Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8810 journals)
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INTERNAL MEDICINE (180 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 180 of 180 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abdomen     Open Access  
ACP Hospitalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACP Internist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACP Journal Club     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Clinica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acute and Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
American Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy & Physiology : Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Colorectal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 392)
AORN Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Bone & Joint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Death & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Liver Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Clinical Thyroidology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CNE Pflegemanagement     Hybrid Journal  
Communication Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Current Hepatology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research: Integrative Medicine     Open Access  
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Internist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 603)
Diabetes Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 578)
Diabetes Internacional     Open Access  
Diabetes Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Egyptian Liver Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Spine Journal     Open Access  
EMC - Aparato Locomotor     Hybrid Journal  
Endovascular Neuroradiology / Ендоваскулярна нейрорентгенохірургія     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eNeuro     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Translational Myology     Open Access  
European Radiology Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
HemaSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatology Communications     Open Access  
Hepatoma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Human Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases     Open Access  
Innere Medizin up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Internal Medicine Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Anatomy and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JAMA Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 364)
JCSM Clinical Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JHEP Reports     Open Access  
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
JMV - Journal de Médecine Vasculaire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
JOP. Journal of the Pancreas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Basic & Clinical Physiology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cancer & Allied Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives     Open Access  
Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy     Open Access  
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Liver : Disease & Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Internet Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Pancreatic Cancer     Open Access  
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Vektor Penyakit     Open Access  
La Revue de Medecine Interne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Lege artis - Das Magazin zur ärztlichen Weiterbildung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Liver Cancer International     Open Access  
Liver Research     Open Access  
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics     Open Access  
Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MYOPAIN. A journal of myofascial pain and fibromyalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuro-Oncology Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Neurobiology of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neurointervention     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Neuromuscular Diseases     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alcohol     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oncological Coloproctology     Open Access  
Open Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Pleura and Peritoneum     Open Access  
Pneumo News     Full-text available via subscription  
Polish Archives of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Prostate International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Fonoaudiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical     Open Access  
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Child Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Schlaf     Hybrid Journal  
Schmerzmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of the Foot & Ankle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SciMedicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thieme Case Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Urologie     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Barriers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
US Cardiology Review     Open Access  
Vascular and Endovascular Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ожирение и метаболизм     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Inflammation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.131
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1721-727X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1151 journals]
  • Retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics and laboratory results
           of COVID-19 patients

    • Authors: Liying Zhang, Yusheng Peng, Qiao Zheng, Lanbin Jiang, Shijie Tang, Pu Chen
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 is the “gold standard” for diagnosing COVID-19. However, due to the low detection capacity of SARS-CoV-2 and the high false negative rate at the beginning of the epidemic, and the medical staff did not know much about the condition and treatment of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, our hospital paid more attention to the results of other laboratory indicators in the early stage of the epidemic of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to explore clinical characteristics and laboratory results of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Retrospective study of 562 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Wuhan Red Cross Hospital from January 28 to March 12, 2020 was performed. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the severity of illness: Mild group (n = 436) and Severe group (n = 126). The general clinical characteristics of the patients were collected, including age, gender, past medical history, clinical symptoms, etc. All patients underwent blood routine test, biochemical indicators, blood gas analysis and other related laboratory examinations. The clinical data and laboratory results of the two groups were compared. Compared with the patients in the Mild group, the patients in Severe group were older and the proportion of patients suffering from underlying disease (61.11%) was higher (p  0.05). Viral infection and inflammation were more serious in elderly patients or patients with underlying diseases. They were more likely to progress to severely ill patients. Clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations were important basis for clinical classification and treatment. Therefore, Timely and accurate attention to these indicators is beneficial to prevent the deterioration of the disease.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-04-27T09:14:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211011919
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Creation of a specific and separated pediatric intra-hospital pathway in
           primary level hospitals during the era of COVID-19

    • Authors: Marco Manfredi, Pietro Ragni, Giancarlo Gargano
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Every new pandemic forces us to start new specific behaviors both in the civil life and within the hospitals trying to contain the spreading of the infection and preserve the more fragile people. In this regard, at the debut of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, our Local Health Agency had drastically modified every clinical and organizational pathways in order to limit the diffusion of the infection as well as to maintain a good quality of care and preserve healthcare workers. We report how we have modified the usual pediatric intra-hospital pathways in our primary level hospital to avoid mixing children with suspected and non-suspected symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Before every hospitalization, regardless of symptoms, each child and him/her parent/caregiver are undergone to rapid antigenic and molecular swab to rule out a SARS-CoV-2 infection; hence, positive patients are transferred to Pediatric Unit of third level hospital equipped by a Pediatric COVID Intensive Unit. We think the healthcare behaviors described in this manuscript can help to reduce the intra-hospital spreading of SARS-CoV-2, although children seem to have a minimal role in the dissemination, but we cannot let down your guard. Simultaneously we observed that the overall children requiring inpatient pediatric evaluation and hospitalization have dramatically decreased from the beginning of pandemic.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:38:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211010897
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Minocycline improves the recovery of nerve function and alleviates
           blood-brain barrier damage by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum in
           traumatic brain injury mice model

