Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8821 journals)
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UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (159 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 159 of 159 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Nephrology     Open Access  
African Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Renal Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aktuelle Urologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Andrology & Gynecology : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Andrology and Genital Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Andrology-Open Access     Open Access  
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Clinical Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BANTAO Journal     Open Access  
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access  
BJU International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
BJUI Compass     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Urological Association Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Kidney Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Nephrology and Urology Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Queries: Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Cirugía     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Current Urology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Nephrologe     Hybrid Journal  
Der Urologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Diabetic Nephropathy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EMC - Urología     Full-text available via subscription  
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Urology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
European Urology Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Urology Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Urology Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forum Nefrologiczne     Full-text available via subscription  
Geriatric Nephrology and Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Giornale di Clinica Nefrologica e Dialisi     Open Access  
Herald Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Human Andrology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
IJU Case Reports     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Brazilian Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia     Open Access  
Journal für Urologie und Urogynäkologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Clinical Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Endourology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Endourology Case Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Genital System & Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Nephrology and Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL     Open Access  
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nephrology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pediatric Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Renal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of The Egyptian Society of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Neurosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Urology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Urology & Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kidney Disease and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Kidney Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Kidney International Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kidney Medicine     Open Access  
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kidneys (Počki)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nature Reviews Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Nature Reviews Urology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Nefrología (English Edition)     Open Access  
Nefrología (Madrid)     Open Access  
Nephro-Urology Monthly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Nephron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nephron Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nephron Experimental Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nephron Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nephron Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Neurourology and Urodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
OA Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Access Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Urology & Nephrology Journal     Open Access  
Pediatric Urology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Portuguese Journal of Nephrology & Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription  
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Renal Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Renal Replacement Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research and Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Nefrología, Diálisis y Trasplante     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Urología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Urologia Colombiana     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Seminars in Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
The Prostate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Therapeutic Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Urology & Men's Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Ukrainian Journal of Nephrology and Dialysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urologia Internationalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urologia Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Urologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Urologic Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal  
Urological Science     Open Access  
Urologicheskie Vedomosti     Open Access  
Urologie in der Praxis     Hybrid Journal  
Urologie Scan     Hybrid Journal  
Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Urology Annals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urology Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urology Times     Free   (Followers: 3)
Urology Video Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Nephrology and Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
World Journal of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Nephrology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-214X - ISSN (Online) 2090-2158
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Impact of National Economy and Policies on End-Stage Kidney Care in South
           Asia and Southeast Asia

    • Abstract: Background. The association between economic status and kidney disease is incompletely explored even in countries with higher economy (HE); the situation is complex in lower economies (LE) of South Asia and Southeast Asia (SA and SEA). Methods. Fifteen countries of SA and SEA categorized as HE and LE, represented by the representatives of the national nephrology societies, participated in this questionnaire and interview-based assessment of the impact of economic status on renal care. Results. Average incidence and prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) per million population (pmp) are 1.8 times and 3.3 times higher in HE. Hemodialysis is the main renal replacement therapy (RRT) (HE-68%, LE-63%). Funding of dialysis in HE is mainly by state (65%) or insurance bodies (30%); out of pocket expenses (OOPE) are high in LE (41%). Highest cost for hemodialysis is in Brunei and Singapore, and lowest in Myanmar and Nepal. Median number of dialysis machines/1000 ESKD population is 110 in HE and 53 in LE. Average number of machines/dialysis units in HE is 2.7 times higher than LE. The HE countries have 9 times more dialysis centers pmp (median HE-17, LE-02) and 16 times more nephrologist density (median HE-14.8 ppm, LE-0.94 ppm). Dialysis sessions >2/week is frequently followed in HE (84%) and
      PubDate: Thu, 06 May 2021 10:50:00 +000
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Cystatin C for Early Recognition of
           Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Objectives. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major complications that develop over time in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This prospective study was conducted to assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum cystatin C in detecting diabetic nephropathy at earlier stages. Materials and Methods. This study was undertaken on 50 cases of T2DM and 50 healthy subjects as controls. Demographic and anthropometric data and blood and urine samples were collected. The concentration of serum cystatin C (index test) and traditional markers of diabetic nephropathy, serum creatinine, and urinary microalbumin (the reference standard) were estimated. Similarly, blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and urinary creatine were measured. Results. The mean ± SD serum cystatin C was significantly higher in T2DM as compared to control (1.07 ± 0.38 and 0.86 ± 0.12 mg/dl, respectively, ). The mean ± SD bodyweight, BMI, W : H ratio, pulse, SBP, and DBP were 66.4 ± 12.6 kg, 26.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2, 1.03 ± 0.09, 78 ± 7, 125 ± 16 mm of Hg, and 77 ± 9 mm of Hg, respectively, in cases. A significant difference in HDL cholesterol and serum cystatin C was observed among different grades of nephropathy. Cystatin C had a significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.323, ), duration of T2DM (r = 0.326, ), and UACR (r = 0.528, ) and a significant negative correlation with eGFR CKD-EPI cystatin C (r = −0.925, ). The area under ROC curve for serum cystatin C (0.611, 95% CI: 0.450–0.772) was greater than for serum creatinine (0.429, 95% CI: 0.265–0.593) though nonsignificant. Conclusion. Serum cystatin C concentration increases with the progression of nephropathy and duration of diabetes in Nepalese T2DM patients suggesting cystatin C as a potential marker of renal impairment in T2DM patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Apr 2021 10:50:01 +000
  • AKI Epidemiology and Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study from the
           Prenephrology Era

