Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8810 journals)
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    - SURGERY (412 journals)

INTERNAL MEDICINE (180 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 180 of 180 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abdomen     Open Access  
ACP Hospitalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACP Internist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACP Journal Club     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Clinica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acute and Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
American Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy & Physiology : Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Colorectal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 392)
AORN Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Bone & Joint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Death & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Liver Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Clinical Thyroidology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CNE Pflegemanagement     Hybrid Journal  
Communication Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Current Hepatology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research: Integrative Medicine     Open Access  
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Internist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 603)
Diabetes Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 578)
Diabetes Internacional     Open Access  
Diabetes Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Egyptian Liver Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Spine Journal     Open Access  
EMC - Aparato Locomotor     Hybrid Journal  
Endovascular Neuroradiology / Ендоваскулярна нейрорентгенохірургія     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eNeuro     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Translational Myology     Open Access  
European Radiology Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
HemaSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatology Communications     Open Access  
Hepatoma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Human Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases     Open Access  
Innere Medizin up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Internal Medicine Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Anatomy and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JAMA Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 364)
JCSM Clinical Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JHEP Reports     Open Access  
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
JMV - Journal de Médecine Vasculaire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
JOP. Journal of the Pancreas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Basic & Clinical Physiology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cancer & Allied Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives     Open Access  
Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy     Open Access  
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Liver : Disease & Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Internet Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Pancreatic Cancer     Open Access  
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Vektor Penyakit     Open Access  
La Revue de Medecine Interne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Lege artis - Das Magazin zur ärztlichen Weiterbildung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Liver Cancer International     Open Access  
Liver Research     Open Access  
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics     Open Access  
Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MYOPAIN. A journal of myofascial pain and fibromyalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuro-Oncology Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Neurobiology of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neurointervention     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Neuromuscular Diseases     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alcohol     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oncological Coloproctology     Open Access  
Open Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Pleura and Peritoneum     Open Access  
Pneumo News     Full-text available via subscription  
Polish Archives of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Prostate International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Fonoaudiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical     Open Access  
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Child Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Schlaf     Hybrid Journal  
Schmerzmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of the Foot & Ankle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SciMedicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thieme Case Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Urologie     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Barriers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
US Cardiology Review     Open Access  
Vascular and Endovascular Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ожирение и метаболизм     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.273
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1122-6714 - ISSN (Online) 2038-5129
Published by Firenze University Press Homepage  [45 journals]
  • Discovery and development of the cardiovascular system with a focus on
           angiogenesis: a historical overview

    • Authors: Gianfranco Natale, Guido Bocci
      Pages: 247 - 270
      Abstract: In comparison with other organs, the beating heart and the red color of blood flowing inside vessels not only were arguments for anatomical research but also inspired metaphorical as well as symbolical considerations. Indeed, for a long time the cardiac pump was thought as the seat of passions and a haemocardiocentric theory developed, especially in Aristotle’s philosophy. After the Galen’s medicine, new anatomical observations were shown in the Renaissance period, with modern descriptions of the cardiovascular system by Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. Descartes’ mechanistic view confirmed the discovery of the blood circulation by Harvey, and microscopic investigations unrevealed the capillary network. Most of these studies mainly described blood vessels as static anatomical structures and said little about their formation and development. Then, at the end of the 18th century, Hunter introduced the concept of angiogenesis in in vivo experiments, leading to the modern embryological research. The beginning of angiogenesis era was characterized by the first microscopical evidences of capillary formation and the discovery of the angioblasts by Sabin. The evolution of angiogenesis concept occurred in the ‘70s of 20th century with the pivotal work by Folkman and the onset of research on pro-and anti-angiogenic factors which characterized the next two decades of angiogenesis field. New models of neovascularization have been recently proposed such as the vasculogenic mimicry and the vessel cooption to explain the non-angiogenic tumor growth and the antiangiogenic drug unresponsiveness. Future trends are dealing with the role of angiogenic process and immunity.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11656
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Mast cells, an evolutionary approach