    • Authors: Bingbin Wang, Wendong Lin, Haiping Zhu
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical emergency with a very high incidence, disability, and fatality rate. Minocycline, a widely used semisynthetic second-generation tetracycline antibiotic, has anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effects. However, minocycline has not been explored as a therapeutic drug in TBI and if effective, the related molecular mechanism is also unclear. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect and possible mechanism of minocycline, in mice TBI model by studying the trauma-related functional and morphological changes. Also, in vitro cell studies were carried out to verify the animal model data. We found that minocycline significantly improved the neurobehavioral score, inhibited apoptosis, repaired the blood-brain barrier, and reduced the levels of inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in TBI mice. In vitro, upon oxygen and glucose deprivation, minocycline reduced the levels of cellular inflammatory factors and increased the levels of tight junction and adherens junction proteins, thereby significantly improving the cell viability. Moreover, Mino treatment prevented the loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins which were markedly reversed by an ER stress activator (tunicamycin) both in vivo and in vitro. Our findings set an effective basis for the clinical use of Mino to treat Traumatic brain injury-induced neurological deficits.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T05:07:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211010898
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Analysis of JAK2 V617F mutation in Tunisian patients with
           myeloproliferative neoplasms

    • Authors: Soumaya Chadi, Tarak Dhaouadi, Imen Sfar, Hela Baccouche, Rym Nabli, Neila Ben Romdhane, Taïeb Ben Abdallah, Yousr Gorgi
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the JAK2 V617F mutation in Tunisian patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and to look for possible associations with diseases’ presentation. In this context, JAK2 V617F polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing in 213 MPN patients (109 with polycythemia vera (PV), 93 with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 11 with primary myelofibrosis (PMF)), 77 unclassified patients with thrombosis (UPT) and 95 healthy control subjects. The JAK2 V617F mutant allele was present by either PCR-RFLP or direct sequencing in 158 (74.17%) MPN patients while all UPT and controls were negative. Besides, the JAK2 V617F mutation was significantly more frequent in patients with PV 98 (89.9%) than in ET 54 (58.1%) and PMF 6 (54.5%) groups, p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T05:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211006538
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Investigation of clinical efficacy of screw fixation with cortical bone
           trajectory for adjacent segment disease after lumbar interbody fusion

    • Authors: You-Di Xue, Chao Ma, Jie Feng, Wei-Xiang Dai, Zhao-Chuan Zhang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      To evaluate the clinical efficacy of screw fixation with cortical bone trajectory for adjacent segment disease after lumbar interbody fusion. A total of 14 patients with adjacent segment disease were enrolled, and a retrospective analysis was performed. All patients experienced posterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected segments combined with internal fixation of cortical bone trajectory screw. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were recorded. Clinical outcomes was evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry disability index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. X-ray and computed tomography and sagittal reconstruction were used to check regularly during the follow-up. Bone graft fusion rate was evaluated by Brantigan classification. Preoperatively, Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores were 7.0 ± 1.0, 72.2 ± 3.2, and 11.9 ± 1.3 points, respectively. At the 12th month after surgery, their scores were 1.9 ± 0.7, 28.6 ± 1.2, and 23.7 ± 0.9 points, respectively, which were significantly improved compared with those before surgery, and there were statistical significance in all differences (all p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T06:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000561
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • The efficacy and safety of bronchoscopy for treating transluminal

    • Authors: Hong Wang, Li Zhang, Fangwei Li, Yixin Wan
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We aim to reveal the clinical features of transluminal broncholiths and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopy for treating transluminal broncholiths. Patients with transluminal broncholiths were enrolled in this retrospective study in Lanzhou University Second Hospital between January 2010 and December 2018. Then age, gender, symptoms, and signs, imaging characteristics, treatment methods, outcomes as well as complications were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-eight patients with 36 pieces of transluminal broncholiths were diagnosed using chest CT and bronchoscopy, of which two patients underwent broncholiths removal via an elective surgical procedure and six patients were treated with one-time removal of broncholiths by bronchoscopy. Among the six patients who received one-time removal of stones by bronchoscopy, two underwent massive hemorrhage and one suffered from bronchial wall laceration in the process of broncholiths removal, all of the three patients received surgical treatment eventually. No serious complications occurred in the other 20 patients who underwent broncholiths removal via repeated bronchoscopy. Removal of transluminal broncholiths by bronchoscopy are effective and safe with less complications. When it is difficult to remove the transluminal broncholith completely at one time, repeated bronchoscopy could be chosen: First, to remove the portion which causes airway obstruction; and then to remove the remaining part by repeated bronchoscopy during the follow-up period. In case that severe distal lung tissue injury, massive hemoptysis or bronchial wall laceration occurs or the diagnosis of broncholiths is unclear, surgical treatment is required.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211007617
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Therapeutic role of atrial natriuretic peptide in early treatment of
           traumatic hemorrhagic shock

    • Authors: Shou-Yin Jiang, Ye-Hua Shen, Tai-Wen Rao, Xiao-Gang Zhao
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The biological effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in traumatic hemorrhagic shock (THS) is unknown. This study was to evaluate whether ANP therapy can show organ protection in THS. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: ANP group, sham group, and control group. Pressure-controlled THS was induced in rats in ANP group and control group. ANP at a rate of 0.025 μg/kg/min was infused in ANP group during near-80 min of shock. After that, animals were resuscitated for 60 min and observed until 24 h. Hemodynamic parameters during shock and resuscitation were measured. Serum levels of ANP and lactate dehydrogenase, tissue oxidative stress and inflammatory factors, as well as liver and kidney function were determined. Tissue apoptosis was also assessed. There was no statistically significant difference between ANP group and control group in arterial pressure throughout the 150 min monitoring period. Blood urea nitrogen at 90 min and 24 h in ANP group was significantly lower than control group. Alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase activity at 90 min in control group were significantly higher than that in sham group. However, hepatic enzyme activity at 90 min in ANP group was not significantly different compared with sham or control group. After 24 h, myocardial expression of caspase 3 protein in ANP group was significantly reduced compared with control group. Jejunal and hepatic Malondialdehyde was increased following ANP treatment. ANP therapy during early THS has no significant adverse effect on hemodynamics but can exert oxidative stress and certain protective effect on multiple organs. Our study may shed light on the novel therapy of THS with regard to organ protection. The mechanisms underlying the organ protection require further study.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T05:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211004402
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • HSV encephalitis after successful minimally invasive debridement for
           infected pancreatic necrosis: A case of rare central nervous system