    • Abstract: Background. Acute kidney injury substantially worsens the prognosis of hospitalized patients. The Brandenburg Medical School was founded in 2014, and a nephrology section was opened in summer 2017. The aim of the study was to analyze AKI epidemiology and outcomes in one of two university hospitals belonging to the medical school. The period of interest dated from January to December 2015. Methods. The investigation was designed as a single-center, retrospective cohort study at the Brandenburg Hospital of the Brandenburg Medical School. All in-hospital patients treated between January and the end of December 2015 were included. AKI was defined as specified in the 2012 published KDIGO criteria (criteria 1 and 2). Four parameters were evaluated in particular: AKI incidence, in-hospital mortality, frequency of renal replacement therapy, and renal recovery during the stay at the hospital. Results. A total number of 5,300 patients were included in the analysis. AKI was diagnosed in 490 subjects (10.1%). The in-hospital mortality was 26%. The following conditions/parameters significantly differed between survivors (s) and nonsurviving (ns) subjects: duration of in-hospital treatment (s > ns), AKI onset (outpatient vs. in-hospital) (outpatient in s > ns), dialysis due to AKI (s 
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 13:35:00 +000
  • CX3CR1 at V249M and T280M Gene Polymorphism and Its Potential Risk for
           End-Stage Renal Diseases in Egyptian Patients

    • Abstract: CX3CL1-CX3CR1 pathway may be one of the future treatment targets to delay the progression of end-stage renal diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the CX3CR gene polymorphism in Egyptian patients with ESRD and its relation to fractalkine blood level. The study included 100 patients with ESRD on dialysis, 61 males and 39 females with mean age 51.02 ± 7.8 years. The V2491 genotype revealed a significant increase in the frequency of GG genotype in healthy control (83%) compared to patients [69%] with a significant increase in GA in patients [30%] compared to control subjects [15%],  = 0.03. T280M study showed a statistically significant prevalence of TT genotype in healthy control subjects [86%-OR 95% CI 1.7] compared to patients [70%] with a significant increase in the prevalence of TA in patients [29%] compared to control subjects [13%],  = 0.01. There was a significant increase in fractalkine levels in genotypes GA + AA [503.04±224.1] pg/ml compared to genotype GG [423.6 210.3],  = 0.03. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the blood level of fractalkine in genotype TA + AA [498.8 219.6] compared to genotype TT [426.8±212.8],  = 0.05. In conclusion, our study showed that both V2491-GA genotype and T280M-TA are associated with potential risk for end-stage renal disease in Egyptian patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 09:35:01 +000
  • Mas Receptor Blockade Promotes Renal Vascular Response to Ang II after
           Partial Kidney Ischemia/Reperfusion in a Two-Kidney-One-Clip Hypertensive
           Rats Model