    • Authors: Paola Saccheri, Luciana Travan, Domenico Ribatti, Enrico Crivellato
      Pages: 271 - 287
      Abstract: Mast cells are tissue-based immune cells that participate to both innate and adaptive immunity as well as to tissue-remodelling processes. Their phylogenetic development can be only guessed and partly reconstructed according to present trace evidence. This kind of cells have been found in all vertebrate classes and a cell population largely with the qualities of higher vertebrate mast cells is identifiable in the most evolutionarily sophisticated fish species. In invertebrates, cells correlated with vertebrate mast cells have been documented in ascidians, a class of urochordates which made its appearance about 500 million years ago. These include the granular haemocyte with transitional features between basophils and mast cells, and the test cell. Both cells store histamine and heparin, and supply protective tasks. The test cell discharges tryptase after stimulus with compound 48/80. A leukocyte progenitor effective in primitive confined innate immunity possibly represents the mast cell ancestor. This cell was likely concerned with phagocytic and killing actions against pathogens, and functioned as a broad-spectrum activator of phlogistic processes. This defensive precursor cell was possibly engaged in associated local reparative functions. With the initiation of recombinase activating genes (RAG)-mediated adaptive immunity in the Cambrian era, about 550 million years ago, and the appearance of early vertebrates, mast cell progenitors developed towards a multifaceted cellular type. As a distinguished cell category mast cells probably emerged in the last common ancestor we shared with hagfish, lamprey and sharks about 450-500 million years ago.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11657
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Camillo Golgi: the conservative revolutionary

    • Authors: Paolo Mazzarello
      Pages: 288 - 304
      Abstract: This article outlines the fundamental phases of the scientific life of Camillo Golgi, the first Italian to win a Nobel Prize and one of the protagonists of European biomedical research between the 19th and 20th centuries.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11658
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Structure, morphology and signalling development mechanisms of human
           salivary glands

    • Authors: Margherita Sisto, Domenico Ribatti, Sabrina Lisi
      Pages: 305 - 318
      Abstract: The human salivary gland (SGs) develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva indispensable to maintain the health of the oral cavity and for carry out physiological functions like mastication, taste perception and speech. Here we review the anatomy and cytoarchitecture of SGs and the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the molecular signalling pathways of SGs development to translate this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypo function.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11659
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Position of mandibular foramen and its clinical implications

    • Authors: Abebe Muche, Arthur Saniotis
      Pages: 319 - 328
      Abstract: Mandibular foramen is an irregular foramen located above the center on the medial surface of the ramus, containing the inferior alveolar nerve. This study aimed at determining the position of the mandibular foramen in adult Ethiopian populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, on 130 human dry adult human mandibles of unknown gender and age. The position of right and left mandibular foramina was determined in reference to the distance of different landmarks with the help of sliding digital vernier caliper. The data were analyzed using SPSS version-20. The data were compared using Student’s t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The average distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of mandibular ramus was 23.81 ± 0.332 mm (right side) and 24.73 ± 0.456 mm (left side); from the posterior border of the ramus was 16.99 ± 0.273 mm (right side) and 16.23 ± 0.252 mm (left side), P<0.05. The mandibular foramen was located 20.19 ± 0.379 mm and 19.32 ± 0.346 mm away from the gonion of right and left sides, respectively. Furthermore, on average the mandibular foramen was away from the mandibular notch at a distance of 21.82 ± 0.356 mm (right side) and 21.65 ± 0.329 mm (left side). Conclusion: Anatomical knowledge of the average distance of mandibular foramen from various anatomical landmarks is useful for surgeons to safeguard from neurovascular complication.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11660
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Erasistratus of Chios: a pioneer of human anatomy and physiology

    • Authors: Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Maria Zarokosta, Menelaos Zoulamoglou, Theodoros Piperos, Euthumios Nikou, Anastasios Katsourakis, George Noussios
      Pages: 329 - 332
      Abstract: Erasistratus of Chios (310-250 BC) was one of the great Greek physicians of antiquity. Historical investigation reveals that he was an innovative anatomist, neuroanatomist and a pioneer of human physiology. His accurate discoveries formed the basis of positive sciences and ameliorated medicine.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11661
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • An accessory tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis to the fifth digit

    • Authors: Logan S. Bale, Sean O. Herrin
      Pages: 333 - 336
      Abstract: Variations of the muscle belly and tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis to the fifth digit are common. We encountered an unusual variant during routine educational dissection; an accessory tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis that united with the tendon of flexor digitorum profundus to the fifth digit. This variant is not documented in the literature. Known variations of flexor digitorum superficialis to the fifth digit are discussed to allow for comparison with the variant identified in this report. The potential clinical significance of the variant is speculated upon.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11662
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Anatomy of the hippocampus and its emerging roles in modulating
           emotion-dependent autonomic activities

