Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8803 journals)
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INTERNAL MEDICINE (178 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 180 of 180 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abdomen     Open Access  
ACP Hospitalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACP Internist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACP Journal Club     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Clinica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acute and Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
American Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy & Physiology : Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Colorectal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 392)
AORN Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Bone & Joint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Death & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Liver Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Clinical Thyroidology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CNE Pflegemanagement     Hybrid Journal  
Communication Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Current Hepatology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research: Integrative Medicine     Open Access  
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Internist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 603)
Diabetes Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 577)
Diabetes Internacional     Open Access  
Diabetes Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Egyptian Liver Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Spine Journal     Open Access  
EMC - Aparato Locomotor     Hybrid Journal  
Endovascular Neuroradiology / Ендоваскулярна нейрорентгенохірургія     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eNeuro     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Translational Myology     Open Access  
European Radiology Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
HemaSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatology Communications     Open Access  
Hepatoma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Human Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases     Open Access  
Innere Medizin up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Internal Medicine Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Anatomy and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JAMA Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 363)
JCSM Clinical Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JHEP Reports     Open Access  
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
JMV - Journal de Médecine Vasculaire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
JOP. Journal of the Pancreas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Basic & Clinical Physiology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cancer & Allied Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives     Open Access  
Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy     Open Access  
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Liver : Disease & Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Internet Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Pancreatic Cancer     Open Access  
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Vektor Penyakit     Open Access  
La Revue de Medecine Interne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Lege artis - Das Magazin zur ärztlichen Weiterbildung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Liver Cancer International     Open Access  
Liver Research     Open Access  
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics     Open Access  
Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MYOPAIN. A journal of myofascial pain and fibromyalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuro-Oncology Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Neurobiology of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neurointervention     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Neuromuscular Diseases     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alcohol     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oncological Coloproctology     Open Access  
Open Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Pleura and Peritoneum     Open Access  
Pneumo News     Full-text available via subscription  
Polish Archives of Internal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Prostate International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Fonoaudiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical     Open Access  
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Child Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Schlaf     Hybrid Journal  
Schmerzmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of the Foot & Ankle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SciMedicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thieme Case Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Urologie     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Barriers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
US Cardiology Review     Open Access  
Vascular and Endovascular Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ожирение и метаболизм     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.336
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • Ultrasound shear wave simulation of wave propagation at oblique angles