    • Authors: Bei Lu, Yang Cai, Junjie Yin, Jingrui Wang, Zhong Jia, Wei Hu, Jianhua Fang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) often suffer tough complications, some of which are fatal. The early diagnosis and definite treatment of central nervous system (CNS) complications have not been fully achieved yet, which seriously affects the mortality of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We present a case of infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in a 62-year Chinese man who developed acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) after favorable minimally invasive retroperitoneal approaches (MIRAs). The patient was successfully treated with 115 days stayed in our hospital. The MIRAs included image-guided retroperitoneal percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), nephroscopic pancreatic necrosectomy (NPN), and ultrasonic pneumatic lithotripsy system (UPLS) assisted non-narcotic sinus track necrosectomy (NSN). HSE is relatively rare and potentially life threatening. We attempt to discuss the probable risk factors and how the relatively rare HSE are related to the patients of SAP with latent HSV.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T05:41:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000571
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Detecting Streptococcus suis by nanopore sequencing in endophthalmitis: A
           case report

    • Authors: Yi-Yan Wang, Qiong Huang, Yang Cheng
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Endophthalmitis is a rare and infectious disease caused by Streptococcus suis (S suis). Traditionally, S suis is detected by the pathogenic microorganism culture method, which has low positivity and high false negativity. Nanopore sequencing (NS), which is a third-generation sequencing technology, has several advantages over the traditional method; in particular, it is cost and time effective and has a high throughput. In this report, a case of infectious endophthalmitis caused by trauma is examined. The NS results suggest that the pathogen in question is a mixed infection caused by S suis and Clostridium perfringens. This case report provides evidence of the fact that NS can quickly identify pathogens, which is of great significance for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-23T05:12:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211002657
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Fractional exhaled nitric oxide could identify early spirometry change in
           clinically suspected asthma patients without airway obstruction

    • Authors: Qingbo Gao, Qiaozhen Wu, Fei Li, Cheng Chen
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a non-invasive biomarker for allergic inflammation seen in asthma. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of FeNO to discriminate spirometry and lung volume measurements between those with and without airway obstruction among subjects with clinically suspected asthma. A retrospective study was conducted. Diagnostic evaluations including spirometry and FeNO testing (NO electrochemical equipment: NIOX VERO; Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) were performed in all subjects. Airway obstruction was defined according to the Standardization of Spirometry of the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), and 2014 recommendations of the Chinese National Guidelines of Pulmonary Function Test. It was used the Student t test for analysis of continuous variables and the χ2 test for analysis of discrete variables including FeNO levels and lung function metrics. Of the 138 subjects with clinically suspected asthma, airway obstruction was found in 61. There was no significant difference in the mean FeNO levels among subjects with or without airway obstruction (p = 0.241) among un-selected subjects. Likewise, there was no difference in the FeNO levels between aged (>50 years) and younger subjects (⩽50 years) (p = 0.804). A significant proportion of subjects had a normal FeNO level ( 0.05). However, among subjects without airway obstruction, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/predicted (pred), maximal expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (MEF25%)/pred, maximal expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (MEF50%)/pred and maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)/pred were significantly lower in the FeNO ⩾ 25 ppb group compared to those in the FeNO 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T04:41:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211004110
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Inflammatory pathways and potential therapies for COVID-19: A mini review

    • Authors: Areeg M Dabbish, Nouran Yonis, Mohamed Salama, Musthafa M Essa, M Walid Qoronfleh
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The public health crisis of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is alarming since January 2020. COVID-19 genome (SARS-CoV-2) is related to other highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). Amino acid substitutions in some of SARS-CoV-2 proteins resulted in mutations proposing more virulent and contagious properties for this novel virus. Coronavirus penetrates the host cell via endocytosis and once infected, immune responses are triggered to fight against the pathogen. Innate immune response activates major transcription factors to secrete proinflammatory cytokines and type 1 interferon response (T1INF) to induce antiviral immunity. While adaptive immunity initiates cascade of B-cells antibody mediated and T-cells cellular mediate immunities, several mechanisms are raised by SARS-CoV-2 to evade host immune response. Consequently, a surge of proinflammatory cytokines, known as cytokine storm (CS) are released. Failure to manage CS results in several pathological complications as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although researches have not discovered an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2, recent therapeutic approaches recommending the use of anti-inflammatories in combination with antivirals and some repurposed drugs for COVID-19 patients. Future medications should be designed to target essential hallmarks in the CS to improve clinical outcomes.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-20T04:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211002986
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Cervus nippon var. mantchuricus water extract treated with digestive
           enzymes (CE) modulates M1 macrophage polarization through TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB
           signaling pathways on murine macrophages

    • Authors: Se Hyang Hong, Jin Mo Ku, Ye Seul Lim, Hyo In Kim, Yong Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Cervus nippon var. mantchuricus water extract treated with digestive enzymes (CE) on the promotion of M1 macrophage polarization in murine macrophages. Macrophages polarize either to one phenotype after stimulation with LPS or IFN-γ or to an alternatively activated phenotype that is induced by IL-4 or IL-13. Cell viability of RAW264.7 cells was determined by WST-1 assay. NO production was measured by Griess assay. IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and iNOS mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR. IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB signaling in RAW264.7 cells was evaluated by western blotting. The level of NF-κB was determined by immunoblotting. CE induced the differentiation of M1 macrophages. CE promoted M1 macrophages to elevate NO production and cytokine levels. CE-stimulated M1 macrophages had enhanced IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. CE promoted M1 macrophages to activate TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB phosphorylation. M2 markers were downregulated, while M1 markers were upregulated in murine macrophages by CE. Consequently, CE has immunomodulatory activity and can be used to promote M1 macrophage polarization through the TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T05:04:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000898
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Analysis of pathogenic distribution and drug resistance of
           catheter-related blood stream infection in hemodialysis patients with vein
           tunneled cuffed catheter