    • Abstract: Background. Partial kidney ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is the principal cause of acute kidney injury. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and hypertension also may be influenced by renal IR injury. In two models of partial renal IR with and without ischemia preconditioning (IPC) and using Mas receptor (MasR) blockade, A779 or its vehicle, the renal vascular responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) administration in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats were determined. Methods. Thirty-seven 2K1C male Wistar rats with systolic blood pressure ≥150 mmHg were randomly divided into three groups; sham, IR, and IPC + IR. The animals in the sham group underwent surgical procedures except partial IR. The rats in the IR group underwent 45 min partial kidney ischemia, and the animals in the IPC + IR group underwent two 5 min cycles of partial kidney ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion and partial kidney ischemia for 45 min. The renal vascular responses to graded Ang II (30, 100, 300, and 1000 ng kg−1.min−1) infusion using A779 or its vehicle were measured at constant renal perfusion pressure. Results. Four weeks after 2K1C implementation, the intravenous infusion of graded Ang II resulted in dose-related increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) (dose 
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Apr 2021 12:50:01 +000
  • Kidney Disease-Specific Quality of Life among Patients on Hemodialysis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Quality of life (QoL) of hemodialysis patients can be examined in two aspects: kidney-specific quality of life and general quality of life. Objective. To determine the QoL among patients undergoing hemodialysis, to assess patients’ QoL on hemodialysis, and to determine the factors associated with QoL among hemodialysis patients in Oman. Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 205 patients to measure the QoL across various demographic and clinical variables in Oman. The Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFtool was used to collect data from patients undergoing hemodialysis to give QoL quantitative measures. Results. The physical-QoL was 45.7 (95% CI, 44.3, 47.0), which is less than half that of a healthy human. The emotional-QoL is 53.33 (95% CI, 51.1, 55.5), slightly more than half in a healthy human-QoL. The difference between physical and emotional-QoL scores is −7.66 (95% CI, −10.3, -5.1), showing that physical QoL is significantly less than emotional-QoL. The overall general QoL score was 49.5 (95% CI, 47.8, 51.2), half the QoL score of a healthy human. Younger patients are also more likely to experience emotional problems compared with older patients. Patients with 5–8 mg/l levels of serum creatinine have lower emotional wellbeing. People on low incomes experienced social difficulties, while the maximum burden was found in physical activities and minimum social function. Conclusion. Both physical (45.7) and emotional (53.3) QoL scores in dialysis patients are nearly half those of an average human. Hence, there is a poor QoL among dialysis patients like other studies, and therefore, further improvement of renal rehabilitation in dialysis patients is warranted to improve patients’ QoL.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:50:01 +000
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Transition Probabilities in a Large
           Preventive Cohort in Colombia

    • Abstract: Background. Variability in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is a well-known phenomenon that underlines the importance of characterizing the said outcome in specific populations. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time and determine the frequency of dialysis admission and factors associated with this outcome, to estimate the rate of program’s loss-to-follow-up and the probability of transition between CKD stages over time. Methods. The study type was an observational analytic retrospective cohort in patients treated in a CKD prevention program in Bogota, Colombia, between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, with follow-up until December 31, 2018. Adult participants of 18 years of age or older with diagnosed CKD stages G3 or G4 were enrolled into a prevention program. For each patient, the rate of progression of CKD in ml/min/1.73 m2/year was estimated using the ordinary least-squares method. Dialysis initiation and program’s loss-to-follow-up rates were calculated. Heat maps were used to present probabilities of transitioning between various CKD stages over time. Survival model with competing risks was used to evaluate factors associated with dialysis initiation. Results. A total of 2752 patients met inclusion criteria and contributed with 14133 patient-years of follow-up and 200 dialysis initiation events, which represents a rate of 1.4 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6). The median change of the eGFR for the entire cohort was −0.47 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year, and in the diabetic population, it was −1.55 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. The program’s loss-to-follow-up rate was 2.6 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 2.3 to 2.9). Probabilities of CKD stage transitions are presented in heat maps. Female sex, older age, baseline eGFR, and serum albumin were associated with lower risk of dialysis initiation while CKD etiology diabetes, cardiovascular disease history, systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, and LDL cholesterol were associated with a higher likelihood of dialysis initiation. Conclusions. A CKD secondary prevention program’s key indicator is reported here, such as dialysis initiation, progression rate, and program drop-out; CKD progression appears to be correlated with diabetic status and timing of referral into the preventive program.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Apr 2021 11:50:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Hemodialysis Patients in
           Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. The level of vitamin D status and its relationship to kidney function and liver function among patients with and without type 2 diabetes were not studied among Palestinian hemodialysis patients before. The aim of this study was to assess the status of vitamin D in hemodialysis patients with and without type 2 diabetes and its determinants. Methods. Data were collected on 163 patients on hemodialysis therapy in the Nephrology Department at Najah National University Hospital. Information on age, sex, plasma 25 (OH)D, serum calcium, serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, dialysis period, hypertension, diabetes, ALT, AST, albumin, alkaline phosphates, and BMI was obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Findings. The mean level of 25 (OH)D was 17.3 ± 10.5 ng/ml. Only 12.9% of subjects had 25 (OH)D levels >30 ng/ml, whereas 65% had levels between 10 and 30 ng/ml; the remaining 22.1% were severely vitamin D deficient (
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Mar 2021 04:20:00 +000
  • Efficacy of Weekly Split versus Single Doses of Ergocalciferol on Serum
           25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Patients on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal
           Dialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem among patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Vitamin D supplementation leads to reduced serum parathyroid hormone levels and improved cardiovascular markers. Different doses and time intervals of oral vitamin D supplementation may differ in each patient on dialysis. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of weekly split and single dose of ergocalciferol at 60,000 IU on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among patients on CAPD. Methods. A randomized study was conducted among patients on CAPD with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (25(OH)D 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Mar 2021 04:05:01 +000
  • PAC-Mediated AKI Protection Is Critically Mediated but Does Not
           Exclusively Depend on Cell-Derived Microvesicles