    • Abstract: Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has been used to measure the local tissue elasticity. The local tissue shear modulus can be reconstructed from the displacement field of shear waves using an algebraic Helmholtz inversion (AHI) equation or a time-of-flight (TOF)-based algorithm. The shear waves, which are generated by successive focusing of ultrasonic beams at different depths, propagate at oblique angles rather than along the lateral position. The wave propagation at oblique angles can result in bias in shear modulus reconstruction using the AHI equation or the TOF-based algorithm. In this study, the effect of wave propagation at oblique angles on the tissue shear modulus reconstruction was investigated using in silico finite element (FE) simulation. An FE elastic tissue with a hard inclusion model was designed. The shear waves with propagation angles of 0°, 5°, and 10° were applied to the model. The shear modulus and the percentage error in the model were computed using the AHI equation and the TOF-based algorithm at each propagation angle from 0° to 10°. For the AHI equation, the percentage error was 0% at propagation angles of 0° and 5°, and 1% at a propagation angle of 10° in the inclusion. In the surrounding tissue, the percentage error was 0% at propagation angles of 0°, 5°, and 10°. For the TOF-based algorithm, the percentage error was 0% at propagation angles of 0° and 5°, and 40% at a propagation angle of 10° in the inclusion. In the surrounding tissue, the percentage error was 0% at propagation angles of 0° and 5°, and 35% at a propagation angle of 10° in the inclusion. Therefore, whereas the TOF-based algorithm produced critical bias in shear modulus reconstruction by the shear wave propagation at oblique angles, the AHI equation was not affected by the propagation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00748-3
  • Development and validation of a measurement system for continuously
           monitoring postoperative reservoir levels
    • Abstract: Following cardiac surgical procedures, multiple drainage systems remain in place inside the patient’s chest to prevent the development of pericardial effusion or pneumothorax. Therefore, postoperative bleeding must be diligently observed. Currently, observation of the exudate rate is performed through periodical visual inspection of the reservoir. To improve postoperative monitoring, a measurement system based on load cells was developed to automatically detect bleeding rates. A reservoir retaining bracket was instrumented with a load cell. The signal was digitized by a microcontroller and then processed and displayed on customized software written in LabView. In cases where bleeding rates reach critical levels, the device will automatically sound an alarm. Additionally, the bleeding rate is displayed on the screen with the status of the alarm, as well as the fluid level of the reservoir. These data are all logged to a file. The measurement system has been validated for gain stability and drift, as well as for sensor accuracy, with different in vitro examinations. Additionally, performance of the measurement device was tested in a clinical pilot study on patients recovering from cardiac surgical procedures. The in vitro investigation showed that the monitoring device had excellent gain and drift stability, as well as sensor accuracy, with a resolution of 2.6 mL/h for the bleeding rate. During the clinical examination, bleeding rates of all patients were correctly measured. Continuously recording drainage volume using the developed system was comparable to manual measurements performed every 30 min by a nurse. Implementation of continuous digital measurements could improve patient safety and reduce the workload of medical professionals working in intensive care units.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00746-5
  • Verification of the Elekta Monaco TPS Monte Carlo in modelling radiation
           transmission through metals in a water equivalent phantom
    • Abstract: Many studies have performed dosimetric studies using various metal implants however these are difficult to translate to other implants of a different geometry or material (Rijken and Colyer, J Appl Clin Med Phys 18:5:301–306, 2017; Ade and du Plessis, J Appl Clin Med Phys 18:5:162–173, 2017; Prabhakar et al. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 18:209–213, 2013; Ng et al. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 20:273–277, 2015; Reft et al. Med Phys 30:1162–1182, 2003; Sasaki et al., Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 72(9):735–745, 2016). In this study, the ability of the Monaco Monte Carlo algorithm (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) to model radiation transport through different types of metals was evaluated. Investigation of the capabilities and limitations of the algorithm is required for the potential use of Monaco for planning radiotherapy treatments when avoidance of metal implants is clinically undesirable. A MapCHECK 2 diode array (Sun Nuclear Corp, Melbourne, USA) and a PTW 30013 Farmer chamber was used to measure the dose at depth, downstream of 1 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm metal blocks of three known compositions; stainless steel, aluminium and MCP96. The setup was imaged using a CT scanner and imported into the Monaco TPS where the beam arrangement was replicated. The density of the metals was overridden using the known electron density of each (IMPAC Medical Systems Inc, Monaco dose calculation technical reference. IMPAC Medical Systems, Sunnydale, CA, 2013). The differences between the dose measured using the ion chamber and calculated using Monaco downstream of the 1 cm metal blocks were respectively: − 1.2%, − 2.2% and 9.5% when irradiated using a 6 MV beam, and − 0.9%, − 1.3% and 14%, when irradiated using a 15 MV beam. This was then repeated using 2 cm and 3 cm of each metal type giving similar results for aluminium and stainless steel and increased discrepancy for MCP96. Discrepancies between treatment planning software and measurements at depth have been shown to give uncertainties between 5 and 23% in previous studies (Rijken and Colyer, J Appl Clin Med Phys 18:5:301–306, 2017; Ade and du Plessis, J Appl Clin Med Phys 18:5:162–173, 2017; Prabhakar et al. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 18:209–213, 2013; Ng et al. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 20:273–277, 2015; Reft et al. Med Phys 30:1162–1182, 2003; Sasaki et al., Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 72(9):735–745, 2016). This study uses basic shapes providing results that remove the uncertainties in geometry and can therefore be applied to any shape. This will help determine whether errors in dose calculations are due to the TPS particle transport algorithms or due to other effects, such as inaccurate contouring or incorrect densities. Thus giving the planner an additional degree of freedom in their planning and decision making process.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00749-2
  • Effect of computed tomography number-relative electron density conversion
           curve on the calculation of radiotherapy dose and evaluation of Monaco
           radiotherapy treatment planning system
