three cases of malignant cerebral infarction treated with hemicraniectomy followed by hypothermia. Case 1 received elective decompressive surgery and hypothermia. Case 2 developed subsequent cerebral infarction with uncal herniation. Therefore, emergent decompressive surgery and hypothermia was performed in this case. Despite surgery and hyperosmolar therapy, case 3 received hypothermia treatment for refractory increased intracranial pressure. All patients survived with a score of 4 or 5 on the modified Rankin scale. Therefore, we suggest that application of hypothermia after hemicraniectomy is safe and feasible. Several possible modifications can be made to improve the management strategy in order to increase the benefits of hypothermia treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Suspected Sepsis after Caesarean Section

    • Abstract: The incidence of acute leukemia during pregnancy is extremely rare, and often it is not easy to differentiate it from other diseases associated with pregnancy such as sepsis or hemorrhage. Pregnancy itself is not known to affect the natural course of leukemia; however, complications of leukemia like anemia, infections, and coagulopathy can adversely influence both the fetus and the mother. In this case, a pregnant patient misdiagnosed with septic shock and severe leukocytosis was correctly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia after surgical delivery.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Intensivist Physician Staffing in Intensive Care Units

    • Abstract: Despite a shortage of intensivists, there is an increased need for intensivist staffing in intensive care units (ICUs). Western studies showed that the survival rate of critically ill patients improved and the length of ICU stay decreased in "closed" or "high-intensity" ICU, where intensivists dedicated themselves to the ICU and were primary physicians. This system was also associated with an increased compliance of evidence-based medicine and a decreased medical error. The Leapfrog Group and American College of Critical Care Medicine recommend the implementation of intensivist staffing system in the ICU.Although there are still barriers to implement this system, such as the economic burden to hospitals and conflicts among medical staff, intensivist staffing in the ICU is important in terms of timely diagnosis and treatment and multidisciplinary team approach. The presence of intensivists may also increase the efficacy of ICU systems and save treatment cost. Although the "24 hours/7 days intensivist staffing" system may be ideal, recent data showed that high-intensity ICU system during daytime is not inferior to 24-hour intensivist staffing system in terms of hospital mortality. It is especially important to large-scale academic hospitals, where many severely ill patients are treated. However, few ICUs have intensivists who are committed to caring for ICU patients in Korea.Therefore, we have to try to expand this system throughout the whole country. Additionally, the definition of ICU standard, the role of intensivists, and the policy of financial reward also need to be clarified more clearly.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • New Definition of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    • Abstract: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common disorder associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) definition of ARDS, established in 1994, has advanced the knowledge of ARDS by allowing the acquisition of clinical and epidemiological data, which in turn have led to improvements in care for patients with ARDS. However, after 18 years of applied research, a number of issues regarding various criteria of AECC definition have emerged. For these reason, and because all disease definitions should be reviewed periodically, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine convened an international expert panel to revise the ARDS definition from September 30 to October 2, 2011, Berlin, Germany, with endorsement from American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine.This consensus discussion, following empirical evaluation and consensus revision, addressed some of the limitations of the AECC definition by incorporating current data, physiologic concepts, and clinical trials to develop a new definition of ARDS (Berlin definition). The Berlin definition should facilitate case recognition and better match treatment options to severity in both the research trials and clinical practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Patients with Decompensated Liver
           Cirrhosis Admitted to ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis usually resulted in admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization. When admitted to the ICU, the mortality was high. The aim of this study is to identify multiple prognostic factors for mortality and to analyze the significance of prognostic survival model with each scoring system in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the ICU.METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2008, 60 consecutive patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were admitted in the ICU and retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic models used were Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), model for end-stage liver disease with incorporation of serum sodium (MELD-Na), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA). The predictive prognosis was analyzed using the area under the receiver's operating characteristics curve (AUC).RESULTS: The median follow up period was 20 months, and ICU mortality was 17% (n = 10). A total of 24 patients (40%) died during the study period. The average survival of five prognostic models was related with the severity of the disease. All of the five systems showed significant differences in the cumulative survival rate, according to the scores on admission, and the MELD-Na had the highest AUC (0.924). Multivariate analysis showed that bilirubin and albumin were significantly related to mortality.CONCLUSIONS: The CPT, MELD, MELD-Na, APACHE II, and SOFA may predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The MELD-Na could be a better prognostic predictor than other scoring systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Development of Acute Respiratory Failure on Initiation of
           Anti-Tuberculosis Medication in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure can occur paradoxically on initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with pulmonary TB. This study is aimed to analyze the clinical features of anti-TB treatment induced acute respiratory failure.METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and radiological characteristics of 8 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (5 men and 3 women; mean age, 55 +/- 15.5 years) who developed acute respiratory failure following initiation of anti-TB medication and thus required mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU).RESULTS: The interval between initiation of anti-TB medication and development of MV-requiring acute respiratory failure was 2-14 days (mean, 4.4 +/- 4.39 days), and the duration of MV was 1-18 days (mean, 7.1 +/- 7.03 days). At admission, body temperature and serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein were increased. Serum levels of protein, albumin and creatinine were 5.8 +/- 0.98, 2.3 +/- 0.5 and 1.8 +/- 2.58 mg/ml, respectively.Radiographs characterized both lung involvements in all patients. Consolidation with the associated nodule was noted in 7 patients, ground glass opacity in 2, and cavitary lesion in 4. Micronodular lesion in the lungs, suggesting miliary tuberculosis lesion, was noted in 1 patient. At ICU admissions, the ranges of the APACHE II and SOFA scores were 17-38 (mean, 28.2 +/- 7.26) and 6-14 (mean, 10.1 +/- 2.74).The mean lung injury score was 2.8 +/- 0.5. Overall, 6 patients died owing to septic shock and multiorgan failure.CONCLUSIONS: On initiation of treatment for pulmonary TB, acute respiratory failure can paradoxically occur in patients with extensive lung parenchymal involvement and high mortality.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Transplantation of Organs from a Donor with Bacterial
           Meningitis Caused by ...

    • Abstract: The number of organs transplanted worldwide is increasing annually. As a result, there is a shortage of available donor organs. This scarcity has led to the progressive broadening of donor organ criteria. The expanded criteria include infections such as bacterial meningitis. A 55-year old male visited our emergency room with cardiac arrest and recovered after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The cause of the cardiac arrest was bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. While proper antibiotics were applied, the patient met the clinical criteria for brain death. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to the recipients, and liver and kidney transplantations were done successfully.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Cerebral Ischemic Stroke in an Infant with Acute Myocarditis: A Case

    • Abstract: A 9-month-old infant presented with cough, tachypnea, and grunting was admitted. The patient was revealed to have cardiomegaly, high NT-proBNP, and severe left ventricular dilation and dysfunction; she was subsequently diagnosed with acute myocarditis and congestive heart failure.Intravenous immunoglobulin, inotropics, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blocker were used. However, left hemiparesis suddenly developed at 30-day after treatment. Brain MRI showed high signal intensity in the right middle cerebral arterial territory on diffusion weighted brain MRI and in the left parietal lobe with gyral enhancement. Echocardiogram revealed no definite intraventricular thrombus. The patient was started on an antiplatelet agent only without anticoagulant therapy for the treatment of cerebral infarct in respect of the risk to the infant. Four years after the cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), she showed complete recovery from hemiparesis, with no more CIS. In conclusion, severe ventricular dilatation and dysfunction can lead to thromboembolic events in infants. We should keep in mind that anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents can be used in specific situations.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Fatal Left Ventricular Thrombosis in an Infant Receiving Extracorporeal
           Membrane Oxygenation ...

    • Abstract: Thromboembolism in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is a feared complication. Systemic anticoagulation during ECMO in patients with a massively dilated left ventricle (LV) and decreased LV systolic function is still debated. Hearin, we report a case of a 5-month old infant on ECMO support who had fatal thrombus formation in the massively dilated LV and a consequent thromboembolic event.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Stress Related Cardiomyopathy during Flexible Bronchoscopy

    • Abstract: Flexible bronchoscopy is a safe medical procedure, but the incidence rate of major complications is 0.08-0.3%. Here, we report 2 cases of stress induced cardiomyopathy, which developed immediately after flexible bronchoscopy. Stress related cardiomyopathy was confirmed by EKG, echocardiography, and coronary angiogram. The cardiac functions of these patients were fully recovered with conservative treatment. Although, the pathogenesis of stress related cardiomyopathy is not well understood, post-bronchoscopy tachycardia or arrhythmia is thought to be associated with hypoxemia or catecholamine excess. Because the clinical presentation is quite similar to acute myocardial infarction, discrete evaluations are required for appropriate treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Airway Obstruction and Flattening of Arterial Pressure Wave during Whole
           Lung Lavage: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Whole lung lavage (WLL) is a challenging procedure; because lavage fluid may perturb the respiratory and hemodynamic systems. We observed severe airway obstruction and flattening arterial pressure wave during WLL for treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The aim of this case report is to discuss the anesthetic requirement in order to prevent bronchospasm during WLL. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lavage fluid to cause airway obstruction and decrease cardiac outflow through the mass effect.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Onset Contralateral Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema after Tension
           Pneumothorax: A Case Report

    • Abstract: A 16-year-old male patient presented with left side chest pain. The initial chest radiograph showed tension pneumohtorax on the left side. Air was evacuated by closed thoracostomy. About 72 hours later, during administration of general anesthesia for thoracoscopic bullectomy, unilateral pulmonary edema affecting the contralateral lung developed without definite infiltration in the left lung. The operation was suspended and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. A close observation of the patient and conservative therapy were enough to manage this pulmonary edema. This is a very rare manifestation of reexpansion pulmonary edema that is unpredictable and could be fatal.The clinical course is described in this article.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury after Stored Packed Red Blood Cell
           Transfusion: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortalities. Each type of blood product is likely to cause TRALI. Patients with TRALI present with dyspnea/respiratory distress and fever. The symptoms, signs and chest radiological findings in TRALI are similar to transfusion associated circulatory overload.Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish such from circulatory overloads. We report a case of TRALI in a 49-year-old woman after stored packed red blood cell transfusion. The patient developed hypoxemia and pulmonary edema after packed red blood cell transfusion during postoperative period. The patient completely recovered after an oxygen support for 3 days.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Occurrence of Acquired Tracheoesophageal Fistula Due to Excess
           Endotracheal Tube Cuff Volumes: ...

    • Abstract: Endotracheal tube cuff volume and pressure require constant monitoring to prevent tracheal injury. Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula is common from complications of mechanical ventilation as a result of pressured necrosis of the tracheoesophageal wall by endotracheal tube cuff. It still represents a life-threatening condition, especially when the diagnosis is being delayed. We present our modest experience through an acquired TEF patient who had an excessively enlarged cuff diameter on chest radiogram in order to consider the potential of using radiological-measured cuff diameter as a simple technique for predicting tracheal damages. Although the cuff pressure was monitored with a manometer by the medical team, it was possible that the tube cuff was excessively enlarged. Proper procedures for preventing the tracheal damage by cuffs include the following: monitoring of endotracheal cuff pressure and volume, observation of cuff size on the chest radiogram, and being mindful and attentive for possibilities of misjudgements by manometer or medical teams.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Functioning Paraganglioma Mimicking Anaphylactic Shock: A Case

    • Abstract: Paraganglioma is a tumor originating from the extra-adrenal chromaffin cells, and functional paraganglioma causes paroxysmal hypertension, headache and tachycardia, due to excess excretion of catecholamine. However, rarely, ARDS, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmia, and pulmonary edema are also seen in patients with paraganglioma and clinical manifestations are depending on the patient's intravascular volume status. Seventy one-years-old male was presented with hypotension and pulmonary edema after intravenous midazolam injection during colonoscopy under conscious sedation. The patient was initially suspected with anaphylactic shock, due to midazolam injection. However, later, he was diagnosed with paraganglioma, and blood pressure was successfully controlled with alpha adrenergic blockade. We suggest that when we encounter heart failure, pulmonary edema and shock of unknown origin, pheochromocytoma must be taken into consideration.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Experiences of Wet Beriberi and Wernicke's Encephalopathy Caused by
           Thiamine Deficiency in ...

    • Abstract: Wet beriberi and Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) are caused by thiamine deficiency and are potentially lethal and serious diseases. Thiamine deficiency occurs mainly due to poor oral intake or inadequate provision of thiamine in enteral or parenteral nutrition therapy. We report cases of wet beriberi and WE that developed after surgery in a surgical intensive care unit. The first patient, who was diagnosed with wet beriberi, underwent right total mastectomy and radical subtotal gastrectomy, simultaneously.The second was diagnosed with irreversible WE, respectively, due to long-term malnutrition. In both cases, intravenous replacement of thiamine was initiated after the admission to the surgical intensive care unit. However, comatose mentality of the second patient did not improve. As a result, we conclude that, if a patient's clinical feature is suspected to be thiamine deficiency, prompt intravenous thiamine replacement is needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: The intensive care units (ICUs) provide the best possible medical care to help critically ill patients survive acute threats to their lives. At the same time, the ICU is also the most common place to die. Thus the ICU clinicians should be competent in all aspects for end-of-life (EOL) care. The quality of EOL care in Korean ICUs do not ensure ICU patient's autonomy and dignity at their end-of-life. For examples, several studies present that do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders are only initiated when the patient's death in imminent. To improve understanding EOL care of terminally ill patients, we summarize 'Recommendations for EOL care in the ICU by the American College of Critical Care Medicine' and 'Consensus guidelines to withdrawing life-sustaining therapies endorsed by Korean Academy of Medical Science'.EOL care will be emerging as a comprehensive area of expertise in Korean ICUs. The ICU clinicians must strive to find the barriers for EOL care in the ICU and develop their processes to improve the care of EOL.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Clinical Pharmacist Interventions on Prevention of Adverse Drug
           Events in Surgical ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A pharmacist's participation in medical rounds in intensive care unit (ICU) is becoming popular nowadays.In this study, we investigated the effect of pharmacologic intervention by a pharmacist's participation in medical round in ICU on prevention of adverse drug events (ADEs).METHODS: From March 2011 to July 2011, the intervention data were obtained by participating in medical round two or three times a week, and by reviewing electronic medical records of patients admitted to surgical ICU. The incidence, cause, and type of ADEs were noted, respectively. Expected cost avoidance was calculated from interventions, which were considered to be preventive of ADEs. The acceptance rate of pharmacologic interventions was noted.RESULTS: Among 2781 patients, a total of 159 intervention data were collected in 90 patients. Recommendation for drug dosage adjustment or monitoring in patients with potential overdose and sub-therapeutic dose made up 82% of the total interventions. In 8% of interventions, initiation of drug therapy was recommended. 83% of the interventions were accepted and the acceptance rate of interventions within 24 hrs was 58%. The rate of the interventions, which were considered to be preventive of ADEs was 62%. Expected cost reduction obtained by preventing ADEs was 25,867,083 Won during a 5-month period.CONCLUSIONS: A pharmacist's participation in physician rounds in ICU was associated with prevention of ADEs and subsequent reduction of the cost in drug therapy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Carbapenem-Resistant
           Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from tracheal secretions in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2009 to June 2012.RESULTS: Among the patients who had isolates cultured from tracheal secretions, 130 patients (34.8%) had CRAB isolates.Their mean age was 65 +/- 14 yr and 74.6% were male. The ICU and hospital mortality was 51.5% and 60.0%, respectively.According to physician's clinical decision, antibiotics were changed in order to cover CRAB in 75 (57.7%) patients. The total duration of antibiotics use was 12.2 +/- 8.1 days. Of patients with antibiotics change to cover CRAB, 70 patients (93.3%) had Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score of 6 and over. However, there was no significant difference in hospital mortality between patients with antibiotics change against CRAB and those without change. In multivariable analysis, only Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was related to hospital mortality of patients with CRAB.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, changing antibiotics to cover CRAB by physician's clinical decision only did not influence hospital mortality; further studies would be necessary to investigate how to use antibiotics against CRAB isolates cultured from tracheal secretions.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Malignant Cerebral Infarction after Pulmonary Resection for Lung Cancer

    • Abstract: Malignant cerebral infarction as postoperative complication after pulmonary resection occurs rarely, but can be rather serious. We report a case of 81-year-old man who suffered from malignant cerebral infarctions after pulmonary resection for lung cancer. He had a history of well-controlled hypertensions, but no evidences of arrhythmia, and neither stenosis nor atheroma in the carotid arteries and intracranial arteries. There were no specific events during his operation except that an inadvertent left carotid artery puncture occurred during the central line insertion. In intensive care unit (ICU), he had a delayed recovery of consciousness and dysarthria with right hemiplegia. Computed tomography revealed malignant middle cerebral infarctions due to the occlusion of left middle cerebral artery. It could be the thromboembolism due to pulmonary resections or carotid artery punctures in the patient without high risk factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Laryngeal Mask Airway-Assisted Percutaneous Dilatational

    • Abstract: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is a widely used method to perform tracheostomy in the critical care medicine for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation. Traditionally, PDT has been facilitated by bronchoscopy via the endotracheal tube. However, there are risks for blocking the view of correct puncture site on the trachea or being extubated unintentionally, which lead to loss of the airway. These complications are possibly due to insufficient bronchoscopic visualizations via endotracheal tube during the procedure. Using laryngeal mask airways (LMA) during PDT may overcome these problems and could provide a safer alternative method with superior visualizations of the trachea and larynx. We report a case of percutaneous tracheostomy being performed successfully under bronchoscopy with LMA in the intensive care unit.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Burkholderia cepacia Pneumonia after Lung Transplantation in a
           Recipient without ...

    • Abstract: Burkholderia cepacia is a highly virulent pathogen known to cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. It accelerates lung disease and causes necrotizing pneumonia with associated severe sepsis, known as cepacia syndrome. In particular, lung transplant recipients infected with Burkholderia cepacia show higher mortality after lung transplantation than those who are not infected with this organism. Due to broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance, a combination therapy should be used according to the results of the susceptibility test. This bacterial infection is rare in Korea, and no case was reported in lung transplant recipients. However, we report a case of pneumonia caused by Burkholderia cepacia after lung transplantation. As Burkholderia cepacia was grown from a sputum culture, the patient was treated initially with a combination of meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and then ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as a result of leukopenia. After antibiotics treatment for 20 days, sputum cultures became negative for Burkholderia cepacia and the patient successfully recovered.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Pumpless Interventional Lung Assist Application in a
           Tuberculosis Destroyed Lung ...

    • Abstract: Pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist (iLA) is a rescue therapy allowing effective carbon dioxide removals and lung protective ventilator settings. Herein, we report the use of a pumpless extracorporeal iLA in a tuberculosis destroyed lung (TDL) patient with severe hypercapnic respiratory failures. A 35-year-old male patient with TDL was intubated due to CO2 retention and altered mentality.After 11 days, Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) had developed. Despite the maximal mechanical ventilator support, his severe respiratory acidosis was not corrected.We applied the iLA for the management of refractory hypercapnia with respiratory acidosis. This case suggests that the iLA is an effective rescue therapy for TDL patients with ventilator refractory hypercapnia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) and Iliac Vein Injury

    • Abstract: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased after the 2009 pandemic H1N1 infections, and the ECMO-related complications have also increased.Specifically, the mechanical vessel injury due to catheter cannulation seems to be less frequent than other complications, but there is a risk of hemorrhagic shock which requires special attention. We experienced a case of successful management with graft stenting during ECMO operation for iliac vein injury. A 56-year-old female patient with non-small cell lung cancer developed endobronchial obstruction, and ECMO was applied for the ECMO-assisted rigid bronchoscopy. During catheter cannulation, hypovolemic shock was developed due to her right external iliac vein injury. We detected the hemorrhage with bedside ultrasound at an early stage and the hemorrhage was effectively managed with graft stenting on ECMO.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Foreign Body Removal at Right Main Bronchus in A Neonate

    • Abstract: Foreign body in the airway could be a life-threatening risk, especially for young pediatric patients. A 6-day old male patient with foreign body, which was located deep in the right main bronchus was being admitted. Although we tried three times to remove it with rigid bronchoscopic forceps under the general anesthesia, we failed. Before switching to surgical treatment, we changed the Trendelenburg position and tapped his back several times in order to alter the foreign body toward the forcep. Finally we were able to catch and extract the foreign body successfully. We suggest that back percussion with the Trendelenburg position is a useful solution to remove a foreign body within a deep airway.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Patient with Eisenmenger Syndrome Admitted to Intensive Care
           Unit Due to Septic Shock ...

    • Abstract: Eisenmenger syndrome is a severe form of pulmonary arterial hypertension related to congenital cardiac defects. Many patients die at a young age from such complications. The treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension is being applied to Eisenmenger syndrome such as endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 blockers, and prostacyclin.We experienced a case of 29-year female with ventricular septal defect-related Eisenmenger syndrome complicated with Down syndrome and Moyamoya disease, who was admitted to intensive care unit due to enteritis-associated septic shock. After the combination treatment with iloprost and sildenafil within the intensive care unit, the patient was able to wean mechanical ventilation without further applications of invasive rescue therapy such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenator. She was later discharged with bosentan. She maintained bosentan therapy for 34 months continuously without aggravations of symptom but eventually died with intracranial hemorrhage, a complication of Moyamoya disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Eisenmenger syndrome accompanied by mosaic Down syndrome and Moyamoya disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Hemoperitoneum due to Spontaneous Rupture of Visceral Artery
           Aneurysm after Ingestion ...

    • Abstract: Ingestion of puffer fish can cause intoxication, which produces a wide range of symptoms due to the presence of neurotoxins, such as tetrodotoxin, in puffer fish. Abdominal pain is just one of the symptoms that should be treated with symptomatic and supportive therapy. This study reports a case of a 56-year-old male patient with abdominal pain, who was admitted to the emergency room with a diagnosis of puffer fish poisoning. In this case, the abdominal pain did not improve, but rather, the symptoms worsened. Finally, the cause of the abdominal pain was found to be hemoperitoneum due to active bleeding at the greater omentum, as observed on abdominal computed tomography; the source of bleeding was the right colic artery branch. Embolization was performed successfully, and the post-intervention course was uneventful. The patient was discharged without any complications within 13 days after admission.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Pyriform Sinus Perforation in a Child after Falling with a Spoon Handle in
           the Mouth

    • Abstract: Pyriform sinus perforation is uncommon in children and most cases are secondary to iatrogenic causes such as endotracheal intubations. Due to this rarity, the management of these injuries is controversial. We report a case of pyriform sinus perforation in a 14-month-old boy who fell down with a spoon handle in the mouth and was successfully treated by transoral laryngomicrosurgery. Two hours after falling down, the patient had breathing difficulties and started vomiting. A chest X-ray showed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastium. Esophagogram revealed leakage of contrast media at the hypopharynx. Although air leakage was reduced the next day, his fever became frequent even with conservative management of antibiotics. On the 4th hospital day, closure of pyriform sinus perforation was done by transoral laryngomicrosurgery. The patient became apyrexial by the 2nd post-operative day. On the 21th hospital day, the child was able to consume food orally without problems and was allowed to go home.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Therapeutic Hypothermia

    • Abstract: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a well-known chemical asphyxiant, which causes tissue hypoxia with prominent neurological injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be an effective neuroprotective method in post-cardiac arrest patients. A 26-year-old man presented to the emergency department with severe CO poisoning. On arrival, the patient was comatose. His vital signs were blood pressure, 130/80 mm Hg; heart rate, 126/min; respiratory rate, 26/min; body temperature, 36degrees C; and O2 saturation, 94%. Initial carboxyhemoglobin was 45.2%. Because there was no available hyperbaric chamber in our local area, he was intubated and treated with TH. The target temperature was 33 +/- 1degrees C for 24 hours using an external cooling device. The patient was then allowed to reach normothermia by 0.15-0.25degrees C/hr. The patient was discharged after normal neurological exams on day 11 at the hospital. TH initiated after exposure to CO may be an effective prophylactic method for preventing neurological sequelae.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Repeated Hypothermia for Rebound Cerebral Edema after Therapeutic
           Hypothermia in Malignant ...

    • Abstract: Malignant cerebral infarction has a high risk of fatal brain edema and increased intracranial pressure with cerebral herniation causing death. One of the major causes of death is a rebound cerebral edema during rewarming phase. A 66-year-old male patient presented with the right hemiplegia and global aphasia due to malignant cerebral infarction in the whole territory of middle cerebral artery with the occlusion of the proximal internal carotid artery. Being refused decompressive hemicraniectomy, he received the therapeutic hypothermia for 6 days. After rewarming for 6 hours, mentality was suddenly decreased and dilated left pupil. Follow-up CT revealed that midline shifting was more aggravated. We decided on repeated hypothermia for rebound cerebral edema and successfully controlled. We report our experience with repeated hypothermia for rebound cerebral edema following therapeutic hypothermia in malignant cerebral infarction.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Rescue Therapy in a Patient with
           Non-Iatrogenic ...

    • Abstract: Despite the advanced technologies of intensive care, massive hemoptysis can still cause death in a small subset of patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is expected to provide adequate gas exchange, to reduce ventilator-induced lung injuries, and to eventually improve outcomes in these patients. Also, the instability of vital signs due to hemoptysis makes it impossible to perform immediate interventional procedures such as embolization and resectional surgery. In these cases, ECMO may be instituted as a bridge therapy. Herein, we describe the detailed course of our case, with the hopes of helping physicians to decide when to initiate ECMO in patients with massive hemoptysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Bilateral Knee Septic Arthritis Caused by Pneumococcal

    • Abstract: Pneumococcus can cause pneumonia, sinusitis, infective endocarditis, meningitis and primary bacteremia. However, few reports in the literature show bilateral septic arthritis with pneumococcal bacteremia. We report on a case of a 78-year old woman who presented with fever, pain and swelling in both knees. Both knee fluid aspirates were purulent with thick viscosity, and the gram stain revealed gram positive cocci in chains. The patient underwent emergent washing and arthroscopic debridement, followed with empirical antibiotics treatment. Two out of two blood cultures were positive for penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumonia. Synovial fluid cultures were also positive for S. pneumoniae. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for 4 weeks. Bilateral knee septic arthritis with pneumococcal bacteremia is rarely reported.Here we report on the case with a review of the literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Propofol-Related Infusion Syndrome in an Adult Patient Using Propofol Coma
           Therapy to Control ...

    • Abstract: Propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare but fatal complication. Unexplained metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, myocardial dysfunction, cardiovascular collapse and acute kidney injury are the main characteristics of PRIS. Herein, we report a case of PRIS in a neurosurgical adult patient, who had received high-dose propofol continuous infusion in order to control intracranial pressure in an intensive care unit. She manifested severe metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury and myocardial dysfunction. As soon as PRIS was diagnosed, propofol infusion was stopped. Conservative treatments, such as vasopressors and inotropics, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were used to treat PRIS. However, she finally expired. This case report suggests that a great caution to PRIS is needed in a situation with high-dose propofol continuous infusion.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparison of Intubation Success Rate and Times Required for Intubation by
           Glottic Exposure ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The glottis can be exposed by a Glidescope(R) during endotracheal intubation using either the epiglottis or valleculae elevation method. We compared the epiglottis and valleculae elevation methods for endotracheal intubations performed with a Glidescope(R) using differences in success rate, time spent for tracheal intubation and percent of glottic opening.METHODS: Forty medical students without experience using a Glidescope(R) participated in this prospective, randomized study in which they intubated a tracheal tube into a manikin. All participants performed tracheal intubation using the 2 forementioned methods. Twenty students exposed the vocal cord by placing the blade tip in the valleculae (valleculae elevation method; VEM). The other 20 students directly elevated the epiglottis with the blade (epiglottis elevation method; EEM). We separated intubating time into 3 parts: turnaround time to exposing the vocal cord, tube passing time and first ventilating time.RESULTS: The success rate of tracheal intubation using VEM (86.7%, 104/120) was higher than that using EEM (65.8%, 79/120) (p < 0.001). VEM resulted in a lower total intubation time (VEM vs. EEM, 23.5 +/- 5.3 vs. 29.0 +/- 8.7, p = 0.001). The key factor of this difference was the tube passing time (VEM vs. EEM, 7.4 +/- 2.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 7.4, p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Exposing the vocal cord by using VEM during tracheal intubation with a Glidescope(R) can increase the success rate of tracheal intubation and shorten the time of endotracheal intubation in novices.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Significance of Postoperative Prealbumin and Albumin Levels in
           Critically Ill Patients ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that serum albumin and prealbumin levels correlate with patient outcomes in critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of prealbumin and albumin levels in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) after emergency surgery for acute peritonitis.METHODS: We examined serum albumin and prealbumin as markers for the prediction of patient outcome in 51 patients admitted to the ICU after emergency surgery from January to December in 2012. Biochemical parameters were measured postoperatively. Serum albumin and prealbumin levels were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Patients were also divided according to the occurrence of shock and pulmonary complications (shock group vs. non-shock group, pulmonary complications group vs. non-pulmonary complications group), and outcome analysis was performed for age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, length of ICU stay (IS), length of hospital stay (HS), mechanical ventilation, and APACHE II score. Serum albumin and prealbumin levels were evaluated for any correlation with complications and mortality.RESULTS: In patients with shock, prealbumin and albumin were significantly decreased (p = 0.047, p = 0.036).Additionally, albumin was significantly decreased in patients with pulmonary complications. Neither albumin nor prealbumin, however, showed a correlation with mortality.Prealbumin showed a correlation with serum albumin, CRP level, and HS (r = 0.511, p < 0.001; r = -0.438, p = 0.002; and r = -0.45, p = 0.001, respectively). Albumin showed a correlation with HS, IS, and APACHE II score (r = -0.404, p = 0.003; r = -0.424, p = 0.002; and r = -0.40, p = 0.006, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: The initial prealbumin level measured upon admission to the ICU after gastrointestinal emergency surgery can be useful predictor of shock. The initial albumin level was significantly low in patients with shock and pulmonary complications. However, neither prealbumin nor albumin showed a correlation with mortality. Our study also showed that albumin and prealbumin levels are affected by other factors, such as massive hydration and severe inflammation, as reported in previous studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Implementation of Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Out-of Hospital
           Cardiac Arrest in One ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest in infants and children is rare than adults yet, it is critical. The efficacy and feasibility of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in adults is proved through many studies however, there are few data on pediatric out-of hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed several variables in pediatric therapeutic hypothermia after out-of hospital cardiac arrest.METHODS: Infants and children (1 to 17 years old), who were admitted to our emergency intensive care units following the return of spontaneous circulation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest from Jan 2008 to Apr 2012, were included in this study. Basal patients' characteristics and variables about therapeutic hypothermia were analyzed.RESULTS: A total of seventy-six patients visited our emergency center after a pediatric cardiac arrest during the study period. Among this, sixty-three patients received pediatric advanced life support, twenty one patients were admitted to intensive care units and nine patients received therapeutic hypothermia. Overall, the survival discharge was 7.9% (5 of 63). Among the admitted patients, 3 patients (14.3%) had a good Cerebral Performance Category (CPC). Two patients received endovascular cooling and seven patients received surface cooling. The mean time from the induction of therapeutic hypothermia to reaching the temperature with in the therapeutic range was 193.9 minutes. There were no critical adverse events during induction, maintenance and the rewarming period of therapeutic hypothermia.CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric out-of hospital cardiac arrest was performed safely and effectively in one emergency center. The standardized pediatric therapeutic hypothermia protocol should be established in order to be used widely in pediatric intensive care units.Further, larger studies are needed on the subject of pediatric therapeutic hypothermia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Utility of the DECAF Score in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department
           with Acute Exacerbation ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common and can be fatal. However, it is difficult to predict the in-hospital mortality, severity and prognosis of patients. Prognostic tools are needed to assess exacerbations of COPD in the emergency department. Towards this end, we compared DECAF (dyspnea, eosinopenia, consolidation, acidemia, atrial fibrillation) score with other prognostic tools available in the emergency department.METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency department with exacerbations of COPD were recruited. We compared the DECAF score to CAPS (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma physiology score), BAP (blood urea nitrogen, altered mental status, pulse)-65 class and CURB (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure)-65 score and assessed in-hospital mortality, endotracheal intubation, admission to the intensive care unit and admission to the hospital.RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.9%. The DECAF score showed excellent discrimination for in-hospital mortality (AUROC = 0.72, p = 0.002), endotracheal intubation (AUROC = 0.92, p < 0.001), admission to the intensive care unit (AUROC = 0.90, p < 0.001) and admission to the hospital (AUROC = 0.83, p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The DECAF score is a simple and effective prognostic tool for assessing cases involving exacerbation of COPD in the emergency department. Emergency physicians should consider hospital admission if the DECAF score is more than 1 and consider admission to the intensive care unit and endotracheal intubation if the DECAF score is more than 3.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Body Mass Index and Outcomes in Patients with Severe Sepsis or Septic

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and survival in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.METHODS: We analyzed the sepsis registry of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary urban hospital and meeting the criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock from August 2008 to March 2012. We categorized patients into the underweight group (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), the normal weight group (18.5 < or = BMI < 25 kg/m2) and the obese group (BMI> or = 25 kg/m2). Then, we analyzed the registry to evaluate the relation between obesity and in-hospital mortality.RESULTS: A total of 770 adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock were analyzed. In-hospital mortality rate of the underweight group (n = 86), the normal weight group (n = 489) and the obese group (n = 195) was 22.1%, 15.3% and 16.4%, respectively. In a multivariate regression analysis, the underweight group had a significant association with in-hospital mortality compared with the normal weight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.87; p = 0.028). The obese group showed no significant difference in mortality (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.08-3.86; p = 0.65).CONCLUSIONS: The underweight patients showed significantly higher mortality than the normal weight patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Analysis of Kidney Computed Tomographic Findings in Patients with Acute
           Pyelonephritis and ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clinical findings, medical history and laboratory findings in patients with acute pyelonephritis are insufficient to predict the occurrence of septic shock and to assess its severity and prognosis. Early imaging may not only aid in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis, but also help in assessing the risk factors associated with septic shock.METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records and collected the data of 200 patients from January to December, 2011. All patients were over 18 years old; showed symptoms of fever, chills, muscle pain and flank pain; demonstrated more than 10 white blood cells in urinalysis; and were diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis after computed tomography (CT) scan. Patients were classified into two groups: patients with septic shock (group 1) and patients without septic shock (group 2), and the clinical, laboratory and CT findings of the two groups were then compared.RESULTS: Out of all 200 patients, there were 32 patients (16%) who had acute pyelonephritis with septic shock. The acute pyelonephritis with septic shock group (group 1) showed increased bacteremia compared with the other group (53.1% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.002). Laboratory findings showed that group 1 patients had higher serum creatinine (1.67 +/- 1.03 mg/dl vs. 1.14 +/- 0.98 mg/dl, p = 0.022) and hsCRP (8.36 +/- 5.29 mg/dl vs. 5.27 +/- 3.53 mg/dl, p = 0.000) than group 2 patients. The findings of kidney CT showed statistically significant differences in global renal enlargement (31.3% vs. 18.7%, p = 0.005), pelvicalyceal wall thickening (37.5% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.005) and poor excretion of contrast (25% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.000). The results of the logistic regression test showed that there were significant differences in bacteremia serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, pelvicalyceal wall thickening and poor excretion of contrast.CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography can predict the possibility of septic shock by identifying the range of renal lesions in patients with acute pyelonephritis. It can therefore allow initial aggressive treatment that can contribute to decreases in mortality and morbidity in patients with acute pyelonephritis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • How to Decrease the Malposition Rate of Central Venous Catheterization:
           Real-Time ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this retrospective and prospective study is to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasound (US) guidance as a method of decreasing the malposition rate of central venous catheterization (CVC) in the emergency department (ED).METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 379 patients who underwent landmark-guided CVC (Group A) and prospectively enrolled 411 patients who underwent US-guided CVC (Group B) in the ED of a tertiary hospital. Malposition of the CVC tip is identified when the tip is not located in the superior vena cava (SVC). In Group B, we performed US-guided intravascular guide-wire repositioning and then confirmed the location of the CVC tip with chest radiography when the guide-wire was visible in any three other vessels rather than in the approached vessel. In the case of a guide-wire inserted into the right subclavian vein (SCV), the left SCV and both internal jugular veins (IJV) were referred to as the three other vessels. The two subject groups were compared in terms of the malposition rate using Fisher's exact test (significance = p < 0.05).RESULTS: There were 38 malposition cases out of a total of 790 CVCs. The malposition rates of Groups A and B were 5.5% (21) and 4.1% (17), respectively, and no statistically significant difference in malposition rate between the two groups was found. In Group B, the malposition rate was decreased from 4.1% (17) to 1.2% (5) after the guide-wire was repositioned with US guidance, which led to a statistically significant difference in malposition rate (p < 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that repositioning the guide-wire with US guidance increased correct placement of central venous catheters toward the SVC.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Guidewire-Assisted Nasogastric Tube Insertion in Intubated Patients in an
           Emergency Center

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to identify the usefulness of guidewire-assisted nasogastric tube insertion in intubated patients with cervical spine immobilization or unstable vital signs in an emergency center.METHODS: Thirty-four intubated patients in an emergency center were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to the control group or the guidewire group. All patient necks were kept in neutral position during the procedure. In the control group, the nasogastric tube was inserted with the conventional method. A guidewire-supporting nasogastric tube was used in the guidewire group. The success rates of the first attempts and overall were recorded along with complications.RESULTS: The first attempt success rate was 88.2% in the guidewire group compared with 35.2% in the control group (p < 0.001). The overall success rate was 94.2% in the guidewire group and 52.9% in the control group (p = 0.017).Five cases of self-limiting nasal bleeding were reported in the guidewire group, and two cases occurred in the control group. No statistical differences were identified between groups.CONCLUSIONS: Guidewire-assisted nasogastric tube insertion is a simple and useful method in intubated patients with cervical spine immobilization or unstable vital signs.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Relation between Neurologic Prognosis and Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter
           Measured in Initial ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early prediction of neurologic outcome is important to patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxic brain injury. Hypoxic brain injury patients may have poor neurologic prognosis due to increased intracranial pressure. Increased intracranial pressure can be detected by optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement in computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound. In this study, we evaluate the relation between neurologic prognosis and optic nerve sheath diameter measured in brain CT of hypoxic brain injury patients.METHODS: We analyzed the patient clinical data by retrospective chart review. We measured the ONSD in initial brain CT. We also measured and calculated the gray white matter ratio (GWR) in CT scan. We split the patients into two groups based on neurologic outcome, and clinical data, ONSD, and GWR were compared in the two groups.RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included in this study (age: 52.6 +/- 18.3, 18 males). The mean ONSD of the poor neurologic outcome group was larger than that of the good neurologic outcome group (6.07 mm vs. 5.39 mm, p = 0.003).The GWR of the good neurologic outcome group was larger than that of the poor outcome group (1.09 vs. 1.28, p = 0.000).ONSD was a good predictor of neurologic outcome (area under curve: 0.848), and an ONSD cut off> or = 5.575 mm had a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 77.8%.CONCLUSIONS: ONSD measured on the initial brain CT scan can predict the neurologic prognosis in cardiac arrest and hanging patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Efficacies of Somatosensory Evoked Potential and Diffusion-Weighted
           Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacies of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in predicting the clinical prognosis of comatose patients following cardiac arrest.METHODS: Forty-one patients resuscitated from out-of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were retrospectively studied.After return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), SEP was conducted between one and three days after resuscitation, and DWI was conducted within five days of resuscitation. SEP was classified into three grades: normal, delayed conduction or unilateral loss of the N20 peak, and bilateral loss of the N20 peak. Bilateral loss of the N20 peak was considered a predictor of poor prognosis. For DWI, diffuse signal intensity (SI) abnormality in the cerebral cortex or abnormality in other brain areas in addition to the bilateral cerebral cortex was taken as a predictor of poor prognosis. For patient clinical prognosis, the Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) was used to evaluate neurological results at the time of discharge. Resulting CPC scores of 1 and 2 were considered as a favorable prognosis, and scores of 3, 4, and 5 were considered as a poor prognosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the prediction of poor prognosis were analyzed for each test individually and for the combination of the two tests.RESULTS: Among the 41 subject patients, 31 underwent SEP, 30 underwent DWI, and 20 underwent both tests. The prognosis predictor of SEP (bilateral loss of the N20 peak) predicted poor prognosis with 56.5% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 44.4% negative predictive value. The prognosis predictor of DWI (diffuse SI abnormality in the cerebral cortex or abnormality in other brain areas in addition to the bilateral cerebral cortex) predicted poor prognosis with 85% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% predictive value, and 76.9% predictive value. For patients who underwent both tests, the sensitivity and negative predictive value for the prediction of poor prognosis increased to 92.3% and 87.5%, respectively, and the specificity and positive predictive value were maintained at 100%.CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of poor prognosis prediction for patients in prolonged comas after resuscitation is enhanced by combining the results of SEP and DWI along with the individual results of each test.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Intraoperative Fluid Management in Combined Liver-Kidney Transplantation