    • Authors: Wei Ren, Jun Jiang, Yan Wang, Yan Jin, Yuan Fang, Chen Zhao
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with vein tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) and misuse of antibiotic in clinical practice seriously affected the prognosis of MHD patients. The present study aimed to investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance of CRBSI in HD patients with TCC to guide clinical empirical pharmacy. The clinical data of 75 HD patients with TCC diagnosed with CRBSI between January 2011 and March 2015 were retrospectively collected, and the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed. In 75 HD patients with TCC diagnosed with CRBSI, there were 33 patients with positive blood culture, and the positive rate of blood culture was 44%. The majority of the 33 pathogens were Gram-positive bacteria (22 strains, accounting for 66.7%). Gram-positive cocci hardly resisted to vancomycin and linezolid, while the resistance rate to penicillin G nearly reached to 100%. Gram-negative bacilli had low resistance rates to carbapenems and quinolone antibiotics, and the resistance rate to cephalosporins antibioticsexceeding 50%. The positive rate of blood culture in 75 HD patients with TCC diagnosed with CRBSI is low. The pathogens resulting in CRBSI in HD patients are mainly Gram-positive bacteria which are significantly resistant to penicillin G, and have a low resistance rate to methicillin. Gram-negative bacteria have high resistance rates to commonly used antibiotics. The pathogen examination should be performed as early as possible and effective antibiotics should be chosen according to drug sensitivity test results in CRBSI in HD patients.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T05:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000887
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Oxidative stress in common variable immunodeficiency

    • Authors: Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu, Sukru Cekic, Emine Kirhan, Melahat Dirican, Sara S. Kilic
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogenous group of immunologic disorders of unknown etiology. Alterations of the normal cellular balance due to an increase in reactive oxygen species and/or decrease in antioxidant defense may lead to increased oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with CVID who had different presentations. We investigated the serum catalase (CAT), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), erythrocyte reduced glutathione as antioxidants and serum malondialdehyde levels as lipid peroxidation marker in patients with CVID in Uludag University Hospital Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology’s outpatient clinics. In the analysis, there were 21 patients and 27 matched healthy controls. The median levels of CAT in patients with CVID was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.04). Among the patients with CVID, 19% had autoimmune disease, one had Sjögren’s syndrome, one had autoimmune alopecia, one had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and one had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Patients with autoimmune complications had significantly lower CAT levels compared to the ones without autoimmune diseases (p = 0.03). The patients without non-infectious complications (NICs) had lower SOD levels than the patients with NICs (p = 0.05). The analysis of oxidative stress markers in the patients with CVID suggested a series of abnormalities in the anti-oxidant system. The clinical syndrome associations may be a useful tool for future studies to set prediction markers for the prognosis of patients with CVID.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211002411
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Effects of dexmedetomidine on the onset and duration of action in
           non-depolarizing neuromuscular relaxant rocuronium

    • Authors: Jiaqi Shan, Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaoli Zhang, Junfeng Zhang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      To determine the impact of two varying doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the onset and duration of neuromuscular blockade of rocuronium (ROC) under the condition of sevoflurane anesthesia. Eighty-one patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I–II, were stochastically allocated to control group (group C) and two DEX groups (group D1 and group D2). In group D1 and group D2, DEX (0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg, respectively) was administrated 10 min before induction of general anesthesia. In group C, equivalent saline was infused by the same way. We monitored heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and train-of-four (TOF) values of all subjects in the period of anesthesia. We recorded times to reach TOF value 0 (T0, from injection of ROC to disappearance of all four twitches) as the onset time and TOF value 25% (T25, ratio of fourth twitch to first twitch,) as clinical duration of neuromuscular blockade. A total of 81 patients were randomized, 75 of whom accepted treatment, including group D1 (n = 25), D2 (n = 25), and C (n = 25). T0 time of three groups was found to be similar. The duration of action for ROC in group D2 was 62.76 ± 6.33 min, which was much longer than that in group D1 and group C, which were 42.64 ± 3.92 and 42.56 ± 4.04 min (p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:49:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000578
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Hepatoprotective effect of galangin on carbon tetrachloride-induced
           hepatotoxicity via the LKB1/AMPK pathway

    • Authors: Meng Chen, Xinyan Song, Jifang Jiang, Lei Xing, Pengfei Wang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      To investigate the protective effects of galangin on liver toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. Mouse hepatotoxicity model was established by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 10 ml/kg body weight CCl4 that diluted with corn oil to a proportion of 1:500 on Kunming mice. The mice were randomly divided into five groups named control group, model group, and 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg galangin group. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed by ELISA. Liver histopathological examination was observed via optical microscopy. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and glutathion (GSSG) were analyzed to assess oxidative stress. Finally, western blot assay was carried out to analyse the expression levels of total AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phospho-AMPK (p-AMPK), total liver kinase B1 (LKB1), and phospho-LKB1 (p-LKB1). Compared with the control group, in the model group, the levels of AST, ALT, MDA, and GSSG increased significantly (p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:49:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000896
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • The association between serum cortisol, thyroid profile, paraoxonase
           activity, arylesterase activity and anthropometric parameters of
           undergraduate students under examination stress