    • Abstract: Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) significantly worsens the prognosis of hospitalized patients. In recent years, cell-based strategies have been established as a reliable option for improving AKI outcomes in experimental AKI. Our previous studies focused on the so-called proangiogenic cells (PACs). Mechanisms that contribute to PAC-mediated AKI protection include production/secretion of extracellular vesicles (MV, microvesicles). In addition, the cells most likely act by paracrinic processes (secretome). The current study evaluated whether AKI may be preventable by the administration of either PAC-derived MV and/or the secretome alone. Methods. AKI was induced in male C57/Bl6N mice (8–12 weeks) by bilateral renal ischemia (IRI-40 minutes). Syngeneic murine PACs were stimulated with either melatonin, angiopoietin-1 or -2, or with bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) for one hour, respectively. PAC-derived MV and the vesicle-depleted supernatant were subsequently collected and i.v.-injected after ischemia. Mice were analyzed 48 hours later. Results. IRI induced significant kidney excretory dysfunction as reflected by higher serum cystatin C levels. The only measure that improved AKI was the injection of MV, collected from native PACs. The following conditions worsened after ischemic renal function even further: MV + Ang-1, MV + BMP-5, MV + melatonin, and MV + secretome + Ang-1. Conclusion. Together, our data show that PAC-mediated AKI protection substantially depends on the availability of cell-derived MV. However, since previous data showed improved AKI-protection by PACs after cell preconditioning with certain mediators (Ang-1 and -2, melatonin, BMP-5), mechanisms other than exclusively vesicle-dependent mechanisms must be involved in PAC-mediated AKI protection.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Mar 2021 07:50:02 +000
  • Renal Failure among Women of Reproductive Age in Burundi: Estimating the
           Prevalence and Associated Factors Using Population-Based Data