    • Abstract: A review of the literature regarding combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT) does not provide adequate central venous pressure (CVP) values that would allow for unimpaired hepatic venous outflow and early renal allograft diuresis during the procedure. We report a case of fluid management of CLKT based on the limited literature available in a 59-year-old male with liver cirrhosis and end-stage renal disease. During the preanhepatic phase, CVP was maintained at 5 mmHg. Following portal vein clamping, CVP was reduced to below 5 mmHg until venovenous bypass was initiated. From the neohepatic phase to 1 hour before renal allograft reperfusion, CVP was slowly increased to 10 mmHg. Within an hour before renal allograft reperfusion, maximal crystalloid hydration was used to increase CVP to 15 mmHg. The urine output was replaced to maintain CVP at 8 to 10 mmHg until the end of the surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful. In conclusion, fluid management tailored to each phase yielded beneficial results in a patient with CLKT.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Sedation with Dexmedetomidine during Tracheostomy in Severe Tracheal
           Stenotic Patients

    • Abstract: In patients with severely compromised airways, a tracheostomy is usually performed under local anesthesia.Dexmedetomidine can be a better choice of sedative for such patients because it causes minimal respiratory depression.We report two cases of patients with severe stenosis of the airways who underwent sedation with dexmedetomidine during tracheostomy under local anesthesia. In the first case, recurrent laryngeal cancer caused laryngeal stenosis, and the narrowest laryngeal width was less than 3 mm. In the second case, the tracheostomy opening site was narrowed to a diameter of 3.4 mm in a patient with a history of total laryngectomy. For both patients, sedation was induced by dexmedetomidine infusion and the tracheostomy was performed successfully under local anesthesia without any events.Dexmedetomidine seems to be an effective and safe sedative for tracheostomies in patients with critical airways. The management and implications of sedation with dexmedetomidine in the patients with severe stenotic airways are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Air Embolism in the Left Ventricle after the Removal of a Central Venous

    • Abstract: Air embolism is a rare, potentially critical complication that can induce death. Central venous catheterization, which is commonly used for critically ill patients, is a possible cause of air embolism. We experienced a severe air embolism with abnormal air in left ventricle after CVC removal in a patient who was treated for eosinophilic pneumonia. Although the neurologic symptoms were severe, the patient was successfully treated with immediate hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the neurologic deficit was minimal.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Postoperative Acute Cerebral Infarction Occurring after General Anesthesia

    • Abstract: The common predisposing risk factors for perioperative stroke include: previous stroke, atrial fibrillation, old age (> 75 years), carotid stenosis, and diabetes mellitus.An endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in a 49-year-old male with chronic paranasal sinusitis and nasal polyps. The vital signs, physical and laboratory examinations, and electrocardiography on admission were within the normal limit. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen and 6% desflurane. The operation and anesthesia were uneventful with the exception of transient intraoperative hypotension. The patient recovered fully from the anesthesia (modified Aldrete score: 10) in the recovery room. However, he developed right arm weakness and dysarthria in the general ward 7 hours after the operation. We report a rare case of multifocal acute cerebral infarctions found on the postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in a noncardiac surgical patient.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Chylopericardial Tamponade in a Patient with Chylothorax after Pulmonary

    • Abstract: Chylopericardium is a very rare, yet potentially fatal, complication following intrathoracic surgery, and can further lead to other life-threatening complications such as cardiac tamponade. A 54-year-old female underwent right upper lobectomy for lung cancer. Chylothorax developed on the 2nd postoperative day, and was managed conservatively with dietary modification. On the 9th postoperative day, the patient suddenly developed hypotension and severe cardiac dysfunction requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed by VA ECMO. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large amount of pericardial effusion. Prompt pericardiocentesis was performed and the aspirated fluid showed features of chyle. Thoracic duct ligation with pericardial window operation was performed because the daily amount of chyle drained did not decrease after 3 weeks. Here, we review etiologies and therapeutic options of chylopericardial tamponade following intrathoracic surgery, which should not be underestimated even when the patient seems to demonstrate a good recovery.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Blood Gases during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Predicting Arrest
           Cause between Primary ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: If acid-base status and electrolytes on blood gases during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) differ between the arrest causes, this difference may aid in differentiating the arrest cause. We sought to assess the ability of blood gases during CPR to predict the arrest cause between primary cardiac arrest and asphyxial arrest.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients for whom blood gas analysis was performed during CPR on emergency department arrival. Patients were divided into two groups according to the arrest cause: a primary cardiac arrest group and an asphyxial arrest group. Acid-base status and electrolytes during CPR were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: Presumed arterial samples showed higher potassium in the asphyxial arrest group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, presumed venous samples showed higher potassium (p = 0.001) and PCO2 (p < 0.001) and lower pH (p = 0.008) and oxygen saturation (p = 0.01) in the asphyxial arrest group.Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that arterial potassium (OR 5.207, 95% CI 1.430-18.964, p = 0.012) and venous PCO2 (OR 1.049, 95% CI 1.021-1.078, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of asphyxial arrest. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated an optimal cut-off value for arterial potassium of 6.1 mEq/L (sensitivity 100% and specificity 86.4%) and for venous PCO2 of 70.9 mmHg (sensitivity 84.6% and specificity 65.9%).CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that blood gases during CPR can be used to predict the arrest cause. These findings should be confirmed through further studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Disseminated Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    • Abstract: Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most severe neonatal infections, and can have devastating consequences without early proper treatment.However, the administration of acyclovir can often be delayed because the symptoms and signs of HSV infection are non-specific and because HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results may be negative early in the course of HSV infection. We report a case of disseminated neonatal HSV infection that was diagnosed by type 1 HSV PCR on day 8 of admission. Despite delayed administration of acyclovir, the patient was cured and subsequently discharged after 30 days of admission. Fortunately, this patient was treated successfully, but delayed administration of acyclovir has the potential to lead to significant problems. Considering the seriousness of neonatal HSV infection, empirical acyclovir therapy should be considered if HSV infection is suspected.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Splenic Hemorrhage with Hemoperitoneum Caused by a Snakebite

    • Abstract: In Asia, snakebites are estimated to affect 4 million people every year, and of these, 100,000 people are estimated to die. In Korea, snakebites occur frequently from the spring to the fall, but their importance is often overlooked. Fatal complications, including acute respiratory distress and acute kidney injury, can occur, and in some cases, severe hemorrhage results from coagulopathy. There have been only a few cases of snakebite-induced liver or intestinal bleeding, but to our knowledge, spontaneous bleeding from the spleen has not been previously reported. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old male who visited the emergency room with abrupt abdominal pain due to hemoperitoneum associated with splenic hemorrhage after a snakebite.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Blunt Splenic Injury by Gunshot

    • Abstract: Trauma is frequently not purely penetrating or purely blunt.Such mixed trauma can result from the mechanism of injury.Recently, we encountered a patient who accidentally shot himself with a shotgun. He had a 15 x 8-cm-sized penetrating injury on left flank that did not penetrate into the peritoneal cavity and a blunt splenic injury with hemoperitoneum. Surgical and interventional treatments were performed for each injury. We present this case with a review of the related literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Endocarditis Caused by Community-Acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection
           - A Case Report -

    • Abstract: In community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, pyogenic liver abscess is common as a primary site of infection, particularly in Asia, that can progress to bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus is a usual predisposing factor. Pneumonia as primary site of infection by community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is not common but carries a poor outcome. Early administration of appropriate antibiotics is extremely important to avoid the development of bacteremia and septicemia. An infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is very rare; particularly, such a case of endocarditis in which pneumonia was the primary site of infection has never been reported previously. In this report we described a case of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection that started with pneumonia and progressed to bacteremia, leading to endocarditis, liver abscess, and other systemic septic complications. Delayed administration of appropriate antibiotics may have played a role in this case.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Severe Hypernatremia with Craniopharyngioma - A Case Report -

    • Abstract: Hypernatremia, defined as a rise in the serum sodium concentration to a value exceeding 145 mM/L, is a common electrolyte disorder. Diabetes insipidus is a common cause of hypernatremia, caused by impaired production or reduced responses to vasopressin. The resultant morbidity may be inconsequential, serious, or even life-threatening. However, hypernatremia rarely occurs during anesthesia and surgery. A 45-year-old female patient with craniopharyngioma was scheduled for tumor resection. Hypernatremia (serum sodium, 170 mM/L) occurred suddenly at the end of the surgery. To treat hypernatremia, 0.45% normal saline was used. Although serum sodium concentration was reduced faster than expected, the patient did not have any complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Purulent Pericarditis Complicated by Klebsiella pneumoniae
           Sepsis - A Case Report -

    • Abstract: Although the incidence of purulent pericarditis has decreased significantly in the modern antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis remains a life-threatening disease.Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion should be maintained to diagnose this life-threatening illness at an early stage. We report an extraordinary case of purulent pericarditis, caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia, which developed during the recovery of septic shock with urinary tract infection. Despite of early diagnosis and pericardial drainage, in addition to adequate antibiotics, the patient subsequently developed multiple organ failure leading to death. The case highlights that purulent pericarditis is a rare yet possible disorder complicated from septic shock with bacteremia in the antibiotic era.Therefore, purulent pericarditis should always be considered as a possible complication, especially in patients with K.pneumoniae bacteremia and progressive cardiomegaly.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Microembolism with Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump
           (IABP) Use in a Patient ...

    • Abstract: A fifty seven-year-old man visited the outpatient department with chest pain and claudication. Coronary angiogram showed coronary artery diseases (3-vessel diseases) and CABG was planned. However, lower extremity angiogram showed stenosis of both common iliac arteries and stent implantation of both iliac arteries were done before CABG. He underwent CABG and IABP was inserted for weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass.After CABG, ischemic change on ends of feet was noted with red-brown colored urine and hyperkalemia. Blood myoglobin level was over 3,000 ng/ml. Microembolism of his lower body was revealed by multiple uptakes on the whole body bone scan study. After management by massive hydration and alkalization of urine with sodium bicarbonate, he was recovered without renal replacement therapy and discharged in good condition.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Management of Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis with a Superior Vena
           Cava Filter - A Case ...

    • Abstract: Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is relatively uncommon and superior vena cava (SVC) filter placements are not often encountered due to strict indication. A 33-year old male with underlying protein C/S deficiency and secondary liver cirrhosis was admitted because of hematemesis. The patient was conservatively managed, but underwent elective splenectomy to prevent aggravation of gastric varix. During postoperative care, the patient underwent cholecystectomy for acalculous cholecystitis.During the postoperative course, UEDVT was detected and heparinization was initiated. The patient experienced repeated attacks of severe dyspnea, which was accompanied by chest pain that lasted for 3 to 10 minutes. Repeated episodes of pulmonary thromboembolism were suspected and SVC filter was placed. Warfarin treatment was initiated and the SVC filter was removed about one month later. The case highlights the clinical significance of UEDVT and reports rare case of SVC filter placement. Intensivists should have comprehensive understanding of UEDVT and its management.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hypertensive Crisis during Removal of Retroperitoneal Mass in a Patient
           with Undiagnosed ...

    • Abstract: Paragangliomas have been reported on multiple locations. A diagnosis of a catecholamine-secreting tumor was considered only after induction of anesthesia, when BP (blood pressure) increased. A 61-year-old male patient was referred for removal of a retroperitoneal mass suspected hemangiopericytoma. He was on medications for hypertension.There was a surge of ABP (arterial blood pressure) to 186/117 mmHg when the tumor was manipulated at the beginning of the surgery, and this was treated by bolus of diltiazem.After resection of the tumor, ABP dropped to 57/36 mmHg. In order to improve the patient's hemodynamic parameters, crystalloid fluid was given, and ephedrine was administered intravenously. Persistent hypotension was treated with titrated vasopressors (epinephrine and norepinephrine). When paraganglioma is suspected due to a sudden hypertensive crisis during surgery, the surgeon must decide whether to proceed with the surgical procedure or to stop and restart the surgery after proper management of the crisis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Airway Obstruction and Respiratory Failure Due to Aspergillus

    • Abstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a serious threat and a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is an infrequent but severe form of invasive pulmonary aspergillos in which the fungal infection is entirely or predominantly confined to the tracheobronchial tree. We report an extraordinary case of acute airway obstruction and respiratory failure due to Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in an immunocompromised patient. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed extensive obstruction of both the main and lobar bronchus with yellowish nodules strongly adhered to the bronchial wall; both histologic examination and culture of these nodules revealed Aspergillus fumigatus. Even with early detection of an intraluminal growth of Aspergillus and prompt institution of antifungal therapy, the patient died of refractory hypoxemia a few days later. This report shows that Aspergillus tracheobronchitis should be considered in immunocompromised patients with suspected lung infection even when the main radiographic finding is atelectasis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Association of Nurse Staffing Levels and Patient Outcome in Intensive
           Care Units

    • Abstract: Nurses play a crucial role in providing high-quality care in intensive care units (ICU). Previous studies have shown an association between nurse staffing levels and outcome of critically ill patients. Increasing nurse staffing levels in ICU has been recommended to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, nursing staff shortages associated with decreased budgets may prevent adequate nurse-to-patient ratios although there lies increasing needs for critical care. Several studies have suggested that higher nurse staffing level is associated with favorable patient outcome, including mortality, length of stay, and infections, but some of studies did not find an association between nurse staffing and patient outcome. Although there are some controversies in the associations between nurse staffing levels and patient outcome, it is difficult to apply such effect as compared with other developed countries in North American and Europe as the nurse-to-patient ratio in Korea's ICU is relatively low. By studying the nurse staffing effects for patient outcome from the Korea ICU, it is found that higher nurse staffing level is associated with improved patient mortality. This finding may suggest that a shortage of nursing staff is currently a serious issue for caring of critically ill patients in Korea.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Rebound Inflammation Associated with Rewarming from Hypothermia in an
           Endotoxin-Injured Lung

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is known to suppress inflammation in various experimental and clinical settings. We wanted to investigate how the suppressed inflammation by hypothermia is affected during rewarming.METHODS: Mice were being assigned to normothermia (37degrees C) or hypothermia (32degrees C). After 30 minutes at the assigned temperature, lipopolysaccharide was administered intratracheally. The mice were then randomly grouped and subjected to 4 hours of normothermia (N), 24 hours of normothermia (NN), 4 hours of hypothermia (H), or 4 hours of hypothermia followed by normothermia for the next 20 hours (HN). In another experiment, other HN mice were treated with varying doses of anti-TNF-alpha or anti-IL-1beta antibodies (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 microg/250 microl) immediately prior to rewarming.RESULTS: The neutrophil counts of BAL fluid (x104/ml) were 23.0 +/- 13.1 in the N, 6.4 +/- 3.1 in the H (p = 0.002 vs N), 20.4 +/- 10.2 in the NN, and 49.7 +/- 21.0 in the HN (p = 0.005 vs H; p < 0.001 vs NN). Myeloperoxidase activity of the lung (unit/microg) was 6.7 +/- 2.9, 7.9 +/- 1.9, 17.8 +/- 4.0 (p < 0.001 vs N), and 12.9 +/- 5.9 (p = 0.034 vs H, p = 0.028 vs NN), respectively. Compared with control HN, total WBC and neutrophil counts of mice treated with anti-TNF-alpha antibody or anti-IL-1beta antibody prior to rewarming were lower at all tested doses. The combination of both anti-TNF-alpha or anti-IL-1beta antibodies was not increasingly reducing the neutrophilic sequestration.CONCLUSIONS: Rewarming from induced hypothermia resulted in augmentation of neutrophilic sequestration of endotoxin-injured lung. Treatment with antibodies against TNF-alpha or IL-1beta prevented this rebound of neutrophilic infiltration.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Low Blood Selenium Concentrations in Critically Ill Children with Systemic
           Inflammatory ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace-element with antioxidant and immunological function. We studied the relationship between blood selenium concentrations, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and organ dysfunctions in critically ill children.METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of the blood selenium concentrations of critically ill children at the time of a pediatric intensive care unit admission.RESULTS: A total of 62 patients with a median age of 18 (5-180) months were included in this study. The mean of blood selenium concentration (microg/dl) was 8.49 +/- 2.42.The platelet count (r = -0.378) and PaCO2 (r = -0.403) showed negative correlations with blood selenium concentration, while PaO2/FiO2 (r = 0.359) and PaO2 (r = 0.355) showed positive correlations (p < 0.05, for all variables). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patients with SIRS than in those patients without SIRS (8.08 +/- 2.42 vs. 9.45 +/- 2.02, p = 0.011). Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock had showed significantly lower blood selenium concentrations than those without SIRS (7.03 +/- 2.73 vs. 9.45 +/- 2.02, p = 0.042). Patients with PaO2/FiO2 < or = 300 had lower blood selenium concentrations than those with PaO2/FiO2> 300 (7.90 +/- 2.43 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patient with PaO2/FiO2 < or = 200 than in those with PaO2/FiO2> 300 (7.64 +/- 2.76 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018).CONCLUSIONS: Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or respiratory dysfunction showed significantly low blood selenium concentrations.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Usefulness of Thrombocytopenia and Changes in Platelet Counts as
           Prognostic Markers in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia has been shown to be a useful predictor of mortality in adult intensive care units (ICUs).The aim of this study is to assess whether the level of platelet count at ICU admission and the changes in platelet counts can predict mortality in the pediatric ICU (PICU).METHODS: Platelet counts were checked daily for at least 4 days in a total of 303 children who were admitted to the ICU. We compared the initial platelet counts and changes in platelet counts between survivors and non-survivors. A multivariable logistic regression model, a receiver operating characteristic curve and a linear mixed model were used.RESULTS: The initial platelet count was significantly lower in non-survivors when compared to survivors. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that platelet count
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury

    • Abstract: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a significant cause of iatrogenic injuries in patients. It is also the major cause of transfusion-associated fatalities.Pathophysiologic mechanism is an implicated donor of HLA.Neutrophil antibodies and biologic response modifiers are accumulated in the stored blood products. Pulmonary endothelial activation of the host may be the response from these mediators. Treatment is supportive and will be subjected to other forms of ALL/ARDS. Diverting donors at high risk for alloimmunization may decrease the incidence of such cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Utility of Serum Procalcitonin Levels in the Management of Systemic
           Inflammatory Response ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obtaining serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) helps the differential diagnosis between sepsis and non-sepsis and predicts disease severity in the emergency department (ED).METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 132 consecutive adult patients with SIRS who visited the ED. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and serum PCT levels were compared between sepsis and non-sepsis groups upon ED admission. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores were calculated, and their correlations with CRP and PCT levels were evaluated. The PCT and CRP levels were assessed to predict sepsis in terms of comparing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.RESULTS: Eighty patients were included in the sepsis group.The levels of PCT and CRP in the sepsis group were significantly higher. In the sepsis group, the initial serum PCT correlated with the SOFA and MODS scores, and this also correlated in the non-sepsis group, but CRP did not. No differences were found when the PCT and CRP ROCs were compared.CONCLUSIONS: Correlation between PCT and severity in the non-sepsis group is considered to be clinically meaningless because of low levels. Additionally, PCT levels had similar diagnostic value for sepsis as CRP levels. PCT is recommended for prediction of severity in sepsis patients in ED, but not for differential diagnosis between sepsis and non-sepsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effects of APACHE II Score and Initial Nutritional Status on Prognosis of
           the Critically Ill ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients, especially in critically ill patients and affects their mortality and morbidity. However, the correlation between malnutrition and poor outcome is not fully understood. Our hypothesis is that the nutritional effect on the patient's prognosis would differ depending on the severity of the disease.METHODS: 3,758 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were observed retrospectively. Patients were divided into well, moderate and severe groups, according to their nutritional status as assessed by their serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC). The severity of the disease was assessed by the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score). All patients were followed clinically until discharge or death and ICU days, hospital days, ventilator days, and mortality rates were recorded.RESULTS: Depending on the definition used, the prevalence of hospital malnutrition is reported to be 68.3%. Hospital days, ICU days, as well as ventilator days of moderate and severe groups were longer than the well group. In patients exhibiting mild severity of disease, moderate and severe malnutrition groups have 3-5 times the mortality rate than the well group.CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition affects the prognosis of patients who have an APACHE II score ranging from 4-29 points. Active nutritional support may be more effective for patients with a disease of mild severity.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of iLA Application in a Patient with Refractory Asthma Who Is
           Nonresponsive to ...

    • Abstract: Refractory asthma with hypercapnia is a near-fatal disease.Pumpless Extracorporeal Interventional Lung Assist (iLA) may be considered as an alternative therapy for the disease as it removes the carbon dioxide effectively. Nevertheless, clinical outcome studies regarding iLA in patients suffering from refractory asthma have rarely been applied. Here, we reported our experience with iLA for the treatment of refractory asthma with hypercapnia. In our case, the patient had refractory asthma which was not controlled with medical treatment or mechanical ventilation. We applied iLA since hypercapnia was not resolved despite mechanical ventilation.After iLA implantation effectively reduced the carbon dioxide, the clinical condition of our patient improved. In conclusion, iLA is a useful tool for patient suffering from refractory asthma with hypercapnia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Successful Natural Stenting in Tracheobronchial Restenosis with
           Malignant Tumor after ...

    • Abstract: Tracheal tumors are very rare disease, which may cause dyspnea, obstructive pneumonia and life-threatening hypoxemia, depending on the site of the lesion and the severity of the narrowing. Such patients frequently die within hours or days due to suffocation. Patients who expressed upper airway stenosis, should be secured the airways prior to the diagnosis and treatment commonly. Then, treatment plan should be determined. For the relief of such stenosis, various modalities of therapy including surgery, laser photoresection, balloon dilatation and sometimes stent insertion have been used. Tracheobronchial stent insertion has been a good therapeutic option in these patients in point of avoiding morbidities associated with surgery. We report a case of repeated tracheobronchial stenosis by infiltrating tumor mass after metallic stent insertion in a 48-year-old man. The patient was treated successfully by Natural stent insertion with rigid bronchoscopy after removal of previous inserted metallic stent.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Massive Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Caused by the Aspiration of Gastric
           Contents during ...

    • Abstract: Aspiration pneumonitis is best defined as an acute lung injury, following the aspiration of regurgitated gastric contents. Major cause of pulmonary aspiration, during anesthesia, is gastric contents. Pulmonary aspiration can present symptoms of wheezing, coughing, dyspnea, cyanosis, pulmonary edema, hypotension, and hypoxemia, which may progress rapidly to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there was no report of massive alveolar hemorrhage associated with aspiration pneumonitis.A 63-year-old man, who had undergone a total gastrectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy, four months ago, was scheduled for adhesiolysis of the small bowel. The patient occurred aspiration of gastric contents, during induction of anesthesia, and subsequently, hypoxia developed during surgery. The patient moved to an intensive care unit (ICU), without extubation. Mechanical ventilation with PEEP was performed in an ICU. However, the patient died by ARDS and massive alveolar hemorrhage.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Pumpless Extracorporeal Interventional Lung Assist for Severe
           Respiratory Failure: A ...

    • Abstract: Pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist (iLA) is a promising respiratory rescue system permitting protective lung ventilation for severe respiratory failure. Herein, we report a case of prolonged iLA support with regards to a patient exhibiting severe hypercapnic respiratory failure. A 51-year-old female patient with metastatic endometrial carcinoma developed progressive hospital-acquired pneumonia and was intubated in order to restore respiratory failure.Despite maximal mechanical ventilator care, her clinical condition deteriorated due to severe respiratory acidosis.The iLA was performed for the management of refractory hypercapnia. The total duration of iLA support was 23 days without any vascular complications, however, she could not survive because of oxygenation failure.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Anaphylactic Shock to Intravenous Cefotetan in a Pregnant Woman: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Anaphylactic reactions to agents administered intravenously usually occur within minutes. We present an unusual case of a delayed onset anaphylactic shock to intravenous cefotetan in a pregnant woman who underwent an epidural cesarean section. She sustained hypotension, tachycardia, bronchospasm, and rash 90 min after administering intravenous cefotetan. The possibilities of high epidural blocks or amnionic fluid embolisms were excluded by the height of sensory blocks or different presenting symptoms and signs, respectively. Allergic skin tests for exposed materials were performed 6 weeks after discharge and no immediate reactions occurred. However, delayed systemic allergic reactions, such as urticaria, rash, and edema on her face, neck, back, and abdomen, occurred 3 h after skin test to cefotetan.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Exertional Heat Stroke with Acute Hepatic Failure Treated with
           Plasma Exchange: A ...

    • Abstract: Heat stroke is a hyperthermia-induced systemic inflammatory response which may cause multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. We report a case of exertional heat stroke with acute hepatic failure in an 11-year-old boy. He initially presented hyperthermia and unconsciousness, which occurred after heavy exercise. His neurological state improved after terminating the hyperthermia by intensive cooling therapy. However, 24 hours after the initial recovery, his neurological state deteriorated again as acute hepatic injury progressed rapidly. We applied 4 times of total plasma exchange as an immunotherapy for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute hepatic failure expecting it to remove endogenous inflammatory factors and hepatotoxic cytokines. Following the plasma exchange, his mental state became normal and serial laboratory findings indicated improvement. He made a complete recovery without sequelae. We experienced successful treatment regarding exertional heat stroke with acute hepatic failure using plasma exchange.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Usability of Esophageal Doppler for Monitoring of Concealed
           Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage during ...

    • Abstract: Hemodynamic monitoring is an essential element in the management of perioperative patients. In addition, anesthesiologists routinely used blood pressure (invasive or non invasive), heart rate, urinary output and central venous pressure as monitoring modalities. Esophageal doppler monitoring, as a minimally invasive hemodynamic assessment tool, has a good correlation with pulmonary artery catheterization in measuring cardiac output. We experienced a case of concealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage in a patient who underwent a laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy. When surgeons tried to close trocar sites, the patient's blood pressure dropped rapidly. At laparoscopy, we could not find gross bleeding. However, we could detect hypovolemia by esophageal doppler monitoring (CardioQ, Deltex(TM), UK). The procedure was converted to open laparotomy. Thereafter, we could find retroperitoneal hemorrhage, and vascular repair was done successfully. The patient recovered without any other complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Ultrasound Guided Bronchoscopic Balloon Dilatation in the Management of
           Tracheal Stenosis: A ...

    • Abstract: We performed a balloon dilatation without a fluoroscopy monitoring by ultrasound. A 44 year old female patient was presented with subglottic stenosis, due to prolonged intubation. Although she had undergone tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis, the tracheal stenosis had recurred. She was scheduled for balloon dilatation. However, fluoroscopic guidance was not available, and thus, we used ultrasonographic monitoring as an alternative method. We performed a transverse scan, just cranial to the suprasternal notch, and we obtained a real time image of the trachea dilated by the balloon. We suggest that ultrasonographic monitoring is a useful adjunct to balloon dilatation in patients with tracheal stenosis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Muscle Relaxants in Critically Ill Patients with Renal Disease

    • Abstract: Critical illness often results in renal dysfunction. Renal disease includes acid base imbalance, electrolyte shift and neuromuscular disturbances in critically ill patients, who are influenced by the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of muscle relaxants, with kidney dependent metabolism and excretion. In terms of renal dysfunction, not only decreased circulating levels of normal cholinesterase, but also cholinesterase depletion after plasmapheresis and dialysis draw the attention of clinicians, when administering a muscle relaxant to critically ill patients who are compromised with renal function. These patients have a lower clearance of renal excreted drugs, changes of the volume of distribution, water retention, and pH changes that alter the protein bond and degree of ionization of the drugs.Immobilization of the limb and respiratory muscles, leading to muscle atrophy and the up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, associated with critical illness, is observed in many patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit with renal dysfunction. Disease related conditions or iatrogenically induced factors, including sedation, lead to immobilization of skeletal muscles. Aside from systemic inflammation, immobilization is a key contributing factor to the development of critical illness myopathy. Physicians who care for critically ill patients with renal dysfunction should pay attention to the adequate choice of muscle relaxants and their antagonists.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Usefulness of Screening Criteria System Used by Medical Alert Team in a
           General Hospital

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rapid response team (RRT) is becoming an essential part of patient safety by the early recognition and management of patients on general hospital wards. In this study, we analyzed the usefulness of screening criteria of RRT used at Asan Medical Center.METHODS: On a retrospective basis, we reviewed the records of 675 cases in 543 patients that were managed by RRT (called medical alert team in the Asan Medical Center), from July 2011 to December 2011. The medical alert team was acted by requests of attending doctors or nurses or the medical alert system (MAS) criteria composed of abnormal vital sign, neurology, laboratory data and increasing oxygen demand. We investigated the patterns of MAS criteria for targeting the patients who were managed by the medical alert team.RESULTS: Respiratory distress (RR> 25/min) was the most common item for identifying patients whose condition had worsened. The criteria consist with respiratory distress and abnormal blood pressure (mean BP < 60 mmHg or systolic BP < 90 mmHg) found 70.0% of patients with deteriorated conditions. Vital sign (RR> 25/min, mean BP < 60 mmHg or systolic BP < 90 mmHg, pulse rate, PR> 130/min or < 50/min) and oxygen demand found 79.2% of them. Vital signs, arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) with lactate level (pH, pO2, pCO2, and lactate) and O2 demand found 98.6% of patient conditions had worsened.CONCLUSIONS: Vital signs, especially RR> 25/min is useful criteria for detecting patients whose conditions have deteriorated. The addition of ABGA data with lactate levels leads to a more powerful screening tool.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Nutrition Support in the Intensive Care Unit of 6 Korean Tertiary Teaching
           Hospitals: A ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a frequent nutritional problem among ICU patients, and their nutritional status is known to affect clinical prognosis. We conducted this study to examine nutritional status and actual nutrition delivery in the ICU patients and its relations to clinical outcomes.METHODS: This study was a multicenter retrospective observational study based on the medical records of 163 patients admitted to ICU of tertiary teaching hospitals in Korea. We included the patients who were treated with mechanical ventilation for 3 or more days and received enteral or parenteral nutrition.RESULTS: According to albumin and total lymphocyte count levels, 54.6% of the subjects were moderately or severely malnourished. Mean percentage of calorie and protein delivery to estimated needs for 10 days were 55.8 +/- 29.3% and 46.1 +/- 30.1%, respectively. While parenteral nutrition (PN) started at 1.6 +/- 1.4 days after admission, enteral nutrition (EN) did at 3.6 +/- 2.1 days. Days to PN and EN start, the calorie and protein amount via EN or PN were significantly different among 6 hospitals. No clinical outcomes differed by the levels of calorie or protein delivery. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the severely malnourished group at admission as compared to the other 2 groups (54.3% vs. 31.2% vs. 27.7%, p < 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition prevalence is high among Korean intensive care unit patients, but current nutritional therapy practice is inconsistent across institutions and far below the international guidelines. Systematic efforts should be made to develop nutritional support guidelines for Korean ICU patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Medical Residents' Perception and Emotional Stress on Withdrawing
           Life-Sustaining Therapy

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In order to promote the dignity of terminal patients, and improve end-of-life care (EOL care) in Korea, consensus guidelines to the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies (LST) were published in October, 2009. The aim of this study was to assess the current perception of the guideline among internal medicine residents and to identify barriers to the application of the guidelines.METHODS: The study was designed prospectively on the basis of data from e-mail survey. We surveyed 98 medical residents working in 19 medical centers.RESULTS: 75.5% of respondents agreed with withdrawing (WD) of LST and 33.3% (33/98) of respondents were unaware of the guideline. Although 58.1% of all respondents had taken an EOL care class in medical school, about 30% of residents did feel uncomfortable with communicating with patients and surrogates. The most important obstacle for decision of WD of LST was the resident's psychological stress. 39.8% of medical residents felt guilty or failure after a patient's death, and 41.8% became often or always depressed in a patient's dying.CONCLUSIONS: In order to protect and enhance the dignity and autonomy of terminal patients, the improvement of the medical training program in the hospitals and the more concern of educational leaders are urgent.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Relationship of Temperature and Humidity with the Number of Daily
           Emergency Department Visits ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute heart failure (AHF) increases in cold weather. Whether or not AHF has seasonal variation in Korea is unclear, and the influence of humidity on AHF incidence is also unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the number of daily emergency department (ED) visits for AHF and the temperature and humidity in Korea.METHODS: On a retrospective basis, we investigated the medical records of patients who visited the ED with dyspnea from Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2010. Inclusion criteria comprised both evidence of clinical symptoms and the presence of signs of pulmonary congestion on chest X-rays.Exclusion criteria included a medical history showing end-stage renal disease with dialysis or showing an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. The number of daily ED visits for AHF was compared with meteorological data after stratifying temperature or humidity into 3 parts.RESULTS: After stratification by humidity, the results revealed that the number of daily ED visits was significantly associated with minimum temperatures occurring one to 2 days prior to ED admission, although only in the lowest tertile of humidity (p = 0.012, p = 0.021, respectively). The relationship between humidity and daily ED visits for AHF was the same as that mentioned above (p = 0.016, p = 0.039, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients with AHF in Korea increases in cold weather, as is the case in other countries. Specifically, AHF incidence was related to temperature minimums occurring one to 2 days prior to ED admission, as well as with humidity.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Anesthetic Management of Whole-Lung Lavage Using Propofol-Remifentanil in
           a Patient with ...

    • Abstract: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by the progressive accumulation of phospholipids and proteins within the alveolar sacs without producing an inflammatory response. Whole-lung lavage (WLL) is performed as the standard therapy for this disease because it serves to wash out the proteinaceous material from the alveoli. In this case, we performed sequential WLL using propofol-remifentanil, which is not related to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during one-lung ventilation. The patient's symptoms and radiologic findings showed improvement without the occurrence of any specific complications. Therefore, we report a case of anesthetic management of WLL performed repeatedly for a patient with recurrent PAP.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Esophageal-Retroesophageal Right Subclavian Artery Fistula: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Fistula between retroesophageal subclavian artery and esophagus is rare but a fatal complication. The purpose of this case study is to describe a case of 47-year old male presented with intracranial hemorrhage being required a long stay in the intensive care unit and to demonstrate the importance of surveillance patients requiring prolonged nasogastric tube. Recognition of this aberrant artery is critical for the prevention of these catastrophic events.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Skin Necrosis after High Dose Vasopressor Infusion in Septic Shock: Two
           Case Reports

    • Abstract: Survival sepsis campaign recommends that vasopressor therapy is required to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP)> or = 65 mmHg. However, the absolute maximum dose of vasopressor is difficult to determine. Herein, we report 2 cases of severe skin necrosis after high dose vasopressor infusion to maintain the recommended MAP in septic shock. In our first case, norepinephrine 1.0-2.0 microg/kg/min and vasopressin 0.03-0.1 U/min were infused for 5 days; in the second case, dopamine 10-20 microg/kg/min and norepinephrine 0.25-2.5 microg/kg/min were infused for 7 days. Severe ischemic skin lesions, which required amputations, developed in both cases. The clinical appearance of the skin lesions in the 2 cases was different because of the unique distribution of target receptors for different vasopressors. Thus, when high dose vasopressors are required to achieve recommended MAP, extra vigilance is required. Further studies for dose adjustment are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Anaphylactoid Reaction to Gadolinium Contrast Media and
           Propranolol Complicated with ...

    • Abstract: Anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction is a medical emergency.In rare cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can complicate this disorder. This is a case report of an anaphylactoid reaction complicated with ARDS that was successfully treated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 52-year-old female patient developed sudden dyspnea immediately after she received gadolinium contrast injection and 80 mg of oral propranolol. She progressed rapidly to a state of shock and her chest radiograph showed pulmonary edema. The shock and pulmonary edema did not respond to epinephrine or steroid injection.On the next day, the permeability edema worsened and laboratory test revealed extreme hemoconcentration. The oxygenation goal was not achieved with mechanical ventilation alone, thus ECMO was applied as well. The patient showed clinical improvements on the 3rd day and was weaned from ECMO on the 4th day. She was completely recovered from shock and respiratory distress by day 5. The patient was discharged from hospital without further complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Fatal Case of Vocal Cord Dysfunction: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Vocal cord dysfunction is characterized by the paradoxical adduction of the vocal cord during inspiration, causing relapsing wheezing or stridor, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. If the patient exhibiting symptoms of asthma is not responsive to treatment, there is a need to test whether vocal cord dysfunction is complicated by asthma. Herein, we report a case of vocal cord dysfunction with acute respiratory failure in old age with underlying disease. The patient presented with resting dyspnea, an audible wheeze, and was first diagnosed with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, her symptoms were not controlled with medical treatment and laryngoscopy showed paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords. Sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred after meal on the day of laryngoscopic examination. Although successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient developed ventilator-associated pneumonia, and multiple organ failure, eventually leading to death. Because the case was fatal, a report is being issued.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Muscular Rigidity and Pulmonary Edema Following Administration of Low Dose
           Fentanyl: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Fentanyl-induced muscular rigidity has been reported exclusively in patients when large fentanyl dosages were employed in the operating room or in the pediatric intensive care unit. Rigidity and pulmonary edema after analgesic doses of fentanyl had not been reported previously. A 25-year-old man underwent removal of a foreign body and application of an Ilizarov frame of tibia under general anesthesia. The patient received 100 microg of fentanyl during emergence of anesthesia and the procedure of dressing. On arrival to the anesthetic recovery room, the patient presented with muscular rigidity and about 1 hour later, developed pulmonary edema. The notable predisposing factors were rapid injection of fentanyl and history of treatment with antidepressants and haloperidol, modifiers of serotonin and dopamine levels. From this case, we suggest the need for careful observation for the development of muscle rigidity complicating airway management in patients taking antidepressants and antipsychotics, especially after administration of an analgesic dose of fentanyl.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Five Successful Experiences in the Treatment of Charcoal Aspiration with
           Bronchoscopic Toilet: ...