    • Authors: Itopa E. Ajayi
      Pages: 337 - 352
      Abstract: The hippocampus is popularly known to be involved in learning and memory. However, emerging evidence indicates that the hippocampus also mediates emotions in a process that involves modulating motor and autonomic outflow. The parts of the hippocampus involved in modulating autonomic activities are distinct and thus support the argument of inherent structural and functional segregation. It is suggested that the ability to modulate emotion-dependent autonomic rhythm results from descending synaptic interactions with nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem where the rhythm of motor and autonomic activities is generated and maintained. However, there is little knowledge of the anatomical pathways and circuit physiology that support the modulation of such autonomic activities. Also, in coordinating physiologic responses, forebrain structures operate through functional networks, but the neural pathways and mechanisms involved in such complex interactions are not clear. Thus, the current review aims at elucidating the anatomy of the hippocampus with emphasis on the intra and inter structural circuits responsible for modulating emotion-dependent autonomic activities.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11663
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • An application of the graph theory to the study of the human locomotor

    • Authors: Ferdinando Paternostro, Ugo Santosuosso, Daniele Della Posta, Piergiorgio Francia
      Pages: 353 - 363
      Abstract: The study of the relationships between the different structures of the human locomotor system still raises great interest. In fact, the human body networks and in particular the “myofascial system network” underlie posture and movement and new knowledge could be useful and applied to many fields such as medicine and prosthetics. The hypothesis of this study was to verify the possibility of creating a structural network representing the human locomotor system as well as to study and describe the relationship between the different structures considered. The graph theory was applied to a network of 2339 body parts (nodes) and 7310 links, representing the locomotor system. The open source platform software Cytoscape was used for data entry (nodes and links) as well as for debugging. In addition, the “NetworkAnalyzer” plugin was used for the descriptive statistics of the network obtained. In order to achieve a better rendering, the results of the network parameters gained were then imported into Gephi graph platform. At the end of this procedure, we obtained an image of a human being in an orthostatic position with a precise distribution of the nodes and links. More specifically, “the shortest pathways analysis of the network” demonstrated that any two randomly selected nodes on the network were connected by pathways of 4 or at most 6-8 nodes. Moreover, the Edge Radiality Distribution analysis was carried out in order to define how a single node is functionally relevant for other nodes: the probability distribution ranged from 0.4 to 0.77. This indicates that the majority of nodes tend to be functionally relevant for the others, but none of these is predominant. As a whole, the Cluster Coefficient (0.260) demonstrates that the network is neither random nor “strongly organized”.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11664
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Morphology of the caudate lobe of the liver in a Caribbean population

    • Authors: Michael T. Gardner, Shamir O. Cawich, Yuxue Zheng, Ramanand Shetty, Diane E. Gardner, Vijay Naraynsingh, Neil W. Pearce
      Pages: 364 - 376
      Abstract: There have been no prior reports of the morphology of the caudate lobe of the liver in a Caribbean population. We sought to document the variations in caudate surface anatomy in this population. Two independent investigators observed 56 consecutive cadaveric dissections over a period of five years. Each liver was explanted using a standardized technique. The caudate lobe was observed and standardized measurements were taken using electronic calipers. There were 56 cadavers dissected over the study period. Morphologic anomalies of the caudate lobe were present in 64% of unselected persons in this Caribbean population. These included the presence of a linguiform process (64.3%), absence of a caudate process (28.6%), presence of an inferior caudate notch (21.4%), the presence of a vertical caudate fissure (19.6%) and the presence of a papillary process (10.7%). The caudate fissure co-existed with a caudate notch in 91.6% of our population. Only 36% of persons in this Caribbean population had normal caudate lobe anatomy. These variations carry clinical significance and are of importance to any clinician treating liver diseases in persons of Caribbean extract. This population has the highest prevalence of a linguiform process (64.3%) to be reported in medical literature. It is unclear why the incidence was so high in this Caribbean population, but it is tempting to think that there might be an ethnic predisposition since the majority of cadavers in our study were of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity (91.1%).
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11665
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • The Martin-Gruber Anastomosis in Bosnian population: an anatomical study

    • Authors: Renata Hodzic, Ermina Iljazovic, Nermina Piric, Sanela Zukić
      Pages: 377 - 381
      Abstract: The Martin-Gruber anastomosis (MGA) is the anastomosis in which the anastomotic branch originates proximally from the median nerve (MN) and unites distally with the ulnar nerve (UN). This is the most common form of “anomalous” innervation that have been reported in the upper part of the forearm. This study has a purpose to report the incidence, type, topography of MGA found and access the lenght and diameter of these anastomosis. For this study, 60 anterior forearms (30 right and 30 left) from adult adavers were dissected. The presence of MGA was verified in 18,33% forearms. Single MGA anastomosis was found in 90,9%, corresponding to type A in 10%, type B in 10% and type C in 80%, while double MGA was found in 9,1%, both been duplification of type C. Anastomoses were found mainly on the right side in anatomical examination (seven against four). No statistically significant difference was found between men and women regarding the frequency of the MGA. In pattern I, the course of of MGA was transveral in 90% of cases, and arched in 10%, while in pattern II, the superior connection was tranversal and the inferior was oblique. The MGA passed in front of the ulnar artery in 3 cases and behind in 9 cases. The average length of the anastomosis was 6.2 cm, while the average diameter was 1.14 mm. The anastomoses between MN and UN are clinically relevant so therefore the knowledge of the existance of the MGA in the forearm, types of presentation and topography is extremely important for the correct diagnosis of neuropathies as well as essential to diferrentiate a complete damage from a partial injuries of peripheral nerves.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11666
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Morphometric evaluation of the infraorbital foramen in human dry skulls of
           South Indian population