    • Abstract: The accuracy of a computed tomography (CT)-relative electron density (RED) curve may have an indirect impact on the accuracy of dose calculation by a treatment planning system (TPS). This effect has not been previously quantified for input of different CT-RED curves from different CT-scan units in the Monaco TPS. This study aims to evaluate the effect of CT-RED curve on the dose calculation by the Monaco radiotherapy TPS. Four CT images of the CIRS phantom were obtained by different CT scanners. The accuracy of the dose calculation in the three algorithms of the Monaco TPS (Monte Carlo, collapse cone, and pencil beam) is also evaluated based on TECDOC 1583. The CT-RED curves from the CT scanners were transferred to the Monaco TPS to audit the different algorithms of the TPS. The dose values were measured with an ionization chamber in the CIRS phantom. Then, the dose values were calculated by the Monaco algorithms in the corresponding points. For the Monaco TPS and based on TECDOC 1583, the accuracy of the dose calculation in all the three algorithms is within the agreement criteria for most of the points evaluated. For low dose regions, the differences between the calculated and measured dose values are higher than the agreement criteria in a number of points. For the majority of the points, the algorithms underestimate the calculated dose values. It was also found that the use of different CT-RED curves can lead to minor discrepancies in the dose calculation by the Monaco TPS, especially in low dose regions. However, it appears that these differences are not clinically significant in most of the cases.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00745-6
  • Application of retrospective data analysis to clinical protocol design:
           can the potential benefits of breath-hold techniques for breast
           radiotherapy be assessed without testing on patients'
    • Abstract: The advantages, in terms of heart dose sparing, resulting from using a breath-hold technique when treating supine left breast radiotherapy patients are widely accepted, and increasing numbers of radiotherapy departments are implementing breath-hold techniques. However, due to differences in patient setup and treatment planning protocols between radiotherapy departments, it is important to assess the benefits of using a breath-hold technique within each department, before or during implementation. This study investigated the use of retrospective analysis of past patient treatment plans, as a means to identify the potential for breath-hold techniques to benefit patients. In-house “Treatment and Dose Assessor” code was used to complete a bulk retrospective evaluation of dose-volume metrics for 708 supine and 13 prone breast and chest wall radiotherapy treatments, that were planned using the same clinical protocols, which did not utilise a breath hold technique. For supine patients, results showed statistically significant differences between heart doses from left and right breast treatment plans, in the absence of significant differences between lung doses from left and right breast treatment plans, confirming the potential benefit of using a breath-hold technique for supine left breast radiotherapy patients. Fewer than 1% of the right breast treatment plans showed heart doses high enough to suggest a possible benefit from using a breath-hold technique. Approximately 50% of the prone left breast treatment plans included very low heart doses without intervention, and may therefore have shown no noticeable dosimetric benefit from the use of a breath hold. This study demonstrated the extent of information that can be obtained using retrospective data analysis, before or instead of obtaining multiple CT images of patients and completing a process of dual planning and prospective dose evaluation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00725-w
  • Effective temporal resolution and image quality of volume scanning in
           320-row detector CT
    • Abstract: To measure the effective temporal resolution (eTR) and image quality for three reconstruction modes for non-helical volume scanning in area detector CT. Temporal sensitivity profiles (TSPs) were obtained and the full width of the TSP at half maximum was used as an index of the eTR. Image quality was assessed by image noise and the corrected artifact index. The half reconstruction mode had a higher eTR than the full and automatic patient motion collection (APMC) reconstructions. Compared to full reconstruction, the image noise with APMC and half reconstruction were increased by 16% and 35%. The corrected artifact index was lowest with APMC. The square root of full width at tenth maximum of the TSP showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.934) for image noise. This study revealed the TSPs and eTRs for non-helical volume scanning in area detector CT. A high eTR resulted in higher image noise.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00747-4
  • Correction to: Computational study on hemodynamic changes in
           patient-specific proximal neck angulation of abdominal aortic aneurysm
           with time-varying velocity
    • Abstract: The name of the third author was incorrect in the initial online publication. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00741-w
  • Effects of spray parameters on skin tumour ablation volume during
    • Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to establish correlations for the ablation volume and the ice front as a function of the spray parameters. The ablation volume and the ice front depend upon the nozzle diameter, spraying distance and the freeze duration (spray parameters). The estimation of the ablation volume using the spray parameters shall be useful in surgical practice to ablate the different sizes of tumours. Liquid nitrogen spray cooling is carried out with 0.8 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.4 mm nozzle diameters. The spraying distance is maintained at 9 mm, 18 mm and 27 mm. The spray cooling is carried out for a single freeze–thaw cycle where freezing and thawing consist of 120 s and 130 s duration respectively. A two-dimensional heat flow equation with phase change is considered for the numerical study. The numerically calculated transient temperature (2 mm and 5 mm from the gel surface) and ice front values show confirmatory results with the experimentally measured data. Correlations are obtained to determine the ablation volume (− 50 °C and − 25 °C isothermal surfaces) and ice front (axial and lateral) with a goodness of fit \(\ge\) 95%. The nozzle diameter has a greater impact on the ablation volume as compared to the spraying distance during 120 s of freezing. The nozzle diameter of 0.8 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.4 mm can be effectively used for cryotherapy with spraying distance up to 27 mm, 18 mm and 9 mm respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00740-x