    • Abstract: Although activated charcoal is an effective treatment for most toxic ingestions, aspiration of activated charcoal can be fatal. Here, we report that in 5 charcoal aspiration cases, bronchoscopy with suction and lavage was an effective way to remove charcoal from the lungs. Patients showed high APACHE II scores (range: 10-29), and either low PO2 levels, or low CO2 retention. After bronchoscopic removal of the aspirated charcoal, symptoms of hypoxia, CO2 retention, localized wheezing, and pneumonic infiltration as determined by chest radiography, improved in most patients. We report 5 cases of successful treatment of charcoal aspiration with bronchoscopic toilet.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Consideration of Prognostic Factors in Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, there are many reports about the association of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and the prognosis of hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE), but those relationships have not yet been completely determined. As such, we researched for prognosis, according to a variety of clinical data, and the lesion's distribution on DWI.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients who were diagnosed as HE. In addition, those prognoses were analyzed by a variety of clinical data and characteristics of lesion's distribution, which were evaluated on DWI and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) maps. Three months later, those prognoses were determined by each Modified Rankin Scale. Further, the time-dependent average Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), among the groups according to the characteristics of lesion's distributions in the initial DWI, was estimated.RESULTS: In this study, the difference of prognosis was not shown, according to all the clinical data, such as the severity or duration of the hypoglycemic state, but the group that did not have any pathologic lesion on the initial DWI demonstrated a better prognosis, in comparison with the groups-that exhibited any positive lesion on the initial DWI (p = 0.006). The group that had a focal pathologic lesion on the initial DWI showed a better prognosis than the diffuse lesion's group (p = 0.045). The groups with no lesion or focal lesion showed a faster recovery of GCS than the other groups with a positive lesion or diffuse lesion within the initial 1 week.CONCLUSIONS: We can identify that the characteristics of the lesion's distribution of DWI can be more helpful to predict of prognosis in HE than a variety of clinical data, such as the severity or duration of the hypoglycemic state.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Hydrogel Pad and Conventional Method on the Induction Time of
           Therapeutic Hypothermia ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a standard treatment of cardiac arrest patients after return of spontaneous circulation. There are various methods to drop patient's core body temperature below 33.5degrees C. We compared the cooling rate of the conventional cooling method using cold saline bladder irrigation with the commercial hydrogel pad in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients.METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from the Samsung Medical Center hypothermia database. The conventional method group was cooled with IV infusion of 2,000 ml of 4degrees C cold saline and cold saline bladder irrigation. Patients in the hydrogel pad group had their body temperature lowered with the Artic Sun(R) after receiving 2,000 ml of 4degrees C cold saline intravenously. The induction time was defined as time from cold saline infusion to the esophageal core temperature below 33.5degrees C. The esophageal temperature probe insertion to the target temperature time (ET to target BT time) was defined as the time from the esophageal probe insertion to the core temperature below 33.5degrees C. We compared these times and cooling rates between the two groups.RESULTS: Eighty one patients were enrolled. Fifty seven patients were included in the hydrogel pad group and 24 patients were in the conventional group. There were no statistical differences of baseline characteristics between the two groups. The induction time of the conventional group (138 min., IQR 98-295) was shorter than that of the hydrogel pad group (190 min., IQR 140-250). The ET to target BT time of the conventional group (106 min., IQR 68-249) was shorter than that of the hydrogel pad group (163 min., IQR 108-222).The cooling rate of the conventional group (0.93degrees C/hr., IQR 0.58-2.08) was lower than that of the hydrogel pad group (1.05degrees C/hr., IQR 0.74-1.96). However, there were no statistical differences in the induction time, the ET to target BT time and the cooling rate between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant statistical difference of the cooling rate of the hydrogel pad and conventional method on the induction time of therapeutic hypothermia in Patients with OHCA. The conventional cooling method can be used as an effective and efficient way to lower OHCA patient's core body temperature during the induction phase of therapeutic hypothermia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Favorable Outcomes in Septic Shock Patients without Hyperlactatemia or
           Severe Organ Failure

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Septic shock is a pathophysiologic state of circulatory failure with tissue hypoperfusion. However, it is usually defined as sepsis-induced hypotension not responding to fluid resuscitation, regardless of the objective findings of tissue hypoperfusion such as lactic acidosis or organ failures. Numerous patients with sepsis-induced hypotension present to the emergency department without hyperlactemia or severe organ failure.Hence, we investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with septic shock according to the presence of hyperlactatemia or significant organ failure.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients presenting with septic shock in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital between August 2008 and July 2010. Initial serum lactate was categorized low ( or =2.5 mmol/L). Organ failure was assessed by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality.RESULTS: A total of 227 patients were enrolled. There were 88 (38.8%) patients in the low lactate group, and 139 (61.2%) patients in the high lactate group. Patients with low lactate levels showed a lower mortality rate (6.8% compared with 25.1% of those with high lactate level). The low lactate group showed less rapid heart rate, less severe organ failures and shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit. During the early goal-directed therapy, they required a smaller amount of fluid administration and a lower dose of norepinephrine although other hemodynamic variables were similarly maintained. In particular, if patients showed less severe organ dysfunction (SOFA score < 8) in the low lactate group (n = 45), in-hospital mortality was 0% (adjusted mortality was 1.3% [95% confidence interval = 0.3-5.0]).CONCLUSION: Patients with septic shock, who were enrolled according to the traditional definition, showed a very favorable outcome if they did not have hyperlactatemia or significant organ failure.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Gender Differences in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing
           Percutaneous ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Limited data are available for gender-based differences among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing coronary revascularization in Korea. The purpose of this study is to identify gender-based differences in clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes among Korean patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).METHODS: Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between Jan 2009 and Sep 2011 were included (n = 457) in the study. Clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors as well as major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death after PCI, were compared between women (n = 134) and men (n = 323).RESULTS: Women were older (69.8 +/- 10.7 vs. 60.0 +/- 11.7 years, p < .001) and had more comorbidities, such as diabetes (44.0% vs. 32.8%, p = .025) and hypertension (64.9% vs. 48.9%, p = .002) compared to men. Women were less likely to have a smoking history (p < .001). There were no significant differences in all causes of death and in MACE between women and men. By the multivariate analysis, age, HDL-cholesterol and left ventricle ejection fraction are associated with mortality and MACE.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, women did not emerge as an independent predictor for MACE; however, they were older and had a higher incidence of hypertension and diabetes than men.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Analysis of Prognostic Factors Early in Emergency Department (ED) and Late
           in Intensive Care ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many critically ill patients in the ED are hospitalized to the ICU, but most prognosis predicting systems have been developed based on the physiochemical variables of the critically ill in the ICU. The objective of this study is to identify prognostic predictors early in the ED when compared with well-known predictors in the ICU and estimate their predictive abilities.METHODS: An observational prospective study was performed in an urban ED. Information of all the critically ill patients admitted to the ICU via the ED including vital signs, laboratory results, and physiochemical scoring systems were checked during 6 months and divided into the early stage for the ED and the late stage in the ICU. Poor outcome was defined as 28-days mortality. After checking for significant predictors among them through univariate analysis, we identified the most discriminating predictors in each stage using logistic regression and a decision tree analysis.RESULTS: A total of 246 patients were enrolled. In univariate analysis, the significant predictors including central venous pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), albumin, mortality in emergency department sepsis, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, simplified acute physiology score II, and sequential organ failure assessment scores were identified in the early stage, while PaO2/FiO2, base excess, unmeasured anion, albumin, anion gap, albumin-corrected anion gap, APACHEII, SAPSII, SOFA, and rapid emergency medicine score were identified in the late stage. Through a decision tree analysis, PaO2/FiO2 and SAPSII were revealed as the most discriminating predictors in the ED and ICU, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis discriminating predictor in critical patients was different between the ED and ICU.Emergency physicians should pay more attention to the critical patients having low PaO2/FiO2.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Men Associated with Good Prognosis after Return of Spontaneous Circulation
           after Out-of ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the gender factors associated with good or bad prognosis after return of spontaneous circulation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest.METHODS: The patients admitted to the intensive care unit after successful resuscitation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest were retrospectively identified and evaluated. Thirty days mortality after admission, and neurologic outcome at 6 months after hospital discharge (cerebral performance category [CPC]) were evaluated.RESULTS: One hundred forty-two patients were evaluated in this study; there were 101 males (71.1%). The median age was 52 years old (43-63). Thirty days after admission, 85 patients (59.9%) survived, 40 patients had a good neurologic outcome (CPC 1-2). The factors associated 30 days mortality were cause of arrest (non-cardiac, p = 0.03), lactate in emergency department (p = 0.05) and the factors associated with good neurologic outcome were males (p = 0.007), young age (p = 0.01), body weight and height (p = 0.001), cause of death (cardiac, p = 0.000). Alcohols and smoking were not associated with mortality and neurologic outcome. In multiple logistic regression analysis, men had a 8-fold increased good neurologic outcome (CPC 1-2) (odds ratio [OR] 8.038, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.079-59.903). Other factors associated with good neurologic outcome were cardiac cause of death (OR 5.523, 95% CI 1.562-19.533) and young age (OR 1.055, 95% CI 1.009-1.103).CONCLUSIONS: Men had a good neurologic outcome after return of spontaneous circulation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest in one emergency center. Other additional factors including gonadal hormones should be evaluated.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Determination of the Cause of Pleural Effusion in ICU Patients with

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion is a common and important problem in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, only few studies have focused on the etiology of pleural effusion in the ICU. The aim of this study is to elucidate the etiology of pleural effusion in ICU patients in a tertiary care hospital.METHODS: Patients with pleural effusion in the medical ICU (MICU) and in the emergency ICU (EICU) were studied retrospectively from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009.The etiology and profile of pleural effusion were analyzed.RESULTS: Of 1,592 patients admitted to the MICU and EICU during the study period, 78 patients (4.8%) underwent thoracentesis. The mean age was 66.8 +/- 13.3 years, and 52 (66.7%) were men. Parapneumonic effusion (32/78, 41%) was the leading cause of all effusions; malignancy- and heart failure-related effusions accounted for 15 (19.2%) and 14 (17.7%) cases, respectively. Fifteen patients (19.2%) had tube insertion after thoracentesis; in these patients, parapneumonic effusion or empyema was the most common reason for drainage (9/15, 60%). Pneumothorax developed after thoracentesis in 2 patients.CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic thoracentesis was performed in 4.8% of patients admitted to the ICU; one-fifth of these cases required therapeutic drainage. Parapneumonic effusion was the most common cause of pleural effusion in the ICU in this study.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Changing Pattern of Blood Glucose Levels and Its Association with
           In-hospital Mortality in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of blood glucose during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and the association between in-hospital mortality and blood glucose in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors (OHCA) treated with TH.METHODS: The OHCA treated with TH between 2008 and 2011 were identified and analyzed. Blood glucose values were measured every hour during TH and collected. Mean blood glucose and standard deviation (SD) were calculated using blood glucose values during the entire TH period and during each phase of TH. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.RESULTS: One hundred twenty patients were analyzed. The non-shockable rhythm (OR = 8.263, 95% CI 1.622-42.094, p = 0.011) and mean glucose value during induction (OR = 1.010, 95% CI 1.003-1.016, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The blood glucose values decreased with time, and median glucose values were 161.0 (116.0-228.0) mg/dl, 128.0 (102.0-165.0) mg/dl, and 105.0 (87.5-129.3) mg/dl during the induction, maintenance, and rewarming phase, respectively. The 241 (180-309) mg/dl of the median blood glucose value before TH was significantly lower than 183 (133-242) mg/dl of the maximal median blood glucose value during the cooling phase (p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: High blood glucose was associated with in-hospital mortality in OHCA treated with TH. Therefore, hyperglycaemia during TH should be monitored and managed.The blood glucose decreased by time during TH. However, it is unclear whether TH itself, insulin treatment or fluid resuscitation with glucose-free solutions affects hypoglycaemia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Frequency of Defibrillation Related to the Survival Rate and
           Neurological Outcome in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early defibrillation is the treatment of choice in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) with initial shockable rhythms. However, the relationship between the frequency of defibrillation and neurological outcome was not clear. In this study, the frequency of defibrillation and other factors related to neurological outcome were investigated.METHODS: Records of 255 adult patients, who were admitted to the hospital after resuscitation from OHCA between November 2008 and March 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. 6 months after the return of spontaneous circulation, patients were divided into two groups based on the cerebral performance category (CPC) score for neurologic prognosis. The frequency of defibrillation during resuscitation and other variables were analyzed between the two groups.RESULTS: In the study group, initial rhythm was divided into two groups, non shockable rhythm (200, 78.4%) and shockable rhythm (55, 21.6%). The frequency of 1-7 defibrillations was significantly associated with good neurological outcome (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.328-6.850). In addition, shockable initial rhythm (OR 4.520, 95% CI 1.953-10.459), arrest caused cardiac origin (OR 2.945, 95% CI 1.334-6.500), time to BLS (OR 1.139, 95% CI 1.033-1.256) and lower APACHII score (OR 1.095, 95% CI 1.026-1.169), which were associated with good neurological outcomes, independently.CONCLUSIONS: In those patients who survived from OHCA, adequate defibrillation was important to improve the neurological outcome, whether the initial rhythm was shockable or not. Frequency of 1-7 times defibrillation was associated with good neurological outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Recovery after Cardiac Arrest from Medically Intractable
           Coronary Spasm Induced by ...

    • Abstract: The ergonovine provocation test is often used in diagnosing variant angina. Most patients with an ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasm respond promptly to intracoronary nitroglycerin administration within 3 to 5 minutes. However, in a few patients ergonovine results in serious cardiovascular complications due to intractable coronary artery spasm. We report a case of a severe and medically intractable coronary spasm induced by ergonovine, followed by cardiac arrest. Aided by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) and mechanical ventilation, the patient could survive after four days of hospitalization despite a recurrent vasospasm. Recovery was largely attributed to full supportive care and the use of PCPS.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia in a 5-month-old Boy with
           Agammaglobulinemia: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. jiroveci) pneumonia is known as a common opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immunity. Underlying disease or conditions related to the development of P. jiroveci pneumonia include acquired immunodeficiency syndromes, as well as malignancies and congenital immune deficiency disorders. We describe a 5-month-old boy without significant medical history who was admitted at our hospital because of fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy whose condition became worse within several hours after admission. A chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse infiltration and high resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with P. jiroveci pneumonia by direct immunofluorescent antibody staining from lung biopsy and he was later diagnosed with agammaglobulinemia. Although the boy was treated with antibiotics, high-dose corticosteroids and mechanical ventilation, he expired on the 5th hospital day. Here, we report the case of P. jiroveci pneumonia in a boy with agammaglobulinemia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Management of Potential Non-Heart-Beating Donor with
           Extracorporeal Membrane ...

    • Abstract: Hemodynamics of a brain-dead donor can change rapidly during management. It frequently leads to loss of the donor or deterioration of organ functions. Various efforts have been made not to lose potential donors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and non-heart-beating donation (NHBD) are good examples of such efforts. A 47 year-old woman with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation was diagnosed with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed three times before transfer to our hospital. Her family agreed to organ donation. ECMO was applied due to her unstable vital signs, which made the first declaration of brain death possible. However, considering the deteriorating vital signs and expected cardiac arrest, it was decided to switch to NHBD under the family's consent. All life-support devices including ECMO were turned off in the operation room. After cardiac death was declared, the harvesting of liver and kidneys was performed with perfusion through an ECMO catheter. The liver and kidneys were successfully transplanted to three recipients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Metformin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury without Lactic Acidosis: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class, which is used for type 2 diabetes. The side effects of metformin are mostly limited to digestive tract symptoms, such as diarrhea, flatulence and abdominal discomfort. The most serious potential adverse effect of metformin is lactic acidosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted due to hypoglycemia as a result of an overdose of antidiabetic drugs. He took massive dose of metformin. Conservative treatment failed for metabolic acidosis without lactic acidosis accompanied by acute kidney injury. Hemodialysis was executed to correct the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury, and the patient recovered fully from metabolic acidosis. This case illustrates that the presence of clinical conditions, such as metformin-induced acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis, can be developed without lactic acidosis. Prompt recognition of metabolic acidosis and early intervention with hemodialysis can result in a successful clinical outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Brain Dead Donor Management with CRRT: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Brain death results in adverse pathophysiologic effects in many brain-dead donors with cardiovascular instability. We experienced a brain-dead donor with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) who was in a severe metabolic, electrolyte derangement and poor pulmonary function. The thirty-nine-year-old male patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage was admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU). After sudden cardiac arrest, he went into a coma state and was referred to as a potential organ donor. When he was transferred, his vital sign was unstable even under the high dose of inotropics and vasopressors. Even with aggressive treatment, the level of blood sugar was 454 mg/dl, serum K+ 7.1 mEq/L, lactate 5.33 mmol/L and PaO2/FiO2 60.3. We decided to start CRRT with the mode of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF).After 12 hours of CRRT, vital sign was maintained well without vasopressors, and blood sugar, serum potassium and lactate levels returned to 195 of PaO2/FiO2. Therefore, he was able to donate his two kidneys and his liver.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Initiation of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy and Clinical Outcome in
           Septic Shock ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill septic shock patients with acute kidney injury is highly subjective and may influence outcome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between initiation of RRT and 28 day mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock (SSSS).METHODS: All patients diagnosed with SSSS and treated at the medical intensive care unit (ICU) in university-affiliated hospital from January 2005 to December 2006 were reviewed.Initiation of RRT was stratified into "early" and "late" by RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage) criteria and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at the time RRT began. The primary outcome was death after 28 days from any cause.RESULTS: Of the 326 patients diagnosed with SSSS and admitted into the medical ICU during the study period, 78 patients received RRT. Mean age was 61.5 +/- 14.7 years old and 54 patients were male (69.2%). The initiation of RRT was categorized into early (Risk, and Injury) and late (Failure) by RIFLE criteria and also categorized into early (BUN < 75 mg/dl) and late (BUN> or = 75 mg/dl). When the relationship between RIFLE criteria and 28 day mortality was compared, no significant difference was shown (70.8% vs. 73.3%, p = 0.81). The initiation of RRT by BUN also showed no significant difference in 28 day mortality (77.3% vs. 69.6%, p = 0.50).CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of RRT, stratified into "early" and "late" by RIFLE and BUN, showed no significant difference in 28 day mortality regarding patient with SSSS.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Healthcare Professional's Knowledge, Perception and Performance on Early
           Enteral Nutrition for ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Proper nutritional supplement is one of the fundamental management domains for critical ill patients.While it shows positive effect on processing and prognosis of critical ill patients, early enteral nutrition is overlooked. This study explored healthcare professional's level of knowledge perception and performance on early enteral nutrition for critically ill patients. Data was collected from a convenient sample of 319 registered doctors, nurses and nutritionists in ICU at seven university hospitals.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The participants were assessed by questionnaires, specifically designed for the study and verified for the content validity by professional reviewers related with critical ill patients.RESULTS: While the level of the perception of early enteral nutrition is high, the level of knowledge and performance are relatively low. The nurses showed a statistically significant difference on the level of knowledge, by their educational backgrounds and clinical experiences. Regarding the hospital support system, the doctors showed a significant difference on the level of perception and performance, while the nurses only showed that difference on the level of performance. It was shown that with higher the level of knowledge regarding the early enteral nutrition, the higher the level of performance. Further, the higher the level of perception, the higher the level of performance was observed. The hospital support system and the perception of the healthcare professionals are two most influential factors to affect the performance of the healthcare professionals related with the early enteral nutrition for the critically ill patients.CONCLUSION: To perform the proper early enteral nutrition, the hospital support system and the level of the healthcare professionals' perception, are two most important factors.Therefore, the efforts to build the hospital support system along with the educational provisions are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Knotting of Pulmonary Artery Catheter During Tricuspid Valve Surgery: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: The use of pulmonary artery catheter can be helpful in managing patients after cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, there is a risk of serious complications, such as knotting. A 61 year old man underwent tricuspid valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). After implantation of a stented tissue valve in the tricuspid valve, repositioning of the catheter was performed. After weaning from CPB, an abnormal pattern of pulmonary artery pressure was suddenly observed on the monitor. Resistance was met when removing the catheter with the balloon deflated, at a 20 cm distance from the tip of the catheter. Chest radiography showed a knot in the catheter within the right brachiocephalic vein.Superior vena cava opened and the distal part of the catheter with the knot was successfully removed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Central Venous Catheter Misplaced in the Innominate Vein after Penetrating
           the Left Subclavian ...

    • Abstract: In the pediatric ICU and operating room, a central venous catheter (CVC) provides accurate hemodynamic information and serves as a reliable route for the administration of vasoactive drugs, fluids and allogeneic blood products. The placement of CVC is associated with a complication rate of 0.4% to 20%, including hemothorax, pneumothorax, thrombosis, infection and cardiac tamponade. We describe a case of CVC being misplaced in the innominate vein after penetrating the subclavian vein during anesthesia induction for arterial switch operation. Our report discusses the mechanisms by which this mishap took place, and reviews the proper positions of the head, arm, thorax and safe depth of venipuncture for the placement of a CVC in neonates.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Cardiac Arrest Team Training Using Script on the Quality of
           Simulated Resuscitation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of simulated resuscitation between the conventional simulation training group and the script based training group.METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of video clips from a previous study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team simulation training. A total of eighty-four video clips were analyzed. Each video clip belonged to either the conventional group or the script group, of either pre-training or post-training. One of the authors analyzed all the video clips. The qualities of resuscitation team plays were compared in terms of the hands-on compression time, the interval to meaningful measures and the number of utterances of the team leader and members.RESULTS: The hands-on time of the conventional group improved after training whereas that of the script group deteriorated (22.2 vs -7.0 sec, p = 0.009). The time to defibrillation also improved in the conventional group whereas that of the script group deteriorated (-24.0 vs 33.0 sec, p = 0.002). There were no differences in the utterances of team leaders and members between groups and between pre- and post-training.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the effect of script-based training on quality of CPR was less useful than that of conventional training using simulation and debriefing. Therefore, CPR team training using a script alone should not be recommended.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Thrombosed Fusiform Aneurysm Presented as Transient Lateral Medullary
           Ischemia: A Case Report

    • Abstract: The frequency of vertebral artery aneurysm is rare and a common presenting sign is subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lateral medullary syndrome is characterized by loss of pain and temperature sensation on the contra lateral lesion side of the body and ipsilateral lesion side of the face, dysphagia, dysarthria, ataxia, vertigo, nystagmus, and Horner syndrome.Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm is a common cause of lateral medullary infarction. We present a rare case of a 46-year old male patient that developed ischemic attack presenting as transient lateral medullary syndrome due to thrombosed-fusiform aneurysm of vertebral artery. He was treated with aspirin and heparin, and then discharged with complete resolution of symptoms.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Transient Dilation of the Membranous Trachea after Endotracheal
           Intubation: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Endotracheal intubation is a quick, simple and safe procedure for airway management and is used in various medical procedures. Many endotracheal tubes have a cuff system, which prevents aspiration and allows positive pressure ventilation. However excessive inflation of the cuff can cause mucosal ischemia with tracheal dilation which may result in tracheal rupture, or even death. Fortunately, mucosal ischemia of the trachea can be treated successfully with well-timed control of cuff pressure. It is essential for medical practitioners to be aware of these complications and to be able to manage them effectively if they arise. We present a case of diverticular-like dilation of the lower trachea detected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy that eventually improved in the hemoptysis patient after endotracheal intubation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Surgical Management for Pulmonary Artieriole Rupture During Subclavian
           Vein Catheterization: A ...

    • Abstract: We experienced an extremely unusual case of a 37-year-old woman who suffered from hemothorax soon after subclavian vein catheterization. Many case reports of a hemothorax or hematoma after central vein catheterization through the great vessels, such as the subclavian vein and internal jugular vein, have been published. However, this rare case showed a pinpoint-sized active bleeding site from a pulmonary arteriole rupture. During an emergency operation using thoracoscopy-assisted minithoracotomy, this bleeding site was successfully managed by primary repair.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Structure of Intensive Care Unit and Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill
           Patients with ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: During 2009 pandemic period, many Koreans were infected and admitted with Influenza A/H1N1. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the structures of an intensive care unit (ICU) were associated with the outcomes of critically ill patients.METHODS: This retrospective observational study examined critically ill adult patients with influenza A/H1N1, who were admitted to 24 hospitals in Korea, from September 2009 to February 2010. We collected data of ICU structure, patients and 90 days mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, with backward elimination, were performed to determine the most significant risk factors.RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, mortality of 90 days was 43%.Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score (p < 0.001), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (p < 0.0001), nurse to beds ratio (p = 0.039) and presence of intensivist (p = 0.024) were significant risk factors of 90 days mortality. Age (p = 0.123), gender (p = 0.304), hospital size (p = 0.260), and ICU type (p = 0.409) were insignificantly associated with mortality. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, patients with less than 6 SOFA score had significantly lower mortality, compared with those with more than 10 SOFA score (odds ratio 0.156, p < 0.0001). The presence of intensivist had significantly lower mortality, compared with the absence (odds ratio 0.496, p = 0.026).CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with influenza A/H1N1, the severity of the illness and presence of intensivist might be associated with 90 days mortality.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparison of the Pattern in Semi-Quantitative Sputum Cultures Based on
           Different Endotracheal ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The endotracheal suction was one of the critical requirements for severe neurosurgical patients in the prevention of the airway-obstruction, pneumonia, atelectasis, and so on. There were two types of suction methods, closed and open. In the literature, many reported the comparison of the two methods with variable factors, yet, it was still controversial. In this study, we compared the two types of endotracheal suction methods based on the pattern of the sputum cultivation, which was not discussed in the previous studies.METHODS: In 2010, 85 patients who had intubation tube for more than 10 days were evaluated in this study. A total of 55 patients were managed with an open suction method, while the other 30 patients were managed with a closed suction method. All patients' sputum culture was reported semi-quantitatively, and had been classified into 3 different groups, according to the culture pattern. The control group was defined in which the bacterial count was not increased, whereas the non-control group was those with bacterial count increased. We investigated patients' age, gender, disease-type, suction techniques and the pattern of sputum cultivation.RESULTS: The non-control group was 45.45% in the open suction group, while it was 16.67% in the closed suction group. On the other hand, more control group was observed in the closed suction group (36.67%), than in the open suction group (25.45%) (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the analysis based on the pattern of sputum cultivation, age, gender, and disease-type.CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the closed suction methods were more effective in the management of endotracheal tube, according to the pattern of sputum culture.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Assessment and Training of Teamwork and Leadership for Critical Care
           Nurses: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent resuscitation performance in a variety of clinical situations. Critical care nurses, in addition to those who may be part of resuscitation team leaders and members, have also the need for such training. This study examines the teamwork and leadership skills of critical care nurses and their perceptions of the need for teamwork and leadership training.METHODS: We developed a pilot, interactive 3-hour teamwork, and the leadership training program based on the objectives and teaching methods of the Advanced Life Support (ACLS) course. Participants completed a 1-hour lecture, and discussion for team roles and obstacles, 30 min of script-based role play in resuscitation team training, and finally, a 2-hour simulation-based team training program.Before the completion of the course, participants were anonymously surveyed on the perceived educational value of the teamwork and leadership program. Expert raters reviewed videos of simulated resuscitation events in the course, and scored each video by two existing checklist for the team dynamic.RESULTS: Fifty-one nurses voluntarily participated and six videotaped simulation were rated by an expert rater. Most of the students believed the course was delivered at an appropriate level for them, and that it is a necessary training in their continuing professional education. The video rated average scores were from 68.5 to 72.9 according to the checklists.CONCLUSIONS: Critical care nurses can learn teamwork and leadership skills from appropriately designed programs, and believe it is a necessity in their training.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Patients with Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is known as a marker of inflammation in asthma, cystic fibrosis and exacerbation of COPD. However, its importance has not been established in patients using mechanical ventilation. We assessed whether FENO is elevated in patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), and physiologic or pathologic factors affecting levels of FENO in patients with mechanical ventilation.METHODS: All patients (over 18-year-old) using mechanical ventilation were included, and among them, VAP patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS). We measured FENO in air collected during the end-expiratory pause via an off-line method. We compared the levels of FENO between patients with VAP and without, and assessed the relationship between FENO and other physiologic or pathologic characteristics; age, gender, PaO2, oxygenation index, CPIS.RESULTS: A total of 43 patients (23 male, mean age 67.7 +/- 10.7) in an ICU were enrolled; 19 of them were VAP-patients (10 male, mean age 64.8 +/- 12.9). The level of FENO in the VAP-patients was substantially higher than in the non-VAP group (55.8 +/- 25.3 ppb Vs. 31.8 +/- 13.5 ppb, p < 0.001).CPIS on day 1 and day 3, and duration of mechanical ventilation, were associated with the level of FENO, but oxygenation index, PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, and the mean PEEP were not.CONCLUSIONS: FENO may be useful for the diagnosis of VAP, and is related to CPIS, as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Feature and Prognostic Factors of Emphysematous Pyelonephritis

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt evaluation and management. However, its clinical presentation and outcomes vary widely. This study was conducted to ascertain the clinical features and prognostic factors regarding EPN.METHODS: All patients diagnosed with EPN radiologically and treated at the emergency department in the university-affiliated, tertiary-referral center, from January 1999 to December 2009 were evaluated. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, computed tomographic findings, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Overall 14 patients diagnosed with EPN were admitted. There were 12 females and 2 males. A history of diabetes was found in 12 (85.7%) patients and was the most common comorbidity. The chief complaint among patients was flank pain (42.9%). Severe sepsis or septic shock was noted in 10 (71.4%) patients. Thirteen cases had unilateral involvement and one case had bilateral involvement. More than half of patients had Escherichia.coli in culture. Mean serum levels of HbA1c, creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP) were 9.4 +/- 2.7, 2.4 +/- 1.4 mg/dl, and 22.4 +/- 13.1 mg/dl. Eight (57.1%) patients received antibiotic treatment alone and four (28.6%) patients received the concurrent percutaneous drainage as well as antibiotics. Hospital mortality was 7.1%. A higher initial serum CRP level (20.3 vs. 49.8 mg/dl, p = 0.02) and HbA1c level (8.7 vs. 16.4, p = 0.01) was associated with hospital mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics alone provide a high success rate for the treatment of EPN. Higher serum CRP and HbA1c level was associated with a higher mortality rate in patients with EPN.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Patients with Intracranial
           Hemorrhage during ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity, and develops suddenly without warning. Although there were known risk factors, it is difficult to prevent brain hemorrhage from critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).There are several reports that brain hemorrhage, in critically ill patients, occurred in connection with respiratory diseases. The aim of our study is to describe the baseline characteristics and prognosis of patients with intracranial hemorrhage during mechanical ventilation in the ICU.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients, who developed intracranial hemorrhage in a medical ICU, from May 2008 to December 2011. During the mechanical ventilation in the ICU, patients were implemented with a weaning process, following ACCP (American College of Chest Physicians) criteria. Also, we compared patients with brain hemorrhage to those without brain hemorrhage.RESULTS: Thirty two of the 56 patients (57.1%) were male, and median ages were 63 (17-90) years. The common type of brain hemorrhage confirmed was intracerebral hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage (52.2%). The duration from mechanical ventilation to brain hemorrhage was 6 (0-58) days. Overall hospital mortality was 57.1%, and ICU mortality was 44.6%. The most common cause of death was brain hemorrhage (40.6%). In comparison to patients without brain hemorrhage, study patients showed less use of anticoagulants and lower ventilator pressure. Our study showed that the use of vasopressor, systolic blood pressure, peak airway pressure, and platelet count were associated with brain hemorrhage.CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial hemorrhage showed high mortality in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation. In the future, large case-control study will be needed to evaluate the risk factors of cerebral hemorrhage.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hemodynamic Monitoring and Treatment Strategy of Acute Heart Failure

    • Abstract: Acute heart failure (AHF) has emerged as a major public health problem over the past 2 decades and AHF represents a period of high risk for patients, during which time the patients are more susceptible to have fatal outcomes or be re-hospitalized, compared to periods of chronic stable heart failure. The goals of AHF treatment are symptomatic relief and hemodynamic stabilization, which need accurate assessment of volume status and cardiac function of patients. Until now, there is a paucity of controlled clinical data to define optimal treatment for patients with AHF and most guidelines published by the American Heart Association or European Society of Cardiology have been generated by the consensus opinions of experts. In these guidelines, routine invasive hemodynamic monitoring of AHF patients is not recommended because there have not been any reports showing survival benefit in patients monitored with pulmonary artery catheters. At present, treatment strategies based on clinical characteristics such as pulmonary congestion and tissue hypoperfusion rather than invasive hemodynamic monitoring is widely accepted. In this article, we discuss an optimal management plan including appropriate assessment of the hemodynamic status of patients and treatment of AHF.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Fatal Mechanical Mitral Valve Leaflet Fracture Embolization: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: The fracture embolization of a mechanical valve is a very rare but potentially fatal event that can cause acute severe valve regurgitation and subsequent decompensated heart failure. Generally, the mechanical valve is durable and semi-permanent. If this is not the case, bacterial endocarditis can occur. However, leaflet fracture embolizations related to mechanical failure may occur in the specific mechanical valve brands associated with the subjects own structural fragilities. In this case, we dealt with a case of fatal Edward-Duromedics mechanical mitral valve leaflet fracture embolization that had been implanted 20 years ago. The patient presented with severe acute heart failure and shock. Severe transvalvular mitral regurgitation and only one valve leaflet was observed in echocardiography.Although the emergency mitral valve replacement was performed under the diagnosis with valve leaflet fracture embolization, the patient was not resuscitated from systolic pump failure and died.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Management of Tracheobronchomalacia Associated with Empyema
           Using a Covered Metallic ...

    • Abstract: Tracheobronchomalacia is developed by excessively weakened walls of the trachea and bronchi, and shows dynamic collapse of the airway on expiration and causes dyspnea. Airway stenting or surgical correction of the airway may be helpful. We report a case with tracheobronchomalacia which was combined with chronic empyema and treated successfully with stent insertion.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia with Injury: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Accidental hypothermia is an uncommon health issue that can cause fatal problems. Mortality related to hypothermia has been reported to be up to 50%. Prognosis of hypothermia depends on the grade of hypothermia, interval of re-warming from the accident and the re-warming rate. Hypothermic patients with injury show worse prognosis. A 66 year-old man with history of cerebrovascular accident was rescued in the mountains. His Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 3, core temperature was 25.2degrees C and he had a right lateral malleolar fracture. The second patient was a 45 year-old man whose GCS was 8 and core temperature 17.2degrees C. Blood pressure was unmeasurable with only palpable pulse and showed Osborn J wave on electrocardiography for both patients. Active re-warming was performed with forced warm air, warm saline infusion and bladder irrigation. Patient core temperature raised by 1.5degrees C/hour and 3.3degrees C/hour, respectively. The two patients were discharged without any other sequelae and disability.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • H1N1 Influenza/A Associated ARDS Recovered without Mechanical Ventilatory
           Support: A Case Report

    • Abstract: An eighteen year-old female visited the ER in our hospital with fever of 38.5degrees C for 2 days. She also had cough, myalgia, and dyspnea. Chest PA and lung HRCT showed mild pulmonary edema at both hilar areas. However, she had severe hypoxia (PaO2; 58 mmHg in room air). RT-PCR for H1N1 influenza/A of pharyngeal swab was positive. Tamiflu (150 mg/d) with broad-spectrum antibiotics was prescribed. Two days later, her dyspnea aggravated and chest PA showed diffuse bilateral infiltration. PaO2 dropped to 70 mmHg (O2 10 L/min by face mask with reservoir bag). She was transferred to the MICU and the Tamiflu dose was doubled (300 mg/day). Mechanical ventilator was set aside to prepare respiratory failure. Fortunately, her symptoms and oxygenation improved and she was discharged with full recovery. Although, most cases of ARDS require mechanical ventilatory support, early and adequate dose of Tamiflu may avoid it in the case of ARDS developed by H1N1 influenza/A.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Amiodarone-induced Pulmonary Toxicity within a Short Period of the
           Initiation of Amiodarone ...