    • Authors: Bhagath Kumar Potu, Gowtham Chandra Srungavarapu, Thejodhar Pulakunta
      Pages: 382 - 391
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the location of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) in relation to infraorbital margin (IOM), anterior nasal spine (ANS) and Nasion (NA), Supraorbital margin (SOM) and sockets of the maxillary teeth in adult skulls (of South Indian population). Fourteen skulls (28 sides) have been analyzed. In order to analyse the size and the relative position of the IOF with the above parameters, we have used a digital caliper for measurements with a precision of 0.01 mm. The IOF was oval in shape (85.7 %) on right side and (71.4 %) on left side while none of them were found either in semilunar or triangular shape in contrast to previous reports. In most of the cases IOF was found to be situated lateral to the plane of SOM. The vertical and transverse diameter of the IOF on both sides was found to be almost equal. The mean distance and standard deviation (mean ± SD) between right IOF and ANS, IOM and NA were 33.6 ±2.22 mm, 5.49± 1.10 mm and 41.4± 3.27 mm respectively, while the mean ± SD between left IOF and ANS, IOM and NA were 33.1 ± 2.30 mm, 5.85 ±1.06 mm and 40.3 ± 3.09 mm respectively. The results obtained from descriptive analysis are relevant and help surgeons for blocking the infraorbital nerve while performing surgeries in midface region, particularly in patients with edema of the infraorbital region when precise location of the IOF is difficult.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11667
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Anatomical variations in position of mandibular foramen: An East European
           morphometric study in dry adult human mandibles for achieving a successful
           inferior alveolar nerve block

    • Authors: Nityanand Jain, Dzintra Kažoka, Shivani Jain, Māra Pilmane
      Pages: 392 - 402
      Abstract: In today’s era of modern dentistry, the race towards developing painless and trauma-less procedures remain an important goal of all major companies and dental researchers. One such technique of focus is the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) which remains by far the most common anesthetic technique followed worldwide prior to any submaxillary treatment procedure. Despite of it being so popular, the failure rates remain significantly high with estimates at 15-60% among dental practitioners and dental students alike. Major reasons for failure include inaccurate determination of Mandibular foramen, variations in location of foramen, presence of accessory foramen, etc. to name a few. The present article aims to present the morpho-anatomical variations in the position of Mandibular Foramen in East European population. For this reason, the distance of the foramen was measured from 5 different bony landmarks using digital Vernier caliper on dry human adult mandibles. Analyzing the results, the foramen was found to be positioned at a mean distance of 16.88 ± 2.43 mm on the right side and 17.33 ± 2.24 mm on the left side from the anterior border of the ramus. Similarly, it was found to be 12.31 ± 2.49 mm and 11.75 ± 2.47 mm on right and left sides respectively from posterior border of ramus. It was found to be 17.41 ± 3.22 mm and 18.01 ± 3.44 mm and 19.80 ± 3.86 mm and 20.11 ± 4.08 mm on right and left sides from mandibular notch and angle of mandible respectively.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11668
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Root canal anatomy and morphology of permanent maxillary canine teeth in
           an Iranian population

    • Authors: Maryam Kuzekanani, Alireza Mahdavi Jafari
      Pages: 403 - 408
      Abstract: Thorough knowledge from anatomical characteristics of different teeth is a must, to achieve successful root canal, Orthodontic, surgical and other dental treatments on them. This cross- sectional study aimed to study the anatomy and morphology of permanent maxillary canine teeth in Kerman, a province in the southeast Islamic Republic of Iran. One hundred extracted permanent maxillary canines with intact apices were collected from five different dental centers within five different city districts in Kerman. The number of roots, the root curve direction and the length of each tooth was assigned by macroscopic observation and length measurement of each sample. Also, after staining, decalcification and clearing of each selected tooth the existence of lateral canals and their location was carefully evaluated under magnification. The results showed that all maxillary canine teeth had 1 root and one root canal in this study. The average length for this tooth was 27.31mms. The curve direction of the roots, in 32% of the cases was; distally, in 8%; buccally, in 4%; mesially and in 3%; palatally. 53% of the teeth had straight roots and root canals and, 25%, had lateral canals that in all of the cases were located in the apical third of the roots and were never observed in the middle and coronal thirds. As a conclusion, in this population, roots of maxillary canine teeth have straight roots in 53% of the cases, and in 25%, they have lateral canals that are usually located in the apical thirds.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11669
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Potential ability for implantation of mouse embryo post-vitrification
           based on Igf2, H19 and Bax Gene expression