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00739-4
  • Feature extraction using traditional image processing and convolutional
           neural network methods to classify white blood cells: a study
    • Abstract: White blood cells play a vital role in monitoring health condition of a person. Change in count and/or appearance of these cells indicate hematological disorders. Manual microscopic evaluation of white blood cells is the gold standard method, but the result depends on skill and experience of the hematologist. In this paper we present a comparative study of feature extraction using two approaches for classification of white blood cells. In the first approach, features were extracted using traditional image processing method and in the second approach we employed AlexNet which is a pre-trained convolutional neural network as feature generator. We used neural network for classification of WBCs. The results demonstrate that, classification result is slightly better for the features extracted using the convolutional neural network approach compared to traditional image processing approach. The average accuracy and sensitivity of 99% was obtained for classification of white blood cells. Hence, any one of these methods can be used for classification of WBCs depending availability of data and required resources.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00742-9
  • A Monte Carlo study of pinhole collimated Cerenkov luminescence imaging
           integrated with radionuclide treatment
    • Abstract: Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an emerging optical imaging technique, which has been widely investigated for biological imaging. In this study, we proposed to integrate the CLI technique with the radionuclide treatment as a “see-and-treat” approach, and evaluated the performance of the pinhole collimator-based CLI technique. The detection of Cerenkov luminescence during radionuclide therapy was simulated using the Monte Carlo technique for breast cancer treatment as an example. Our results show that with the pinhole collimator-based configuration, the location, size and shape of the tumors can be clearly visualized on the Cerenkov luminescence images of the breast phantom. In addition, the CLI of multiple tumors can reflect the relative density of radioactivity among tumors, indicating that the intensity of Cerenkov luminescence is independent of the size and shape of a tumor. The current study has demonstrated the high-quality performance of the pinhole collimator-based CLI in breast tumor imaging for the “see-and-treat” multi-modality treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00744-7
  • Influence of normalization and color features on super-pixel
           classification: application to cytological image segmentation
    • Abstract: Super-pixel feature extraction is a key problem to get an acceptable performance in color super-pixel classification. Given a color feature extraction problem, it is necessary to know which is the best approach to solve this problem. In the current work, we’re interested in the challenge of nucleus and cytoplasm automatic recognition in the cytological image. We propose an automatic process for white blood cells (WBC) segmentation using super-pixel classification. The process is divided into five steps. In first step, the color normalization is calculated. The super-pixels generation by Simple Linear Iterative Clustering algorithm is performed in the second step. In third step, the color property is used to achieve illumination invariance. In fourth step, color features are calculated on each super-pixel. Finally, supervised learning is realized to classify each super-pixel into nucleus and cytoplasm region. The present work rallied an exhaustive statistical evaluation of a very wide variety of the color super-pixel classification, with height normalization methods, four-color spaces and four feature extraction techniques. Normalization and color spaces slightly increase the average accuracy of super-pixel classification. Our experiments based to statistical comparison allow to conclude that comprehensive gray world normalized normalization is better than without normalization for super-pixel classification achieving the first positions in the Friedman ranking. RGB space is the best color spaces to be used in super-pixel feature extraction for nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation. For feature extraction, the learning methods work better on the first order statistics features for the automatic WBC segmentation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00735-8
  • Adarsh Sandhu and Hiroshi Handa (Editors): Magnetic nanoparticles for
           medical diagnostics
    • PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00738-5
  • EPSM 2018, Engineering and Physical Sciences in Medicine
    • PubDate: 2019-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00724-x
  • 2D monolithic silicon-diode array detectors in megavoltage photon beams:
           does the fabrication technology matter' A medical physicist’s
    • Abstract: A family of prototype 2D monolithic silicon-diode array detectors (MP512, Duo, Octa) has been proposed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong (Australia) for relative dosimetry in small megavoltage photon beams. These detectors, which differ in the topology of their 512 sensitive volumes, were originally fabricated on bulk p-type substrates. More recently, they have also been fabricated on epitaxial p-type substrates. In the literature, their performance has been individually characterized for quality assurance (QA) applications. The present study directly assessed and compared that of a MP512-bulk and that of a MP512-epitaxial in terms of radiation hardness, long-term stability, response linearity with dose, dose per pulse and angular dependence. Their measurements of output factors, off-axis ratios and percentage depth doses in square radiation fields collimated by the jaws and produced by 6 MV and 10 MV flattened photon beams were then benchmarked against those by commercially available detectors. The present investigation was aimed at establishing, from a medical physicist’s perspective, how the bulk and epitaxial fabrication technologies would affect the implementation of the MP512s into a QA protocol. Based on results, the MP512-epitaxial would offer superior radiation hardness, long-term stability and achievable uniformity and reproducibility of the response across the 2D active area.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00736-7