    • Abstract: Amiodarone is one of the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug for almost all atrial or ventricular arrythmias. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) was first described in 1980 and has potentially serious side effects that are believed to develop in 5% of patients. In general, APT occurs only when high amiodarone doses are used for a long time. However, during short-term therapy of amiodarone, APT is rarely reported. In this report, we describe a case of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity after a short course of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • PRISM III in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with Multiple Disease

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We applied the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) III score to study patients in a pediatric intensivecare unit (PICU), where children with various kinds of diseases were hospitalized. We analyzed whether this scoring system was useful to predict patient mortality in the PICU.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients hospitalized in a 5-bed PICU at a tertiary general hospital. Children who were transferred to other hospitals and remained under pediatric intensive care were excluded from this study.RESULTS: We studied a total of 105 children, which included 63 boys (60%) and 42 girls (40%). The mean age was 4.2 years (range 0-17 years). The children were admitted to the PICU for various conditions, including respiratory disease (31 children), neurological disease (30 children), congenital anomaly or neonatal disease (11 children), hemato-oncological disease (10 children), accident or poisoning (7 children), cardiovascular disease (5 children), sepsis (2 children), and the other miscellaneous diseases (9 children). The mean period of PICU stay was 9 days (range 2-66 days). Out of the 105 patients, 94 survived and 11 died. Thus, the mortality rate was calculated as 10.5%.PRISM III scores of the patients were between 0 and 38, with a mean +/- SD of 5.0 +/- 6.7. In comparison with previous studies on PICU patients with similar PRISM scores, the patients included in our study exhibited a higher mortality.The area under the curve for the prediction of mortality by PRISM III was 0.107. Among the variables included in PRISM III, Glasgow coma scale, pupillary light reflex, and platelet counts were associated with patient mortality.CONCLUSIONS: In a PICU with a wide spectrum of diseases, PRISM III was not a useful predictor of patient mortality.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Implementation of the Head of Bed (HOB) Elevation Protocol on Clinical and
           Nutritional Outcomes ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although head of bed (HOB) elevation is an important strategy to prevent ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), some observational studies have reported that the application of the semi-recumbent position was lower in patients receiving mechanical ventilator support.We performed this study to assess the effect of implementation of the HOB elevation protocol in the intensive care unit (ICU) on clinical and nutritional outcomes.METHODS: We developed a HOB elevation protocol including a flow chart to determine whether the HOB of newly admitted patients to ICU could be elevated. We measured the level of HOB elevation in patients with mechanical ventilator twice a day and 2 days a week for 5 weeks before and after the implementation of the protocol, respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and nutritional data were also collected, resulting in 251 observations from 35 patients and 467 observations from 66 patients before and after implementation.RESULTS: After implementing the protocol, the level of HOB elevation (16.7 +/- 9.9 vs. 23.6 +/-1 2.9, p < 0.0001) and observations of HOB elevation> 30degrees increased significantly (34 vs. 151, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of VAP. Arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio improved (229 +/- 115 vs. 262 +/- 129, p = 0.02). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased after the implementation of the protocol, but remained within the normal limits. Calorie intake from tube feeding increased significantly (672 +/- 649 vs. 798 +/- 670, p = 0.021) and the events of high gastric residual volume (> 100 ml) occurred less frequently after implementing the protocol (50% vs. 17%, p = 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the protocol for HOB elevation could improve the level of HOB elevation, oxygenation parameter and enteral nutrition delivery.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Association of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subset with the Severity and
           Prognosis of Septic Shock

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A dramatic decrease in circulating lymphocyte number is observed after septic shock. In this study, we assessed whether circulating lymphocyte subpopulations influence the severity and prognosis of septic shock.METHODS: 133 patients (median 65 years, range 27-88; male 63.2%) receiving intensive care for septic shock were enrolled in this study. Flow cytometry phenotyping of circulating lymphocyte subpopulations, including helper T cells, suppressor T cells, total B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, was performed within 24 hours after the diagnosis of septic shock. After measuring the white blood cell (WBC) and differential leukocyte count, the lymphocyte subsets were analyzed. The following data were recorded: general characteristics, severity of illness as assessed by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and 28-day mortality.RESULTS: The overall mortality rate at 28 days was 33.8%.SOFA score was negatively correlated with the T cell count (r = -0.175) and helper T cell count (r = -0.223). However, only low a helper T cell count was associated with the severity of septic shock (odds ratio 0.995, 95% confidence interval 0.992-0.999, p = 0.014). Using multiple logistic regression analysis for 28-day mortality, there was no significant prognostic factor among the lymphocyte subset.CONCLUSIONS: The low helper T cell count appeared to be associated with severity, but did not show significant association with mortality.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Lipopolysaccharide-induced
           Murine Macrophage Activation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of propolis and is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of CAPE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage activation.METHODS: Raw 264.7 cells were incubated with varying concentrations of CAPE with or without LPS. The production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun amino terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 were measured.RESULTS: CAPE inhibited the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and MIP-2 and attenuated phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS.CONCLUSIONS: CAPE can attenuate LPS-induced macrophage responses and we suggest that these effects may play an important role in modulating macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses in vivo.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Clinical Significance of Weight Change in Mechanical Ventilated,
           Critically Ill Patients of ICU

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients may show significant weight change in their course of disease during ICU stay.However, what weight changes occur and their effects on patient outcome have not yet been reported to our knowledge.Therefore, we evaluated weight change in critically ill patients in the medical ICU and the effect this may have on clinical outcome.METHODS: We measured body weight in patients admitted to the medical ICU daily and evaluated their clinical characteristics and outcome.RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (M:F = 30:8, mean age = 65.7 +/- 12.5) were enrolled. Thirteen patients (34.2%) showed weight gain and the mean change was 12.8 +/- 4.2%. In contrast, 25 patients (65.8%) showed weight loss and the mean change was 6.3 +/- 6.9%. Patients who showed weight change over 5% or 10% were 26 (68.4%), and 12 (31.6%), respectively, and their mortality rates were 61.5% and 75%, respectively, showing no statistical significance (p> 0.05). However, when the degree of weight change was stratified with < 5%, 5-10% and> 10%, it was associated with death (p = 0.002). Factors like ICU stay, day of mechanical ventilation, initial APACHE II and SOFA score, body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin were not associated with more than 5% change of weight. BMI at admission was only associated with> 10% change of weight (p < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The majority of critically ill patients showed a significant weight change during their ICU stay and these patients may have a tendency to have worse clinical outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Relationship between Patient Height and Depth of Central Venous Catheter

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Location of the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC) within the pericardium has been associated with potentially lethal cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to show the relationship between the height of patients and the depth of CVC.METHODS: We enrolled 262 adult patients into this study. All patients were divided to three groups according to the height; Group S, M and L. Central venous catheterization was performed through the right subclavian vein and the CVC was fixed at the depth of 15 cm from the skin. The distance between the CVC tips and the carina was measured by chest X-ray and was analyzed.RESULTS: The mean (SD) tip position placed via the right subclavian vein was 0.04 (1.6) cm above the carina; Group S, 0.01 (1.8) above the carina, Group M, 0.16 (1.4) above the carina, and Group L, 0.16 (1.8) below the carina. CVC locations could be predicted with a margin of error between 3.1 cm below the carina and 3.2 cm above the carina in 95% of patients. There was no significance difference among the three groups.CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between the height of patient and the depth of CVC was low. Because many of the CVC tips were positioned below the carina regardless the height of patients on routine 15 cm-length method, it is recommended not to use the routine 15 cm method with right subclavian CVC placement as far as possible.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Retrospective Study about Characteristics of Out-of-hospital Cardiac
           Arrest Caused by ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a fatal disease relatively common in the East Asian population. It can lead to cardiac arrest in several pathologic processes. We attempted to elucidate the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study in which patients who had visited Samsung medical center emergency room for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from January, 1999 to December 2008 were enrolled. A total of 218 OHCA patients who had achieved ROSC were investigated by review of medical charts. Excluding those who had worn trauma, we analyzed 22 patients who had been diagnosed for SAH by brain non-contrast CT scan.RESULTS: Median age of aneurysmal SAH-induced OHCA patients was 61 (IQR 54-67) years. Fourteen patients (64%) were female and 15 patients (68%) were witnessed. Besides, 7 patients (32%) had complained of headache before collapse.We also found 11 patients (50%) had been diagnosed with hypertension previously. All of them showed unshockable rhythm (asystole 60%, PEA 40%) initially. Their median duration of ACLS was 10 minutes. Majority of patients died within 24 hours and survivors showed poor neurologic outcome.CONCLUSIONS: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon cause of cardiac arrest, and the outcome of OHCA induced by SAH is very poor. However, emergency physicians have to consider the possibility of SAH when trying to determine the cause of arrest, especially when treating patients who have the characteristics described above.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Thyroid Hormonal Changes in Brain Death Donors

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We analyzed thyroid hormone values in brain death patients to determine the need for thyroid hormone replacement therapy.METHODS: We analyzed 111 brain death donors (77 males and 34 females, mean age, 41.1 years (range; 8 months -72 years) in Ajou University Hospital from 2000 to 2010.RESULTS: The mean values of thyroid hormones were T3; 72.5 ng/dl (normal range [NR] 60-181 ng/dl), T4; 5.0 microg/dl (NR 4.5-10.9 microg/dl), free T4 1.0 ng/dl (NR 0.8-1.5 ng/dl), and TSH 1.5 microIU/ml (NR 0.35-5.5 microIU/ml), respectively. However, the values of T4 (correlation coefficient -0.264, p = 0.005), free T4 (correlation coefficient -0.305, p = 0.001) and TSH (correlation -0.206, p = 0.031) significantly decreased based on the increase of interval from the brain death-inducing event to the evaluation time (hereafter, interval). The patients with greater than 8 days of interval (N = 30) showed significantly low thyroid hormone values compared to patients with less than 8 days of interval (N = 81); T3 (70.3 ng/dl vs. 77.0 ng/dl, p = 0.242), T4 (4.7 ng/dl vs.5.3 ng/dl, p = 0.015), free T4 (0.8 ng/dl vs. 1.2 ng/dl, p = 0.006) and TSH (1.0 microIU/ml vs. 2.0 microIU/ml, p = 0.000), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: As the intervals from the brain death-inducing events increased, all thyroid hormone values of brain death donors except T3 significantly decreased. Therefore, we recommend that careful consideration should be given to the interval from brain death-inducing event for the evaluation of thyroid hormone status of brain death patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Features of Hospitalized Patients with Community Acquired
           Pneumonia during 2009 ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A new influenza A(H1N1) virus emerged and spread globally in 2009, and the rapid progression of pneumonia often required ICU care. We describe the cause analysis and clinical aspects of community acquired pneumonia during the period of the pandemic H1N1 influenza A.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 48 adult cases of community acquired pneumonia in which patients were admitted to a public health hospital in Seoul from August to November in 2009. The patients had confirmed H1N1 influenza A based on RT-PCR assay.RESULTS: Thirteen cases of the 48 (27.1%) were 2009 H1N1 RT-PCR positive patients and three (6.3%) of these cases were mixed viral and bacterial pneumonia patients. The mean age was younger and the PSI score was lower in H1N1 patients. Chest radiographic findings of ground glass opacity and interstitial marking were remarkable in H1N1 patients. Major complication events with ICU care or death occurred in 23.1% of the H1N1 positive group and 48.6% of the H1N1 negative group (p=0.202). The major complication group of H1N1 patients had a higher PSI score, lower platelet count, higher CRP and higher mixed bacterial co-infection.CONCLUSIONS: If patients were younger and showed a radiologic finding of interstitial marking or ground glass opacity, we could consider H1N1 influenza as the cause of community acquired pneumonia. A high PSI score, thrombocytopenia, increased CRP and bacterial co-infection were predictable factors of major complication.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Predictors of Mortality and Complication in Pediatric Patients Who Require
           Continuous Renal ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to analyze the factors associated with mortality and complication in children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a pediatric intensive care unit.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 96 patients who required CRRT at a pediatric intensive care unit in Seoul National University Hospital between April 2005 and April 2011. We evaluated the clinical features, diagnosis, mortality risk factors and complications related to CRRT.RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the mortality risk factors of patients requiring CRRT. The overall mortality was 56.3%, the median age was 8 years, and the ages ranged from 4 days to 22 years. The median weight of the patients was 7.9 kg, and the weights ranged from 3.6-72.9 kg. 16 patients were diagnosed with primary renal disease, and the remainder with other underlying diseases. Mortality was higher in children who received stem cell transplantation and in children with a diagnosis of imunologic disease and neurologic disease. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score at initiating CRRT was 17.8 +/- 8.9 and the degree of fluid overload at CRRT (FO%) was 12.9 +/- 16.0. The PRISM III score at the start of CRRT and low uric acid level were the factors associated with an increased risk of mortality. Of the 96 children, 13 (13.53%) presented problems of venous catheterization. Hypotension during connection to CRRT was detected in 28 patients (29.2%). Clinically significant hemorrhage occurred in 10 patients (10.4%).CONCLUSIONS: Children who require CRRT have a high mortality rate. The higher score of PRISM III at the starting time of CRRT and the lower uric acid level are the factors associated with a higher mortality. The most frequent complication of CRRT was hypotension on connection to CRRT.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Acute on Chronic Salicylate Poisoned Elderly Patient with Early
           Utilization of ...

    • Abstract: Salicylate poisonings are divided into acute and chronic syndromes. The most challenging aspect of the management of aspirin-poisoning may be recognition of subtle signs and symptoms of chronic, unintentional overdose. Chronic poisoning typically occurs in elderly as a result of unintentional overdosing on salicylates used to treat chronic conditions. Treatment is directed toward preventing intestinal absorption of the drugs and enhanced elimination.After the first-line treatments, aspirin overdose with its complications of hemodynamic, electrolyte and acid-base issues, is best managed by prompt hemodialysis. We report a case of a 87-year-old woman, who presented with acute on chronic salicylate poisoning. After early continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration, old woman made a good recovery from the salicylism but suffered paralytic ileus caused by aspirin enteroliths. Physician can decide a prompt hemodialysis for salicylate-poisoned patients, who worsen clinical courses despite of first-line therapies.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Association of Hyperlactatemia and IL-6 Hypercytokinemia after
           Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hyperlactatemia (HL) is common and is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. At present, the cause of HL during CPB is proposed to be tissue hypoxia. Tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery can be impaired to varying degrees during CPB. Although surgery involving CPB apparatus is associated with increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-alpha and IL-6, tissue hypoxia that occurs during CPB may be an additionally potent stimulus to inflammation. We hypothesized that hypoxic patients during CPB that experience elevated serum lactate levels, may be related to higher serum cytokine level after CPB than normoxic patients during CPB with normal serum lactate levels.METHODS: Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured by ELISA in a) Time 1; before initiation of CPB, b) Time 2; 30 min after aortic de-clamping, c) Time 3; 24 hrs after aortic de-clamping. Levels of lactate was measured at a) Time A; before initiation of CPB, b) Time B; 30 min after aortic de-clamping. Postoperative ICU stay, intubation time and oxygen index were evaluated as postoperative morbidity scale.RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between HL (n = 43, lactate> or =3 mMol/L at time B) and normal lactate group (NL) (n = 63, lactate
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Transient Hypoglycemia-induced Hemiparesis Mimicking Stroke: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Hypoglycemia is caused by poor oral intake, excessive exercise, alcohol abuse and inaccurate use of a hypoglycemic agent or insulin in patients that have history of diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in the elderly. Severe hypoglycemia has a variety of different symptoms or signs from focal neurologic deficits to severe coma, or death. It can be difficult to differentiate hypoglycemia-induced symptoms or signs, and stroke or cardiovascular disease in acute setting. Transient hypoglycemic hemiparesis is an infrequent case in the emergency department (ED), which is frequently misdiagnosed for stroke. When patients with decreased mental status or hemiparesis are admitted to the ED, a routine blood sugar test is essential. Hypoglycemic hemiparesis if unrecognized can result in permanent neurological damage. Therefore, it is important to detect hypoglycemia early and treat it appropriately.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Acute Lung Injury after Transfusion during Cesarean Section: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication following the transfusion of blood products.TRALI is under-diagnosed and under-reported because of a lack of awareness. TRALI occurs within 6 hours of transfusion in the majority of cases and its presentation is similar to other forms of acute lung injury. We report on the case of a 34-year-old pregnant woman who suffered from TRALI after transfusion during Cesarean section.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Parainfluenza Virus Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
           in Immune Competent ...

    • Abstract: ParaiParainfluenza virus is a common cause of respiratory illness among infants and young children. Although it causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, it seldom does this in immunocompetent adults. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman with no significant past medical history who presented acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by parainfluenza virus. The diagnosis was made based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a respiratory specimen. The patient was successfully treated with antiviral agent combined with steroids.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Due to Subglottic Pressure Injury
           after Endotracheal ...

    • Abstract: Bilateral vocal cord paralysis may occur as a result of mechanical injury during neck surgery, nerve compression by endotracheal intubation or mass, trauma, and neuromuscular diseases. However, only a few cases of bilateral vocal cord paralysis have occurred following short-term endotracheal intubation. We report a case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis subsequent to extubation after endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation due to severe pneumonia for 2 days.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Recovery after Drowning by Early Prone Ventilatory Positioning
           and Use of Nitric ...

    • Abstract: Drowning is the third leading cause of unintentional accidental death globally. The most serious pathophysiologic consequence of drowning is hypoxemia from acute respiratory distress syndrome. Herein, we report a drowning victim who presented with hypothermia and cardiac arrest, followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome, rhabdomyolysis (with acute kidney injury), and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Aided by advanced cardiac life support and mechanical ventilation in a prone position, the patient fully recovered after two days of hospitalization. Recovery was largely attributed to early prone ventilatory positioning and use of nitric oxide gas.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • ICU Acquired Weakness

    • Abstract: Critical care has focused on recovery from acute organ failure and resuscitation. Neuromuscular abnormalities related to critical illness is not uncommon in critically ill patients, but they were relatively underestimated and unnoticed. Intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) leading to severe functional impairments in ICU survivors can be divided into two disease entities: critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM).Electrophysiologic study, muscle biopsy and physical examination are helpful to diagnose ICUAW. Several researches and reviews identified many risk factors including systemic inflammation, corticosteroids, hyperglycemia, and immobility. Additional research is needed to identify the pathogenesis of this disorder and to testify its preventive or therapeutic modalities.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Ventriculostomy-related Infections in the Neurosurgical Intensive Care
           Unit: The Risk Factors ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was performed to analyze the risk factors for ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NSICU) and the relationship between these risk factors and the patients' outcomes.METHODS: We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory and microbiological data from all 146 consecutive adult patients who underwent ventriculostomy in the NSICU from January 2007 to December 2008. We excluded patients with ventriculostomy performed for the draining of intraventricular abscess, infection of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (V-P shunt) or previous ventriculitis. VRI was defined by positive culture from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained via the ventricular catheter.RESULTS: VRIs were diagnosed in 26 (17.8%) of 146 patients.On average, the patients with VRIs stayed longer in the NSICU than patients without VRIs (mean duration 20 days vs.11.9 days). All VRIs occurred in patients who had a low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV score. In addition, the duration required to maintain ventriculostomy was longer in patients with VRIs. However, sex, mortality, the cause of ventriculosotmy, the level of consciousness, combined systemic infections, number of catheters, and performing urokinase irrigation or antibiotics irrigation via the ventriculostomy catheter were not associated with VRIs.CONCLUSIONS: VRIs were associated with longer ICU stay.However, VRIs did not influence the overall mortality rate of patients undergoing ventriculostomy in the NSICU. Because the long duration required for maintaining ventriculostomy was the risk factor of VRI, early removal of ventriculostomy catheter must be considered.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Analgesic Effect of Remifentanil on Propofol Injection Pain

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pain is a common side-effect of propofol injection. A remifentanil pretreatment has been reported to decrease the incidence and intensity of pain during a propofol injection and has been suggested to act through a central or peripheral effect. This trial was designed to explore the action site of remifentanil on reducing propofol injection pain, using the venous occlusion technique and a time interval between the applications of remifentanil and propofol.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind study was designed to explore the action site of remifentanil on reducing propofol injection pain in 200 patients scheduled for elective surgery. The peripheral properties were examined using the venous occlusion technique for 30 s while a 1 min time interval between remifentanil and propofol injections was allowed for the central effect. Before the propofol injection, group A was pretreated with remifentanil (0.5 microg/ kg) with a venous occlusion, group B with remifentanil and a 1 min interval, and group C with remifentanil with a venous occlusion and a 1 min interval.Pain severity was assessed using a four-point scale.RESULTS: 40 patients (80%) complained of pain in the placebo group compared with 35 (70%) in group A, 20 (40%) in group B (p < 0.05) and 17 (34%) in group C (p < 0.05). The incidence and severity of propofol injection pain were lower in groups B and C than in group A (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between groups B and C.CONCLUSIONS: The remifentanil mediated analgesic effect occurs mainly through the central effect.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The S100B Protein Could Be Used as Adjuvant Diagnostic Tool in Acute
           Ischemic Stroke

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the emergency department, the diagnosis of ischemic stroke is difficult because the diagnostic modalities are limited to non-contrast brain CT and neurologic examination. Serum S100B protein, a bio-marker for ischemic stroke, is needed as an additional diagnostic aid in acute ischemic stroke.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 50 patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke between August 2007 and December 2008 by brain MRI after brain CT and serum S100B measurement in the emergency department. The serum levels of S100B protein were analyzed and the diagnostic sensitivity of non-contrast brain CT combined with abnormal elevation of S100B protein was compared with that of non-contrast brain CT alone.RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of non-contrast brain CT in the diagnosis of ischemia was 54%. S100B protein in early ischemia had a sensitivity of 58%. However, combining non-contrast brain CT and S100B increased the sensitivity to 74%.CONCLUSIONS: A biomarker-based diagnostic test would not replace the necessity for CT or other early imaging studies, and before contemplating any reperfusion strategy, neuro-imaging must be performed to rule out intracranial hemorrhage. However, S100B protein, a serum bio-marker, is able to help emergency physicians evaluate patients with suspected ischemic stroke and decide on treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Prediction of Mortality in Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication Using
           Simplified Acute ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prognosis of paraquat intoxication patients is poor and this makes the prediction of mortality important in administering aggressive treatment and admission. This article investigates the usefulness of simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II), as a predictor of the mortality in paraquat intoxication.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 65 patients who were admitted in one hospital between January in 2005 and December in 2010. We calculated their SAPS II, serum paraquat level, and severity index of paraquat poisoning (SIPP) at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission.We investigated the relationship between each systems and the mortality.RESULTS: Overall mortality was 73.8%: 48 out of 65 patients died. Non-survived group (n = 48) had a higher SAPS II score (30.44 +/- 15.99) than survived group (n = 17 [15.7 +/- 6.26], p < 0.001). Serum paraquat level and SIPP were significantly higher in non-survived group than in survived group (p < 0.05, in all comparisons). By using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), the SAPS II system yielded equal discriminative power (AUC = 0.82) with serum paraquat level (AUC = 0.896) and SIPP (AUC = 0.865). Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test C indicated SAPS II score validated well in paraquat intoxication group (p = 0.33).CONCLUSIONS: Serum paraquat level is the best way for prediction of mortality in patients with acute paraquat intoxication. If checking serum paraquat level is impossible or delayed, SAPS II score can be an alternative tool for evaluating the prognosis in paraquat intoxication.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Prediction of Prognosis for Children Cared in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
           after Hematopoietic ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM2) is a useful scoring system for the prediction of prognosis, and Oncological Pediatric Risk of Mortality (O-PRISM) for ICU support in children with HSCT. We investigated prognostic prediction and risk factors for survival through early detection of admission to ICU after HSCT.METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively medical records of children cared for in ICU after HSCT between 2004 and 2010.Patients who died within 2 hours after admittance to ICU were excluded. We analyzed the worst parameters in ICU by a t-test, Cox-regression, multiple logistic regression and a receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC).RESULTS: 54 children, with fifty-five disease events, were admitted to ICU after HSCT. Sixteen children were diagnosed with high-risk disease status and 8 with non-malignant diseases. Stem cells were sourced from 14 matched siblings, 22 unrelated donors and 19 cord bloods. The median duration in ICU was 8.5 days (0.5-110). The reasons for admission to ICU were 32 pulmonary, 14 neurologic, and 9 hemodynamic events. Six patients (11.1%) survived after intensive care.The factor indicating discharge with survival was mental status (p = 0.04), although other factors included FiO2, prothrombin time, potassium, and pupil reflex in univariate analysis. In multiple logistic regression, there were significant factors of PaCO2 (p = 0.028), O-PRISM (p = 0.039), and PIM2 (p = 0.004) for prognosis. For prediction of prognosis, O-PRISM (p = 0.019) was superior to PIM2 (p = 0.435) in intensive care children after HSCT.CONCLUSIONS: O-PRISM might be a predictable scoring system for children with ICU support, and the Glasgow coma scale and PaCO2 were more reliable prognostic factors in the post-HSCT period.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Validation of APACHE II Score and Comparison of the Performance of APACHE
           II and Adjusted ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The ability to accurately adjust for the severity of illness in outcome studies of critically ill patients is essential for clinical audits and trials.Several studies have been carried out to validate the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score in Korean ICUs. However, few reports have been presented that compare the performance of the APACHE II score and diagnostic category weighted APACHE II models in the surgical ICU population of Korea. The aim of this study was to validate APACHE II and compare the performance of the APACHE II and adjusted APACHE II models for emergency admission in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) population.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the prospective ICU registry was conducted in the SICU between October 2007 and February 2011. Calibration and discrimination were determined by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve from patients.RESULTS: This study included 854 patients. SICU mortality was 9.4%. For APACHE II and adjusted APACHE II, AUCs were 0.791 and 0.757, respectively. Hosmer and Lemeshow C statistics showed good calibration for APAHCE II and for adjusted APACHE II (p> 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The ability of the APACHE II system in predicting group outcome is validated in a surgical ICU population by a receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression analysis. Mortality rates predicted using APACHE II exhibited good calibration and moderate discrimination. Diagnostic category weighted adjusted APACHE II did not improve the mortality prediction.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Atelectasis and the Risk Factors in the Patients Admitted to Pediatric
           Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Atelectasis is a state of a collapsed and non-aerated region of the lung parenchyma, which is otherwise normal. This condition is usually associated with pulmonary disorders. The purpose of this study is to analyze the incidence and risk factors of atelectasis in patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and chest radiography of 280 PICU patients under 18 years old. We analyzed the incidence and pattern of atelectasis and compared the incidence according to the phase and mode of mechanical ventilation. We compared the incidence of ventilator care need and respiratory disease in 93 atelectasis patients.RESULTS: Atelectasis incidence was 33.2%. The age (4.9 +/- 4.4 years) was younger and the admission-duration (17.8 +/- 25.1 days) was significantly longer in atelectasis patients (p < 0.01). Ventilator care need and respiratory disease in atelectasis patients (86.0%, 66.7% respectively) was significantly higher than in non-atelectasis patients (62.6%, 43.3% respectively) (p < 0.01). Atelectasis incidence in ventilator-required patients and respiratory-diagnosed patients (40.6%, 43.4% respectively) was significantly higher than that in non ventilator-required patients and non respiratory-diagnosed patients (15.7%, 22.6% respectively) (p < 0.01). Atelectasis was more common in the right upper lobe (55.6%) and during or after ventilator care (62.6%) (p < 0.05). Atelectasis incidence in ventilator care did not differ between the assist-control and intermittent mandatory ventilation modes.CONCLUSIONS: In the PICU, atelectasis incidence was higher in patients with ventilator care and respiratory disease.Atelectasis was more common in the right upper lobe and in the phase after ventilator initiation. Atelectasis incidence in ventilator care did not differ between ventilation modes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Pulmonary Embolism Due to Free-floating Right Atrial Thrombus in a
           Patient with Multiple ...

    • Abstract: Although venous thrombosis is one of the most frequent complications of malignant disease including multiple myeloma, massive pulmonary embolism is an uncommon complication. Free-floating intracardiac thrombus has been rarely reported as a cause of acute pulmonary embolism in patients with multiple myeloma. We report a case presenting acute pulmonary embolism due to free-floating right atrial thrombus in a patient with multiple myeloma.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Central Venous Catheter-related Infection in Major Burn Patients:
           Comparison of Subclavian Vein ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A central venous catheter (CVC) is usually inserted in patients with severe burns and the selection of the CVC is often difficult due to widespread burned skin. We investigated the incidences of colonization and catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) according to the insertion site of the CVC in major burn patients METHODS: In 63 adult massive burn patients in the intensive care unit, 93 CVCs (47 polyurethane standard CVCs and 46 Oligon anti-mocrobial CVCs) were randomly inserted via the subclavian vein (SCV group, n = 66) or femoral vein (FEV group, n = 27). All catheter tips removed were routinely cultured. Bacterial findings from the burn wound and peripheral blood were also monitored in all patients RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the average insertion length of the CVC (14.3 +/- 6.8 days in SCV and 13.6 +/- 3.8 days in FEV) between the two groups. There were no significant differences in CVC colonization (48.5% in SCV and 63.0% in FEV) and CRBSI (7.6% in SCV and 11.1% in FEV) between the two groups. Logistic analysis found that the use of polyurethane standard CVC is significantly associated with increased risk of CVC colonization (odds ratio = 2.68) CONCLUSIONS: The placement of the CVC via the femoral vein does not increase the incidence of CVC colonization in massive burn patients. The use of Oligon anti-microbial CVC may be helpful to reduce CVC colonization in major burn patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Procalcitonin as a Prognosis Marker for the Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
           Patients in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Advance in sepsis management has increased the survival of patients with sepsis. However, severe sepsis and septic shock patients still have high mortality. We intend to verify the use of the procalcitonin (PCT) level as a prognosis marker in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in the emergency department (ED).METHODS: ED Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were enrolled in our study. We used mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) days as a prognosis index, and compared the PCT level in survivors and non-survivors. We introduced the simplified acute physiology score 3(SAPS3) to assess the severity of the patients and analyzed whether or not the PCT level correlated with the severity index.RESULTS: The PCT level in septic shock patients [7.36 (0.92-33.69, IQR)] was higher than that in severe sepsis patients [3.24 (0.36-10.53, IQR)] (p = 0.04). However, there was no significant PCT level difference between survivors [median (IQR), 6.59 (0.60-29.25)] and non-survivors [median (IQR), 3.49 (0.40-20.41)] (p = 0.293). The SAPS3 score was higher in the non-survivor group [median (IQR), 64 (59.0-71.5)] than in the survivor group [median (IQR), 77 (68.5-82.0)] (p = 0.001). The PCT level did not correlate with either ICU days or hospital days.CONCLUSIONS: Using the PCT level as a prognosis factor in severe sepsis and septic shock patients in ED has little value.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • High-frequency Chest Wall Oscillation Therapy: Clinical Effectiveness in
           the Patients with ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pulmonary contusion is the most common pulmonary parenchymal injury in blunt chest trauma and may constitute a life-threatening thoracic injury. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) therapy in patients with pulmonary contusion.METHODS: Patients with lung contusion either received HFCWO therapy using the Vest system (Vest group; n = 18) or received conventional chest physiotherapy (non-Vest group; n = 23). The physiological parameters of the patients, length of stay in hospital and ICU, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were compared between the two groups. Variables, including pulmonary contusion score, percentage of patients receiving mechanical ventilation therapy, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, were also analyzed.RESULTS: The pulmonary contusion score was higher in the Vest group (p < 0.01), and mechanical ventilation was used more frequently in the Vest group (p = 0.027). Improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio over the first 48 h did not differ between the Vest and Non-Vest groups. No significant differences in the physiological parameters, hospital and ICU stays, and duration of mechanical ventilation were observed between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect of the Vest system in patients with pulmonary contusion was similar to that of conventional chest physiotherapy. Therefore, the Vest system could be considered as an airway clearance technique in the management of patients with pulmonary contusion.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Safety and Feasibility of Percutaneous Tracheostomy Performed by Medical

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU). After its introduction, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) has been recognized in western countries as a reliable alternative to surgical tracheostomy. However, data on the safety and feasibility of PDT performed by medical intensivists are limited in Korea.METHODS: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of PDT performed by medical intensivists and to compare with those of surgical tracheostomy (ST), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of all prospectively registered patients who underwent either PDT or ST in medical ICU from December 2010 to July 2011.RESULTS: A total of 81 patients underwent tracheostomy over the study period: PDT in 56 (69%) and ST in 25 (31%). One patient in whom major bleeding developed during PDT underwent ST as a substitute for PDT. There were no differences in the demographics, laboratory findings, and parameters of mechanical ventilation between the two groups.Procedure time was significantly shorter in the PDT group (20 [IQR 18-30] min) than that in the ST group (38 [27.5-57.5] min) (p < 0.001). The major complication observed in 24 hours after PDT was bleeding in 6 (11%) patients of the PDT group and 4 (16%) patients of the ST group (p = 0.489). However, surgical interventions for major bleeding were required in 2 patients who underwent.CONCLUSIONS: PDT performed by medical intensivists was safe and feasible. However, immediate surgical assistance should be available when required.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism Associated with Ramsay Hunt
           Syndrome: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is characterized by vesicles on the pinna, otalgia, facial nerve palsy and sensorineural hearing loss. Although significant complications from VZV infection are increasing, thrombosis associated with VZV infection is one of the rare complications in adults. The VZV itself could cause endothelial damage in the various organs.Subsequently, the thrombosis might be complicated. A previously healthy 84 year-old female patient was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. On the 7th day of antiviral treatment, she complained of sudden breathlessness. She was hypoxemic with an elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and needed to be supported by mechanical ventilation. Massive pulmonary thrombosis was documented by computerized tomography and she successfully underwent thrombolytic therapy. We report a case of massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with VZV infection, treated with thrombolytic therapy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Multiple Bilateral Perfusion Defects in the Infant with Acute Viral
           Bronchiolitis: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is an obstructive lung disease which frequently develops in infants and the most common functional involvement is a V/Q ratio change caused by small airway obstruction. We report a case showing the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow by multiple perfusion scan defects in an infant with AVB. A 15 month-old male infant visited ER due to respiratory difficulty. He manifested decreased lung sound in the left lung field, hyperinflation of the left lung on chest x-ray, and metabolic acidosis in blood gas analysis. A perfusion scan showed multiple perfusion defects of both lungs without the evidence of pulmonary embolism on a following cardiac CT and echocardiography. Human Rhinovirus PCR in a nasopharyngeal aspirate was positive. With supportive care, the symptom was resolved in 4 days. AVB can show multiple perfusion defects by the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow of which the direction is opposite to the usual distribution of pulmonary blood flow in children.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Ventricular Fibrillation Soon after Endobronchial Epinephrine Application
           in a Young Man: A ...

    • Abstract: Ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest rarely occur after local application of epinephrine. Local and superficial application of epinephrine is a common hemostatic method during bronchoscopy, especially after biopsies. Although high plasma levels following endobronchial application of epinephrine have been observed in previous animal studies, there is no report of ventricular fibrillation after a usual dose of endobronchial application of epinephrine during bronchoscopy. We present a case of endobronchial epinephrine-induced ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest in a 31-year-old man with no previous history of cardiac disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Cardiac Tamponade Caused by Epigastric Acupuncture: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Acupuncture is considered a relatively safe procedure.However, there are serious adverse effects; neurological damage, pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, serum hepatitis, bacterial and viral infections may occur. Cardiac tamponade is considered to be a rare adverse effect of acupuncture. In the following case, cardiac tamponade was caused by epigastric acupuncture. A 78-year-old male was admitted with a chief complaint of drowsy mentality and hypotension, suggesting a status of shock. He had received acupuncture therapy over epigastric area for gastric dyspepsia at a local oriental medical clinic. An abdominal CT scan and chest x-ray showed a hemopericardium. After receiving pericardiocentesis, his clinical condition improved immediately. He was short in stature and slender for his age. Chest x-ray and computed tomography showed cardiomegaly and pectus excavatum. A proper use of acupuncture by a skilled medical provider is essential to avoid serious complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge to Definitive Airway
           Security in 3 Severe Acute ...

    • Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used for cardiac and respiratory failure for over 30 years. Recently, however, ECMO has emerged as a useful means of short-term support in the management of hypoxic patients for nontraditional indications. Here, we report the use of veno-venous ECMO as a bridge to support a patient with severe airway obstruction because of tumor compression. Case 1: A patient with extrinsic airway compression secondary to a large metastatic cancer on neck was successfully managed using ECMO. Case 2: The successful use of ECMO to support a patient with extrinsic airway compression secondary to a recurred thyroid cancer. Case 3: A pregnant woman with airway obstruction secondary to metastatic lymphadenopathy of lung cancer who underwent successful tracheal stent insertion. The 3 patients were successfully weaned off ECMO without any complication. Although these conditions are uncommon indications, ECMO is a potential option for such life-threatening conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Stress-induced Cardiomyopathy Following Cesarean Delivery with Hemorrhagic
           Shock: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a recently described acute and transient cardiomyopathy with typical left ventricular apical ballooning mimicking the clinical scenario of an acute myocardial infarction. Cesarean delivery causes intense emotional and physical stresses, which may precipitate stress-induced cardiomyopathy. We report a case presenting stress-induced cardiomyopathy occurring during ICU care in the early postpartum period following cesarean delivery.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Knotting and Kinking of the Guidewire during Central Venous
           Catheterization: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Central venous catheterization is often necessary to manage critically ill patients in the intensive care unit and some surgical patients in the operating room. However, this procedure can lead to various complications. We experienced a case of subclavian venous catheterization that was complicated by looping, kinking, knotting, and entrapment of the guidewire. We were able to identify the extravascular looping and knotting of the guidewire under fluoroscopy and consequently removed it successfully. We suggest that a guidewire should be confirmed by fluoroscopic imaging if it has become entrapped.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Related Acute Respiratory Distress
           Syndrome: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory tract infection in children. Although previously considered as children's virus, the increasing number of patients who receive immunosuppression after transplantation of bone marrow and solid organs highlighted the role of RSV as a pathogen for opportunistic infection. We report a case of community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a patient with newly diagnosed leukemia, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Benefit of Braille for Successful Weaning off Mechanical Ventilation
           in Congenital ...

    • Abstract: To achieve adequate depth of sedation and assess the severity of pain in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit, appropriate communication with the patients is necessary. Communication is also important for successful weaning from the mechanical ventilator as well as weaning predictors, such as respiratory muscle capacity.Here, we present a case report of a 39-year-old man with congenial blindness and hearing impairment who successfully weaned off ventilator support using Braille to communicate under an optimal level of sedation and analgesia after septic shock management.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Present and Future of ECMO in ICU

    • Abstract: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is a variation of cardiopulmonary bypass that temporarily supports tissue oxygenation in patients with life threatening respiratory or cardiac failure. As the ECLS technique becomes safer and simpler following technology advances, and as complications and survival have improved, indication of ECLS has widened.In 2009, a multicentre randomized controlled trial of conventional ventilator support versus extracorporeal life support for severe adult respiratory failure in 180 patients was published (the conventional ventilation or ECMO for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR) trial). Of patients allocated to ECMO support, 63% survived for six months without disability compared to 47% allocated to conventional ventilation care. This represented the first positive randomized clinical trial on adult ECMO application in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. In this review, we report on the common terminologies used with ECMO, the practical running mode of ECMO, indications of ECMO application in intensive care unit settings and results of recent clinical trials. In addition, management during ECMO support and common complications of ECMO is outlined.Finally, evolving technologies involved with the progress of ECMO are summarized.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Emergency Department Patients with

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was performed to analyze the effects of differences between initial and follow up amounts of central venous oxygen saturation (Scvo2), lactate, anion gap (AG), and corrected anion gap (CAG).METHODS: Patients with systolic blood pressure that was lower than 90 mmHg participated in this study. Along with Arterial Blood Gas Analysis (ABGA), the amounts of electrolytes, albumin, and Scvo2 were initially checked and then re-checked four hours later. The patients were divided into two groups, which were survived and expired, and the differences in initial and final values were compared in both groups. RESULTS: Out of a total of 36 patients, 29 patients survived and 7 patients died. The data showed almost no difference in mean age, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature between two groups. Comparing the initial amount, there was a statistically significant variation in lactate. Comparing the final values, lactate, AG, and CAG varied significantly.However, for both groups, the differences between the initial and final values were not significant. The area under curve (AUC) of follow up lactate and follow up CAG was 0.89 and 0.88. AUC of ED-APACHEII and original ICU APACHEII was 0.74 and 0.96.CONCLUSIONS: There was no prognostic effect of Scvo2, lactate, AG, and CAG in hypotensive patients. The initial and final values of lactate and CAG were good prognostic factors for the expired group.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in Patients
           with Acute Myocardial ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked to an increased risk for in-hospital and long-term mortality rates in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are known to play an important role in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, it is uncertain whether obesity and MS increase the risk of AF in patients with AMI. Therefore, we investigated independent risk factors for the occurrence of new-onset AF in patients with AMI who received optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the association between MS and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmia in 146 patients with AMI who underwent PCI. Twenty-four-hour Holter monitoring was performed 3 days after AMI. We divided the patients into two different groups based on the development of AF and analysed their obesity based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) and evaluated the existence of MS, as well as visceral obesity with fat computed tomography.RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (51.4%) were obese (BMI> or = 25) and 64 (44%) had MS. AF occurred in 33 (22.6%) patients. Age, MS, and visceral obesity were significantly associated with AF (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.03, respectively). There was no difference between obese and non-obese patients in the incidence of AF and VT.Multivariate analysis revealed that age and MS were independent risk factors of post-AMI AF.CONCLUSIONS: MS is an important and modifiable risk factor for new-onset AF especially in patients with AMI who underwent PCI.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Simulation Study for Quality of Chest Compression Provided by Health

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Effective chest compression may improve the return of spontaneous circulation and neurologic outcome in arrest victims. For fear of rescuer's fatigue, guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommended that chest compression (CC) should be switched every 2 minutes, but there is little evidence. We investigated whether health personnel could provide consistent quality of CC for 2 minutes.METHODS: We recruited prospectively health personnel working on one university hospital. On the day assigned randomly, CPR performance data was collected with use of CPR recording technology. Quality of CPR was calculated every 30 seconds interval. To identify the quality decay, we used repeated measure analysis of variance with SPSS 17.0 for analysis.RESULTS: We analyzed 8,485 CCs performed by 41 subjects.Total number of CC decayed between 90 to 120 seconds (51.6 +/- 3.3 to 50.8 +/- 3.5, p = 0.020) within recommended range. The ratio of correct depth CC decayed between 90 to 120 seconds, falling from 83.4 +/- 24.9% to 68.3 +/- 38.4% (p = 0.002). The ratio of low depth CC increased significantly over time (10.2 +/- 20.7% to 31.3 +/- 38.5%, p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Health personnel may provide adequate number of CC for 2 minutes. But, the number of correct depth CC may decay between 90 to 120 seconds. Also the number of low depth CC may increase over time.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Adequacy of Epinephrine Administration during Advanced Cardiovascular Life
           Support in terms of ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Consensus guidelines clearly define how epinephrine is administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In South Korea, it is not known whether epinephrine is administered in accordance with the current advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) guidelines during actual practice. We sought to investigate adherence to ACLS guidelines during actual CPR in terms of the dose of epinephrine and the interval between doses.METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 394 adult cardiac arrest patients who received CPR at an emergency room. Data including the duration of CPR, the dose of epinephrine, and the interval between doses was collected from CPR records.RESULTS: Standard-dose epinephrine (1 mg) was used in 166 of 394 patients (42.1%). In 58.8% of patients, the average between-dose interval was within the 3-5 min recommended in the guidelines, whereas it was shorter than 3 min in 31.4% of patients. As a whole, epinephrine was administered in accordance with the current ACLS guidelines in only 96 of 394 patients (24.4%). Logistic regression analysis revealed the duration of CPR to be an independent factor affecting the use of standard-dose epinephrine and the adequate between-dose interval.CONCLUSIONS: Epinephrine was not administered according to the ACLS guideline in most patients. A national multi-center study is required to determine whether the poor adherence to the ACLS guideline is a widespread problem. In addition, efforts to improve adherence to the ACLS guideline are required.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Lactate Clearance and Outcome in Septic Shock Patients with Low Level of
           Initial Lactate

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Serum lactate is a potentially useful biomarker to risk-stratify patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However, there are only a few studies on the association of serum lactate levels and prognosis in septic shock patients with initial low lactate levels.METHODS: To evaluate whether initial and follow-up lactate levels associated with mortality in septic shock patients with low lactate level, we conducted a retrospective observational study of patients with septic shock, who were hospitalized through the emergency department in February-July 2008. Initial lactate level was stratified as low ( or =4 mmol/L). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders in the association between lactate clearance and mortality.RESULTS: Of 90 patients hospitalized with septic shock during the study period, 68 (76%) patients had low initial lactate. Mortality at 28 days was 18% in patients with low lactate level. In these patients, initial lactate level was not associated with mortality (p = 0.590). However, increased lactate at follow-up and lactate clearance were associated with mortality (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, respectively). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, increased mortality rate independently associated with age (OR 1.162, 95% CI 1.041-1.298) and lactate clearance (OR 0.654, 95% CI 0.498-0.859).CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients with a low lactate level, lactate clearance independently associated with a decreased mortality rate. Therefore, lactate clearance could be useful for predicting the outcome in these patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Consistency and Clinical Significance between Bronchoscopic Samples
           and Endotracheal or ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Distal airway bacterial colonization occurs more frequently in patients with endotracheal tubes or tracheostomy of intensive care units (ICU) care. In general, bronchoscopic samples are considered more accurate than transtracheal aspirates. In this study, we evaluated the consistency and clinical significance between bronchoscopic samples and transtracheal aspirates (TTA) in severe pneumonia under mechanical ventilation.METHODS: We investigated the consistency between bronchoscopic samples and transtracheal aspirates among patients with endotracheal tubes or tracheostomy, retrospectively. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 212 patients with mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube or tracheostomy between January 1st, 2004 and December 31th, 2008 in ICU at Ewha Womans University Hospital. We evaluated consistency in terms of true pathogen according to the arbitrary ICU days progress.RESULTS: Among the 212 enrolled patients, 113 (53%) had consistency between bronchoscopic samples and transtracheal aspirates. When evaluated alteration trends in consistency according to ICU stay, the consistency was maintained for 5 to 9 ICU days with statistical significance (p< 0.05) since adjusting for age, sex, and combined risk factors.Consistency in sampling status between the endotracheal tube and tracheostomy was also evaluated, however, there was no statistical significance (OR 1.9 vs. 1, 95% CI = 0.997-3.582, p = 0.051).CONCLUSIONS: Shorter hospital stay (within 9 days of ICU stay) had higher probability of consistency between bronchoscopic samples and TTA samples. TTA may be as confident as bronchoscopic samples in patients of pneumonia under mechanical ventilation with shorter ICU stays, especially less than 10 days.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Optimal Timing of Topical Lidocaine Spray on the Hemodynamic Change of
           Tracheal Intubation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in hypertension, tachycardia and sometimes critical complications, especially in patients with underlying hypertension, cardiovascular disease or cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we sprayed 4% lidocaine into the trachea before intubation, and observed the hemodynamic changes after tracheal intubation.METHODS: We randomly allocated 87 patients, whose ASA physical status was I or II, into three groups. The 4% topical lidocaine was sprayed before intubation at the following specific times: just before intubation (group 0), or 1 minute (group 1) and 2 minutes before intubation (group 2). For maintenance of anesthesia, TIVA (total intravenous anesthesia; propofol-remifentanil infusion with orchestra(R)) was used. We observed hemodynamic changes between the groups just after the intubation, as well as 1, 3 and 5 minutes after the intubation. Hemodynamic changes were also monitored in the same group.RESULTS: When the patients arrived at the operating room, we found no significant difference in heart rate and arterial pressure between the groups. However, heart rate after intubation in group 1 was significantly lower than group 0.The diastolic and mean arterial pressure just after intubation were lower in group 1 and 2 than in group 0.CONCLUSIONS: Spraying lidocaine 1 or 2 minutes before intubation was more effective than spraying it just before intubation for reducing hypertensive responses after intubation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Inhospital Spontaneous Acute Subdural Hematoma (SADH) Patient with
           Antiplatelet Therapy due to ...