    • Authors: Noer Muhammad Dliyaul Haq, Diah Pristihadi, Vista Budiariati, Ahmad Furqon, Mokhamad Fahrudin, Cece Sumantri, Arief Boediono
      Pages: 409 - 421
      Abstract: Vitrification is one of cryopreservation method for freezing cells without ice formation so that biological materials such as sperm, oocyte, or embryo, can be preserved and later can be used for a specific purpose including wildlife conservation efforts. Unfortunately, high concentration of cryoprotectan in vitrification process can cause osmotic stress and has high toxic levels that may affect embryo quality. The purpose of this research is to analyze the quality of post-vitrification embryos at morula and blastocyst stages based on morphometric variable, and Bax gene expression, futhermore potency of implantation of the post-vitrification embryo were also examined based on H19 and Igf2 gene expression. The results showed embryo viability post-vitrification decreased 5.67% and 6.02% in morula and blastocyst. Development ability from morula to blastocyst post-vitrification was also decreased by 10.15%. Morphometry analysis of morula post-vitrification showed decreased values of zona pellucida tickness (ZPT), zona pellucida tickness variation (ZPTV) and blastomeres area, while perivetellin space (PVS) area was increased compared to fresh morula. Blastocyst post-vitrification had increased values of ZPT, ZPTV, and PVS, while in ICM and the blastocoel were also decreased compared to fresh blastocyst. The result of relative levels mRNA of Igf2, H19, and Bax gene show no significant difference gene expression between fresh blastocyst, blastocyst post-vitrification, and morula post-vitrification group.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11670
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • 3D surface acquisition systems and their applications to facial anatomy:
           let’s make a point

    • Authors: Daniele Gibelli, Annalisa Cappella, Claudia Dolci, Chiarella Sforza
      Pages: 422 - 431
      Abstract: In the last decades 3D optical devices have gained a primary role in facial anthropometry, where they find several applications from the anatomical research to clinics and surgery. With time the number of articles focusing on 3D surface analysis has raised, as well as validation studies which aim at verifying the reliability of different devices and methods of acquisition in comparison with other methods or direct anthropometry. This review aims at making a point in the field of 3D surface acquisition systems, describing the most used types of available devices and comparing the relevant outcomes in acquiring 3D facial models. Results show that currently stereophotogrammetric devices represent the gold standard, further improved by the diffusion of portable models. Caution should be given to the use of low-cost devices, more and more frequently described by literature, as often they do not meet the basic criteria for being applied to the anatomical study of face.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11671
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Morphological assessment of Ear auricle in a group of Iraqi subjects and
           its possible role in personal identification

    • Authors: Sinan S. Farhan, Watheq M. Al-Jewari, Aiman Q. Afar Al-Maathidy, Aiman Al-Qtaitat
      Pages: 432 - 442
      Abstract: Ear auricle had been studied many years ago for personal identification. Many studies in different countries had assessed the shape and measurements of parameters. Variance in dimensions of auricle within various age groups, race and genetic background recommended identification of normal range for auricle parameters; that is necessary for aesthetic purposes and anatomical standardization. Materials and method: Auricular dimensional parameters in 311 individuals in both right and left sides were measured using Vernier caliber; in addition to shape assessment, and lobular attachment status were recorded. Results: Nine parameters were evaluated for auricle morphometry in both sides. In one hand, significant differences were noticed regarding gender in ear height above tragus, tragus span and lobule height on other hand, no significant difference in parameters measurements according to lobule status. Comparing means of parameters among four shapes of auricle the study showed a statistical significance. Significant differences were recorded regarding gender with lobule status and gender with ear shape. Moreover, positive correlations were noticed among many parameters including, concha width and width of ear. Conclusion: This study represent a standardization of auricular dimensional parameters among Iraqi sample that is so beneficial in plastic surgery, hearing aids productions and personal identification. Taking in consideration, lobule status, gender, and shape of auricle.     
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11672
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Morphological Analysis of Palmaris Longus Muscle And Its Anatomic
           Variations: A Cadaveric Study In North India