    • Authors: Armghan Anjum, Haseeb Anwar, Muhammad Umar Sohail, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Ghulam Hussain, Azhar Rasul, Muhammad Umar Ijaz, Jaweria Nisar, Naveed Munir, Asif Shahzad
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Stress caused due to examinations during any degree program and at any educational level has been observed at all levels so the present study was conducted to investigate the stress related to final examination in undergraduate students with reference to their academic performance. Fifty-four volunteers were divided into three groups, (n = 18), according to their academic performance, that is, Group A with low CGPA (⩽2.99), Group B with average CGPA (⩾3.00–3.59) and Group C with high CGPA (⩾3.60) and blood samples (3 ml) were taken at three-time intervals, that is, pre-examination, during examination and post examination time interval, at the Department of Physiology, Government College University, Faisalabad. Anthropometric parameters like height, weight, blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index (BMI) were also determined. Blood cortisol and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)) were measured using ELISA based technique. Arylesterase activity (ARE) and paraoxonase activity (PON-1) were also measured using colorimetric method. The results showed that overall cortisol level was increased at pre-examination and during examination time intervals as compared to the post examination time interval while PON-1 and ARE were significantly (p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:49:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000884
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Cardioprotective effects of Ginsenoside compound-Mc1 and Dendrobium Nobile
           Lindl against myocardial infarction in an aged rat model: Involvement of
           TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway

    • Authors: Yongle Sun, Jing Geng, Deyu Wang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Aging is the crucial co-morbidity that prevents the full cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Combination therapy as a promising strategy may overcome this clinical problem. This study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Ginsenoside compound-Mc1 (GMc1) and Dendrobium Nobile Lindl (DNL) in myocardial I/R injury and explore the involvement of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in aged rats. In vivo I/R injury and myocardial infarction was established by temporary coronary ligation in 22–24 months’ old Sprague Dawley male rats. GMc1 (10 mg/kg) and DNL (80 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally for 4 weeks and orally for 14 days, respectively, before I/R injury. Infarct size was measured through triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride staining. ELISA assay was conducted to quantify the levels of cardiotroponin, and myocardial content of TNF-α and glutathione. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB proteins. GMc1 and DNL significantly reduced the infarct size to a similar extent (p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000577
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Isoimperatorin exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting the
           LPS-TLR4/MD-2-NF-κB pathway

    • Authors: Guirong Chen, Yunong Liu, Yubin Xu, Mingbo Zhang, Song Guo, Gang Zhang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Isoimperatorin (QHS) is a phytoconstituent found in the methanolic extracts obtained from the roots of Angelica dahurica, which contains anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-tumor, and vasodilatory activities. QHS possesses potent antagonistic activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation; however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of QHS and explored the underlying mechanisms. The QHS was purchased from Jiangsu Yongjian Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Jiangsu, China). We performed MTT assay, real-time PCR, ELISA, and western blotting experiments to assess the anti-inflammatory activity and the possible mechanism of QHS in vitro. Molecular docking was performed to study the binding of QHS and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) and elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism. QHS had no significant effect on cell viability. Moreover, pre-treatment with QHS significantly decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators including NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. In addition, real-time PCR showed that QHS decreased the mRNA expressions of iNOS, COX-2 TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Western blotting indicated that QHS could inhibit the expression of the proteins associated with the LPS-TLR4/MD-2-NF-κB signaling pathway. Lastly, molecular docking revealed a possible binding mechanism between QHS and MD-2. QHS exhibited anti-inflammatory activity when combined with MD-2, regulating the LPS-TLR4/MD-2-NF-κB signaling pathway, and inhibiting the release and expression of inflammatory cytokines and mediators. Furthermore, QHS can be used as a potential TLR4 antagonist, which blocks MD-2 binding, for treating inflammatory responses induced by LPS.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000573
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Acute moderate-intensity exercise increases total antioxidant capacity and
           anti-inflammatory responses in competitive cyclists: The role of

    • Authors: Tadeja Jakus, Mihaela Jurdana, Lovro Žiberna, Zala J Pražnikar
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      High-intensity exercise can elicit acute changes in the biochemical and physiological processes in the body of an athlete, including increased oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of acute moderate-intensity exercise on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum levels of anti-inflammatory adiponectin (APN), and inflammatory markers in competitive cyclists. Ten male cyclists (age 15–26 years, body mass index 19.4–24.7 kg/m2) participated in this study. Each subject performed the maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2peak) and completed a 10-min cycling exercise at a workload of 50% of the peak of VO2peak. Blood samples were collected on three different occasions: after an overnight fasting and at the exercise workloads of 50% and 100% VO2peak. We measured APN, TAC, inflammatory markers as well as assessed nutrient and energy intake for each participant. Baseline concentration of serum APN (10.92 µg/mL) significantly increased at 50% and at 100% VO2peak. In addition, TAC also increased after acute exercise (0.079 vs 0.093 nmol/µL). The concentration of APN at 50% VO2peak positively correlated with the CRP (r = 0.640, p = 0.046) and negatively correlated with TNF-α (r = −0.696, p = 0.025). This test showed that short (10 min) and medium-intensity (50% VO2peak) exercise activity in trained athletes evoked beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses. Importantly, this response correlates with the increase in APN levels thereby showing that highly trained individuals have beneficial responses originating from adipose tissue. Our observations show that a short training at moderate activity can be an important preservative strategy during the recovery training period.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739221998890
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Tim-3 associated with apoptotic NK cells and disease activity in SLE