    • Abstract: A case of "spontaneous" acute subdural hematoma caused by aspirin and plavix therapy has not been described previously. As an isolated cerebrovascular event related to aspirin and plavix therapy, this is the first report described in the literature. It also represents a new differential diagnosis for nontraumatic acute subdural hematomas.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Detection of Pulmonary Artery Catheter Knotting by Transesophageal
           Echocardiography: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Placement of a pulmonary artery catheter is associated with various complications, including catheter knotting.Fluoroscopy can be used to visualize and confirm catheter knotting. Transesophageal echocardiography is readily available to detect knot formation in the operating room or intensive care unit. We present a case in which pulmonary artery catheter knotting was detected by transesophageal echocardiography. This method may be useful in the operating room or in the intensive care unit to identify the presence and location of catheter knotting.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Inflammation and Sepsis

    • Abstract: Despite the development of modern intensive care and new antimicrobial agents, the mortality of the patients with severe sepsis and septic shock remains high. The poor outcome is considered to be a consequence of an overactive systemic inflammatory response. Sepsis is now defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in which there is an identifiable focus of infection. As a consequence of the overactive SIRS response, the function of various organ systems may be compromised, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death.Systemic inflammation is a consequence of activation of the innate immune system. It is characterized by intravascular release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other vasoactive mediators, and the concurrent activation of the innate immune cells. In addition to the pro-inflammatory reactions, the host's anti-inflammatory mechanisms are also activated and aimed at counteracting the inflammatory response. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory reactions is critical for the outcome of the patient. Understanding the mechanisms of acute inflammatory responses in critical ill patients is necessary for the development of urgently needed therapeutics. The aim of this review is to provide a description of the key components and mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response in patients with SIRS and sepsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Splenic Rupture with a 1-month Latent Period after Minor Trauma: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Delayed splenic rupture is a rare complication of blunt abdominal trauma in which the time interval from injury to splenic rupture is> 48 hours. The diagnosis can be challenging if the history of trauma is remote, or initially missed, because symptoms may present subtly and without classic historical associations. We report a case of delayed rupture of the spleen from remote, minor trauma that required an emergency splenectomy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Airway Obstruction Caused by Prevertebral Soft Tissue Swelling after
           Anterior Cervical ...

    • Abstract: Acute airway obstruction after anterior cervical surgery is rare, but does occur. Airway obstruction due to prevertebral soft tissue swelling is unpredictable, but potentially lethal. We managed a 67-year-old male who developed acute airway obstruction caused by marked prevertebral soft tissue swelling on the first day after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the C4-C5 level.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Chemical Pneumonitis after
           Aspiration of Activated ...

    • Abstract: Charcoal has been commonly used for enteral detoxication although it causes few adverse effects. The major causes of morbidity and mortality secondary to activated charcoal therapy are pulmonary aspiration, gastrointestinal complication, and fluid and electrolyte abnormalities.Aspiration of charcoal is associated with pulmonary compromise due to increased microvascular permeability with concomitant lung edema, surfactant depletion, atelectasis, and obliterative bronchiolitis. Herein we report the case of a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome with chemical pneumonitis after aspiration of activated charcoal in sorbitol with a review of the related literatures.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Sheared Catheter Fragment in the Wrist after Arterial Cannulation
           Attempt: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Continuous measurement of arterial pressure is frequently required in the perioperative management of critically ill patients and major surgeries. The complications following arterial cannulation include hematoma, thrombosis, ischemia, infection, aneurysm formation at the site of catheter insertion, and so on. The authors report a case of the sheared catheter during the arterial cannulation and the subsequent surgical removal of its remnant.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hormonal Changes in Critical Condition

    • Abstract: When disease or trauma progresses to a critical state, the reaction of the endocrine system in creating homeostasis is essential for survival. The association between the severity of hormonal changes and outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality has led to the challenge of development of several endocrine treatments. During sepsis, nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis is observed in the neurons and glial cells of the cerebrovascular centers of the autonomic nervous system. It is probably one of the components of the circulatory dysfunction of sepsis. The regulation of different organs was neither linear nor independent however organs were found to behave as biological oscillators coupled to each other through neurological or hormonal communication pathways.Sepsis, because of systemic inflammatory responsive syndrome, disrupts these communication pathways and leads to organ failures. Endocrine hormonal issues related to the intensive care setting are common challenges to ICU specialists. Disruptions of the endocrine system in sepsis are characterized by 1) an increase in cortisol plasma levels with a loss of the circadian rhythm of its secretion; 2) hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance and rise in hyperglycemic hormones secretion; 3) relative vasopressin deficiency; and 4) euthyroid sick syndrome or non-thyroidal illness syndrome. This article discusses the dynamic changes of four main endocrine axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, insulin, vasopressin and thyroid during grave states of disease, when a patient is in critical condition.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Risk Factors of Postoperative Respiratory Insufficiency after
           Prolonged Robotic Radical ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Robotic radical prostatectomy is performed in elderly patients and requires extreme changes in the patient's position and is often associated with a long surgery time. This study reviewed the pulmonary complications occurring after a robotic radical prostatectomy and analyzed the potential risk factors.METHODS: The medical records of all patients who had undergone robotic radical prostatectomy at our institution were reviewed. Among the 80 total patients, 58 were capable of spontaneous respiration at the end of surgery (Group I), whereas 22 patients required assisted ventilation (Group II). A comparison between the two groups was made in terms of the demographic characteristics, coexisting diseases, anesthesia and operation time, amount of intraoperative blood loss and transfused blood products.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 67.2 +/- 7.3 years. The mean operation time was 384.1 +/- 203.4 min (range, 195-1,180 min). The anesthesia and operation time, amount of intraoperative blood loss and number of transfused patients were all significantly higher in Group II.Univariate analysis revealed age, body mass index, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion, anesthesia and operation time to be related to postoperative respiratory insufficiency. Multivariate analysis revealed intraoperative transfusion and operation time to be predictive risk factors.CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged laparoscopic surgery in a steep Trendelenburg position has a high likelihood of postoperative respiratory insufficiency, with the intraoperative transfusion and a longer operation time being possible contributing factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Physician Compliance with Tube Feeding Protocol Improves Nutritional and
           Clinical Outcomes in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nutrition delivery is frequently interrupted or delayed by physicians' ordering patterns. We conducted this study to investigate the effect of physician compliance with tube feeding (TF) protocol on the nutritional and clinical outcomes in acute lung injury (ALI) patients.METHODS: After implementing a TF protocol, 71 ALI patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) for> or = 7 days were observed. A dietician assessed the nutritional status of the patients and established individualized nutrition plans according to the protocol. If the physicians followed the dietician's recommendation within 48 hours, the patients were classified under the compliant group (Group 1).RESULTS: Forty patients (56.3%) were classified into Group 1. Prealbumin was comparable in both groups at ICU admission but higher in Group 1 at the time of discharge from the ICU (228 +/- 81 vs 157 +/- 77 mg/dl, p = 0.025). Nitrogen balance was only improved in Group 1. The time to reach calorie goal was shorter and non-feeding days were reduced in Group 1. The proportion of parenteral nutrition to nutritional support days was lower and delivered calories on the 4th and 7th day of TF were higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). ICU mortality/stay and hospital mortality failed to show differences but hospital stay was prolonged in the noncompliant group (Group 2) (p = 0.023). Arterial oxygen tension and PaO2/FiO2 were maintained during the 1st week of ICU stay in Group 1 but were decreased in Group 2.CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' compliance with the TF protocol contributed to the likelihood of nutritional improvement and a shorter hospital stay in ALI patients with prolonged MV.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Values of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) Score and
           the Pediatric Index of ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare two models of the pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) score and the pediatric index of mortality (PIM) 2 score in the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU).METHODS: 90 pediatric patients who were admitted to the ICU in ED from January 2003 to December 2008 were enrolled in this study. PELOD score and PIM 2 score calculations were performed in the ED and ICU. We classified these patients into either the survivor or non-survivor groups and analyzed the clinical variables between two groups. We used Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests to evaluate calibration, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and standardized mortality ratio (SMR).RESULTS: Among the 90 pediatric patients, 56 (62.2%) were male, and 9 (10.0%) patients died. Expected mortalities were PIM 2 = 10.35, PELOD = 8.33 in ED and PIM 2 = 8.84, PELOD = 8.26 in ICU. PIM 2 showed fit calibration (x(2) = 6.228, p = 0.622) in the ED. In the ICU, both PELOD and PIM 2 showed calibration (x(2) = 4.625, p = 0.185) and (x(2) = 7.616, p = 0.472), respectively. PIM 2 in ED showed the best discrimination, with area under the curve (AUC) = 0.949 (95% CI, 0.881-0.984).CONCLUSIONS: PIM 2 score in ED was fit. Also, PELOD and PIM 2 score in ICU was fit. But PELOD in ED was unfit.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Itraconazole Pretreatment in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced
           Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that a randomized controlled trial did not support the use of ketoconazole for treatment of acute lung injury (ALI), there is evidence that pretreatment with ketoconazole might prevent ALI in critically ill patients. An in vitro study showed, however, that itraconazole was a more potent inhibitor of thromboxane and leukotriene formation than was ketoconazole. We investigated the effect of itraconazole pretreatment in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats.METHODS: Twenty-one pathogen free, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either saline or LPS (5 mg/kg of body weight) intratracheally, with or without intraperitoneal pretreatment of itraconazole (2.5 mg/kg). Six hours after saline or LPS treatment (7 h after itraconazole pretreatment), samples were obtained.RESULTS: Compared with the saline group, LPS group had increased total cell count, polymorphonuclear leukocyte differential count, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytokines in BAL fluid. Itraconazole pretreatment decreased polymrphonuclear leukocyte differential count, protein and LDH in BAL fluid compared with those of LPS-treated rats without itraconazole pretreatment. Itraconazole pretreatment also decreased the elevated BAL fluid levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by LPS. There was, however, no difference in the BAL fluid tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) level in terms of itraconazole pretreatment in LPS-treated rats. Histopathologic features of LPS-induced ALI were attenuated by itraconazole pretreatment.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that itraconazole pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI in rats. Decreases in levels of IL-1beta and CINC would likely be associated with attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in rats by itraconazole pretreatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema in Children
           Infected with H1N1 Virus: ...

    • Abstract: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition in children which is triggered by respiratory infection and inflammation, although it occurs most commonly in asthmatics. It is caused by alveolar rupture and dissection of air into the mediastinum and hilum, and the prognosis is usually benign. We report two cases of SPM and subcutaneous emphysema complicating pneumonia in children with severe H1N1 infection. The patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and treated with oxygen, inhalation of a bronchodilator, intravenous systemic corticosteroid (methyprednisolone, 2 mg/kg/day for 5 days) and antibiotics, together with antiviral therapy. On day 4 after admission, there was no further evidence of SPM. SPM associated with severe H1N1 infection in children resolves with aggressive supportive care, without progression to pneumothorax. We should remain aware of this air leak complication in children with severe respiratory infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Following the Early Decompression of
           Pneumothorax Occurred after ...

    • Abstract: When a rapidly re-expanding lung has been in a state of collapse for more than several days, pulmonary edema sometimes occurs. This is called reexpansion pulmonary edema. In general, it most commonly occurs in patients with a large pneumothorax of long duration. In this case, a 15 year old female patient with a 2.3 cm sized bulla in the right lung developed right pneumothorax after anesthetic induction. Although early drainage by closed thoracostomy was performed, right pulmonary edema eventually occurred. It is unusual that vigorous reexpansion pulmonary edema developed even though early decompression was performed within one hour after development of pneumothorax.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Survey of Patients Who Were Admitted for Life-Sustaining Therapy in
           Nationwide Medical ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The study focused on figuring out the present status and distribution of the underlying diseases of Korean terminally ill patients (TIP) who were on life-support care (LSC) by conducting a nationwide health care survey.METHODS: The authors of this study requested that the 308 nationwide hospitals that operate intensive care units answer a questionnaire that asked about the number of admitted TIPs and their underlying diseases at 12 Am, 22 July, 2009. The proportion of TIPs among all the admitted patients and the percentages of the TIP's underlying diseases were calculated.RESULTS: In a total of 83.1% of the eligible hospitals responded, the proportion of TIP was 1.6 of 100 admitted patients. Terminal cancer was the leading underlying disease in the TIPs (42.4%). Five % of the patients on LSC were brain dead. More TIPs were admitted in the national/public or university hospitals than in the private or non-university hospitals.CONCLUSIONS: Futile treatment seems to be administered to the TIPs in Korean hospitals. The quality of terminal care in Korean hospitals should be improved by the application of socially acceptable LSC guidelines. Timely government health plans, including hospice care, to improve the quality of palliative care should be launched and maintained.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Two Cases of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Complicating Viral Pneumonia
           Caused by Influenza A ...

    • Abstract: Influenza A virus, (H1N1 Subtype), was identified as the cause of outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection in Mexico, the US, Canada and elsewhere during the spring of 2009. In Korea, a novel virus infection showing many variable complications was also pandemic. We report two cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, complicating viral pneumonia, caused by Influenza A virus, (H1N1 Subtype).
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Management of Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia with Thrombosis after
           Open Heart Surgery: A ...

    • Abstract: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic, immune-mediated adverse reaction to heparin therapy. It is caused by antibodies binding to a complex of heparin and platelet factor 4, and this leads to platelet activation, excessive thrombin generation and often thrombosis. HIT with thrombosis (HITT) can lead to limb amputation, stroke, myocardial infarction and death. We report here on a case of a HITT patient who was successfully managed with argatroban therapy. Further knowledge is need about the ideal medical management for HITT.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Induced Hypertension Using Phenylephrine in Patients with Acute Ischemic
           Stroke: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Decreased cerebral perfusion is associated with a poor prognosis for a patient suffering from acute ischemic stroke. Induced hypertension may improve the cerebral perfusion and stroke symptoms. However, there is not enough clinical evidence to support this therapy and it is rarely performed in daily practice. Here we report three patients with acute ischemic stroke and cerebral hypoperfusion who were successfully treated with induced hypertension using intravenous phenylephrine. Phenylephrine infusion may be a treatment option for patients suffering from acute ischemic stroke and cerebral hypoperfusion.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Uremic Pericarditis and Cardiac Tamponade That Developed after
           Ethylene Glycol ...

    • Abstract: Ethylene glycol is commonly incorporated into automotive antifreeze agents and a variety of other commercial products. Ethylene glycol poisoning can cause life-threatening metabolic acidosis, cardiopulmonary failure, and renal failure that may be fatal. We present an unusual case of a patient who ingested a large amount of ethylene glycol for the purpose of suicide and developed multiorgan damage, including acute renal failure followed by uremic pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. This unusual complication was effectively managed with echocardiography-guided percutaneous pericardiocentesis and continuous catheter drainage for 3 days. After intensive hemodialysis and supportive care, the patient made a good recovery with near normal cardiac and renal function.Physicians should be aware of the possibility of acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade in cases of acute renal failure caused by ethylene glycol poisoning.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Mercury Vapor Inhalation Toxicity after Burning Charms: A Case

    • Abstract: Cinnabar is the mineral with mercury in combination with sulfur, and it has been used to make charms in China and Korea. If cinnabar is overheated, mercury vapor that is extremely hazardous or sometimes fatal can be released. We experienced 5 patients of a family who were exposed to mercury vapor when they burnt charms. One of them developed severe acute respiratory failure and the patient needed mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Despite treatment with cortiocosteroid, D-penicillamine, ECMO and plasmapheresis, the radiologic findings of a patient worsened and he died.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Wernicke's Encephalopathy in a Postoperative Patient with
           Parenteral Nutrition and ...

    • Abstract: Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neurological disorder, caused by thiamine deficiency, which is clinically characterized by a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbances of consciousness. Most frequently, the encephalopathy is a consequence of chronic alcoholism, but it may occur in other forms of malnutrition or malabsorption, such as in prolonged parenteral nutrition without the addition of thiamine, total gastrectomy, gastrojejunostomy, severe anorexia or hyperemesis gravidarum. Thiamine requirement increases during critical illness and in chronically depleted patients, and its supplementation may influence the outcome of the disease. We report a case of a 73-year-old man, who presented with recurred colon cancer, who was affected by Wernicke's encephalopathy while undergoing oral feeding and parenteral nutrition. This case suggests that we should be more aware of potential thiamine deficiency in critically ill patients, even those undergoing parenteral nutrition and temporary oral feeding.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Pleural Effusion after Right Subclavian Vein Catheterization: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Central venous catheterization is commonly used for supplying large amounts of fluids, total parenteral nutrition and for monitoring central venous pressure.Numerous complications exist with the technique, including pneumothorax, arterial puncture with vessel injury, catheter embolus, mediastinal hematoma, hydrothorax, and the thrombus of the vein. We reported an uncommon case of pleural effusion, due to catheter tip migration and penetration, which occurred 4 days after central venous catheterization.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Cardiac Transplantation for a Patient with Intra-aortic Balloon Pump and
           Extracorporeal ...

    • Abstract: A 66-year-old male patient who suffered from chest pain and dyspnea was admitted to our hospital. He was diagnosed as having an acute myocardial infarction, and recovered from cardiogenic shock after cardiopulmonary-cerebral resuscitation. Under the support of extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) he underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention. After this, an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was inserted to increase coronary perfusion and reduce the impedance to left ventricular ejection. After 6 days, the patient was weaned from ECMO support; however, IABP therapy and infusion of inotropic agents were required to maintain adequate hemodynamic status. One week later, cardiac transplantation was performed successfully without major complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Chronic Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting 36 Years after
           Preceding Injury: A Case Report

    • Abstract: We report a distinctive case of a large traumatic diaphragmatic hernia (TDH) that presented 36-years after the preceding injury. We believe this case represents the most delayed (TDH) presentation ever reported in Korea. This paper describes the particular presentation, including the operative and postoperative management of this patient. We also review the management of long delayed TDH presentation and the postoperative issues concerning thoracic cavity dead space and propensity of the repaired diaphragm for developing abdominal compartment syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Pulmonary Edema in Severe Bronchospasm

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Current Insights into Sepsis Treatments

    • Abstract: Sepsis is a common illness of intensive care unit patients that carries high morbidity and mortality, and increases hospital costs. Although mortality from sepsis remains high when compared with other critical illnesses, it has declined over the last few decades due to several adjunctive therapies and focused care programs or guidelines. In 2004, an international guideline was published that the bedside clinician could use to improve the outcomes in severe cases of sepsis and septic shock. Several landmark studies recently demonstrated that therapeutic strategies may substantially reduce mortality. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2008 was updated using a new evidence-based methodology system for assessing the quality of evidence and the strengths of recommendations. Evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the first step toward improving the outcomes of critically ill patients. This article discusses the guidelines and current insights into sepsis treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Prognostic Factors and the Effect of Hemoperfusion for Patients with
           Paraquat Poisoning

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Paraquat has been widely used as a non-selective contact herbicide and it may induce damage to many organs.This study aimed to assess the factors that can predict the prognosis of paraquat poisoning and to determine the effect of hemoperfusion.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 132 patients who were poisoned with paraquat from January 2005, to December 2008.The patients were divided into two groups: The first groups included the death and survived groups, and the second groups included the hemoperfusion and non-hemoperfusion groups. We investigated the mortality, the factors that can predictive the prognosis and the effect of hemoperfusion.RESULTS: There were 79 males and 53 female (mean age: 56.1 +/- 15.1 years). The significant differences between the death and survival groups were the volume of paraquat ingested, the mental status, GCS (Glasgow coma scale), pH, base deficit, HCO3, serum Cr (creatinine), serum AST (aspartate transaminase), serum glucose, K (kalium), urine sodium dithionite test and hemoperfusion. The significant differences between the hemoperfusion and non-hemoperfusion groups were the mortality and the mean survival time.Multivariate regression analysis reveled four predictive factors and their's Odd ratio: 1) urine sodium dithionate test = strong 14.256, 2) hemoperfusion 0.493, 3) Cr> 0.95 mg/kg 31.603 and 4) an amount of ingested paraquat> 45 ml 16.945.CONCLUSIONS: The predictive factors for mortality were the amount of paraquat ingested> 45 ml, a urine sodium dithionite test = strong and a serum Cr> 0.95 mg/dl.Hemoperfusion couldn't be used a predictive factor for mortality, but it increased the mean survival time.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Outcome after Admission to Intensive Care Unit Following Out-of-Hospital
           Cardiac Arrest: ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the post-resuscitation intensive care unit outcome of patients who initially survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients who were admitted to the ICU after OHCA in a tertiary hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2009. We compared the patients' clinical data, the factors associated with admission and the prognosis of patients in cardiac and non-cardiac groups.RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were included in this study.Thirty-four patients were in the cardiac group and thirty patients were in the non-cardiac group. The mean age was 57.3 +/- 15.1 years of age in the cardiac group and 61.9 +/- 15.7 years of age in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.235). The collapse-to-start of the CPR interval was 5.9 +/- 3.8 min in the cardiac group and 6.0 +/- 3.2 min in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.851). The complaint of chest pain occurred in 12 patients (35.3%) in the cardiac group and 1 patient (3.3%) in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.011). The time duration for making a decision for admission was 285.2 +/- 202.2 min in the cardiac group and 327.7 +/- 264.1 min in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.471). The regional wall motion abnormality and ejection fraction decrease were significant in the cardiac group (p = 0.002, 0.030). Grade 5 CPC was present in 8 patients (23.5%) in the cardiac group and 14 patients (46.7%) in the non-cardiac group.CONCLUSIONS: The key symptom that could initially differentiate the two groups was chest pain. The time duration for making an admission decision was long in both groups. The CPC score of the cardiac group was lower than that for the non-cardiac group.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Characteristics of Acute Brain Swelling in Patients Successfully
           Resuscitated from ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The number of cardiac arrest patients who are resuscitated has increased with the development of emergency medical services. Brain swelling is often found in these patients, following return of spontaneous circulation. This study identifies risk factors for brain swelling, describes it's frequency, analyzes the effect of brain swelling on neurological outcome, and compares the results with other studies.METHODS: A retrospective analysis had been conducted on cardiac arrest patients who visited the emergency room at a university hospital during a 24 month period since 2007.Thirty-seven successfully resuscitated patients were divided into 2 groups based on computed tomography findings; these groups consisted of 14 patients with brain swelling and 23 patients without brain swelling. Comparative studies were conducted on post-lab findings and several additional factors.RESULTS: The 14 patients with brain swelling were significantly younger and showed a higher clinical performance category score than patients without brain swelling. Initial serum lactic acid levels showed good correlation with brain swelling.CONCLUSIONS: An urgent CT should be conducted and aggressive treatment pursued when brain swelling is suspected, after consideration of various prognostic factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • VAP (Ventilator-associated Pneumonia) in Patients with Pulmonary Contusion

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with pulmonary contusion.METHODS: The study was conducted at an urban teaching hospital emergency department with an annual volume of 80,000 patient visits. A retrospective analysis was conducted on thoracic injury patients admitted between Jan 2007 and Dec 2009. Among 122 patients investigated, 30 patients were excluded. Patient data included basal characteristics and information related to development of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ultimate mortality.Statistical methods included the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test. Study data were stored and processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 & SPSS 18.0 for Windows.RESULTS: Ventilator-associated pneumonia developed in 46 patients (50%). The patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia were more likely to have a longer duration of hospitalization, longer length of ICU stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, a low initial GCS, a higher APACHE II score, and were more likely to require emergency intubation or tracheostomy. Factors associated with mortality included longer duration of hospitalization, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, low intial GCS and the need for dialysis.CONCLUSIONS: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in the patients with pulmonary contusion was not relevant to mortality, but was relevant to longer hospitalization, length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparison of Cervical Spine Movement by Airway Equipment during
           Orotracheal Intubation: A ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In patients with limited cervical spine movement, equipment for orotracheal intubation should achieve sufficient laryngeal exposure with the least cervical spine movement. This study was designed to compare movement of the cervical spine during the orotracheal intubation with various intubating equipment.METHODS: Twelve emergency physicians & residents with a total experience of>50 cases of endotracheal intubation in two emergency centers were assigned to perform orotracheal intubation with four different airway devices, including the Macintosh laryngoscope (ML), DCI video laryngoscope (DCI), Airway Scope (AWS) and Levitan Scope (LS), using the same manikin (Ambu(R) airway management trainer) in random sequences. Movement of the C-spine was examined by measuring the angle formed by two lines which are parallel to the anterior surface of the C2 and C7 vertebrae bodies. The angle was measured when Cormack-Lehane grade II glottis exposure was achieved during intubation.RESULTS: Mean cervical spine movements were 37.6 +/- 9.2degrees, 32.2 +/- 14.2degrees, 32.2 +/- 6.45degrees and 17.4 +/- 10.0degrees with the ML, DCI (p = 0.347), AWS (p = 0.094), and LS (p < 0.001), respectively, compared to that of ML. Cervical spine movement by LS was 54% less than that by ML. LS produced less cervical spine movement in comparison to DCI (p = 0.013) and AWS (p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The Levitan Scope produced less movement of the cervical spine when compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope, DCI video-laryngoscope and Airway Scope during orotracheal intubation in a single airway training manikin model.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Physiologic Effect and Safety of Pumpless Extracorporeal Interventional
           Lung Assist in Korean ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pumpless interventional lung assist (iLA) uses an extracorporeal gas exchange system without any complex blood pumping technology, and has been shown to reduce CO2 tension and permit protective lung ventilation. The feasibility and safety of iLA were demonstrated in previous studies, but there has been no experience with iLA in Korea.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the iLA device in terms of physiologic efficacy and safety in Korean patients with acute respiratory failure.METHODS: iLA was implemented in patients with acute respiratory failure who satisfied the predefined criteria of our study. Initiation of iLA followed an algorithm for implementation, ventilator care, and monitoring. Following insertion of arterial and venous cannulas under ultrasound guidance, the physiologic and respiratory variables and incidence of adverse events were monitored.RESULTS: iLA was implemented in 5 patients and the duration of iLA ranged from 7 hours to 171 hours. At 24 hours after implementation, the mean changes in pH, PaCO2, and PaO2/FiO2 ranged from 7.204 to 7.393, from 68.4 mm Hg to 33 mm Hg, and from 128.7 mm Hg to 165 mm Hg, respectively. During iLA therapy, one adverse event was observed, which presented with hematochezia without hemodynamic change.CONCLUSIONS: iLA treatment produced effective removal of carbon dioxide and allowed for protective ventilation in severe respiratory failure. An iLA system can easily be installed by percutaneous cannulation, without procedural complications, and without significant adverse events necessitating discontinuation of iLA after implementation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Pseudoaneurysm Developed during Intensive Treatment of Status
           Asthmaticus: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Pseudoaneurysm formation in the pulmonary vasculature is a rare but fatal condition. Several etiologies have been described including trauma, complication after cardiac or other surgeries, tuberculosis, necrotizing pneumonia, congestive heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and vasculitis. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm found in a patient being treated with status asthmaticus, who developed complications of pneumonia and brain abscess secondary to sepsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Stress-induced Cardiomyopathy Associated with Swine Influenza Infection
           Which Exacerbated ...

    • Abstract: Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) is an acute cardiac condition that causes left ventricular apical ballooning which mimicks acute coronary syndrome. The risk of in-hospital mortality with SICM is generally low (1% to 3%) and supportive care is usually sufficient for resolution.Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1, S-OIV) is a recently spreading pandemic and a serious public health problem.Although most S-OIV infections have a mild, self-limited course, clinical cases resulting in fatalities and associated with variable co-morbidities remain as a serious concern in some individuals. Among such serious complications, there have been few reports of SICM caused by S-OIV infection. We herein report, for the first time in the literature, a case with fatal hemodynamic instability secondary to SICM caused by S-OIV infection with viral pneumonia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case Report of Rapidly Progressive Empyema Caused by Pulmonary
           Actinomycosis: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Pulmonary actinomycosis is an indolent and slowly progressive infectious disease, accompanied by pleural effusion and empyema in about 50% of cases. The size of the effusion is usually small, though, and it responds to appropriate antibiotics. We report a case of rapidly progressing, severe empyema leading to respiratory failure that was caused by pulmonary actinomycosis. A 57-year-old man presented with pleuritic chest pain for 5 days. The initial plain chest radiograph and CT scan showed pleural effusion. Gross pus was observed during the thoracentesis and laboratory test of pleural effusion revealed empyema. In spite of empirical antibiotics and chest tube drainage, the empyema rapidly progressed and the patient reached respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation applied and decortication via video-assisted thoracotomy was performed.Microscopic examination of both the pleural and adjacent lung biopsy specimen revealed actinomycosis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Anaphylaxis Induced by Intravenous Ranitidine Injection: 2 Case Reports

    • Abstract: Histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists are widely used for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critical and postoperative care. Though ranitidine is one of the most commonly used H2 receptor antagonists, with a low incidence of adverse reactions, a few anaphylactic reactions associated with ranitidine have been reported. This report describes 2 additional cases of anaphylaxis induced by ranitidine used for stress ulcer prophylaxis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Severe Acute Exacerbation of Bronchial Asthma Treated with Low
           Minute Ventilation: A ...

    • Abstract: We report a case of severe status asthmaticus in a 3-year-old boy who required mechanical ventilatory support.He initially presented with rapidly progressing respiratory distress and spontaneous air leaks. Although he was intubated and received mechanical ventilation, dynamic hyperinflation and air leaks were aggravated. We applied the volume control mode, providing sufficient tidal volume (10 ml/kg), a reduced respiratory rate (25/minute), and a prolonged expiratory time (1.8 seconds) to overcome dynamic hyperinflation. After allowing full expiration of trapped air, his over-expanded lung volumes were decreased and the air leaks resolved. He made a complete recovery without sequelae. Dynamic hyperinflation in asthmatic patients occurs from incomplete exhalation throughout narrowed airways. Controlled hypoventilation or permissive hypercapnia is an important lung-protective ventilator strategy and is beneficial in reducing dynamic hyperinflation. We suggest a controlled hypoventilation strategy with a prolonged expiratory time for patients in severe status asthmaticus with dynamic hyperinflation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hyperthermia Plus Tachycardia Is Predictive of Fatal Outcome in Pontine
           Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Pontine hemorrhage is characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We report a case of pontine hemorrhage treated by extraventricular drainage (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and control of intracranial pressure (ICP) at the neuro-intensive care unit (NICU). The patient's ICP was well controlled, but hyperthermia with tachycardia developed 8 hours after admission, and the patient expired with sudden cardiac arrest. A literature review revealed that high fever (>39degrees C) developing within 24 hours after onset of hemorrhage with tachycardia (>110 beat/min) is a clinical indicator for high probability of death. Therefore, it is important that not only ICP and neurological changes but also vital signs, especially body temperature and heart rate, be monitored in pontine hemorrhage patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Ipsilateral Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Developed after Decortication: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is a rare but sometimes fatal complication of the treatment of lung collapse secondary to pneumothorax, pleural effusion, or atelectasis.We experienced a case of RPE that developed following decortication. A 46 year-old female had a decortication for pyothorax under one-lung anesthesia. There was no event during the operation and results of arterial blood gas analysis were within normal limits. After the operation, tracheal extubation was performed and 100% oxygen saturation on a pulse oximeter (SpO2) was maintained with 100% O2, (8 L/min) via mask ventilation with self-respiration. The patient, with 50% Venturi mask, was transported to the intensive care unit (ICU). On arrival at the ICU, a SpO2 of 80% was detected and arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with acute hypercapnic respiratory acidosis.Fortunately, reexpansion pulmonary edema was detected early and intensive treatment was performed using mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure. Tracheal extubation was performed after 1 day of mechanical ventilation. The reexpansion pulmonary edema was successfully treated and the patient recovered without any complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effective Management for Incidental Detachment of the Pilot Balloon on the
           Endotracheal Tube: A ...

    • Abstract: A 57-year-old female with lumbar spinal stenosis at L4-S1 was scheduled to undergo posterolateral interbody fusion.Intubation with a 7.0 size ID cuffed reinforced tracheal tube (Mallinckrodt(TM), Mallinckrodt Medical Atholen, Ireland) was uncomplicated, and any air leakage was not detected at that time. Two hours after the start of operation, an air leak was apparent at the trachea during ventilation in the prone position. Closer inspection of the inflation tube and pilot balloon showed that the pilot balloon had become detached. Because she was being operated on in the prone position, and ventilation was only possible at a less than optimal state, we attempted to fix this without having to reintubate the patient's trachea. Our solution involved inserting a 21-gauge needle into the inflation tube and a handheld aneroid manometer was then connected to it. The tube cuff was thereafter inflated up to a pressure of 20 cmH2O. In conclusion, careful manipulation is recommended when performing intubation and a needle connector may help secure the airway if the pilot balloon becomes detached during the procedure.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Subsequently Developed after Recovery from
           Severe Acute Lung Injury ...

    • Abstract: Severe acute lung injury (ALI), leading to respiratory failure caused by H1N1 infection, developed in a 34-year-old man during a work-up for non-small cell lung cancer.Although he fully recovered through instant treatment with oseltamivir, mechanical ventilation was required again, 7 days later, due to subsequent diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Finally, his condition improved and he was able to move out of the intensive care unit. However, multiple pulmonary metastatic nodules appeared over a period of one month, suggesting the aggressive nature of lung cancer.Although he was discharged after chemotherapy, his prognosis seemed poor, considering the rapidity of growth of the lung cancer. It is important to recognize that DAH can occur after acute lung injury caused by influenza virus.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Diffusion-weighted Imaging of a Patient in a Hypoglycemic Coma: A Case

    • Abstract: A 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in an unresponsive state and she was admitted to our hospital. She was comatose on arrival. The bedside blood glucose level on admission was 15 mg/dl (normal range, 55-110 mg/dl). After emergency infusion with 50% dextrose, the blood glucose level rapidly normalized to 98 mg/dl, but there was no clinical improvement of her consciousness.Three days after admission, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed bilateral temporal, occipital and frontal lobes lesions with high signal intensity. The patient's neurological condition did not change over the next 15 days. She died of pneumonia on the 30th day of hospitalization. DWI may be useful for detecting and making the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemic coma.Further, marked differences in the neuroimaging patterns of patients in a hypoglycemic coma are valuable prognostic predictors. We report here on a case of hypoglycemic coma with a poor outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome and Quadriplegia due to Acute
           Methamphetamine Intoxication: ...

    • Abstract: Methamphetamine (MA) is an extremely addictive central nervous system stimulant. MA abuse has increased during the past three decades in Korea because it is cheap relatively and easily produced. Acute toxicity can occur via nasal insufflation, intravenous administration and ingestion of liquid formulations. The clinical manifestations include hypertension, tachycardia, hyperthermia, an altered mentality and seizure. Severe complications can occur such as pulmonary edema, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This case report describes a previously healthy 40-year-old woman who presented to an emergency department with complaints of hyperthermia, an altered mentality and vomiting. This patient was diagnosed as acute MA intoxication by urine toxicology screening, and she showed a variety of clinical manifestations and complications.Physicians should suspect MA intoxication if a patient shows an unknown fever, an altered mentality and hypertension, and they should carefully manage these patients in the ICU.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Prolonged Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support for Severe
           Acute Respiratory ...

    • Abstract: When all the conventional treatments have failed for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can offer these patients a chance to survive. We report here on a case of successful treatment with prolonged ECMO support for a patient with severe ARDS. A 41-year-old female patient with acute A-viral hepatitis developed pneumonia and progressive ARDS. After tracheostomy, her clinical condition deteriorated despite proper antibiotic administration and other conventional treatments, including the recruitment maneuver and steroid use. Venoarterial ECMO was given for the management of refractory hypoxemia that developed 14 days after the initiation of mechanical ventilation. The duration of ECMO support was 4 weeks, and she was successfully weaned off ECMO and mechanical ventilation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Severe Hypoxic
           Respiratory Failure: A Case Report

    • Abstract: We describe here the first known case in Korea of pulmonary involvement with peripheral T cell lymphoma and the patient presented with severe hypoxic respiratory failure. A 57-yr-old man was admitted to our hospital with rapid progression of dyspnea and bilateral diffuse infiltration on a chest radiograph. He received mechanical ventilation and low dose corticosteroid treatment under the suspicion of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency.Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed large atypical lymphoid cells with positivity for CD3+. We diagnosed this patient as having a peripheral T cell lymphoma and we treated him with high dose corticosteroid. His clinical and radiologic findings rapidly improved and then he received a full dose of chemotherapy for the peripheral T cell lymphoma.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Bronchospasm during Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery in a Patient with a
           Mosaic Attenuation ...