  • Investigating the impact of tumour motion on TomoTherapy stereotactic
           ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) deliveries on 3-dimensional and
           4-dimensional computed tomography
    • Abstract: TomoTherapy can provide highly accurate SABR deliveries, but currently it does not have any effective motion management techniques. Shallow breathing has been identified as one possible motion management solution on TomoTherapy, which has been made possible with the BreatheWell audiovisual biofeedback (AVB) device. Since both the shallow breathing technique and the clinical use of the BreatheWell device are novel, their implementation requires comprehensive verification and validation work. As the first stage of the validation, this paper investigates the impact of target motion on a TomoTherapy SABR delivery is assessed on both 3D CT and 4D CT using a 4D respiratory phantom. A dosimetric study on a 4D respiratory phantom was conducted, with the phantom’s insert designed to move at four different amplitudes in the superior-inferior direction. SABR plans on 3D and 4D CT scans were created and measured. Critical plan statistics and measurement results were compared. It is found that for TomoTherapy SABR deliveries, by reducing the targets respiratory motion, target coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, and delivery accuracy were improved.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00727-8
  • Design, manufacture and deployment of a low-cost area radiation monitoring
           system using Raspberry Pi computers and open-source software
    • Abstract: Monitoring of background radiation levels in radiopharmaceutical laboratories is a key tool in minimising dose to workers. Retrofitting area monitoring systems in an existing laboratory can be disruptive and prohibitively expensive. We set out to develop a flexible low-cost area monitoring system utilising the power of inexpensive single board computers and open-source software. A complete system has been developed which includes local and remote real-time display with local warning, dose rate logging and automated plotting and backup of results from over 20 individual monitors connected via wifi.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00723-y
  • Computational study on hemodynamic changes in patient-specific proximal
           neck angulation of abdominal aortic aneurysm with time-varying velocity
    • Abstract: Aneurysms are considered as a critical cardiovascular disease worldwide when they rupture. The clinical understanding of geometrical impact on the flow behaviour and biomechanics of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is progressively developing. Proximal neck angulations of AAAs are believed to influence the hemodynamic changes and wall shear stress (WSS) within AAAs. Our aim was to perform pulsatile simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for patient-specific geometry to investigate the influence of severe angular (≥ 60°) neck on AAA’s hemodynamic and wall shear stress. The patient’s geometrical characteristics were obtained from a computed tomography images database of AAA patients. The AAA geometry was reconstructed using Mimics software. In computational method, blood was assumed Newtonian fluid and an inlet varying velocity waveform in a cardiac cycle was assigned. The CFD study was performed with ANSYS software. The results of flow behaviours indicated that the blood flow through severe bending of angular neck leads to high turbulence and asymmetry of flows within the aneurysm sac resulting in blood recirculation. The high wall shear stress (WSS) occurred near the AAA neck and on surface of aneurysm sac. This study explained and showed flow behaviours and WSS progression within high angular neck AAA and risk prediction of abdominal aorta rupture. We expect that the visualization of blood flow and hemodynamic changes resulted from CFD simulation could be as an extra tool to assist clinicians during a decision making when estimation the risks of interventional procedures.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00728-7
  • Multiparametric MRI and radiomics in prostate cancer: a review
    • Abstract: Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is an imaging modality that combines anatomical MR imaging with one or more functional MRI sequences. It has become a versatile tool for detecting and characterising prostate cancer (PCa). The traditional role of mpMRI was confined to PCa staging, but due to the advanced imaging techniques, its role has expanded to various stages in clinical practises including tumour detection, disease monitor during active surveillance and sequential imaging for patient follow-up. Meanwhile, with the growing speed of data generation and the increasing volume of imaging data, it is highly demanded to apply computerised methods to process mpMRI data and extract useful information. Hence quantitative analysis for imaging data using radiomics has become an emerging paradigm. The application of radiomics approaches in prostate cancer has not only enabled automatic localisation of the disease but also provided a non-invasive solution to assess tumour biology (e.g. aggressiveness and the presence of hypoxia). This article reviews mpMRI and its expanding role in PCa detection, staging and patient management. Following that, an overview of prostate radiomics will be provided, with a special focus on its current applications as well as its future directions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00730-z
  • Big shoes to fill
    • PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-019-00733-w
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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