    • Authors: Di Zhao, Xiao Yang, Jie Zhang, Yi Zhang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been found to play important roles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), however, whether Tim-3 is involved in apoptosis of NK cells in SLE remains unknown. The proportion of CD3−CD56+ NK cells and the percentage of AnnexinV+ NK cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in SLE patients and healthy controls. Tim-3 expression on NK cells was also evaluated by flow cytometry. We firstly observed a decreased proportion of NK cells and an increased proportion of apoptotic NK cells in SLE patients. The proportion of apoptotic NK cells was positively correlated with anti-dsDNA and SLEDAI. Tim-3 expression on NK cells was up-regulated in SLE patients. Further analysis showed that Tim-3 expression on NK cells was negatively correlated with the proportion of apoptotic NK cells, anti-dsDNA and SLEDAI, while positively correlated with the proportion of NK cells. The present results suggest that Tim-3 might play roles in SLE by regulating the apoptosis of NK cells and Tim-3 might serve as a potential target for the treatment of SLE.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T09:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000570
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • On the promise of glycogen phosphorylase inhibition in acute inflammation

    • Authors: Aarooran Sivakumaran Durairaj, Paras Singh Minhas
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      How glycogen metabolism directly regulates macrophages in the acute inflammatory state is not well understood. In the recent issue of Nature Communications, Ma et al. provide new insight into this process, demonstrating that glycogenolysis-driven pentose phosphate pathway and UDP-glucose-driven P2Y14 receptor promote an inflammatory phenotype in macrophages. They show that in vivo blockade of glycogenolysis is sufficient to rescue survival in peritonitis, hepatitis, and sepsis. Their results hold implications for the treatment of acute inflammatory disorders at large.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:42:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211001620
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • CD47 is highly expressed in gliomas and targeting CD47 is a promising
           therapeutic strategy

    • Authors: Jiaying Yang, Yongjun Yao, Li Tong, Ziwei Zhu, Lei Wang, Jinju Yang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Gliomas are very malignant brain tumors that are difficult to treat. CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that binds to SIPRα on phagocytes. It is overexpressed on the plasma membranes of multiple human tumor cell types and is an important diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in many types of cancer. However, the association between CD47 protein expression in glioma tissue and clinicopathological stage has not been investigated in detail. A total of 80 surgical glioma specimens were stained with anti-CD47 antibody to assess the relationship between CD47 protein expression and clinicopathological stage of the glioma. Wound healing assays were performed to analyze the influence of CD47 on the migration and invasion of glioma cells, and near-infrared fluorescence localization assays in a U-87 MG-bearing xenograft model were used to determine the distribution of anti-CD47 antibody in vivo. MTT assays and administration of anti-CD47 to a U251-bearing xenograft model were used to analyze the inhibitory effects of the antibody on gliomas. CD47 expression was higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas, and high CD47 expression was positively correlated with histology and tumor clinicopathological stage. CD47 over-expression promoted the growth and motility of two glioma cell lines (U-87 MG and U251) and a laboratory-developed anti-CD47 antibody accumulated at the glioma site. Proliferation of U251 and U-87 MG cells was not significantly inhibited by the anti-CD47 antibody in vitro, but the antibody significantly inhibited U251 growth in vivo. It also enhanced inhibition capacity by Taxol. Our results suggest that CD47 plays a critical role in the progression of gliomas from stage I to IV and may be a potential target for the treatment of gliomas. CD47 appears to play a critical role in the progression of gliomas from stage I to IV and an anti-CD47 antibody prepared in the laboratory may inhibit the growth of gliomas.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000899
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Tripterygium glycoside improves regulatory T cells and attenuates acute
           organ dysfunction in septic mice

    • Authors: Xiaoming Zhang, Xiaojie Zhou
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Sepsis is a fatal infectious disease accompanied by multiple organ failure. Immune dysfunction and inflammatory response play an important role in the progression of the disease. Tripterygium glycoside (TG) has immune suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of TG on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Septic mice model was induced by cecal ligation and puncture(CLP), after administration of TG, specimens are collected at designated time points. Histopathology changes of lung tissues and Kidney tissues were observed under light microscope, magnetic microbeads were used to isolate splenic CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), and phenotypes were then analyzed by flow cytometry. ELISA method was employed to detect the concentrations of plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. Nuclear p-NF-κB and Cytoplasmic IkB-a was detected by western blot. TG administration significantly alleviated lung and kidney inflammatory injury and improved the survival of septic mice. Furthermore, the suppressive function of regulatory T cells was enhanced and plasma expression of IL-10 was increased following TG treatment. The NF-B signaling pathway and secretion of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 was notably inhibited in septic mice treated with TG. TG exerts protective effects through improving regulatory T cells and attenuating pro-inflammatory cytokines in septic mice.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000885
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • B7-H3 and digestive system cancers

    • Authors: Liyun Zhou, Zhenhua Jiang, Jing Gu, Wenhui Gu, Shuangyin Han
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Digestive system cancers (DSC) are the most common cancers worldwide and often associated with poor prognosis because of their characteristics of invasive and metastatic. Thus, it is particularly necessary to find novel molecular targets for early diagnosis, as well as targeted treatment of DSC. B7-H3, which was previously referred to as a modulatory ligand that regulate T-cell-mediated immune reaction, is a B7-family member of co-stimulatory biomolecules, and in recent years it was found that its concentration was remarkably up modulated in serum, as well as tissues of DSC patients. Numerous studies have documented that B7-H3 has a vital function in the DSC. Herein, we summarize the current literature on diagnosis and prognosis potential of B7-H3 in DSC including those of the esophagus, gastric, liver, pancreas, and colon.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:33:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000581
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Low-body-perfusion via an arterial sheath reduces inflammation after
           aortic arch reconstruction surgery