    • Abstract: Severe bronchospasm during cardiac surgery is an uncommon, but serious problem. A 52-year-old woman with a mosaic attenuation pattern on the whole lung field was scheduled for repair of an atrial septal defect under minimally invasive cardiac surgery. Bronchospasm developed intraoperatively, but the underlying ventilatory impairment, poor performance of one-lung ventilation and initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass delayed diagnosing and treating the bronchospasm. The bronchospasm induced severe pulmonary edema that required postoperative ventilatory care.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Care of a Jehovah's Witness with Life-threatening Anemia Refusing
           Ventilator Care: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Jehovah's Witnesses refuse the transfusion of blood and blood products, even when it can be lifesaving. Their religious conviction against receiving blood can create a difficult clinical dilemma, particularly in the life threatening situations. We report a case of a 42-year-old female Jehovah's Witness patient who had life-threatening anemia after postpartum hemorrhage. Despite severe anemia, she had a good postoperative recovery without complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Antioxidants in Sepsis

    • Abstract: Oxidant byproducts, such as superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide are produced as a consequence of normal aerobic metabolism. Because they are highly reactive with other biologic molecules, such as protein, DNA, and lipids, they are called as reactive oxygen species (ROS).Fortunately, our body is equipped with numerous potent endogenous antioxidants. Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the biologic scavenger system, antioxidants. Oxidative-induced damage has been considered to be one of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to multiple organ failure in sepsis. Both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants have been widely tested in human and animals with sepsis. However, the disappointing results of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is the most extensively tested antioxidant may reflect the inability to reestablish a redox balance in the setting of sepsis in patients. Still, three antioxidants demonstrated clinical benefits and reached level A evidence; selenium improves clinical outcome (infections, organ failure); glutamine reduces infectious complication in large-sized trials; and omega-3-fatty acids have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Other antioxidants are still on the clinical benchmark level, awaiting well-designed clinical trial.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Efficacy of Early Goal-directed Therapy in Septic Shock Patients in
           the Emergency ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) has been used for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department (ED). In 2003, international management guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock were developed under the auspices of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC); however, EGDT based on the SSC was not fully evaluated in the ED. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EGDT based on the SSC in the ED in Korea.METHODS: We randomly assigned patients who arrived at our ED in septic shock to receive EGDT before admission to the intensive care unit between May 2007 and July 2007, and we retrospectively assigned patients in septic shock to receive standard therapy between May 2006 and July 2006. The in-hospital mortality for 24 hours and 28 days, the MODS, SAPS II, and APACHE II scores were obtained and compared between the study groups.RESULTS: Of the 60 enrolled patients, 30 were assigned to EGDT and 30 were assigned to standard therapy. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the baseline characteristics. In-hospital mortality at 28 days was 13% in the group assigned to EGDT as compared to 40% in the group assigned to standard therapy (p = 0.020) and in-hospital mortality at 24 hours was 0% and 13%, respectively (p = 0.038).CONCLUSIONS: EGDT provides significant benefits with respect to outcome in patients in septic shock.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Admission Time to the Medical Intensive Care Unit on Acute
           Critical Patient Outcomes

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The initial management of acute critical patients is important. However, not all hospital facilities and staff are available during off-duty time. We determined the effects of intensive care unit (ICU) admission time on patient outcomes.METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a 28-bed medical ICU in 1 tertiary university hospital.Patients who were admitted between 1 March 2009 and 31 August 2009 were divided according to the time of admission into the "duty time group" (9 AM-5 PM on weekdays) and the "off-duty time group" (5 PM-9 AM on weekdays and at any time on weekends). The baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between these two groups. The primary endpoint of this study was hospital mortality; the secondary endpoints were ICU mortality and length of ICU stay, hospital length of stay, and mechanical ventilation time.RESULTS: Two hundred eight (64.8%) of 321 enrolled patients were admitted during off-duty time. The baseline characteristics between the 2 groups were not significantly different. Hospital mortality was 37 (32.7%) in the "duty time group" and 82 (38.4%) in the "off-duty time group" (p = 0.237). There were no significant differences in secondary endpoints between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: Off-duty time admission to the ICU had no effect on hospital and ICU mortality, length of hospital and ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation time compared to duty time admission.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Emergency Department Treatment Time on Outcomes in Acute
           Stroke Patients

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Stroke is a disease that leads to a long period of disability and death. Accordingly, the initial treatment is so influential on the prognosis of a patient that shortening the time to initial treatment after hospital admission has a very important role in the entire treatment regimen. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of the Emergency Department treatment time at Bundang CHA Hospital for acute stroke patients to improve the treatment regimen through six sigma activities.METHODS: The outcomes for 246 patients with suspected acute strokes who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Bundang CHA Hospital, the flow of the emergency department process divided into 11 phases, and the duration of each phase were determined. Patients were classified as before and after six sigma activities and compared.RESULTS: The five phases statistically demonstrated the effect of meaningful improvement in the duration of visit-receiving CT prescriptions, visit-receiving lab prescriptions, consult request-arriving to the emergency department, visit-CT angiography results, and visit-the issue of hospital admissions. In the next 2 phases, the sigma level also improved by 0.71sigma and 0.06sigma.However, the total emergency department stay time was not statistically meaningful. The time required time was increased and the sigma level was decreased by 0.19sigma.CONCLUSIONS: The result of six sigma activities showed the effect of the treatment system improvement with a partial decrease in the duration of each phase, but the total emergency department stay time was not improved owing to environmental factors. For better results, continuous improvement of the treatment system and expansion of hospital facilities will be required.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Epidemiological Characteristics Based on the Underlying Diseases for the
           Deaths Related to ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Since May 2009, a pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has emerged and spread nationwide. We describe the epidemiological characteristics of the confirmed deaths related with the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in Korea from May 2009 to mid December 2009.METHODS: This study was based on an analysis of the reports from the deaths of confirmed cases pandemic H1N1 virus until 7 December 2009 in Korea. These reports were compiled by the epidemic intelligence team at the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) or at the provinces. The epidemic intelligence team used an identical, well-defined investigate form for reviewing the medical records and for interviewing the physicians in charge of the cases.RESULTS: The first confirmed death occurred on August 15, 2009. Until December 7, 2009, 139 deaths had been reported.Eighty cases (57.6%) were individuals more than 60 years old. Sixty two cases (47.0%) were dead within 7 days from the onset of symptoms. One hundred three cases (74%) had underlying diseases, and cancer was the most common underlying disease. The proportion of patients using antivial medications before confirmation among the patients with underlying diseases was greater than the proportion of patients using antivial medications among the patients with no underlying diseases.CONCLUSIONS: During the evaluation period, serious underlying diseases were present in nearly three quarters of the cases of confirmed death. We suggest that health providers consider using antiviral drugs before confirmation of pandemic H1N1 in hospitalized patients, and especially in those with underlying diseases.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Heart Transplantation after Dobutamine,
           Glucose-insulin-potassium, and Hormone ...

    • Abstract: The major limitation to heart transplantation is the shortage of donor organs. In order to increase the cardiac donor pool, it is important to maintain stable hemodynamics and closely monitor cardiac function in cadaveric organ donors or potent donors. Recently, management of a potential cardiac donor pool has focused on aggressive hemodynamic management protocols and dobutamine stress echocardiography.In our case, management with low dose dobutamine, glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK), and hormone therapy reversed heart failure following brain death and the heart was successfully transplanted. We suggest that aggressive hemodynamic management with low-dose dobutamine, GIK, and hormone therapy can result in the recruitment of more cadaveric hearts in marginal conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Mechanisms of Muscle Wasting in Patients with Sepsis

    • Abstract: Muscle wasting is commonly seen in patients with sepsis as a consequence of the catabolic response in skeletal muscle.Muscle wasting can occur in cases that have an imbalance between degradation and synthesis of muscle proteins.Although decrements in the synthesis of muscle proteins may contribute to sepsis-induced muscle wasting, it has been recognized that increments in its degradation play a more essential role in muscle wasting. Muscle wasting in sepsis patients has some significant clinical consequences such as reduced ambulation and exercise tolerance, and an increased risk for pulmonary and thromboembolic complications. Several mechanisms have been proposed for sepsis-induced muscle wasting. Increased proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the calpains system is one of the principal mechanisms of muscle wasting induced by sepsis. Calpains are activated by calcium, which increases in patients with sepsis. The activation of the calpains system disrupts the sarcomere of the myofibrils, resulting in the release of myofilaments that are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome complex. Recent studies have suggested that transcriptional factors such as NF-kappaB and FoxO, and the apoptosis and autophagy-lysosome pathways may also be involved in sepsis-induced muscle wasting. This review briefly summarizes the contribution of these mechanisms of muscle wasting in patients with sepsis and the possible therapeutic agents to treat it.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Neurogenic-stunned Myocardium and Pulmonary Edema Following a Ruptured
           Cerebral Aneurysm: A ...

    • Abstract: We report a case of neurogenic cardiopulmonary instability with pulmonary edema occurring after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient's pre-operative Glasgow coma scale score was 6 and the PA chest radiograph showed increased diffuse haziness in the right lung field. The patient presented with severe hypotension and low oxygen saturation during surgery. Cardiac damage was documented by increased CK-MB troponin-T levels, and ischemic ECG findings. Reversible cardiac failure associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage may be due to a neurogenic-stunned myocardium. The patient underwent clipping of the aneurysm and recovered with minimal neurologic impairment and normal cardiac function.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema and Hemorrhage after Extubation: A Case

    • Abstract: Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a rare complication of acute airway obstruction which develops after endotracheal extubation. The proposed mechanism is generation of very low negative pressure during laryngospasm by inspiratory efforts, which leads to alveolar exudation and hemorrhage. The diagnosis of NPPE is confirmed by clinical findings of tachypnea, pink prothy sputum in the endotracheal tube, hypoxemia on arterial blood gas analysis, and distinctive radiologic findings. NPPE is usually self-limited within 48 hours when diagnosed early and treated appropriately. We report three patients who recovered from NPPE without complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Management of Brain Injury after Post-cardiac Arrest Syndrome

    • Abstract: In spite of improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques, post-CPR mortality and brain injury rates have not changed significantly. The post-cardiac arrest syndrome has been suggested to be the major reason for the high mortality rate after CPR. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome, including brain injury, myocardial dysfunction, and septic shock-like syndrome after CPR, result in complicated multiple organ failure. Physicians who work in the ICU should have a good understanding of thepathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Recently, therapeutic hypothermia treatment for protection of brain injuries has been applied as a therapeutic regimen in spite of various side effects during the hypothermic procedure. Finally, therapeutic hypothermic treatment to reduce brain injury in post-cardiac arrest syndrome patients is strongly recommended to physiciansmanaging CPR. I would like to briefly review the therapeutic hypothermic procedure for the management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Dilutional Hyponatremia during Hysteroscopic Myomectomy: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Hysteroscopy is utilized for making the diagnosis and treating a series of uterine disease. It's advantages are more accurate removal of lesion, a short operating time, low morbidity and rapid postoperative recovery. However, serious complications can happen following hysteroscopic surgery.The complications can be divided into the procedure-related, media-related and postoperative events. The procedure-related complications include cervical laceration, uterine perforation, bowel and bladder injury, and hemorrhage. The media-related complications include hyponatremia, gas embolism and excessive fluid absorption.The postoperative events include endometritis and postoperative synechiae. We experienced hyponatermia with pulmonary edema due to excessive fuid absorption in a 52-year-old woman who underwent elective hysteroscopic myomectomy under general anesthesia. She was treated with oxygen therapy, normal saline and furosemide and she recovered without sequelae.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Atelectasis of Dependent Lungs during Fistula Closure in a Patient with
           Tracheopleural Fistula: ...

    • Abstract: Atelectasis is a fairly common complication in patients undergoing general anesthesia. However, atelectasis caused secretion plugs in patients with tracheopleural fistula is less common than other airway fistulas such as trachea and bronchus. Anesthesiologists should make every effort for thorough preoperative preparation to prevent atelectasis and using appropriate and aggressive treatment, including tracheal or bronchial clearing and end expiratory positive pressure. We report a case of an intraoperative occurrence of atelectasis of the lower lobe of a dependent lung in a patient with a tracheopleural fistula during single lung ventilation for primary closure.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Study on Estimating the Blood Pressure by Using the Pulse Wave Transit
           Time in Shock Patients ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blood pressure is clinically used for monitoring shock patients and as a therapeutic indicator for them.Non-invasive blood pressure measurement has weak points such as the use of a cuff and it is a discontinuous measurement.A method of measuring the blood pressure by using the PWTT (pulse wave transit time) has been studied to make up for those weak points. If blood pressure monitoring can be done by using the difference of the PWTT between different points in the body, then this method will be a quite useful to monitor the BP of seriously ill patients. This study aimed to verify whether or not the PWTT has a significant correlation with the blood pressure of shock patients who received vasopressor infusion and whether this method is clinically applicable.METHODS: The study subjects were 20 shock patients who were hospitalized in intensive care units and they had received vasopressor, and we measured the PWTT and we analyzed its correlation with the SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure), as measured by non-invasive monitoring. We then determined the effects of the PWTT on the SBP and DBP.RESULTS: From the results of correlation analysis between the PWTT and the SBP and DBP, the SBP displayed a statistically significant negative correlation with the PWTT of 18 patients, while no significant correlation between the PWTT and DBP was observed. At the same time, from the results of the regression analysis of the blood pressures and the PWTT of each patient, it was found that the PWTT had a negative effect on the SBP of all the patients, except two.CONCLUSIONS: The PWTT has a negative correlation with the SBP of the patients who received vasopressor infusion.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Cardiac Arrest after Aortic Cross Clamping during Surgery for an Abdominal
           Aortic Aneurysm in a ...

    • Abstract: Patients with chronic aortic regurgitation have a hemodynamically fragile equilibrium; increased afterload during infrarenal aortic cross-clamping and acute decompensation. The tolerance of patients with severe coronary artery disease to the stress of infrarenal aortic cross-clamping differs from patients without overt coronary artery disease. Therefore, careful anesthetic management is needed during infrarenal aortic cross-clamping in patients with aortic regurgitation and coronary artery disease. We describe the anesthetic management of a man with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm that underwent cardiac arrest after aortic-cross clamping for aortoiliac bypass surgery.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Subspecialty Certification for Critical Care Medicine in Korea

    • Abstract: The Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine (KSCCM) has introduced the Subspecialty System for Critical Care Medicine in Korea under the auspices of the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS) in March 2008. Nine medical societies that included the Korean Association of Internal Medicine, the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, the Korean Society of Anesthesiology, the Korean Neurological Association, the Korean Neurosurgical Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine, the Korean Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and the Korean Pediatric Society participated to the new critical care subspecialty. The Board of Critical Care should be certified again every 5 year after achieving the required qualification by the KSCCM. This paper summarizes the Subspecialty Certification System for Critical Care Medicine in Korea.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of the Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor on Acute Lung Injury after
           Pulmonary Resection for ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the leading causes of death after lungresection. Neutrophil elastase is thought to be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of ALI. Sivelestat is a new neutrophil elastase inhibitor which may improve the outcome in patients with ALI/ARDS after lung resection. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not sivelestat can reduce mortality in patients with ALI after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.METHODS: This study was a retrospective case-control study of twenty three patients who developed ALI/ARDS within seven days of lung resection for lung cancer. The control group (n = 12) received standard care, while the sivelestat group (n = 11) received a continuous infusion of sivelestat (0.2 mg/kg/hr) for seven days in addition to standard care.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics between the control and sivelestat groups, except for heart rate. Six of twelve patients (50%) in the control group survived, while seven of twelve patients (64%) survived in the sivelestat group (p = 0.34). There was also no significant difference between the two groups in the progression to ARDS. In the sivelelestat group, survivors had lower APACHE II and SOFA scores than the patients in the control group.CONCLUSIONS: There was no additional effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor in the treatment of ALI after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Analysis of Nutritional Support Status in the Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nutritional support is important in intensive care for critically ill patients in an effort to decrease the mortality and morbidity. This study was conducted to evaluate the propriety of nutritional support and to understand the effect of a nutrition consultationin critically ill patients to assess and analyze nutritional status.METHODS: Between January and December 2006, patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)> or = 7 days and between 20 and 80 years of age were included. Patients transferred to another hospital, patients discharged against medicine advice, and patients with unknown weight were excluded. Two hundred sixty-two patients were enrolled. The demographic data of patients and the state of nutritional support were reviewed by medical records.RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-two patients stayed in the ICU a mean of 16.0 +/- 9.8 days and received nutrition support for 11.0 +/- 8.4 days. Except 15 patients who did not receivenutritional support, the mean daily calculated caloric requirement of 247 patients was 1,406.2 +/- 253.8 kcal, the mean daily delivered caloric amount was 899.5 +/- 338.7 kcal, and the total delivered/required caloric ratio was 66.4 +/- 28.1%. The total delivered/required caloric ratio of the patients who received a nutritional consultation and the patients who did not receive nutritional consultation were 72.6 +/- 25.8% and 55.9 +/- 33.3%.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified that critically ill patients received insufficient nutritional support. We recommend continuous monitoring and management for nutritional support by systematic administration of nutritional support teams.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Usefulness of Lactate Clearance Adjusted to Time as a Predictive Index
           in Patients with ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The lactate concentration should be used to examine the severity of sepsis or any state of shock. This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic power of the lactate clearance, as adjusted for time, between the survivors and nonsurvivors of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.METHODS: The study was performed on 67 patients over 16 years old and who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with severe sepsis or septic shock. They were divided into the survivors (n = 37) and nonsurvivors (n = 30). The blood lactate concentrations were assayed at intervals ranging from 8 to 24 hours and the APACHE III scoring was done daily for 2 weeks or until discharge or death. The lactate clearance, as adjusted for time, was defined using the following formula: [(the maximal lactate concentration - the normal lactate concentration)/the time to normalize the lactate concentration] x 1,000.RESULTS: There were no significant differences of age, gender and the length of the ICU stay between the survivors and non-survivors. There were significant difference of the time to measuring the maximal serum lactate concentration (3.2 +/- 12.3 hours vs. 28.8 +/- 64.6 hours, respectively; p = 0.037), the lactate clearance, as adjusted for time (132.27 +/- 112.88 mol/L . hour vs. 59.67 +/- 72.60 mol/L .hour, respectively; p = 0.002), the lactate clearance during 24 hours (46.0 +/- 26.3% vs. 22.6 +/- 45.6%, respectively; p = 0.018) and the APACHE III score (67.6 +/- 22.7 vs. 83.9 +/- 21.6, respectively; p = 0.005) between the survivors and non-survivors. The lactate clearance, as adjusted for time and the APACHE III score were the predictive factors for survival on the logistic regression analysis (odd ratio 0.987; p = 0.028 vs. odd ratio 1.046; p = 0.006).CONCLUSIONS: Lactate clearance, as adjusted for time, could be used as a prognostic index, as well as the APACHE III score, for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Severe Health-care Associated Pneumonia among the Solid Cancer Patients on

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: There are only inadequate studies on the characteristics of severe pneumonia in the patients who have solid cancer and who are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy and also on the usefulness of the various severity index scores.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy because of solid cancer and who were admitted to the medical ICU at Samsung Medical Center from April 2007 to August 2008.RESULTS: The median age of the 31 patients was 64 years old (34-79). The types of solid cancer were lung cancer (19, 61.3%), gastroesophageal cancer (4, 12.9%), breast cancer (2, 6.5%), liver cancer (1, 3.2%), ovarian cancer (1, 3.2%) and other types of cancer (4, 12.9%). The hospital mortality rate was 64.5%. We were able to determine the pathogen of 19 (61.3%) patients; S. pneumoniae (6), S. aureus (3), Candida species (3), P. aeruginosa (2), K. pneumoniae (1), Pneumocystis jiroveci (1) and others (3). There were no statistically differences of the laboratory data and severity index scores (PSI, CURB-65, APACHE II, SOFA, SAPS 3) between the survivors and nonsurvivors, except the P/F ratio.CONCLUSIONS: The hospital mortality rate of severe pneumonia in patients who had solid cancer and who received cytotoxic chemotherapy was high. The major pathogen was S. pneumoniae.The severity indexes for general pneumonia were not useful to these patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Multicenter Prospective Observational Study about the Usage Patterns of
           Sedatives, Analgesics ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To investigate the usage patterns of sedatives, analgesics and neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in patients requiring mechanical ventilation more than 72 hours in intensive care units (ICUs) of Korea.METHODS: A total of 536 patients continuing mechanical ventilation more than 72 hours had been enrolled among the twenty-one ICUs of Korea from May 2003 to July 2003. Data about mechanical ventilation, the use of sedatives, analgesics, and NMBAs were prospectively collected for four weeks. We analyzed the patterns of using these drugs and effects on outcomes.RESULTS: More than half of the patients (50.4%) received sedative drug alone. Most commonly used sedatives and analgesics were midazolam and morphine. NMBAs were administered in 41% of the patients. Volume controlled ventilation mode was associated with more frequent use of NMBAs. There were no significant differences in outcome variables among the usage patterns of sedatives, analgesics and NMBAs.CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation shows that analgesics were much less frequently used in the intensive care units of Korea compared with the use of sedatives. And the use of NMBAs were quite a common.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Induced after Postoperative ICU Care: Case

    • Abstract: 'Takotsubo cardiomyopathy' or 'stress-induced cardiomyopathy' is a newly described clinical entity that's characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning and left ventricular apical dyskinesis in the absence of any angiographic feature of significant coronary artery disease. The cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is unclear, but catecholamines probably play a role in the genesis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We report here on two cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy that occurred during ICU care.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Foot Necrosis Following Percutaneous Cannulation of the Dorsalis Pedis
           Artery: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Arterial canuulation is generally used to monitor blood pressure and sample blood for gas analysis. Radial and dorsalis pedis arteries are commonly used for arterial cannulation. It is a simple, safe, and uncomplicated procedure, but some complications have been reported, including bleeding, hematoma, infection, pseudoaneurysm, and thromboembolism. Although thromboembolism is not common, it could be serious because it can lead to digital ischemia and necrosis. We present a case of foot necrosis following dorsalis pedis artery cannulation in a 65-year-old patient who underwent small bowel resection.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Unexpected Intra-operative Pulmonary Thromboemolism during Elective
           Mastoidectomy: A Case Report

    • Abstract: We report on a 45-year-old patient who sustained an intra-operative pulmonary thromboembolism during elective mastoidectomy under general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, the patient developed hemodynamic compromise and exhibited T wave inversion on electrocardiogram.Echocardiography showed an echogenic mass in the right pulmonary artery and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary thromboembolism is rare in the field of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery; however, it may develop, resulting in a fatal outcome. It is thus important to establish the diagnosis early and prevent such serious complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Embolectomy of a Pulmonary Saddle Embolism Post-cesarean
           Section Complicated by ...

    • Abstract: A 41-year-old female underwent an uneventful cesarean section, which was followed by a pulmonary saddle embolism complicated by cardiac arrest. This case shows that successful embolectomy is possible, despite a potentially lethal pulmonary saddle embolism, 34 cm in length, and intra-operative cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report our case and discuss the anesthetic considerations based on the literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Onset of Malignant Hyperthermia: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially fatal genetic and metabolic myopathy that presents with high fever, and muscle rigidity, and it often occurs after administering anesthetic medication. Most cases of malignant hyperthermia occur during anesthesia or surgery, but delayed malignant hyperthermia is very rare, and if it is detected late, it has a high mortality rate. A 39-year-old male with an acute subdural hematoma underwent decompressive craniectomy without any intraoperative medical problems, but a high fever above 40degrees C occurred after 8 hours and he was dead in spite of aggressive management after 48 hours postoperatively. We present here a case of delayed malignant hyperthermia along with a review of the related literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Influence of Blood Glucose Level on Acid-Base Balance

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate whether blood glucose concentrations have a significant influence on acid-base balance.METHODS: We studied 157 adult patients who underwent intra-abdominal operations under general anesthesia.Postoperative blood samples were withdrawn from radial artery and blood glucose concentrations, gas values, and chemistry values were measured. All patients were divided into three groups according to the postoperative blood glucose level. The group 1 contained the patients who had postoperative blood glucose level lower than 126 mg/dl, the group 2, the patients with glucose level higher than 126 mg/dl, lower than 180 mg/dl, and the group 3, the patients with glucose level higher than 180 mg/dl.RESULTS: Metabolic acidosis rate was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1, group 2 and arterial blood pH was significantly lower in group 3 than that in group 1, group 2. Regression analysis showed that [H+] was correlated with blood glucose level. Strong ion difference (SID) was significantly lower in group 3 than group 1 and PaCO2 level was significantly lower in group 2 and group 3 than that in group 1. In regression analysis, there was a negative correlation between blood glucose concentration and SID.[H+] had a negative correlation with SID and PaCO2 was correlated with SID.CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that blood glucose level affects acid-base balance and a disturbance in SID is accompanied with respiratory compensation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Respiratory Failure from Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in an
           Immunocompetent Adult: A ...

    • Abstract: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has traditionally been known as a disease of an immunocompromised host. We report here on a case of an immunocompetent 73-year-old male who presented with dyspnea and he was finally diagnosed as suffering with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. He died from progressive respiratory failure and secondary bacterial sepsis despite of voriconazole treatment. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with atypical pneumonia that does not respond to the usual antibiotics therapy, and even if the patient does not have an obvious history of an immunosuppressive status. An early suspicion with prompt treatment is important to improve the patient outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Extreme Drug Resistant Acinetobacter Nosocomial Ventilator-Associated
           Pneumonia Treated ...

    • Abstract: Infections due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have become a challenging problem in intensive care units. Tigecycline is a derivative of minocyline, and has provided new hope for the treatment of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii infections. Because isolates showing reduced susceptibility to minocycline or tigecycline have emerged in many countries, empirical combination therapy has become common practice to treat patients infected with extreme drug-resistant A. baumannii.Herein we report a case of extreme drug-resistant A.baumannii infection successfully treated with tigecycline and amikacin.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Infectious Complications in the Survivors of Out-of-hospital Cardiac

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Infectious complications commonly occur in the survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to describe the incidence, associated factors and outcome of infectious complications of the survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 75 patients who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We collected the data on the demographics, the modes of cardiac arrest, the duration of CPR, the dose of epinephrine, the use of hypothermia, new infections, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), recovery of consciousness and the mortality.RESULTS: New infections developed in 46.7% of the patients.Asystole was the most common rhythm (70.7%). The most common infectious complication was pneumonia (40.0%) urinary tract infection developed in 10 cases, vascular catheter local infection developed in 6 cases, primary blood stream infection developed in 3 cases, wound infection developed in 2 cases and pseudomembranous colitis developed in 1 case.The most common pathogens of pneumonia were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Blood cultures were obtained in 36 patients during the first 24 hr and the pathogen was isolated in three. The patients with infection had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and a longer stay in the ICU (p < 0.001, p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Infectious complications are common in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and these infections are associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and a longer stay in the ICU. The most common infectious complication was pneumonia and the pathogens of pneumonia were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Severe Sepsis in Patients
           Who Were Admitted to a ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors of severe sepsis in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care hospital in Korea.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical chart of 249 patients who were admitted to a medical intensive care unit with severe sepsis.RESULTS: From January 2000 to December 2001, 3410 patients were admitted to the ICU. The prevalence of severe sepsis was 7.3%. The mortality of severe sepsis was 64.6%. The prognostic factors for severe sepsis were the number of organ systems that acutely failed (p = 0.036) and an admission route from general wards (p = 0.018). There was no difference in the outcome of severe sepsis according to infectious organisms (p = 0.24) and the site of infections (p = 0.38).CONCLUSIONS: Severe sepsis in the MICU is a common, expensive and often fatal condition. We expect that early rescucitation and recovery from acute organ system failure will improve the outcome of severe sepsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm Lasted for 5 Days after
           Reperfusion in a Patient ...

    • Abstract: A 56-year-old man presented with right coronary arterial spasm accompanied by ST segment elevation in the inferior leads. A reperfusion arrhythmia, accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR), developed 1 hour after a nitroglycerin infusion. The AIVR was sustained for 5 days without hemodynamic instability, and resolved spontaneously during hemodynamic monitoring in the coronary intensive care unit.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hemothorax in an Uncontrolled Anticoagulated Patient: Fight or
           Flight': A Case Report

    • Abstract: Hemothorax in a patient on anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation after blunt trauma is not an uncommon event.However, massive hemothorax in such a patient with an extremely uncontrolled and high international normalized ratio (INR) may pose a serious dilemma. We report a case of a patient under anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation who underwent an emergent thoracotomy for massive hemothorax with an INR of 9.57.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Mitral Regurgitation due to Recurrent Septal Rupture after Repair of a
           Postinfarction Posterior ...

    • Abstract: Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a serious complication following an acute myocardial infarction. We performed repair of a postinfarction posterior VSR; however, the patient developed mitral regurgitation (MR) 2 months later. Geometrical changes caused by ventricular remodeling and recurrent shuntare thought to be the cause of delayed MR.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Prognostic Utility of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS
           II) and the Sequential ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prognosis of hemato-oncology (HMO) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is poor and predicting the mortality is important for decision making at the time of ICU admission and for administering aggressive treatment.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 309 patients who were admitted to the medical ICU (MICU) at Samsung Medical Center from July in 2005 to June in 2006. We calculated their Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the time of ICU admission and we investigated the relationship between the two scoring systems and the hospital mortality.RESULTS: Among the 309 patients, the hospital mortality was 41.2%, and the mean SAPS II/SOFA score at ICU admission was 45.4 +/- 19.5/8.1 +/- 4.6. Seventy-nine (25.6%) patients had hemato-oncological diseases. Their hospital mortality was 65.8%, and the mean SAPS II/SOFA score at the time of ICU admission was 53.9 +/- 18.6/9.7 +/- 4.4, which was higher than that of the non-HMO patients (p = 0.00). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the SAPS II/SOFA score for predicting the mortality was 0.794 +/- 0.05/0.785 +/- 0.051 (p = 0.00/p = 0.00) for the HMO patients. There was no significant difference in discrimination ability between the two scoring systems (p> 0.05). None of the HMO patients with a SAPS II/SOFA score of 70/14 or higher survived.CONCLUSIONS: Both the SAPS II and SOFA scores at the time of ICU admission were similarly effective for predicting the hospital mortality. The two scoring systems could be useful tools for decision making at the time of ICU admission and for administering aggressive treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Topical Epinephrine-soaked Gauze-induced Ventricular Tachycardia during
           Skin Grafting: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Topical epinephrine is useful to reduce bleeding during skin grafting. However, even though a clear operative field is obtained, systemic absorption of topical epinephrine can occur and this may cause severe hypertension, arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia, myocardial ischemia, pulmonary edema, or cardiac arrest. We managed a case of cardiac arrhythmia during general anesthesia, which was induced by gauze soaked in topical epinephrine used for skin grafting of burn wounds. A 26-year-old woman developed premature ventricular complexes and ventricular tachycardia during surgery when epinephrine-soaked gauze was applied to the skin donor and burn wound sites to control oozing. The patient was resuscitated immediately and within 10 minutes the vital signs had normalized. It is recommended that caution is exercised when epinephrine-soaked gauze is applied to a large area of skin.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Hemodilution Treatment for Patient with Hemorrhagic Cerebral
           Venous Thrombosis ...

    • Abstract: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease that's associated with a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms, and CVT is a potentially lethal condition. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) as the cause of an adult case of CVT is very rare. We report here on a patient with CVT with intracerebral hemorrhage that was caused by IDA, and the patient was treated with hemodilution. We suggest that hemodilution should be considered as another therapeutic option for CVT with cerebral hemorrhage in a patient suffering with IDA.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Role of the Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Pathway in Acute Lung Injury

    • Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common, life-threatening cause of acute respiratory failure, which is ultimately caused by a variety of local and systemic insults. Alterations in the coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles are present in almost all the patients suffering with ALI. The classic histologic findings in ALI patients include alveolar fibrin formation and microthrombi in the pulmonary vasculature. Decreased circulating levels of protein C and increased concentrations of thrombomodulin are present in patients with septic and nonseptic ALI. The circulating and pulmonary concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are increased in the setting of ALI, and the degree of elevation in the PAI-1 level directly correlates with mortality. The need for new specific therapies has led a number of investigators to examine the role of altered coagulation and fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of ALI. This review summarizes the current understanding of coagulation and fibrinolysis in ALI with an emphasis on the pathways that could be potential therapeutic targets, including the tissue factor pathway, the protein C pathway and the modulation of fibrinolysis via plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Comparison of Adaptive Support Ventilation (ASV) and Conventional
           Volume-Controlled ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: ASV is a closed-loop ventilation system that guarantees a user-set minimum per-minute volume in intubated patients, whether paralyzed or with spontaneous breathing.Here, we tested the effects of ASV onrespiratory mechanics and compared them with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV).METHODS: Thirteen patients meeting the criteria for acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were enrolled. All patients were paralyzed to eliminate spontaneous breathing. We started with VCV (VCV1), then used ASV followed by VCV modes (VCV2), maintaining minute volume as much as that of VCV1.RESULTS: During ASV, compared with VCV1, the inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes and expiratory resistance increased. Conversely, the total respiratory rate and maximum pressure decreased. No changes in the arterial blood gases, heart rate, or mean systemic pressure were noted during the trial.CONCLUSIONS: In ALI/ARDS patients, although no differences were observed in the arterial blood gas analysis between the two modes, ASV provided better respiratory mechanics in terms of peak airway pressure and tidal volume than VCV.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Development of Assessment Tools for Performance and Leadership of a
           Cardiopulmonary ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The assessment tools for leadership and performance of resuscitation teams are have not been developed. We evaluated the checklists for resuscitation team performance and teamwork.METHODS: We developed two checklists for team dynamics (D1, D2) and two checklists for team performances (P1, P2). The videotaped mock resuscitation before and after a 2-hr Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) training were also evaluated by two emergency physicians and two nurses using the four checklists. The validity and agreement between assessors were determined. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach-alpha.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in scores by expert consensus and the checklist score. The average scores between different assessors were different except for the D1 and D2 between doctors. The Cronbach-alpha for internal consistency were within acceptable ranges in the checklists D2 and P2.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the D2 and P2 checklists are provisionally acceptable due to relatively high validity, agreement, and internal consistency. However, further research is needed to develop validated checklists for resuscitation teams.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Evaluating the Relationship between the Scoring Systems of Intensive Care
           Units (ICUs) and the ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postoperative mechanical ventilation in liver transplant patient has an important role for reducing respiratory complications and multi-organ failure in intensive care unit (ICU). Yet there are no specific indications for predicting the duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation. Thus, we evaluated the correlation between the duration of mechanical ventilation and scoring systems such as the Acute Physiology and Chronic health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and the risk index.METHODS: We retrospectively studied 183 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation and we divided them into three groups based on the duration of mechanical ventilation: Group 1: 12 hr. We analyzed the correlation coefficients among the duration of mechanical ventilation, the risk index, and the SOFA, APACHE II and MELD scores.RESULTS: The MELD and preoperative SOFA scores were significantly higher in group 3 (p = 0.003, p = 0.027). The MELD and SOFA scores were correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation for all the patients (correlation coefficient = 0.22, 0.20, p = 0.003, 0.007, respectively).Yet the APACHE II score shows no correlation.CONCLUSIONS: We found that the MELD and SOFA scores were correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation in liver transplant patients. Thus, these scoring systems may be useful to determine the duration of mechanical ventilation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Usefulness of a Triage Kit for Detecting Abused Drugs

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The recovery and outcome of intoxicated patients depends on the kind of drugs they took and the total time of their initial management. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a Triage drug kit for detecting abused drugs.METHODS: From 2003 Feb. to 2003 July, we studied the patients who visited the emergency department with suspicious drug intoxication. In this case, we used a Triage drug kit for 134 patients with drug intoxication or who were clinically suspected of taking illegal drugs, with 30 of the patients initially admitting the substance they had used.The kit is an immunoassay kit for qualitative testing drug metabolites in urine. To compare with those cases of the preceding year, we studied 104 patients with drug intoxication that was detected between February 2002 and July 2002.RESULTS: Overall, 60% of the 30 cases who did not know what substance they abused and tested positive for, and 33% of the 27 cases with suspected intoxication confirmed their substance abuse. The positive rate for benzodiazepine use was the highest (46.7%), and there were no positive results regarding amphetamine, methamphetamine or cocaine. An appropriate antidote was administered significantly more frequently in the group for which we used the kit.CONCLUSIONS: A Triage drug kit is probably useful for diagnosing acute drug intoxication and for identifying the causative substance. However, the time required to decide whether or not a patient should be admitted is not reduced.If the kit can detect the frequently abused drugs in Korea, it will be helpful for treating drug intoxicated patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Preliminary Study on the Effect of "Low-dose" Glucocorticoid
           Therapy for Patients ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The role of glucocorticoids for treating persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is matter of debate. In the previous studies, the side effects of moderate doses of glucocorticoids might have negated positive effects of glucocorticoids. This study aimed at determining the feasibility of administering "low-dose" glucocorticoid to treat the patients who suffer with persistent ARDS.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of twelve patients with ARDS of at least seven days' duration and who were treated with "low-dose" glucocorticoid (starting dose of 1 mg/kg) between June 2007 to December 2008. The patients were divided by whether or not they were successfully weaned from the ventilator after glucocorticoid therapy. The baseline characteristics and physiologic parameters were recorded for up to 7 days after starting glucocorticoid therapy.RESULTS: Five patients (42%) were included in the weaned group. There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics and the physiologic parameters between the two groups on the day of ARDS. Yet the weaned group had a significantly lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, as compared to that of the failed group [3 (3-6) vs 8 (5-12), p = 0.009)] at start of glucocorticoid treatment. After 3 days of glucocorticoid therapy, there was significant improvement in the PEEP, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio, the PCO2, the SOFA score and the Murray Lung Injury Score of the weaned group, as compared to that of the failed group.There were no major neuromuscular side effects from the therapy.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the "low-dose" glucocorticoid therapy is feasible and that the SOFA score and the physiologic parameters may assist in determining whether or not to initiate and to continue glucocorticoid therapy for the patients who are suffering with persistent ARDS.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Two Cases of Postintubation Tracheoesophageal Fistula in Patients with a
           History of ...

    • Abstract: Common causes of acquired tracheoesophageal (T-E) fistula are blunt trauma on the neck or chest, malignancy, long-term mechanical ventilation, and post-intubation injury. Most of the cases are fatal due to severe respiratory infection. We experienced two cases of post-intubation T-E fistula in patients with a history of tracheostomy that developed earlier than usual. One case was caused by excessive cuff pressure and the other by avulsion injury during endotracheal intubation. We can get instructions from these cases that how to prevent T-E fistula because it is hard to treat and causes severe outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Dantrolene and Post-operative Hyperthermia: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Malignant hyperthermia is a rare, fatal pharmacogenetic disorder that occurs during general anesthesia following exposure to a depolarizing muscle relaxant, such as succinylcholine, or volatile anesthetics. Clinical findings in malignant hyperthermia include muscle rigidity, sinus tachycardia, increased CO2 production, skin cyanosis with mottling, and marked hyperthermia. For treatment, cooling techniques must be accompanied by discontinuation of the provocative medication. Furthermore, dantrolene administration is the mainstay of treatment for malignant hyperthermia, and should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis is suspected. We recently experienced a case with post-operative fever of 41.0degrees C refractory to conventional anti-pyretic measures and finally resolved with dantrolene administration, in a patient with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus monoarthritis of the knee and rapid progression of diffuse septic pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Valproic Acid Overdose Treated with Continuous Veno-Venous
           Hemodiafiltration: A Case ...

    • Abstract: Valproic acid intoxication is a fairly common clinical problem that can result in serious complications.Traditionally the treatment of valproic acid overdose has been limited to supportive measures, but high blood levels may require extracorporeal removal, and publications on this experience are scarce. This case demonstrated continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration successfully used in patient with severe valproic acid overdose who was hemodynamically unstable.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Pharmacotherapy of the Failing Heart and Shock

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Mental Change, Cardiovascular Depression and QT Prolongation Caused by
           Severe Hypermagnesemia: ...