    • Authors: Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani, Anupama Mahajan, Poonam Verma
      Pages: 443 - 454
      Abstract: Palmaris longus is classified as a phylogenetically retrogressive muscle having a short belly with a long tendon. It varies in the incidence of its absence, form, attachment, duplication and its ability of having accessory slips and substitute structures. The muscle is of interest to hand surgeons because a number of cases have been reported with complaints of a volar distal forearm swelling and median nerve compression symptoms. Therefore, the present study was performed with the purpose to determine the morphology and the variations of PL in North Indian population. Material for the present study consisted of 62 limbs(20 Male and 11 Female) which were made available through a series of dissections performed for first year medical students at SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar, Punjab. The morphology and variations of PL and its relation with neighbouring structures were noted. The data thus collected was stored and compared to other studies. Of 62 limbs dissected 55(88.70%) showed normal morphology of palmaris longus muscle as per the standard textbook. 5 limbs(8.06%) showed complete agenesis. 1(1.61%) limb exhibited a fleshy fusiform PLM. A Reversed palmaris longus muscle(RPLM) along with accessory PL(1.61%) was observed in the same limb. Variations of the PL tendon may even confuse an experienced surgeon. Thus, it is important for the reconstructive surgeons or radiologists to be aware of the possibility of variations and its impact on the structures present at the wrist area especially one that might contribute to median or ulnar nerve compression.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11673
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Main perforators of the upper limb: still birth study

    • Authors: Aymn A. Khanfour
      Pages: 455 - 466
      Abstract: Background: Perforator flaps are an excellent reconstructive option for functional upper limb reconstruction. Aim of the work: This study aimed to identify the main anatomical sites, number and length of the main perforators of the upper limb for better surgical reconstruction interventions. Material and methods: The material of this work included twelve fresh stillbirths. Red-colored latex was injected into the abdominal aorta. Dissection was done at the sub-fascial level of the upper limb. Results: Results showed that the most common sites of brachial artery perforators were located at a mean distance of 1.73 ±0.52 cm measured from the tip of the coracoid process. More than one third of ulnar perforators (35%) were located within 40 mm proximal to the pisiform. More than half of the distal forearm radial artery perforators (68%) were located within 22 mm proximal to the distal wrist crease. About (40%) of the posterior interosseous artery were located within 40 mm proximal to the ulnar head. Dorsal metacarpal artery perforators were found in the mid metacarpal region proximal to junctuate tendinae while the proper digital arteries give rise to multiple cutaneous perforators along their course on the sides of each digit. Conclusion: Detailed anatomy of the main perforators of the upper limb concerning its accurate site measured from fixed specific bonny points, number and length of their pedicles are very essential in the success of the different flap techniques. Recommendations: A wide scale of the stillbirth cases may give more standard values as regard the location of the main perforators of the upper limb. A combined adult cadaveric study could be advised to be compared with the main values with those of the stillbirths.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11674
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Effect of Melamine Administration during Pregnancy on Foetal Bone

    • Authors: Yasin I. Tayem, Sindhan V. Veeramuthu, Aisha N. Rashid, Reginald P. Sequeira, Raouf A. Fadel
      Pages: 467 - 474
      Abstract: Aim: We aimed to study the effects of prenatal administration of two doses of melamine on foetal ossification centers in rats. Methods: Positively-mated, virgin, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were treated from day 6 to day 20 of gestation with solvent (control), melamine 300 mg/kg/day (group 1) or melamine 450 mg/kg/day (group 2). On day 21, half of the fetuses were examined for bone ossification abnormalities. Results: A total of 109 foetal skeletons were examined. The percentage of incomplete or absent bones in the entire skeleton was significantly less in group 1 and group 2 compared to control. These findings were more prominent in group 2 compared to group 1. Likewise, ossified centers were fewer in the sternum and metacarpal bones in group 1 and group 2 compared to control. No abnormal ossification was observed in metatarsal, skull, pubic or rib bones. Regarding the vertebral centrae, a significant increase in the number of absent or delayed bones was noticed only in group 2 compared to control. Specifically, the abnormalities were observed in the thoracic and sacral centrae. Similarly, group 2 was associated with fewer ossified centers in vertebral arch compared to control. The abnormal ossifications were observed in sacral and coccygeal bones. The only observed abnormality in vertebral ossification in group 1 was in coccygeal arch, compared to control. Conclusions: Prenatal administration of melamine caused dose-dependent retardation in bone ossification, which mainly affected the sternum, metacarpal, vertebral centraee and arch.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11675
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Morphometric Analysis of Body and Odontoid Process of Axis Vertebrae in
           North Indians: An Anatomical Perspective