    • Authors: Torsten Baehner, Johannes Breuer, Ingo Heinze, Georg Daniel Duerr, Oliver Dewald, Markus Velten
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Pediatric cardiac surgeries involving aortic arch reconstruction are complex and require long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Selective perfusion techniques have been developed to prevent the deleterious consequences of DHCA associated hypoperfusion. The effectivity of low body perfusion through cannulation of the femoral artery with an arterial sheath remains to be elucidated. We compared perfusion and inflammation in patients receiving selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) only to low body perfusion (LBP) in addition to ACP during DHCA for aortic arch reconstruction surgery. There was no difference in patient characteristics, cardiac pathologies, or performed procedures between ACP and LBP groups. Lactate levels increased after cardiac arrest in both groups. However, lactate levels were lower after 1 h reperfusion, at the end of extracorporeal circulation (ECC), and after surgery in LBP group compared to ACP only. Furthermore, creatinine was increased in ACP group on postoperative day 1 compared to LBP group but no acute kidney injury was observed in any group. IL-6 concentration increased in ACP group, while remained unchanged in LBP group compared to pre surgical values and were significantly lower compared to ACP group on postoperative days 1 and 2. LBP via an arterial sheath during cardiac arrest for aortic arch reconstruction surgery in addition to ACP, improves post ECC tissue perfusion as indicated by lower lactate levels and reduces creatinine levels suggesting milder kidney injury. LBP seems to prevent postoperative inflammation through a reduction in procedural duration or enhanced perfusion and thereby improves the outcome after aortic arch reconstruction surgery.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:30:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000574
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Review on the correlation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
           and eosinophil in peripheral blood

    • Authors: Hong-Xiang Liu, Na Cui, Yi-Fan Li
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible disease characterized by the limitation of continuous airflow. Eosinophil (EOS) in peripheral blood plays a key role in the acute exacerbation of COPD. Eosinophil-increased COPD has become an important variant of COPD and the focus of individualized treatment of COPD. Numerous studies have shown that an increased eosinophil count or an increased percentage in the peripheral blood closely correlates to the acute exacerbation and prognosis of COPD. Therefore, this study intends to review the progress of domestic and foreign research on the correlation between COPD and EOS.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T05:14:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739221998183
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • The risk factors for severe patients with COVID-19 in China: A systematic
           review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Xie Yue-liang, Wang Jiang-lin, Yang Hui-qin, Zhou Ge, Deng Hongyu, Fang Wei-jin, Zuo Xiao-cong
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      COVID-19 is spreading exponentially. In order to optimize medical resources allocation and reduce mortality, biomarkers are needed to differentiate between COVID-19 patients with or without severe diseases early as possible. We searched Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP databases, the Cochrane Library, and medRxiv for primary articles in English or Chinese up to March 30, 2020 to systematically evaluate the risk factors for severe patients in China. Mean difference or standardize mean difference and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were performed by random-effect or fixed models in cases of significant heterogeneity between studies. We used I2 to evaluate the magnitude of heterogeneity. A total of 54 articles involving about 7000 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis. In total, 52 of 67 parameters between severe and non-severe cases were significantly different. Elderly male patients with comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or cancer were more common in severe COVID-19 patients. Regarding the clinical manifestations on admission, fever, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, chest distress, fatigue, headache, chills, anorexia, or abdominal pain were more prevalent in severe COVID-19 patients. The results of the clinical examination showed that high C-reactive protein (CRP), high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high D-dimer, and decreased T lymphocytes cells subsets, decreased lymphocyte may help clinicians predict the progression of severe illness in patients with COVID-19. Our findings will be conducive for clinician to stratify the COVID-19 patients to reduce mortality under the relative shortage of medical resources.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T05:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000890
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Inhibitory effect of desflurane on degranulation of mast cells induced by
           lateral ventricular injection of stimulator-C48/80 in C57BL/6 male mice

    • Authors: ZhiYang Yu, Yang Liu, Mi Tian, LiDong Zhang, Hao Cheng, SiHai Zhu, WeiYan Li
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Inhalation of anesthetic agents have been observed to confer neuroprotection for decades. The present study was intended to determine whether desflurane (DES) prohibits mast cells (MCs) from degranulation induced by lateral ventricular injection (LVC) with Compound 48/80 (C48/80) in C57BL/6. Total 100 mice were recruited to this study, but only 88 male mice (20–24 weeks) were survived from the procedure, and randomized and allocated into four groups: (A) the saline group; (B) the C48/80 group; (C) the sodium cromoglycate (CRO + C48/80) group; (D) 7.5% DES preconditioning for 2 h + C48/80 lateral ventricular injection (DES + C48/80) group. The slices of mice brain thalamus were performed for toluidine blue staining (MCs) and immunochemistry (fluorescence of Iba1 and GFAP, respectively), and brain tissues were extracted to probe IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB (p65), and TLR4 against GAPDH by western blotting. Our results demonstrated that administration of C48/80 provoked degranulation of mast cells at thalamus, increasing the fluorescence intensities of Iba1 and GFAP, and over-expressing IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB(p65), and TLR4. However, pre-conditioning inhalation of DES prohibited MCs from degranulation, diminishing the fluorescent intensities of Iba1 and GFAP, decreasing expressed levels of IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB(p65), as well as TLR4. It suggests inhalation DES could inhibit the neuroinflammation and deactivate glial and astrocytes via direct prohibiting degranulation of MCs at thalamus in the central nervous system (CNS).
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T04:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20587392211000891
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Amphiregulin induces interleukin-8 production and cell proliferation in
           lung epithelial cells through PI3K-Akt/ ERK pathways