    • Abstract: A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of mental change and general weakness accompanied by an irregular and weak pulse. She had previously been diagnosed with Bartter's syndrome and had taken potassium-sparing diuretics. She had developed constipation that had led to abdominal pain and had taken excessive magnesium oxide over a long time. On admission, she was lethargic. Her blood pressure (BP) was 130/74 mmHg, with a heart rate varying from 30 to 78 beats/min. An electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed several abnormalities, including first degree AV block, QT prolongation, sinus pause with a junctional rhythm, and paroxysmal tachycardia alternating with sinus pause. Her serum concentration of magnesium was markedly elevated to 16.19 mg/dl. Hemodialysis and a calcium gluconate infusion was attempted to reduce magnesium levels and to counteract the cardiovascular effect of magnesium. As magnesium levels declined, her general medical condition improved and her ECG changes were normalized. Severe hypermagnesemia should be suspected as the cause of mental change, cardiovascular dysfunction, and variable ECG changes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Occurring in a Patient with Aspiration
           Pneumonia: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Wernicke's encephalopathy is a neurologic complication of thiamine deficiency, presenting with acute confusion, oculomotor dysfunction, and gait ataxia. While most often associated with chronic alcoholism, Wernicke's encephalopathy occasionally occurs in the setting of poor nutritional status, such as malabsorption, increased metabolic requirements, or increased loss of the water-soluble vitamins. Patients with critical illnesses can present with excessive catabolic status because of activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition, inappropriate nutritional evaluation and lack of concerns for adequate nutrient support can increase the morbidity and mortality in such patients. However, the importance of adequate nutritional support is often disregarded during treatment of the patient's primary illness. We have recently managed a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy and pneumonia who did not receive adequate nutritional support during hospitalization. We report this case to call attention to the importance of nutritional support in critically ill patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Management of Pulmonary Thromboembolism with Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: We managed a case in which an inferior vena cava filter was inserted for a pulmonary thromboembolism that occurred during general anesthesia. A 71-year-old woman was prepped for reduction of a distal femur fracture and arthroplastic surgery. Her initial vital signs were stable, but the end-tidal CO2 and SaO2 were decreased gradually after application of the tourniquet for surgery. Because of impaired ventricular wall motion and a dilated inferior vena cava on echocardiogram, we suspected a pulmonary thromboembolism. Thus, we inserted an inferior vena cava filter percutaneously under propofol sedation in the Radiology Department. In addition to ventilatory support and hemodynamic management, heparin was administered as anticoagulant therapy postoperatively in the intensive care unit. Multiple thrombi in the pulmonary artery were confirmed on chest CT. On the 4th postoperative day, she was transferred to the general ward without any complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Perioperative Management for the Patient with May-Thurner Syndrome: A Case

    • Abstract: May-Thurner syndrome is an anatomic variant in which the left common iliac vein is compressed by the right common iliac artery. The most frequent clinical presentation is deep vein thrombosis of the left lower extremity. We report the perioperative management in a patient with May-Thurner syndrome undergoing an open reduction of a tibia fracture.The patient developed deep vein thrombosis of the left lower extremity and had an endovascular stent placed approximately 1 year earlier. An important aspect of the perioperative management in a patient with May-Thurner syndrome is to prevent deep vein thrombosis. We monitored the activated clotting time during the intraoperative period.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Causes of Fever in the ICU - A Prospective, Cohort Study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fever develops in 70% of ICU patients. In the present study, we tried to figure out causes of fever and the prognosis of febrile patients in the ICU in a prospective, cohort method.METHODS: From February to June 2007, patients admitted to medical ICU were daily screened and those who developed fever were enrolled. 237 consecutive admissions of 237 patients over a 5-month period were analyzed. Clinical parameters, including demographic data, underlying diseases, duration of ICU stay, causes of fever and final outcome were analyzed.RESULTS: Fever (core temperature> or =38.3degrees C) was present in 8% of admission, and it was caused by infective (84.2%) and non-infective processes (15.8%). Most fever occurred within first 5 days in the course of the admission (68.4%) and most lasted less than 5 days (57.9%). The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score at the time of fever was 43 (+/-19). Those with infectious fever had no significant differences in terms of severity of diseases in comparison with those with non-infectious cause of fever. The most common cause of infective fever was pneumonia (n=11). Prolonged fever (> or =5 days), all of which was caused by infection, occurred in 11 patients. Those with prolonged fever had higher mortality rate than short duration of fever (37.5% vs 0%, p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Retrospective Analysis of the Postoperative Patients Admitted to General
           Surgical-Medical ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to examine the purpose of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and the prevalence of disease in postoperative patients admitted to general surgical-medical ICU.METHODS: Between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2007, 646 cases of 612 patients admitted to a general postoperative patients admitted to general surgical-medical ICU were examined. The patients were classified into two groups, ICU treatment and ICU monitoring groups according to Knaus' suggestion which defines the kinds of treatment done exclusively in ICU. Patients' demographics, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA) grade, prevalence of disease and emergent operation rate were analyzed.RESULTS: 255 patients (39.5%) were included in the ICU treatment group and 391 cases (60.5%) in the ICU monitoring group. The prevalence of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous diseases was higher significantly in the ICU treatment group. In addition, the average of ASA grade and the duration of operation were higher significantly in the ICU treatment group.CONCLUSION: Admission rate only for monitoring was higher than one for intensive treatment. An alternative strategy should be considered to care for postoperative patients who need just close monitoring.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Change of Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Microorganism Cultured in
           Tracheal Aspirate in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To reduce production of resistant bacteria by over-use of antibiotics, an antibiotics restriction policy became effective in several hospitals. However, there are different views on its effect. This study aims to examine antibiotic resistance of pathogenic organisms cultured in tracheal aspirates of the patients who need to maintain mechanical ventilation in medical intensive care unit before and after the antibiotics restriction policy.METHODS: Before and after 2 years from August 2003, when carried out the antibiotics restriction policy in Gyeongsang university hospital, it was retrospectively investigated the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria cultured in tracheal aspirates of the patient who is maintained by mechanical ventilation more than 48 hours in the medical intensive care unit. Restricted antibiotics are ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, vancomycin, and teicoplanin.RESULTS: Before the antibiotics restriction policy, (Sep 2001~Aug 2003) and after, (Sep 2003~Aug 2005), there were 306 and 565 patients applied in each case and the total use of antibiotics, except piperacillin/tazobactam, was reduced and that of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone was increased. There was no significant change in antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter species.CONCLUSION: The result of this study shows that the antibiotics restriction policy does not reduce production of antibiotic resistant bacteria in tracheal aspirate in a medical intensive care unit. However, it is considered that long-term observation may be necessary.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hormonal Changes of the Brain-Dead Organ Donors: A 3-Year Experience

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Success of transplantation is critically dependent upon the quality of the donor organ and optimal management. Recently, hormonal replacement therapy has been reported to result in rapid recovery of cardiac function and enable significantly more organs to be transplanted, while some other studies show conflicting results. The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate changes in basal circulating hormonal levels of the brain-dead organ donors.METHODS: We reviewed the records of all brain-dead patients between January, 2004, and June, 2007. Hemodynamic variables, plasma hormone levels were recorded at following time points: admission to the ICU (T1, baseline), 30 minutes (min) after first apnea test (T2), 30 min after second apnea test (T3), before operation for harvesting (T4). Hormonal measurements included cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and testosterone.RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included in this study.Comparisons of hemodynamic parameters and hormonal levels to baseline values revealed no significant changes throughout the study period. When the patients were divided into 2 groups according to the requirement of norepinephrine (either>0.05 or < or =0.05microgram/kg/min), patients requiring>0.05microgram/kg/min of norepinephrine had T(3) level below the normal range at significantly more time points of measurement (7 vs. 0).CONCLUSION: In this comprehensive assessment of hormonal levels in brain-dead organ donors, we could not observe any significant changes during the ICU stay. Replacement therapy of T(3) may be considered in patients requiring>0.05microgram/kg/min of norepinephrine.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Anesthetic and Postoperative Intensive Care for Patient with Systemic
           Lupus Erythematosis and ...

    • Abstract: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis despite of prolongation of coagulation profile in laboratory findings and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibody. It occurs primarily or secondarily to autoimmune disease. This case report concerns a pelviscopic left ovarian cystectomy in a 32-year-old female with APS and systemic lupus erythematosis. To manage the hypercoagulability, oral warfarin and low molecular weight haparin were given pre- and postoperatively. In perioperative period, we monitored activated clotting time to prevent intraoperative thrombosis and tried to avoid dehydration, hypothermia and infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Reversal of Focal Neurologic Deficit due to Preoperative Intracranial
           Pressure Reduction in a ...

    • Abstract: In the first hours after initial hemorrhage, up to 15% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysmal rupture may have a sudden episode of clinical deterioration resulting from rebleeding. In patients suffering from an aneurismal rebleeding, the prognosis becomes much poor. Early detection of rebleeding and preoperatively appropriate medical treatment for increased intracranial pressure (IICP) might be crucial to decrease the overall mortality and morbidity rate in a patient with aneurismal rebleeding. We report a case of a successful reversal of focal neurological deficit showed in a patient with abrupt rebleeding of ruptured aneurysm whose intracranial pressure was preoperatively reduced with hyperventilation, and thiopental and mannitol administration under general anesthesia in angiography suite, although the patient ended up in death due to postoperative IICP.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Variations in Pulse Oximetry Plethysmographic Waveform Amplitude and
           Hemodynamic Assessment ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In hemodynamically unstable patients with spontaneous breathing activity, predicting volume responsivenss is a difficult challenge. Our objective was to test whether the respiratory changes in pulse oxymetry plethysmographic waveform amplitude (POP) and in stroke volume (deltaSV) could predict fluid responsiveness to passive leg raising (PLR) in normal volunteers.METHODS: We investigated 25 normal volunteers. We assessed hemodynamic status (HR, SBP, MAP, CI and SVI) and calculated the respiratory variation in pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveform amplitude at supine and after PLR. We attached a pulse oximeter of 25 spontaneously breathing volunteers as several time points: after 1 min and 5 min in supine position and during PLR at 60degrees. Heart rate, non-invasive blood pressures (mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure), maximal POP (POPmax), minimal POP (POPmin) and deltaPOP defined as (POPmax-POPmin)/[(POPmax+POPmin)/2] were recorded using monitor.RESULTS: Comparing to supine and PLR, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were not different, but the change in cardiac index, stroke volume and respiratory variation in POP were significant different. In response group (> or =10% in deltaCI), the change in cardiac index, stroke volume and respiratory variation in POP were significant greater.CONCLUSION: PLR induces a significant decrement of variation in POP amplitude among spontaneouely breathing volunteers.We suppose that the changes in stroke volume and the respiratory variation in pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveform amplitude induced by PLR predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneous breathing patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Evaluating and Managing Hyponatremia

    • Abstract: Although hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder, its evaluation and management are not well defined. When diagnosed, hyponatremia should be categorized based on four criteria: volume status, urinary Na+, serum K+, and acid-base balance. This approach helps to determine what the cause of hyponatremia is and how it should be treated.Initially, hypovolemic hyponatremia, including cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS), is treated by volume resuscitation and salt supplementation. Euvolemic hyponatremia, including the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), is treated by fluid restriction and salt supplementation, and hypervolemic hyponatremia is treated by fluid restriction and salt restriction. Hyponatremia can be managed well using these primary treatments and medications.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Does Adding Somatostatin to Proton Pump Inhibitor Improve the Outcome of
           Peptic Ulcer Bleeding'

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Somatostatin has been shown to offer a distinct advantage over antisecretory drugs in the management of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). However, rebleeding rates are still high in spite of endoscopic and medical treatment. In this study, we intended to determine whether combined therapy of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) plus somatostatin is more beneficial than a PPI alone in patients with PUB.METHODS: We enrolled 90 consecutive patients who presented with PUB between January 2006 and October 2007. All the patients were managed with endoscopic hemostasis and divided into two treatment groups: 1) PPI alone (group A) and 2) PPI plus somatostatin (group B). The primary outcome was rebleeding within 72 hours. The secondary outcomes were rebleeding in 30 days, packed red blood cells (pRBC) transfused, length of hospital stay, need for surgery, and in-hospital mortality.RESULTS: Forty-five patients in the PPI group (A) and 45 patients in the PPI plus somatostatin group (B) were studied. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to clinical and endoscopic features at admission.After medical treatment, there was no difference between groups A and B in rebleeding at 72 hours (11% vs. 13%, p = NS), rebleeding in 30 days (13% vs. 16%, p = NS), pRBC transfused (mean, 3.2 vs. 4.5 units, p = NS), length of hospital stay (mean, 7.4 vs. 8.4 days, p = NS), and in-hospital mortality (2% vs. 7%, p = NS).CONCLUSIONS: Combined therapy with PPI and somatostatin did not result in better outcomes than PPI alone.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effect of 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch Solution on Coagulation Function in
           Patients with Major Burns

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with major burns require replacement of intravascular volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions are widely used to replace intravascular volume. Dilution with crystalloids or colloids and corresponding platelet dysfunction are known causes of perioperative bleeding tendencies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of crystalloid and colloid solutions on platelet function in patients with major burns.METHODS: Forty patients scheduled for burn surgery were divided into 4 groups. The infusion was started with a Hartman solution infusion (group 1) from 7 A.M. until surgery. HES (6%, Voluven(R)) was infused in the following concentrations: 7 ml/kg (group 2), 10 ml/kg (group 3), and 15 ml/kg (group 4). The bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT), prothrombin time international ratio (PT INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet function analyzer-100 closing time (PFA CT), and platelet count (Plt) were measured.RESULTS: Hartmann solution and HES had no significant effect on the BT, PT, PT INR, a PTT, Hb, and Plt. The post-operative PFA CT was significantly higher in group 4 than in group 3. In group 4, the PFA CT was significantly higher post-operatively compared to pre-operatively.CONCLUSIONS: The use of high dose HES may increase the risk of bleeding tendencies in burn patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Do-not-resuscitate Order in Patients, Who Were Deceased in a Medical
           Intensive Care Unit of an ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) in the event of a cardiac arrest is the most common and important discussion between a patient's family and physicians among the end-of-life decision-making process. To observe the performance of a DNR order in critically ill patients, we analyzed the incidence of DNR orders, the changes in therapeutic levels after DNR orders, and the cases of violated DNR codes in patients who had died in a Korean medical intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 January 2006 and 30 June 2006.METHODS: The charts of patients who had died in the medical ICU were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS: One hundred two patients were enrolled. The ICU and hospital lengths of stay of the patients were 12.4 +/- 14.0 and 23.2 +/- 21.1 days, respectively. Hematologic malignancy (24.5%) accounted for the most common premorbid diagnosis before ICU admission. Seventy-five patients (73.5%) had DNR orders. The DNR order was suggested by the physician in 96% of the patients. There was no significant difference in the clinical parameters and the performance of a DNR order.Eighty-four percent of the patients with a DNR order had received the order within 3 days death. The withholding of additional therapy or withdrawing of current therapy occurred in 57.3% of the patients. The DNR order was violated in 9 cases (12%).CONCLUSIONS: DNR orders are well-accepted by the patient's family in the ICU. However, DNR orders are initiated when patient death is imminent.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparing the Usefulness of the Initial Acute Physiologic and Chronic
           Health Evaluation ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To determine the prognostic value of the initial APACHE II score in the ED compared with the classic APACHE II score in the ICU and to check the usefulness of the MEDS score together for more rapid risk stratification of septic patients admitted to the ICU via the ED.METHODS: We prospectively checked the initial APACHE II and MEDS scores of all the patients who had systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the ED and the classic APACHE II scores after admission to the ICU, as well 6 months later. We enrolled the only sepsis cases in the final diagnosis after reviewing the medical records. We evaluated the predictive abilities of the initial APACHE II and MEDS scores compared with the classic APACHE II score.RESULTS: During 6 months, 58 patients diagnosed with sepsis were enrolled. Twenty-four (41.4%) patients died within 28 days of admission and 34 patients survived. The mortality group had a significantly higher mean classic APACHE II score (19 +/- 6.7 vs. 15 +/- 5.0, p < 0.01) and a higher mean MEDS score (16.67 +/- 2.70 vs. 8.91 +/- 3.11, p < 0.01) than the survivor group. The initial APACHE II score at the ED was not significantly different between the two groups.ROC analysis showed the discriminative power of the MEDS score in predicting mortality was much better than the APACHE II score (areas under the curves of the APACHE II score in the ED and ICU, and the MEDS scores were 0.668, 0.807, and 0.967, respectively; p < 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: The initial APACHE II score in the ED did not predict mortality better than the classic APACHE II score.However, the MEDS score predicted the poor prognosis of septic patients more rapidly and accurately in the ED than the APACHE II model.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Clinical Features of Patients with Deep Neck Infections Who Were
           Admitted to the Intensive ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Deep neck infections are a life-threatening disease that spread to the neck spaces and the mediastinum via neck fascial planes. In spite of using antibiotics, the mortality of deep neck infections is still high. The aim of our study was to analyze the factors related to mortality and morbidity of patients with deep neck infection who were admitted to the intensive care unit.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with deep neck infections who were admitted to the intensive care unit over a 2 year period between June 2006 and May 2008. The various factors related to mortality and morbidity were analyzed.RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included over 2 years.The median age was 58 years. Eighteen patients (75%) were males and six patients were females. Ten patients (41.7%) had underlying diabetes mellitus. The median white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) were 14,000/mm3 and 24.1 mg/dl, respectively. The most common cause of deep neck infection was of dental origin (62.5%) and the most common complication was mediastinitis (37.5%). The factors related to mortality were underlying diabetes mellitus, pO2, CRP, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, gas-forming score (GAS), and complications due to mediastinitis.CONCLUSIONS: It is useful to measure several factors in patients with deep neck infections. The patients with underlying diabetes mellitus, increased CRP, a GAS score of 2, and complications to mediastinitis have a high mortality rate, so active surgical and medical management should be performed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Outcomes of Early Vancomycin Administration before Identification
           of ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine the clinical outcomes of early vancomycin administration before identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients with nosocomial pneumonia on a ventilator. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with nosocomial pneumonia in a 20-bed medical ICU during a period of 2 years and 2 months. This study included 52 inpatients, who were admitted for more than 72 hr and had a new or progressive lung infiltrate plus at least two of the following three criteria for pneumonia: abnormal body temperature (>38oC or 10,000/mm3 or
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Stress Cardiomyopathy Complicated by Torsades de Pointes in a
           Patient with Acute ...

    • Abstract: A 67-year old woman, hospitalized for the management of infectious colitis, developed acute congestive heart failure. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed left ventricular apical akinesia (ballooning) and basal hyperkinesis, which was compatible with stress cardiomyopathy. A marked QT prolongation and T wave inversion followed by nonsustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia was noted in the electrocardiogram. Intravenous administration of magnesium completely suppressed the ventricular tachycardia. After recovery from the colitis, the follow-up ECG and echocardiogram were normalized. There was no evidence of ischemic heart disease in the coronary angiography or perfusion scan. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one of the most important causes of acquired QT prolongation in ICU (intensive care unit) patients.. A careful monitoring of the QT interval in these patients is warranted particularly when drugs causing QT prolongation are used.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Statistical Analysis of Mortality Associated with Anesthesia and Surgery
           in a Hospital from ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Surgical patients should be provided adequate information on operation. The information on mortality is extremely important among them. The purposes of this study are to investigate the recent mortality associated with anesthesia and surgery, and to get a logistic regression model of mortality based on patient information. METHODS: We collected all of the anesthetic cases except local anesthesia during 5 years (between 2000 and 2004) in a hospital. All deaths within 7 days after anesthesia were retrieved. These data were analyzed in terms of age, gender, department in charge, time point after anesthesia, elective or emergency surgery, type of anesthesia, operation name, and diagnosis. The combined effects of the variables on the mortality were evaluated with logistic regression. The causes of death were also analyzed. RESULTS: There were 155 deaths among 74,458 patients under anesthesia. Age less than 1 year old or greater than 80 years old, male gender, department of thoracic surgery, emergency operation, cardiovascular surgery, and diseases for transplantation had higher mortality than their counterparts. Regression model was followed with assignment of '1' for the above mentioned categories. Other categories were designated by '0'. Log[p (death)/{1-p (death)}] = -9.15+1.03xage+0.66xsex+0.79xdepartment+2.77xemergency+2.52 xdiagnosis+0.89xoperation The leading cause of death was sepsis (21.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The average of mortality within 7 days after anesthesia was 21 per 10,000 anesthetic cases (0.21%). Estimated mortality based on logistic regression ranged from 0.01% to 10.25% depending on patient information.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Nonlinear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability: Possible Predictor for
           Atrial Fibrillation after ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a valuable marker of autonomic tone and may assist evaluating the prognosis in patients with heart disease. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative heart rate variability analysis predicts atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective observational study. After IRB approval was obtained by our institution, 76 patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery underwent a 10-min electrocardiogram recordings 1~2 hours prior to surgery. Heart rate variability analysis was performed with spectral analysis and point correlation dimension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the low and high frequency component (LF/HF) ratio preoperatively between patients with atrial fibrillation and patients with normal sinus rhythm postoperatively (3.0+/-2.45, 4.25+/-3.70, p=0.085). Baseline peak point correlation dimension (pPD2) was significantly higher in patients with atrial fibrillation than in patients with normal sinus rhythm postoperatively (4.2+/-0.8, 3.8+/-0.7, p=0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who developed atrial fibrillation postoperatively had a higher baseline pPD2 value preoperatively. Point correlation dimensions may predict the occurrence of postoperative atrial fibrillation after CABG surgery. However, further studies are needed to confirm whether point correlation dimensions are an effective predictor for postoperative atrial fibrillation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effects of Mild Hypothermia on the Expression of the Apoptosis-related
           Proteins following ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective mechanisms of hypothermia remain unclear. Recently, attenuation of apoptosis by hypothermia has been suggested as one of the responsible mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of post-ischemic hypothermia on apoptotic neuronal death as well as expression of some apoptosis-related proteins in a gerbil transient global ischemia model.METHODS: Following 5 minutes of ischemia, normothermia (NT, 37+/-0.5degrees C) or mild hypothermia (HT, 33+/-0.5degrees C) was immediately induced and maintained for 3 hours. The hippocampal CA1 neurons were examined on day 2, 3, 4, and 7 after ischemia for the survived neuronal densities, DNA nick end labeling and immunohistochemical expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 in each group. Additionally, DNA gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis for each protein in hippocampus were performed. RESULTS: The neuronal death in CA1 area on day 3, 4, and 7 was significantly reduced in HT group compared to NT group. The number of TUNEL positive cells in HT group was also significantly reduced than NT group on day 3, 4, and 7. DNA laddering of hippocampus on day 4 and 7 also reduced in HT group. Expressions of Bax on days 2, 3 and activated caspase 3 on days 3, 4 were reduced in HT group. Western blots also disclosed a decrease in the intensity of the Bax on day 2 and 3 in HT group compared to NT group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that mild post-ischemic hypothermia attenuates the apoptotic neuronal death through the inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of caspase activation following transient global ischemia and these effects may be related to a reduction of pro-apoptotic events.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Occurred after Esophagectomy: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Hemolytic uremic syndrome is an unusual and uncommon disease in adults but more common in children, which is defined by the triad of acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. We report a 64-year-old man who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome after esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy due to esophageal cancer. We treated him using continuous renal replacement therapy and plasmapheresis with large volume fresh frozen plasma transfusion for 9 days. We could not find the cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome, and so finally concluded that it is idiopathic. Bleeding continuously without a particular reason after an operation, it needs an early diagnosis and treatment with considering a possibility of the hemolytic uremic syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Experience of the Lower Extremity Nerve Block for a
           Neurocritically Ill Patient Who is ...

    • Abstract: A 73-year-old man was scheduled for the surgical reduction of fractured femur which occurred ar 3 months ago by the accident. The mental status of the patient was stuporous (Glasgow coma scale: 5) due to the complication of the head trauma. We performed nerve blocks (femoral, sciatic, lateral femoral cutaneous, and illiohypogastric nerve blocks) for the surgical reduction of left femur with 55 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine. The electroencephalography was monitored continuously during the 4 hour operation as well as monitoring the hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. The operation was performed successfully and the patient recovered uneventfully.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Pulmonary Edema after Cardioversion for Torsade de Pointes:A Case

    • Abstract: Cardioversion used for the treatment of various cardiac arrhythmias is a safe and effective procedure with infrequent complication. The restoration of sinus rhythm is followed by a improvement in hemodynamics, but acute pulmonary edema has been reported as a rare complication following successful electrical reversion of various tachyarrhythmia to normal sinus rhythm. This report describes a 42-year-old woman with a history of schizophrenia who experienced pulmonary edema after cardioversion for torsade de pointes. She had taken chlorpromazine and haloperidol for schizophrenia. The antipsychotic drugs were suspected to induce QT interval prolongation and resultant torsade de pointes. Two hours after cardioversion, pulmonary edema developed on chest X-ray and chest computed tomography. She responded to conservative treatment including oxygen therapy and the pulmonary edema improved on the second hospital day. The mechanism of pulmonary edema after cardioversion is still uncertain and remains controversial.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Application of Functional Genomics to Acute Lung Injury

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Analysis of the Description of Ventilator Parameters in Recent Papers
           Relating Artificial ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Procedures in medical papers should be described in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to reproduce the results. The apparatus including anesthesia machine should be given, too. Anesthesia machine has dramatically improved as bioengineering has developed. There are several ventilator settings in modern anesthesia machines. However, it seems that only a few ventilator settings are described even though modern ventilators are used in research. The purpose of this study is to investigate that how many ventilator parameters were described in the papers of the Korean Journal of Anesthesiology from 2001 to 2006. METHODS: All of papers with human general anesthesia were reviewed except case reports, and papers regarding only induction or intubation procedures. Recruited articles were grouped into papers with strongly related to respiratory parameters (STP), and into ones with slightly related to them based on the research topics. The description of following categories was counted in each paper; the type of anesthesia machine, tidal volume, respiratory rate, inspiratory:expiratory ratio, mode of ventilation, pressure set in pressure targeted ventilation, positive end expiratory pressure, inspiratory pause, and inspiratory rising rate. RESULTS: The description rate of each parameters in STP were 36% in the type of anesthesia machine, 66% in tidal volume, 54% in respiratory rate, and 24% in inspiratory:expiratory ratio.The other settings were seldomly mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: Description on the ventilator parameters was sometimes missed. We should describe adequate ventilator settings to reproduce the results because the modern anesthesia machine has additional ventilator options.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Relationship between the Changes of Arterial Blood Gas by Positioning from
           Prone to Supine and ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prone positioning has been adopted as a strategy to improve oxygenation in patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After returning to supine position, most of patients show arterial blood gas changes. However, the clinical implications have not been elucidated. This study was aimed to observe the relationship between the arterial blood gas changes followed by changing position from prone to supine and survival of ARDS.METHODS: We analyzed medical data of 53 ARDS patients, who showed improved arterial oxygenation (defined as the increase in PaO2/FiO2 by> or =20 mmHg within 8~12 hour after prone positioning) in a medical intensive care unit from January, 2000 to July, 2006. The patients were returned to supine position when they showed their PaO2/FiO2> or =150 mmHg. We compared the arterial blood gas changes between the survivor and the nonsurvivor.RESULTS: The survivor has significant pH improvement after position change (the survivor 0.01+/-0.06 vs. the nonsurvivor -0.03+/-0.08; p=.03). The PaO2/FiO2 and FiO2 changes were not different between the survivor (14.44 +/-69.68 and -2.2+/-4.3, respectively) and the nonsurvivor (-7.17+/-83.94 and 1.8+/-6.0, respectively; p=.314 and .843). The patients whose PaO2/FiO2 were deteriorated had higher mortality without statistical significance (p=.305).The PaCO2 changes were not different between two groups (-0.05+/-11.46 vs. 3.47+/-17.62, p=.390).CONCLUSIONS: The early changes in pH differed significantly between the survivor and the nonsurvivor after returning patients to supine position from prone. Whether this marker can be a predictor of survival should be studied further.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Post-thoracotomy Analgesia & ICU Length of Stay: Comparison of
           Thoracic Epidrual Morphine ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Length of stay in ICU after thoracotomy is related to postoperative pulmonary function and complication which are affected by postoperative pain. For the post-thoracotomy pain control, epidural morphine is commonly used. Although total dose-requirement for analgesia of lumbar epidural morphine is more than the thoracic, lumbar epidural morphine could be substituted the thoracic. Our study compared the effect of patient controlled analgesia using thoracic epidural morphine (TEA group) and lumbar epidural analgesia with patient controlled intravenous analgesia using morphine (LEA+IV group).METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly assigned into one of the two groups. The epidural taps were done before the induction. In all the patients morphine 0.2 mg/ml was administered via the epidural catheter at the end of surgery. In TEA group, basal infusion rate was 0.1 mg/hr and bolus dose was 0.02 mg. In LEA+IV group, basal infusion rate of epidural morphine was 0.1 mg/hr, patient controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine started when patients arrived at ICU, and basal infusion rate of intravenous morphine was 1.0 mg/hr and bolus dose was 0.8 mg. Pain score, side effect, postoperative length of stay in ICU and hospital were observed.RESULTS: There were no significant differences between two groups in pain score, side effects, length of stay in ICU and hospital.CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar epidural analgesia with patient controlled intravenous analgesia using morphine showed similar postoperative analgesia and length of stay in ICU and hospital compared to thoracic epidural analgesia with morphine, so that can substitute the thoracic epidural analgesia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Factors of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome for In-hospital Adult

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) outcome for in-hospital adult patients, acquiring data with standardized reporting guideline of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Korea.METHODS: All adult cardiac arrest patients from July 2004 to December 2006 in this general hospital were included. Their clinical spectrums were reviewed retrospectively using Utstein-style based template.RESULTS: For the study time period, one hundred and forty-two patients underwent cardiac arrest in this hospital. 136 patients were performed CPR. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) occurred in 42 cases, and 15 patients were survived to hospital discharge. A shorter CPR time and a lower Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) were significant for survivor to hospital discharge (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Application of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for 3
           Patients in Medical ...

    • Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-sustaining salvage therapy applied to the patient with acute heart failure or respiratory failure which is considered curable, but uncorrectable by conventional means.Recently, accumulating data has shown the survival benefit of ECMO in patients with acute fatal cardiopulmonary decompensation. Here, we report a series of cases of successful ECMO treatment in patients with acute cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Case 1: A patient with progressive respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation after pneumonectomy was managed satisfactorily using a veno-venous ECMO. Case 2: A veno-arterial ECMO was used to support a patient with vasopressor refractory septic shock.After 5 days of treatment, the patient was successfully weaned from ECMO. Case 3: A patient in cardiac arrest after the orthopedic surgery was resuscitated using a veno-arterial ECMO. Pulmonary angiography on ECMO revealed massive pulmonary thromboembolism and embolectomy was thoroughly performed under the support of ECMO.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Successful Empirical Treatment of Intravenous Immune Globulin in
           Recent-Onset Idiopathic ...

    • Abstract: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy has been introduced to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy due to their antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. But each study reported conflicting result and treatment regimen has not been clearly established. We experienced a case of 28-year-old woman with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with severely depressed cardiac function. Its onset time was obvious within 1 month. Despite of conservative treatment of heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest was developed. We tried IVIG therapy, and her symptoms and cardiac function were improved after IVIG treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Biotrauma in Ventilator Induced Lung Injury

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Value of GRACE Score in the Prediction of Mortality in Patients
           with Acute Coronary ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to evaluate the validity of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Event (GRACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).METHODS: One thousand thirty hundred seventy eight patients (63.6+/-12.0 years, 921 male), who were admitted at coronary care unit (CCU) of Chonnam National University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2005, were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: the survived group (n=1,298, 871 male, 63.1+/-9.7 years) and the moribund group (n=80, 50 male, 67.4+/-8.5 years). Clinical characteristics, risk factors for atherosclerosis, echocardiographic findings, GRACE score and NT-proBNP were compared between groups.RESULTS: The overall mortality was 5.8 %, 80 out of 1,378 patients. Mortality was higher in patients with Killip IV (46.7%, 50 out of 107 patients) than Killip II or III and elderly patients more than 80 years (42.7%, 38 out of 89 patients). High Killip class and old age were associated with high mortality (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Collagen Synthesis in an in Vivo Rat Model of Ventilator-induced Lung

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Experimentally, maintaining high pressure or high volume ventilation in animal models produces an acute lung injury, however, there was little information on remodeling. We investigated the collagen synthesis in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury.METHODS: Rats were ventilated with room air at 85 breaths/minute for 2 hours either tidal volume 7 ml/kg or 20 ml/kg (V(T)7 or V(T)20, respectively). After 2 hours of ventilation, rats were placed in the chamber for 24 hours.Lung collagen was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (n=5) and collagen was quantitated by collagen assay (n=5). Static compliance (Csta) of the whole lung as obtained from the pressure volume curves.RESULTS: Type I collagen was an increase in expression in the interstitium with large V(T) (20 ml/ kg) ventilation after 2 hours of mechanical ventilation (MV), and further increased expression after 24 hours of recovery period.Static lung compliance was significantly (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Study of Rescuer's Fatigue by Changes of Compression-Vetilation Ratio
           using Manikin Model ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The point of this study is focused on the rescuer's fatigue may increase as the ratio of chest compression-ventilation increases.METHODS: 10 students of emergency medical service and resucue had participated in this study. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was carried out with Laerdal's ResusciAnne with 4 types of compression-ventilation ratio (C-V ratio), and the data was recorded. The rescuer's fatigue was subjectively estimated with the visual analogue scale (VAS), objective fatigue was measured by median frequency which was acquired from the electromyography (EMG) signal, heart rate and the serum lactate level was measured.Statistical analysis was accomplished within each C-V ratios.RESULTS: As C-V ratio increased from 15 : 2 to 30 : 2, the quality of chest compression was improved. Subjective fatigue was increased significantly when C-V ratio increased to 30 : 2 from 15 : 2 and to 60 : 2 from 45 : 2. Gradual downward transition of the median frequency on EMG was shown as a result of increments of C-V ratio. Significant serum lactate accumulation had shown on ratio of 60 : 2 compare to other ratios.CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue of the rescuers will be aggravated by increase of C-V ratio. Rapid rescuer change is preferable when C-V ratio is increased.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Headache and Tinnitus
           Treated with Epidural ...

    • Abstract: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome of low cerebrospinal fluid pressure characterized by postural headaches in patients without any history of dural puncture, back trauma, operative procedure, or medical illness. The clinical spectrum of SIH is quite variable and includes headache, neck stiffness, nausea, horizontal diplopia, dizziness, tinnitus, visual blurring, radicular arm pain.When the headache persists or more incapacitating, more aggressive treatment may be necessary. Autologous epidural blood patch is used in the management of SIH and highly effective. I experienced a case of 39 year old female with postural headache and tinnitus who was diagnosed as having SIH and successfully treated with epidural blood patch.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Malfunction due to Kinking and Bending of a Double Lumen Central Venous
           Catheter : A Case Report

    • Abstract: Central venous catheters provide an important means of vascular access and are increasingly used. Catheter occlusion refers to the inability to infuse or withdraw fluids from a catheter and could be caused by either thrombotic or nonthrombotic origin. We report an unusual malfunction of double lumen central venous catheter due to kinking and bending of the catheter at the opening site of proximal lumen.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Nasogastric Tube Insertion using Savary-Gilliard Wire Guide(R) in a
           Comatose Patient : A Case Report

    • Abstract: The insertion of nasogastric tubes in comatose, obtunded or anesthetized patients is often difficult, frustrating and time-consuming. A large variety of methods inserting nasogastric tubes in those uncooperative patients have been reported. As a new effective method, we used Savary-Gilliard Wire Guide(R), which is designed for introducing Savary-Gilliard Dilator(R) into a strictured esophagus, for inserting a nasogastric tube in a comatose patient who was intubated with a ballooned tracheostomy tube. The insertion was successful in the first attempt and no complication occurred.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Diagnosis of Acid-base Imbalance by Stewart's Physicochemical Approach and
           Mortality Prediction ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acid-base derangement are commonly encountered in critically ill patients. This study is to investigate underlying mechanisms of acid-base imbalance and also to examine whether they can predict mortality in burn patients.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 73 severely burned patients who had admitted to burn intensive care unit, from January to July in 2004. All the patients had inhalation injury, identified by bronchoscopic examination. We analyzed the type and nature of the acid-base imbalances from arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes and other biological tests between survivors and non-survivors for 30 days after admission.RESULTS: Acidosis was the most common disorder during the early and late hospital periods. Large fractions of those showed decreased strong ion difference (SID), increased anion gap corrected by albumin (AGc) and [Cl-]corrected.Mixed disorder and alkalosis emerged after the 7(th) hospital day. As time went by, albumin, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, pH and SID were more decreased in non-survivors (n=28) than in survivors (n=45) while [Cl-] corrected, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradients, peripheral WBC counts and CRP were more increased in non-survivors than in survivors. In the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for mortality prediction, APACHE II score and % of total body surface area (%TBSA) burn were high: 0.866 (95% CI; 0.785~0.946) for APACHE II score, 0.817 (95% CI; 0.717~0.918) for %TBSA burn.CONCLUSIONS: In burned patients with inhalation injury, various types of acid-base imbalances and electrolytes abnormalities emerged after resuscitation and so, more careful attentions pursued for correcting underlying acid-base derangement.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Usage Pattern of Neuromuscular Blocker at Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The neuromuscular blocker is helpful to intubate the patients and reduce the amount of anesthetic agent. It also used at intensive care unit (ICU) to maintain airway patency, to achieve proper ventilatory care, etc. This survey is to determine the neuromuscular blocker usage patterns in ICU settings.METHODS: Three hundred general hospitals with ICU settings were chosen. We designed a 10 itemed questionnaire which has several subquestions with multiple choices and sent it to them. After three months, forty seven hospitals returned the questionnaire and we made careful analysis with it.RESULTS: The most frequent indication of neuromuscular blocker was to facilitate the mechanical ventilation (80.9%). Vecuronium was the most common neuromuscular blocker used (97.9%). Only 6.4% of them used peripheral nerve stimulator and the rest of them (89.4%) used clinical information to determine the degree of neuromuscular blocker. The respondents reported that recovery from muscle relaxation was needed on a periodic basis for regular neurological examinations (59.6%) in ICU settings. All respondents used the sedatives or narcotics with neuromuscular blocker and only 6.4% used reversal agents.CONCLUSIONS: Although the rate of reply was not much (15.7%), we could get the current usage pattern of neuromuscular blocker at ICU. We recommend using short to intermediate acting neuromuscular blocker than long acting agents. Continuous infusion with careful dosage titration by peripheral nerve stimulator would be helpful to achieve rapid recovery. Additional sedatives and narcotics are beneficial to reduce the amount of neuromuscular blocker and to make patients comfortable as well.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Carina as a Landmark for Evaluation of Adequate Central Catheter Tip
           Position with ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether the carina can be used as a landmark for evaluation of adequate central catheter tip position, and to examine the relationship between easily measurable body size and variable anatomical parameter.METHODS: The SVC dimensions and relationship to radiographic landmarks were retrospectively determined from computerized tomography (CT) scans of 200 patients. The CT findings were assessed in terms of SVC length (SVCL), the distance between the carina and the right atrium inlet (CAL), and the sternal length (STL). Pearson's correlation and a regression test for height versus SVCL, STL versus SVCL and CAL were performed.RESULTS: The median length of the SVC was 4.2 cm (range; 1.6 to 7.2 cm) and the distance between the carina and the right atrium inlet was 2.4 cm (range; 0.8 to 5.6 cm). With the regression test, height was correlated with SVCL (r(2)=0.09), and STL was correlated with both SVCL (r(2)=0.12) and STL (r(2)=0.04).CONCLUSIONS: The carina was located always above the right atrium inlet. The carina was a reliable, simple anatomical landmark for the determination of correct placement with computerized tomography.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Medicolegal Aspects on Central Venous Catheterization Related Injury

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We describe the characteristics of malpractice claims related to central venous catheterization and identify causes and potential preventability of such claims. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing records at Lawnb and Lx CD-rom. The records on closed malpractice claim related to central venous catheterization were abstracted from the files available for analysis. The records were reviewed and were analysed to determine the factors associated with a successful defense.RESULTS: Twelve closed claim cases, related to central venous cathetertization were reviewed in the data for malpractice. Catheter-related complications were pneumothorax, hemothorax, cardiac tamponade, pyothorax, hematoma due to arterial puncture, pseudoaneurysm. Almost cases resulted in indemnity payment and verdict for patient. CONCLUSIONS: Although malpractice claims related to central venous catheterization were uncommon, they resulted in high rate and amount of indemnity payments. In pediatric patient, catheterization should be performed with attention.Clinicians should consider the underlying disease of patients and do any pretreatment if needed. Post-procedural radiologic confirmation can improve patient outcome and is also associated with decreased indemnity risk. Informed consent is also important.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure and Positions on
           Respiratory Mechanics during ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Peritoneal CO2 insufflation results in elevation of PaCO2 and decreased respiratory compliance. Respiratory mechanics can be measured with flow interrupter technique.This study was designed to evaluate the effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure and positions on respiratory mechanics during laparoscopic surgery.METHODS: Female patients undergoing cholecystectomy (10 degrees head-up group, n=9) and gynecologic operation (10 degrees head-down group, n=9) under laparoscopy were studied. The upper limit of intra-abdonimal pressure was set to 12 mmHg. We measured airway flow and airway pressure of patients at preoperation, during insufflation, during positioning, and postoperation. Respiratory data were obtained from D-lite(R)sensor on-line.RESULTS: After increased intra-abdominal pressure and positioning, dynamic compliances in both groups were significantly decreased by 31~35%, static compliances by 39~43%. There was no difference of compliance between positions. The elastic tissue resistance of head-up group was significantly elevated compared with after operation.After operation, the respiratory parameters returned nearly to control levels.CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that the respiratory mechanics should be monitored under laparoscopy continuously. Further studies on clinical condition such as ascites, hemorrhage, and pregnancy were needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Pharmacological Cardioversion with Phenylephrine for Paroxysmal
           Supraventricular Tachycardia ...