    • Authors: Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani, Jagdev S. Kullar, Anupama Mahajan
      Pages: 475 - 486
      Abstract: Axis, the second cervical vertebra forms a pivot on which the atlas rotates carrying the head. Though this region is very small but can cause serious complications due to complex anatomy of the cranio-cervical junction. Odontoid fractures compose 7-20% of all cervical spine fractures. The vertebral artery may also be at risk as it is present on under surface of axis.  Thus, thorough understanding of the anatomy of body of axis and its odontoid process(dens) is required in screw placement or other surgical interventions. Therefore, aim of the present study was to measure and present the detailed morphometric parameters of body of axis and its odontoid process.  60 dry axis vertebrae were obtained for anatomic evaluation focused on body and odontoid process. The morphometric measurements included linear measurements focused on length, breadth and height of body and odontoid process. Vertebral body length, superior width, inferior width, anterior height and posterior height were found to be 15.10+1.56mm, 15.48+2.09mm,15.83+2.12 mm, 19.28+2.24 and 16.26+1.73mm. Odontoid process height, diameter, maximum and minimum width were found to be 16.36+1.68 mm, 10.74+1.06 mm, 9.85+1.08 mm and 8.79+1.17 mm respectively. Morphological features of dens included its macroscopic appearance and shape of ventral and dorsal facets. Most common shapes of ventral and dorsal facets were found to be vertical elliptical 83.3 % and horizontal elliptical 76.66% respectively. The knowledge of these parameters is important for the surgeons while operating around axis in spinal surgical procedures like anterior atlanto-axial fixation, anterior odontoid screw fixation or odontoidectomy procedures.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11676
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Anatomic variations of the upper biliary confluence and intra-hepatic
           ducts in East-central Tunisian population

    • Authors: Mohamed Salah Jarrar, Wafa Masmoudi, Mohamed Hedi Mraidha, Nader Naouar, Malek Barka, Sabri Youssef, Fehmi Hamila, Slah-Eddine Ghannouchi, Rached Letaief
      Pages: 487 - 498
      Abstract: Introduction The anatomy of the biliary tract includes a considerable number of variations that may be explained by the hepato-biliary tract embryology. The in-depth knowledge of this anatomy is essential for a good interpretation of conventional radiology imaging, and, especially for a good practice of hepato-biliary surgery. Several imaging techniques allow us to study the biliary tract anatomy. Our purpose is to study of modal anatomy (most frequent) and anatomic variations of biliary tract through interpretation of post-operative cholangiograms. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective monocentric observational study. It concerned every patient who had a hepato-biliary and/or pancreatic surgery in Farhat Hached University Hospital from 2007 till 2016, and who have had at least one post-operative cholangiography. A data form has been filled for every patient. Results Out of a total population of 293 patients, we encountered 17.4% of variations of the upper biliary convergence divided into 7 patterns. Concerning intrahepatic bile ducts, we observed branching variations for segments 4, 5, 6 and 8 in respectively 3.5%, 4.1%, 1.7% and 1.7% of cases. Conclusion Both intra- and extrahepatic biliary anatomy is complex with the existence of many common and uncommon anatomic variations. Intra-operative cholangiography constitutes an accurate tool to detect these anatomic variants and is therefore crucial in the practice of hepato-biliary surgery especially after the advent of a variety of new techniques in this field. However, it also necessitates a more widespread and appropriate knowledge of these anatomic variations.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11677
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Stability analysis of occipitocervical fixation by occiput- C2 pedicular
           screws construct. A human cadaveric study

    • Authors: Ayman Ahmed Kkanfour, Tarek Elfiky, Hesham Elsaghir, Waleed Sabbah
      Pages: 499 - 508
      Abstract: Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the stability provided by occipitocervical (OC) fixation using occipital plate and C2 pedicular screws. Methods: The study included 6 formalin preserved whole human cadaveric specimens. Occipito-cervical fixation was performed using occipital plate and C2 pedicle screws connected by rods. Specimens were manually loaded by the maximum possible flexion, extension and axial rotation. Assessment of stability of fixation was done after 100, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 cycles. In the first 3 specimens (group 1), repetitive loading was planned to be initially applied in flexion and extension. If there was no failure of the construct at 3000 cycles, loading has to be continued in axial rotation. In the second 3 specimens (group 2), repetitive loading was planned to be applied initially in axial rotation up to 3000 cycles. If there was no failure of the construct, loading has to be continued in flexion and extension. Results: group 1 showed no implants failure apparently or radiologically after 3000 loading cycles. However, failure occurred at different sites when axial rotation loading was applied at 500, 700 and 900 cycles respectively by axial rotation loading cycles. On the other hand, when axial rotation was initially applied to group 2, failure occurred at 1050, 1000 and 800 respectively cycles before applying flexion and extension loading. Conclusions: Our study revealed that occiput-C2 pedicle screw construct, without supplementary C1 lateral mass provided stability in flexion and extension loading. However, repeated axial rotation loading causes failure of construct.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11678
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Anatomical and Congenital Variations of Styloid Process of Temporal Bone
           in Indian Adult Dry Skull Bones