    • Authors: Fangfang Yang, Wei Xu, Yanli Pei
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Amphiregulin (AR), belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, is able to induce a series of pathological and physiological responses by binding and activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) or CXCL8, a pro-inflammatory chemokine, has been suggested to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and inflammatory microenvironment via transactivation of the EGFR. However, whether there is a crosstalk between AR with IL-8 during inflammatory response remain to be fully understood. The current study was designed to investigate the possible mechanism of the interactions between AR and IL-8 production in human lung epithelial cells in vitro. Lung epithelial A549 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to generate ALI model. LPS-induced AR and IL-8 production by A549 cells was measured by real-time PCR, Western Blot, and ELISA. The AR neutralizing antibody, PI3K specific inhibitor LY294002, JNK specific inhibitor SP60012, ERK specific inhibitor PD98089, and p38 inhibitor SB203580 were used to investigate the role of these signal pathways in LPS-induced cell proliferation, AR and IL-8 expression. LPS could induce AR through PI3K/Akt and ERK signal pathways. Furthermore, LPS induced AR promoted the production of IL-8 requires activation of EGFR, PI3K/Akt, and ERK signal pathways. The neutralizing antibody to AR prevented production of IL-8 induced by LPS. Treatment with Erlotinib, PI3K inhibitors, ERK inhibitor significantly inhibited AR-induced IL-8 production and cell proliferation. Our data indicate that a distinct role of EGFR–PI3K–Akt/ERK pathway as a bridge of interaction between AR and IL-8 production, as one of potential mechanisms to regulate inflammation and cell proliferation in human lung epithelial cells.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T05:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739221998202
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Influence on proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells
           and expression of ACVR1 by Helicobacter pylori

    • Authors: Yunfeng Lin, Min Chen, Shuyu Zhang, Zhichun Feng, Jingwen Wang
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      To discuss the influence on proliferation and apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (Hp). CCK-8 method and flow cytometry to test the influence on proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells by Hp and cell cycle distribution. Immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR, and WB to analyze the expression and activation of ACVR1. Functional studies of TNBS-induced IBD on mice and DSS-induced IBD on C57BL/6J mice with HP used for intervention were also performed. Hp facilitated the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells with the breeding ratios on the first and third day are 5.24% ± 3.26% and 34.18% ± 6.68% respectively. ACVR1 is activated and the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL is up-regulated. In vivo, TNBS-induced and Hp-induced exhibited inflammatory lesions of intestine, ACVR1 and Bcl-2 higher expressions as compared to wild-type mice. Hp is likely to play a very important role in the proliferation, apoptosis, and malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells through ACVR1 pathway.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-02-20T07:08:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739220987108
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • A 48 year old male with wandering pleural effusion and pulmonary

    • Authors: Weiwei Ning, Limin Yang, Yanbin Chen, Cheng Chen
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We reported a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis presenting as wandering pleural effusion and pulmonary infiltration. The patient had an explicit history of eating raw freshwater crabs 6 months earlier, and a test for serum antibodies to paragonimus was positive. This case illustrates the complex nature of pathological processes and immunological responses in the lungs and highlights the need to consider the existence of paragonimus infection.
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T04:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739220960553
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Effects of ETV and VPS on cognitive impairment in infants with congenital
           hydrocephalus: A retrospective study

    • Authors: Wen-Yu Ji, Ning Cai, Ke-bai Tu, Yong-Xin Wang, Yan-Dong Fan, DangmurenjiaFu Geng
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This study aims to investigate the postoperative cognitive function changes of infants who underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) for the treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. Data of 70 hydrocephalus infants and children were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 20 patients underwent ETV, 27 patients underwent VPS, and 23 patients did not undergo any operation (controls). All patients were routinely cared after discharge. The Gecell Developmental Diagnostic Scale was filled for all patients at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months after diagnosis. A total of 20 patients in the ETV group were followed up for 6 months. Among these patients, the clinical symptoms of 18 patients significantly improved. Results determined at 6 months after surgery in the ETV group was statistically significant, compared with the control group (P 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T10:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739219866095
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
  • Clinical characteristics and cardiovascular implications of the dead
           patients for COVID-19

    • Authors: Katia Falasca, Claudio Ucciferri, Alessandro Brandimarte, Antonio Auricchio, Michela Pontolillo, Luca Caiazzo, Jacopo Vecchiet
      Abstract: European Journal of Inflammation, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (named SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. Aged population with cardiovascular diseases is usually more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection with an increased risk of severe complications and elevated case-fatality rate. Despite of several researches about COVID-19, cardiovascular implications related to this infection still remain largely unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of dead patients with COVID-19. We enrolled all patients with more than 50 years of age with laboratory confirmed COVID-19, admitted to infectious clinical diseases PO SS Annunziata of Chieti (Italy) from March 2020 to April 2020 who died during hospitalization. Demographics, underlying comorbidities, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory results, computed tomography of the chest, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. We enrolled eight patients, the age was 82 ± 9.7 years, four female and four male. All patients had comorbidity, such as hypertension (7 [87.5%]), diabetes (1 [12.5%]), and heart disease (6 [75%]). Common symptoms included fever [8 (100%)], dry cough (1[12.56%]), and dyspnea (3 [37.5%]). All patients [8 (100%)] showed local and/or bilateral patchy shadowing on chest computed tomography that is the typical radiological finding in COVID-19. Lymphopenia was observed in seven patients (87.5%). All patients showed elevated troponin and prolongation of the QTc interval (p 
      Citation: European Journal of Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T04:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2058739220986259
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2021)
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Heriot-Watt University
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