    • Abstract: Supraventricular arrhythmias during and after thoracotomy for pulmonary resections are well documented, and risk factors of post-pulmonary resection arrhythmias are old age, magnitude of surgery, and coexisting cardiopulmonary disease etc. Among of supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disturbance that may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We experienced a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with severe hypotension which was escalated from atrial fibrillation during pulmonary bilobectomy for tuberculosis in a 44-year old male patient. Instead of usual electrical cardioversion or common antiarrhythmic agents, we selected phenylephrine bolus injection which induced normal sinus rhythm successfully from paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia of the patient.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Unusual Capnography due to Incorrect Assembly of Spring with Absorber
           Valve into Breathing ...

    • Abstract: A focus on patient safety has heightened the awareness of pateint mornitoring. The importantce of clinical application of capnography continues to grow, as reflected by the increasing number of medical societies recommending its use.We recently encountered an abnormal capnography undergoing gastrectomy. It was noted that the waveform was not sustained zero-baseline formation as seen during inspiratory phase, immediately upsloping for expiratory plateau followed by inspiratoy downsloping as like a shape of curare cleft.But PaCO2 was within normal range. We found that the source of the problem was the incorrect (bottom up) assembly of spring with absorber valve into the CUBE, the circle breathing system of Dameca Ventilator. Spring with absorber valve divides CUBE circle into inspiratory and expiratory space. We concluded that the unusual capnography was resulted from the incorrect assembly of it, subsequently mixing of inspiratory and exhaled gases and rebreathing was occurred with the block of a gas flow to CO2 canister. After correcting assembly, the capnography was normalized.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparison of Impedance Cardiography with Thermodilution of Hemodynamic
           Parameters in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring (impedance cardiography, ICG) in critically ill patients, we compared this technique with simultaneous invasive monitoring with a pulmonary artery thermodilution catheter.METHODS: A prospective observational study was done comparing invasive monitoring and noninvasive monitoring in 12 critically ill patients. The cardiac output (CO), the stroke volume (SV) and the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) measured by using a standard thermodilution pulmonary artery catheter technique were compared with the corresponding measurements simultaneously using an ICG.RESULTS: The value of CO, SV and SVR measured by ICG were closely correlated to those by the thermodilution methods [r: 0.659 (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Alteration of Lung Mechanics Depending on Expiratory Sensitivity (ESENS)
           during Pressure ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate effects of 5 expiratory sensitivity (ESENS) levels (5%; 15%; 25%; 35%; 45%) on lung mechanics and the effects depending on the two P(0.1) levels ( or =3 cm H2O).METHODS: Prospective, randomized, physiologic study for intubated adult patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomly submitted to the 5 settings of ESENS in the Galileo ventilator (Galileo Gold, Hamilton Medical AG, Switzerland). Physiologic variables were continuously measured using a Bicore CP-100 pulmonary mechanics monitor (CP-100, Bicore, USA).RESULTS: Thirteen patients, ten men and three women, with a mean age of 65.2+/-16.1 yr were studied. Tidal volume (V(T)) decreased significantly from ESENS 5% to 45%. With increasing levels of ESENS, respiratory rates (RR) steadily increased from ESENS 5% to 35% and 45%. Shallow breath index (F/V(T)) increased significantly from ESENS 5% to 45%.Inspiratory time (T(I)) decreased gradually significantly from ESENS 5% to 45%. RR and F/V(T) increased from ESENS 5% to 15% and 45% and V(T) decreased gradually in patients with P(0.1) or =3 cm H2O.CONCLUSIONS: The proper adjustment of expiratory sensitivity (ESENS) levels improved patient-ventilator synchrony and decreased respiratory rates and shallow breath index, especially in P(0.1)
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Diagnosis of Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Acute Pulmonary Embolism
           with N-terminal Probrain ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with pulmonary embolism are at high risk of death because of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and mortality rate increases with worsening right ventricular dysfuction. The utility of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing in the emergency department for diagnosing right ventricular dysfunction with pulmonary embolism and optimal cut-off points for its uses are not well established.METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive patients with confirmed pulmonary embolism, who visited our emergency medical center from March 2005 to September 2006, were recruited. Patients with congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure were excluded from study enrollment. The diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction was based on echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction.RESULTS: The mean age was 68+/-11 yr, and 71% of the patients were women. The median NT-proBNP level among 29 patients (59%) who had RVD was 1296 versus 250 pg/ml for those 20 patients (41%) who did not have RVD (p=0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% CI of 0.89~0.98). At a cutoff of 400 pg/ml, NT-proBNP had a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 75%, and an overall accuracy of 88% for RVD (p=0.01). An NT-proBNP level
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effects of Ventilation Modes and Levels of PEEP on Respiratory Mechanics
           during Controlled ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Application of PEEP increases lung volume and improves oxygenation. High PEEP levels may cause alveolar overdistension or barotrauma. It was hypothesized that there will be an effect of level of PEEP on respiratory resistance and an effect of ventilatory mode on respiratory compliance.This study aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation modes and levels of PEEP on respiratory mechanics during controlled ventilation under general anesthesia.METHODS: In 14 mechanically ventilated patients without cardiopulmonary symptoms and signs, we measured the respiratory mechanics using the inspiration interrupter technique during a constant flow. Dynamic and static compliance, airway resistance, visco-elastic tissue and total respiratory system resistance were calculated at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in VCV mode, VCV with inspiratory pause mode, and PCV mode, respectively.RESULTS: The dynamic compliance of the PCV mode was higher than that of the VCV mode. The highest static compliance was at 10 cmH2O PEEP. At 20 cmH2O PEEP, pulmonary compliance was decreased and the tissue resistance was increased.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the respiratory mechanics including respiratory resistance should be monitored for applying PEEP. Further studies on clinical condition such as acute lung injury and ARDS were needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus Colonization ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in surgical technique and immunosuppression, infection following liver transplantation (LT) remains a significant problem. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcuscus (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become important nosocomial pathogens. This study was undertaken in attempt to evaluate clinical impact of VRE and MRSA in LT recipients.METHODS: LT recipients with VRE or MRSA colonization from 2001 to 2004 were identified and matched (age, gender, United Network for Organ Sharing status, liver disease, and transplant date) to control groups without MRSA or VRE colonization. Demographics, clinical factors, length of stay, duration of the use of the mechanical ventilator, complications and survival rates were compared with matched controls.RESULTS: Eleven patients were colonized by VRE (4.7%) and thirty patients by MRSA (13%). The common sites of VRE culture included the tip of the urinary catheter and urine.The VRE colonized group experienced more biliary complications, relaparotomies, longer length of stay at ICU and ward, and longer use of the mechanical ventilator. One year survival rate was lower in the VRE group. MRSA was commonly cultured from sputum, tip of the central venous catheter or intraarterial catheter, and blood. The MRSA group experienced more relaparotomies, pneumonia, longer stay at ICU and ward, and longer use of mechanical ventilator compared to the control. One year survival rate was lower in the MRSA group. Rejection was not associated with VRE or MRSA infection.CONCLUSIONS: VRE or MRSA colonization is associated with higher incidence of posttransplant complications and lower survival rate than LT recipients without VRE or MRSA colonization. The patients with VRE or MRSA colonization also utilized more hospital resources.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Evaluation and Management of Perioperative Hypertension

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Significance of Hypercapnia during Mechanical Ventilation

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effects of Alfentanil on Hemodynamic and Catecholamine Responses to
           Laryngoscopy and ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endobronchial intubation should elicit significant circulatory responses. We examined the effects of alfentanil on hemodynamic and catecholamine responses to endobronchial intubation in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged over 60 years requiring endobronchial intubation were randomized into three groups of 20 patients each. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4~6 mg/kg followed by saline (placebo) or alfentanil 10 or 30microgram/kg given as a bolus over 30 s. Succinylcholine 1 mg/kg was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and intubation were performed 1 min later. RESULTS: The intubation significantly increased systolic arterial pressure and heart rate. The maximum pressure changes from pre-intubation values in both alfentanil groups (58+/-27 and 33+/-30 mm Hg in 10 and 30microgram/kg, respectively) were significantly lower compared with that of 83+/-35 mm Hg in the control group. The tachycardiac response was not significantly affected by alfentanil 10microgram/kg, but attenuated by alfentanil 30microgram/kg. The plasma norepinephrine concentrations were increased, which was not affected by alfentanil 10microgram/kg, but was significantly attenuated by alfentanil 30microgram/kg. Both doses of alfentanil abolished the increase of plasma epinephrine concentrations. Three patients in the 30microgram/kg group received ephedrine for hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that endobronchial intubation elicited significant pressor response, and that alfentanil 30microgram/kg is more efficacious in attenuating the hemodynamic and catecholamine responses, although potential hypotension warrants a caution of its use, in elderly patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Changes of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow according to Inhalational
           Anesthetic Agents after ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a recognized complication of carotid endarterectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.3 to 1.2%. Monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may limit neurological damage. This study was planned to investigate the changes of rCBF according to inhalational anesthetic agents. METHODS: 2.40+/-0.04 kg weighed New Zealand White Rabbits were undergone transient brain ischemia by bilateral carotid artery ligation for 20 minutes. The rCBF was measured by Bowman Perfusion Monitor.RESULTS: The value of rCBF in pre-ligation state was not significantly different among the three groups. rCBF in sevoflurane group was decreased to 46% of baseline value during ischemia and increased to 143% just after reperfusion. rCBFs in isoflurane and enflurane groups were abruptly increased instead of decrease like sevoflurane group. The values of rCBF was more increasing after reperfusion in isoflurane and enflurane groups. rCBFs in all groups were return to baseline value 10 minutes after reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: This results was suggested that sevoflurane might be contributed to create a neurologic damage during ischemia and the hyperperfusion was seen in all three anesthetic agents. The clinical investigation may be needed to establish the value of this experiment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Comparison of Auto-PEEP Levels Measured by End-expiratory Port Occlusion
           Method and Trapped ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: There are several METHODS: for auto-PEEP measurement during mechanical ventilation. The end-expiratory port occlusion (EEPO) method is simple and easy. Theoretically, auto- PEEP level can be also calculated by using trapped lung volume and static compliance. However, the relationship between measured auto-PEEP by EEPO method and the calculated auto-PEEP has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to observe the relationship between the measured and the calculated auto-PEEP. METHODS: 15 patients with auto-PEEP during mechanical ventilation were included. Auto-PEEP was measured by EEPO method, and calculated by using a formula; trapped lung volume/static compliance. All of the patients were paralyzed during the study. If the measured auto-PEEP is higher than calculated auto-PEEP, this patient was included in `high group'; in the opposite case, `low group'. We compared respiratory mechanics between these two groups. RESULTS: Measured auto-PEEP was 9.60+/-2.82 cmH2O, and calculated auto-PEEP was 9.78+/-2.90 cmH2O. There was statistically significant relationship between measured and calculated auto-PEEP (r=0.81, p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effectiveness of Foot -Reflexo- Massage on the Postoperative Pain of
           Gastrectomy Patients

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The objects of this study were to determine the effects of foot reflexo massage on the postoperative pain of the subtotal gastrectomy patients according to quasi-experimental research design, and to provide demonstrative data for using the foot reflexo massage as an intervention for pain nursing. METHODS: The foot reflexo massages were performed on 34 subtotal gastrectomy patients after informed consent was obtained. They were divided into two groups, i.e. control group (n=17) and experimental group (n=17). After 6 hours and 12 hours from the subtotal gastrectomy, the massage was carried out on each foot for 10 minutes twice. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was employed as the measurement tools of pain, and the degree of postoperative pain was measured through frequency of prn (pro re nata) analgesia in chart review. RESULTS: The experimental group with foot reflexo massage 6 hours after the operation have significantly less score of postoperative pain than the control group (5.76+/-0.83, 4.35+/-1.0, p=.000). The experimental group with foot reflexo massage 12 hours after the operation have significantly less score of postoperative pain than the control group (5.12+/-0.53, 3.00+/-1.17, p=.000). The experimental group with foot reflexo massage have significantly less frequency of prn analgesics than the control group from six hours to twelve hours after the operation (p=.004). CONCLUSIONS: It is considered foot reflexo massage is effective for reducing postoperative pain of subtotal gastrectomy patients, as well as useful for an immediate nursing intervention.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Effects of Amrinone and Dobutamine on Regional Myocardial Function and
           Oxygen Balance in Normal ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We examined the effects of amrinone and dobutamine on regional mechanical function, coronary blood flow (CBF), and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) in normal and stunned myocardium in an open-chest canine model.METHODS: Dogs were instrumented to measure aortic and left ventricular pressures, pulmonary and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary blood flows, and subendocardial segment length in the region supplied by LAD. Incremental doses of either amrinone (2~10microgram/ml of LAD flow, n=13) or dobutamine (0.05~0.375microgram/ml of LAD flow, n=14) were directly infused into a coronary artery before (normal) and after a 15 min of LAD occlusion and subsequent 30 min-reperfusion (stunned). Percent segment shortening (%SS) and percent post-systolic shortening (%PSS) were evaluated. Myocardial extraction of oxygen (EO2) and lactate (Elac) was calculated. RESULTS: Amrinone or dobutamine in the normal myocardium caused dose-dependent increases in %SS that were comparable (range, 20~40%) but had no effect on %PSS. MVO2 increased in parallel with %SS for both amrinone and dobutamine. With amrinone, CBF increased more than MVO2, resulting in a modest decrease in EO2, whereas with dobutamine, CBF increased in proportion to MVO2, resulting in no change in EO2. After the ischemia and reperfusion, %SS and Elac were reduced, but similar %SS and CBF responses to both agents were observed, except that both agents caused progressive reductions of %PSS. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that both amrinone and dobutamine exert positive inotropic effects in normal and stunned canine myocardium.It is also indicated that amrinone causes direct coronary vasodilation, which is not affected by ischemia and reperfusion, while dobutamine has no direct effect on coronary vascular tone in either normal or stunned myocardium.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Study on the Health-related Quality of Life after ICU Care

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study was designed to analyze the influences of ICU patients' experiences in the ICU setting and the effect of ICU patient families' stress derived from their needs and daily life stress on the patients' quality of life. METHODS: ICU patients' quality of life was evaluated with KQOLS surveying 144 patients alive. The data was classified into 2 groups according to severity of illness and analyzed with an ANOVA. With a t-test, comparative analysis was made to examine deficiency of responses on patient families' needs and patients' quality of life. RESULTS: The patients in the group of higher severity of illness showed lower quality of life. The APACHEII score had a negative correlation with all domains except health status change domain, health status perception domain, and spiritual domain. There was a negative correlation between patients' age and three domains of physical function, role limitation, and social function and a positive correlation between patients' hospital LOS and health status change domain. The families in the group of lower severity of illness showed higher level of deficiency of responses on their needs for medical treatment and nursing information, and emotional support. Also, patients' quality of life in lower daily life stress group was higher than that in higher stress group especially in psychological health domain. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that ICU patients `quality of life was influenced by not only medical factors but also psychosocial factors and suggest that multidimensional intervention plans are required for improving patients' quality of life and recovering their health.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Influence of Unmeasured Anions Identified by Stewart Principle on the
           Length of Postoperative ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Calculation of the base excess (BE) and the anion gap (AG) is commonly used to identify the presence and to analyze the cause of metabolic acidosis in critically ill patients. However, the calculation of BE assumes normal water content, electrolytes, and albumin, changes in these values will change the calculated BE. Calculation of the AG does not control for changes in albumin and cannot distinguish plasma concentration changes of negatively charged protein (albumin) from that of other anions. Based on Stewart's physicochemical principles, Gilfix et al developed equations to calculate the BE caused by unmeasured anions (BEua) taking into account changes in free water, chloride, albumin, and PCO2 that theoretically should reflect metabolic changes better than the less complete biochemical measurements. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of BEua and other variables on the length of postoperative hospital stay. METHODS: The data from 100 consecutive patients were collected prospectively in patients who underwent intra-abdominal operations under general anesthesia and admitted to the adult intensive care unit. All samples were routine samples taken from arterial lines postoperatively and analyzed for arterial blood gas, plasma electrolytes, inorganic phosphates and albumin concentrations. BEua was calculated from the equations developed by Gilfix et al. We also calculated AGNa, K (Na++K+-Cl--HCO3-) and AGNa (Na+-Cl--HCO3-). Correlations between the length of postoperative hospital stay and these variables were studied using linear regression analysis.RESULTS: BEua and BE were significantly correlated with the length of ICU stay (r=0.295, p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Subclavian Vein Catheterization by Using 24-Gauge Peripheral Angiocatheter
           in Pediatric ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Central venous catheterization (CVP) often leads to unacceptable complications, especially in pediatrics. To reduce these complications, we modified the venipucture by using 24-gauge peripheral angiocatheter (24-AG) in pediatric patients. METHODS: A 24-AG attached to a 3 cc syringe instead of a thin-wall steel needle in the commercial CVP kit was inserted and advanced in the direction of the inmominate vein with 45degrees angle. When blood was observed in the syrige, the 24-AG was more advanced into the subclavian vein and the 24-AG stylet was removed. A J-guide wire was inserted through lumen of the angiocather. The following procedure was the same as the Sheldinger technique. RESULTS: 202 pediatric patients received subclavian venipuncture by the method mentioned above. The overall success rate was 96.5%. The rate of success for the first attempt was 85.6% and the average number of venipuncture was 1.3+/-0.1. The overall complications was 6.4%, including hematoma formation (1.5%), pneumothorax (1.5%), bleeding at the puncture site (1.0%), mild hemothorax (0.5%) and pleural puncture without pneumothorax (2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The subclavian venepuncture by using 24-gauge peripheral angiocatheter was reliable and useful technique in pediatric patients. The overall complications by this method was reduced compared to other reports.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Development and Experimental Evaluation of Respiratory Assist Device by
           Use of Right Thoracic ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A diaphragm pacing with electrical stimulation is a new respiratory assist device which has advantages over mechanical ventilation. Unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation makes uneven distribution of intrathoracic negative pressure and most likely relates to paradoxical motion of the diaphragm. Our purpose is to investigate a respiratory effect of right phrenic nerve pacing after thoracotomy compared with bilateral pacing. METHODS: Five dogs were examined under the general anesthesia. Right 5th intercostal space was opened. Two pacing leads were placed around the phrenic nerve and connected to the stimulator. Chest wall was closed after chest tube insertion. Ventilator was off without self respiration. Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced to the pulmonary artery, cardiac output, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP).Arterial blood gases (PO2 & PCO2), end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) and tidal volume were measured with nerve stimulation. Left phrenic nerve was managed as the same manner. RESULTS: Right phrenic nerve pacing resulted in a tidal volume of 186+/-5 ml, PETCO2 of 55.0+/-2.3 mmHg, Arterial PO2 of 115+/-12 mmHg, PCO2 of 59+/-4 mmHg, Cardiac output of 2.3+/-0.5 L/min, CVP of 12.0+/-2.3 mmHg, PCWP of 14.2+/-2.5 mmHg.Bilateral phrenic nerve pacing resulted in a tidal volume of 418+/-3 ml, PETCO2 of 47.0+/-2.7 mmHg, PO2 of 289+/-10 mmHg, PCO2 of 42+/-3 mmHg, Cardiac output of 3.1+/-0.4 L/min, CVP of 10.2+/-2.5 mmHg, PCWP of 14.5+/-2.7 mmHg. Right phrenic nerve pacing showed significantly lower tidal volume, PO2 and higher PETCO2 and arterial blood PCO2 (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis after the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Surgical trauma has long been recognized as the most common cause of unilateral and bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We experienced a case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft. The patient was repeated intubation and extubation after operation in surgical intensive care unit. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the patient. The patient recovered after permanent tracheotomy. We reported a case of vocal cord paralysis after coronary artery bypass graft.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Delayed Obstruction of Endotracheal Tube by Previously Aspirated Foreign
           Body: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Acute airway obstruction during endotracheal intubation status is embarrassing and critical situation which requires early diagnosis and immediate management. Endotracheal tube obstruction with foreign body is rare but a variety of objects have been reported. We present a case of endotracheal tube obstruction as a result of previous aspirated foreign body that moved from the bronchial tree into the endobroncheal tube.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Intracardiac Knotting of a Balloon-tipped, Flow-directed Pulmonary Artery
           Catheter: A Case Report

    • Abstract: The occurrence of knots and loops is a potential hazard of a balloon-tipped, flow-directed pulmonary artery (PA) catheter placement if excessive catheter length is passed into the right atrium or ventricle. Knotting of a balloon-tipped, flow-directed PA catheter leading to difficulty in its removal is a rare but serious complication. A case of knotted catheter in right atrium in a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement is presented. By passing a spring guidewire into PA catheter, we have untied the loose knotted catheter under simple fluoroscopic guidance in the intensive care unit.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Respiratory Failure Caused by Gastropleural Fistula: A Case

    • Abstract: Gastropleural fistula is a very rare disorder, caused by various conditions, such as trauma and postoperative complication, subphrenic abscess, malignancy, hiatal hernia.The major causes of the gastropleural fistula have changed from trauma and subphrenic abscess to postoperative complication of malignant disorders. We report a case of empyema that developed respiratory failure caused by gastropleural fistula in a middle age woman with review of related articles.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • A Case of Pulmonary Edema which Developed after Difficult Endotracheal
           Intubation of Hunter ...

    • Abstract: Hunter syndrome is one of the mucopolysaccharidoses, characterized by abnormal accumulation and deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the tissues of several organs which are known to complicate anaesthetic and airway management.We experienced a case of pulmonary edema which developed during induction of general anesthesia of Hunter syndrome after several attempts of intubation and airway obstruction.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effects of Intrathecal Ketamine and NBQX on Neurologic Injury and
           Spinal Cord Glutamate ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury occurring as the result of surgical repair of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic disease remains a devastating complication. Excitatory amino acids have been known to cause neurologic injury after neuronal ischemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of intrathecal ketamine or NBQX on neurologic outcome and NMDA receptor gene expression in transient spinal ischemia. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with enflurane, divided by 4 groups: Control (C group), Intrathecal ketamine 0.1 mg (K-1 group), Intrathecal ketamine 0.2 mg (K-2 group), and intrathecal NBQX 1 nM (N group). Spinal ischemia was produced by both induced hypotension and thoracic aortic cross clamping. After spinal ischemia, neurologic scores were assessed after 1, 2, 3 hours. After 3 hours rats were euthenized and spinal cords were removed for the assay of NMDAR and mGlu1 mRNA. RESULTS: The neurol ogic scores of K-2 and N groups were significantly lower than C group and K-1 group. There were no significant difference between K-1 group and C group. The NMDAR and mGlu1 gene expression was increase in C and K-1 group compared to sham operation. In K-2 and N groups, the gene expressions were significantly lesser than C group.CONCLUSIONS: The NMDAR and mGlu1 gene expressions were increased in transient spinal ischemia. Intrathecal ketamine and NBQX were effective in preventing neurologic injury after transient spinal ischemia. The NMDA antagonistic action of ketamine might involve to prevent neurologic injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Five-year Clinical follow-up after Revascularization for Chronic Total
           Coronary Artery Occlusion

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) has been considered as an unsuitable lesion for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of technical difficulty and low success rate. Owing to technical advances and increased operator's experience, PCI has been attempted in a large number of patients with CTO in recent years, but there are few long-term follow-up reports for PCI to CTO. METHODS: We analyzed 83 patients (59.7+/-9.2 years, 28 female) with CTO on diagnostic coronary angiogram at the Heart Center and Coronary Care Unit of Chonnam National Hospital from January 1996 to July 1997. The patients were divided into two groups according to revascularization by PCI or CABG (coronary artery bypass graft): the revascularized group (received PCI or CABG, Group I) and non-revascularized group (Group II).RESULTS: PCI was tried in 46 patients and successful in 33 patients (71.7% of the success rate). Eleven patients (13.3%) were treated with the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and 31 (37.3%) patients were medically treated.During 5-year clinical follow-up 11 patients died [13.1%; cardiac death 6 (7.1%), non-cardiac death 5 (6.0%)] and the major adverse cardiac events occurred to 24 (28.6%) patients. Cardiac death occurred to one patient of the Group I and 5 patients of Group II (p=0.06). The mean survival time was significantly different (57.8+/-9.2 months in Group I and 50.9+/-19.5 months in Group II, p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Revascularization for CTO prolonged the mean survival time of the patients on long- term clinical follow-up.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Findings of Critical Illness Polyneuropathy in Patients with
           Mechanical Ventilator ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a primary distal axonal degeneration of motor and sensory fibers leading to severe limb weakness and difficulty in weaning from ventilator in critically ill patients. The object of this study is to evaluate the clinical findings of CIP and the risk factors associated with CIP development in patients with mechanical ventilator treatment. METHODS: We examined 40 patients, between March 2002 to February 2003, who manifested muscular weakness and received mechanical ventilation (MV) more than three days, prospectively. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and electromyography (EMG) were performed in all patients in the ICU. We examined the use of drugs (neuromuscular blocking agents, corticosteroid, and aminoglycoside), duration of MV and weaning, and APACHE II score. RESULTS: We observed 40 patients who showed muscular weakness, 9 patients were diagnosed as CIP. NCV study demonstrated decreased action potential amplitude, predominantly in motor nerve, distal part. There was no significant difference in duration of MV and weaning, drug use, APACHE II score between the groups with CIP and without CIP. CONCLUSIONS: CIP is an important neuromuscular complication of the patients in ICU. We should consider the possibility of the development of CIP in patients who showed muscular weakness and difficult weaning in critically ill patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Epidural Block on Renal Function in Patients Undergoing
           Subtotal Gastrectomy with ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Epidural block is widly used for anesthesia or analgesia, so many researches has been done in the field of cardiovascular system. And we reported the effects of epidural block on renal function in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy with general anesthesia. In this research I evaluated the effect of epidural anesthesia on renal function in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy with general anesthesia. The earlier was in lumbar level and the later was in thoracic level. METHODS: We studied 15 patient who were in ASA 1 or 2. The epidural catheter was inserted via 17 gauge Tuohy needle through the T10-T11 intervertebral space of the patients before general anesthesia. Anesthesia for all the patients were maintained with isoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. We measured urine output and hemodynamic profiles such as mean arterial pressure, pulse, CVP, cardiac output during 2 hours of general anesthesia period. And then we injected 10ml of 0.15% bupivacaine to the epidural space and measured the same parameters as those of general anesthesia period during another 2 hours of epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia. We also compared urine output and renal function (creatinine clearance, Na clearance, fractional excretion of Na and free water clearance) between each of the two periods. RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure and pulse were lower after epidural injection than before (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Energy Deficiency Aggravates Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition support reduces infectious complications, mortality and length of hospitalizationin intensive care unit. However, there are multi factors like frequent null per os (NPO) due to examination, intolerance to tube feeding, complication of TPN (total parenteral nutrition) and ineffective recognition by medical staff. The purpose of this study is to identify detrimental effects of cumulative energy deficiency in critically ill patients.METHODS: The patients who were received tube feeding or total parenteral nutrition for more than 5 days were investigated. Daily and cumulative energy deficiency was tabulated until oral intake was achieved or until they discharged or died. Patients were divided into two groups, severe energy deficient group (>10, 000 kcal) or mild energy deficient group (
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci
           Colonization or ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is increasing rapidly through the world and is now a major cause of nosocomial infection. The transmission dynamics and factors contributing their dissemination are complex. We conducted a study to investigate clinical characteristics in patients with VRE colonization or infection during recent 5 years. METHODS: 154 cases that had the VRE infection or colonization from January 1, 2000 to April, 2004, were reviewed. We analyzed the risk factors of VRE infection and colonization and also compared various parameters contributing their dissemination between burn and non-burn patients with VRE. RESULTS: Total 212 strains of VRE were isolated from 154 patients. Of 212 strains of VRE, Enterococcus faecium (178 strains, 83.9%) were most common and followed by E. casseliflavus (28 strains, 13.2%), E.faecalis (5 strains, 2.4%) and E. gallinaum (1 strains, 0.5%). The most common place of VRE isolation was in burn intensive care unit (ICU), 95 cases (61.7%); 27 cases (17.5%) in general wards; 17 cases (11.0%) in surgical ICU; 15 cases (9.7%) in medical ICU. Compared with patients with VRE colonization, patients with VRE infection had older age, higher APACHE II scores and high death rate significantly.Then, VRE colonization were more common in burn patients while VRE infection were more common in non-burn patients.CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that VRE infection are not uncommon among hospitalized patients. More strict infection control, close surveillance and judicious use of antibiotics may be warranted to prevent infection and transmission of VRE.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Relationship between Change of RBC Shape and Multi-organ Failure in Sepsis

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Microcirculatory derangement in sepsis plays a crucial role in the impairment of tissue oxygenation that can lead to multi-organ failure and death. The change of RBC rheology in sepsis has been known to be important factors in microcirculatory derangement. Several studies have demonstrated that RBCs have decreased deformability in sepsis. We investigated the relationship between multi-organ failure and spherical index of RBC estimated by flow cytometer in critically ill patients with or without sepsis compared with the relationship in healthy volunteers.METHODS: Fourteen non-septic critically ill patients, 18 septic patients and 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. We obtained peripheral venous blood from each patient and analyzed the change of RBC shape using flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur) within 90 minute. The change of RBC shape was accessed with spherical index (M2/M1). A decrease in M2/M1 was correlated with the sphericity of the RBC and considered to have a lower capacity to alter their shape when placed in microcirculation. Multi-organ failure was accessed with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. RESULTS: The M2/M1 ratio of healthy volunteers, non-septic patients and septic patients were 2.25+/-0.08, 2.16+/-0.39 and 2.05+/-0.53, respectively. But, there was no significant difference between each group (p>0.05). And, there was no significant correlation between M2/M1 ratio of septic and non- septic patients and SOFA score (p>0.05, r2= -0.13). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the spherical index of RBC was not associated with multi-organ failure in sepsis.But, further studies may be needed to evaluate the role of RBC rheology in sepsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Analysis of Cases Requested to the Ethics Committee of an University
           Hospital for the ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A hospital ethics committee (HEC) handles ethics problems in a hospital and mediates conflicts between patients and caregivers. The role of HEC on treatment withdrawal has increased after Boramae-hospital's case on 1997 in Korea. This study is an analysis of cases referred to the HEC of Asan Medical Center for the discontinuation of patient therapy. METHODS: The conference records of the HEC from January 1998 to December 2003 and the relevant patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Twenty-seven cases related to treatment withdrawal were referred to the HEC during the study period. Based on the number of admitted ICU patients during the study period, the case request rate was 0.05%. The bimodal distribution of the cases in terms of age was neonate, 13 (48%); infant, 6 (22%); adult, 8 (30%).The major causes of treatment withdrawal were futile management, financial difficulty and patient suffering. The HEC recommended the continuation of treatment in 7 cases (25.9%); treatment withdrawal in 11 (40.7%); treatment withholding in 8 (29.6%); transfer to another hospital in one case (3.8%). Of the seven recommendations for treatment continuation, only three were accepted by their families.These three patients were eventually discharged alive.Treatment was withdrawn within one week in all eleven cases recommended for that by the HEC. Treatment was withheld in seven of those eight such recommended cases. CONCLUSIONS: The case referral rate was low in the studied hospital. In all cases, the patients' families requested the case to the HEC. Although the committee's recommendations to withhold or withdraw the treatment were followed by the families, the recommendation to continue therapy was often refused.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Electrolyte and Gas Analysis from Dorsal Vein of Hand during General
           Inhalational Anesthesia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To assess the acid-base status and to measure PO2 and PCO2, arterial blood gases (ABG) has been checked usually. We compared the venous blood gases (VBG) from dorsal vein of hand to ABG from radial artery, and tried to determine whether venous blood gas analysis (VBGA) could be the alternative of ABGA. METHODS: Thirty patients who needed continuous arterial pressure monitoring were chosen. At the completion of stability of HR and BP after induction of general inhalational anesthesia, the ABG from radial artery and VBG from dorsal vein of hand were compared. RESULTS: Laboratory findings were as follows (mean+/-SD): arterial pH, 7.44+/-0.04; venous pH, 7.43+/-0.04; arterial HCO3-, 25.56+/-2.39 mmol/L; venous HCO3-, 25.51+/-2.09 mmol/L. The mean values of arterial and venous PO2 were significantly different (247.8+/-48.9 mmHg versus 187.8+/-41.6 mmHg), but the arterial and venous PO2 values were significantly correlated (r=0.706). The PCO2 (r= 0.883), pH (r=0.912), and HCO3- (r=0.901) values, and base excesses of arterial and venous blood (r=0.926) were highly correlated. Also, arterial and venous serum electrolyte (sodium, potassium, and calcium) were highly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Venous blood gas analysis from dorsal vein of hand can be effectively used as the alternative method to evaluate the acid-base status, PO2, and PCO2, instead of ABGA during general inhalational anesthesia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Acute Pulmonary Edema following Failed Intubation: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Pulmonary edema that follows upper airway obstruction may occur in a variety of clinical situations. Post anesthetic laryngospasm has been implicated as the most frequent cause of this syndrome. Risk factors for development of post laryngospasm pulmonary edema include difficult intubation; nasal, oral, or pharyngeal surgical site; and obesity with obstructive apnea. We report a case that developed acute bilateral pulmonary edema after laryngospasm induced by failed intubation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema after Chest Tubing: A Case Report

    • Abstract: Re-expansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is a rare complication associated with the treatment of collapsed lung caused by pneumothorax, atelectasis, pleural effusion in which a large amount of air or effusion fluid is evacuated. In general RPE is resulted from more than 3 days of lung collapse and application of high negative intrapleural pressure. However, it is reported that RPE could be developed despite the collapse period is short and negative pressure suction is not performed. It also has been known that the rate of reexpansion is more important than amount of evacuated air, or collapse period in the development of RPE.Seventeen-year-old female was undergone suture hemostasis for liver laceration, in which RPE was occurred after closed thoracostomy for pleural effusion on postoperative-27 day.We present a case report with review of related articles.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • One-lung Ventilation using Wire-guided Endobronchial Blocker and Single
           Lumen Endotracheal ...

    • Abstract: We had done one-lung ventilation using 9 Fr wire-guided endobronchial blocker and outer diameter 41-mm flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in ruptured esophageal patient who expected difficult tracheal intubation and in esophageal cancer patient who was in need of mechanical ventilation during and after the operation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Sedation in the Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • The Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on Expression of Inducible Nitric
           Oxide Synthase in ...

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is a well-known phenomenon that alveolar and peritoneal macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce a large output of nitric oxide (NO) and an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. The purpose of this study is actually how much NO production and iNOS mRAN expression are effected by anesthetics (sevoflurane and propofol) on endotoxemic rats.METHODS: To examine the production of NO in peritoneal macrophages, NO concentration were measured from the rats following 2 hours exposure to LPS and 2 hours administration of sevoflurane and propofol, respectively. Culture supernatants were collected 24 hours after exposure to LPS and anesthetics and assayed by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) for production of NO. The iNOS mRNA expression was measured using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques and autoradiography. RESULTS: In the control group, the NO concentration was measured at 2 hours after infusion of LPS to rats, and showed 12 4micrometer.After insufflations of anesthetics to experimental animals, NO concentration increased in the sevoflurane and propofol groups, 37 13 (p
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Hemodynamic Changes during Isolated Liver Hemoperfusion of Hepatoma

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To analyze hemodynamic changes during single catheter technique of hepatic venous isolation and extracorporeal charcoal hemoperfusion for malignant liver tumor. METHODS: Drugs for chemotherapy were infused to the liver through hepatic artery. With 4-lumen- 2-balloon (4L-2B) catheter, hepatic venous blood was circulated to the extracorporeal charcoal system. During extracorporeal charcoal system circulation, drugs were eliminated and the blood was reinfused to supra-hepatic vein-IVC. At the same time, IVC was clamped. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and arterial blood gas were measured after 4L-2B catheter insertion (T1), during test circulation (T2), after 20min chemotherapy (T3) and after 10min reperfusion (T4). RESULTS: MAP was decreased at T3 compared to T1 and increased at T4 compared to T3. CI was decreased at T3 and increased at T4 compared to T1. SVRI was decreased at T4 compared to T1. HR was increased at T2 and T3 compared to T1. SVI was decreased at T2 and T3 compared to T1. CONCLUSIONS: During clamping of IVC, MAP is decreased by decreased SVI in spite of increased HR. After IVC is released and the stagnated blood of lower extremity is recirculated, the MAP is returned to the value of after catheter insertion by increased SVI in spite of decreased SVRI.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010
  • Admission Hyperglycemia Aggravates the Prognosis of Critically Ill

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is a common disease in critically ill patients, even those without diabetes. It has been recognized acute increase of blood glucose level would increase mortality in patients with and without diabetes in vascular disease such as acute myocardial infarct or acute stroke. However, there is not much data about hyperglycemic effects on the prognosis of patients with heterogenous disease in general intensive care unit (ICU). Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of admission hyperglycemia on prognosis of critically ill patients with heterogenous disease. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 712 patients admitted general ICU from July, 2000 to March, 2002 in teaching hospital. The patients who were not checked blood glucose level at ICU admission were excluded. We regarded diabetes patients who have been diagnosed diabetes before ICU admission. Hyperglycemia was defined as a fasting glucose level above 140 mg/dl or random glucose level above 200 mg/dl on 2 or more determinations. We measured hospital mortality, ICU stay, and hospital stay as well as blood glucose level. RESULT: Patients mortalities of diabetic hypergylcemia, nondiabetic hyperglycemia, diabetic normoglycemia, and nondiabetic normoglycemia were 17%, 19%, 26% and 10% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of diabetic patients regardless of hyperglycemia at admission time and nondiabetic hyperglycemia patients were higher than nondiabetic normoglycemia patients in ICU.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 1970 09:00:00 +010