    • Authors: Kalyan Chakravarthi Kosuri, Venumadhav Nelluri, Siddaraju KS
      Pages: 509 - 516
      Abstract: Background: Styloid process of temporal bone is clinically significant, because of anatomical or congenital variations in length, number, angulations as well as close proximity to many of the vital neurovascular structures in the neck. Abnormal or congenital variations of the styloid process may compress adjacent neurovascular structures and leads to symptoms of stylalgia (Eagle’s syndrome). Aim: Accordingly this study was aimed to evaluate the anatomical and congenital variations of styloid process of temporal bone in Indian adult dry skull bones. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 110 dry human skulls irrespective of age and sex at Varun Arjun medical college- Banthra,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal and KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut. All the skulls were macroscopically inspected for the anatomical and congenital variations of styloid process of temporal bone. Photographs of the anatomical and congenital variations were taken for proper documentation. Results: Out of 110 dry human skull bones we noted very rare unusual unilateral triple styloid processes in one skull bone, unusual bilateral double styloid processes in one skull bone and unilateral double styloid processes in right side of one skull bone. Conclusion: Congenital double, triple and elongated styloid process noted in this study can leads to styloidogenic jugular compression syndrome or stylo-carotid artery syndrome or disturb the biomechanics of temporomandibular joint or compress/ irritate nearby neurological structures trigger a series of symptoms such as dysphagia, odynophagia, facial pain, ear pain, headache, tinnitus and trismus. Proper knowledge and diagnosis of anatomical and congenital variations of styloid process of temporal bone is important to anaesthetists, dentists, neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists, orthopaedic surgeons, clinical anatomist, Radiologists, forensic experts Architectures and morphologists which may increase the success of diagnostic evaluation and surgical approaches to the region.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11679
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
  • Anomalous Renal Vasculature Existing With Congenital Anomalies of Kidneys,
           Ureters and Suprarenal Glands: A Cadaveric Study

    • Authors: Kalyan Chakravarthi Kosuri, Siddaraju KS, Venumadhav Nelluri
      Pages: 517 - 526
      Abstract: Variations in the renal vessels have been observed frequently in routine dissection and surgical practice, but existing with congenital anomalies of kidneys or ureters or suprarenal glands is very rare. Accordingly the aim of this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of anomalous renal vasculature existing with congenital anomalies of kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands. This study was carried out on 48 human cadavers (including dissected cadaveric specimens) irrespective of age and sex used for routine dissection of abdomen conducted for medical undergraduates teaching purpose. The kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands along with their arteries were exposed and the anomalous variations of renal vasculature existing with congenital anomalies of kidneys or ureters or suprarenal glands were observed. Photographs of the anomalous and developmental variations were taken for proper documentation. Out of 48 human cadavers following anomalous / developmental variations were noted- unilateral retro aortic left real vein, extra-hilar artery (branch of renal artery that presents an extra hilar penetration) to the superior pole of left kidney, existing with very rare and unusual double suprarenal gland with unusual blood supply was noted in one cadaver. Bilateral double renal arteries existing with unusual incomplete double ureters on right side and incomplete triple ureters on left side were found in one cadaver. Left triple renal arteries, right double renal arteries existing with bilateral polycystic kidneys with distended ureters were found in one cadaver. Double extra-hilar arteries to the superior pole of right kidney, existing with unusual blood supply to the right suprarenal gland and right testis was found in one cadaver. Bilateral Early division of renal artery existing with bilateral polycystic kidneys fond in one cadaver. Anatomical and developmental variations of renal vasculature, ureters, kidneys and their relationship to surrounding structures  are clinically significant as they interferes several operative procedures like kidney transplantation, surgical reconstruction of the abdominal aorta, interventional radiologic procedures and urologic operations; hence detection of the possible developmental variations of the renal vasculature, ureters, kidneys and their relationship to surrounding structures is clinically necessary for adequate surgical management to preserve renal functions.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20
      DOI: 10.13128/ijae-11680
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 3 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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