    • Abstract: Background. Renal failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many resource-constrained settings. In developing countries, little has been known about the prevalence and predisposing factors of renal failure using population-based data. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of renal failure among women of reproductive age in Burundi. Methods. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2016-2017 Burundi Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Data on 17,269 women of reproductive age were included. The outcome variable was a renal failure as determined by the patient’s report. Percentage, chi-square test, and multivariable logistic regression model were used to analyze the data. The results from the logistic regression model were presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (95% CI). The significance level was set at .Results. The overall prevalence of renal failure was 5.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 5.7%). Higher-aged women were more likely to have a renal failure when compared with women aged 15–19 years. Rural dwellers were 1.65 times as likely to have a renal failure when compared with women in the urban residence (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.20). Women who had secondary + education had a 39% reduction in the odds of renal failure when compared with women with no formal education (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.81). Health insurance coverage accounted for a 23% reduction in the odds of renal failure when compared with women who were not covered by health insurance (AOR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.93). Women who had a terminated pregnancy were 1.50 times as likely to have a renal failure when compared with women with no history of terminated pregnancy (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.82). Furthermore, women with a history of contraceptive use were 1.32 times as likely to have a renal failure when compared with women without a history of contraceptive use (AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.57). Conclusion. Lack of formal education, having no health insurance coverage, and ever used anything or tried to delay or avoid getting pregnant were the modifiable risk factors of renal failure. The nonmodifiable risk factors were old age, rural residence, certain geographical regions, and having a history of pregnancy termination. Understanding the risk factors of renal failure will help to instigate early screening, detection, and prompt treatment initiation. In addition, early detection of the risk factors can help to reduce the adverse health impact including maternal death.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Feb 2021 14:05:00 +000
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factor Profiles and Disease in Black Compared to Other
           Africans with Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives. The extent to which chronic kidney disease (CKD) impacts cardiovascular disease (CVD) in black Africans is uncertain. We compared cardiovascular risk factors and CVD between black and other African CKD patients. Methods. Cardiovascular risk factors, aortic and cardiac function, atherosclerosis extent, and cardiovascular event rates were assessed in 115 consecutive predialysis (n = 67) and dialysis patients (n = 48) including 46 black and 69 other (32 Asian, 28 white, and 9 mixed race) participants. Data were analysed in multivariable regression models. Results. Overall, black compared to other African CKD patients had less frequent carotid artery plaque (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.16–0.91)) despite an increased cardiovascular risk factor burden. In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the Framingham score performed well in identifying non-black but not black CKD patients with carotid plaque (area under the curve (AUC) (95% CI) = 0.818 (0.714–0.921) and AUC (95% CI) = 0.556 (0.375–0.921), respectively). Black compared to other African predialysis patients experienced larger Framingham scores and more adverse nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, impaired arterial and diastolic function but similar cardiovascular event rates (OR (95% CI) = 0.93 (0.22 to 3.87)). Among dialysis patients, black compared to other Africans had an overall similar traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factor burden, similar arterial and diastolic function but increased systolic function (partial R = 0.356,  = 0.01 and partial R = 0.315,  = 0.03 for ejection fraction and stroke volume, respectively) and reduced cardiovascular event rates (OR (95% CI) = 0.22 (0.05 to 0.88)). Conclusion. Black compared to other African CKD patients have less frequent very high risk atherosclerosis and experience weaker cardiovascular risk factor-atherosclerotic CVD relationships. These disparities may be due to differences in epidemiological health transition stages. Among dialysis patients, black compared to other Africans have less cardiovascular events, which may represent a selection bias as previously documented in black Americans.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2021 17:35:00 +000
  • Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: A Case Series and Review from an
           Inner-City Tertiary University Center in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients
           on Renal Replacement Therapy

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives. Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare complication seen, especially in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) with high morbidity and mortality. CUA treatment remains challenging. The study evaluated CUA's multifaceted treatment efficacy. Materials and Methods. 24 patients with CUA and on RRT were evaluated at Detroit Medical Center from 2007 to 2016. Skin biopsy was used in almost all patients, along with the radiological and clinical findings. The patient’s clinical and paraclinical data were retrieved from the electronic medical records. The effect of treatment modalities and the underlying hyperparathyroidism management were compared to the clinical outcomes using appropriate statistical tests. Results. Twenty-one patients were on hemodialysis, two patients received renal transplants, and one patient was on peritoneal dialysis. Diabetes mellitus was the most prevalent cause of ESRD. The parathyroid hormone level (PTH) was elevated in 22 patients. Fifteen patients were diagnosed 2 weeks or more prior to skin lesion onset. Twenty-two and thirteen patients received sodium thiosulphate and cinacalcet, respectively. Patients with lower PTH and the calcium-phosphate product levels had a relatively better outcome of CUA. Conclusions. A multifaceted approach may play a role in treating CUA. Referral to a nephrologist may aid in the early diagnosis and prompt management of CUA.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Feb 2021 16:20:01 +000
  • Repeat and Relapsing Peritonitis Microbiological Trends and Outcomes: A
           21-Year Single-Center Experience

    • Abstract: Peritonitis is a major peritoneal dialysis complication. Despite a high cure rate, relapsing and repeat peritonitis is associated with Tenckhoff catheter biofilm and multiple episodes of peritoneal damage. In relapsing peritonitis, prompt catheter removal is mandatory; otherwise, in repeat peritonitis, there is not a clear indication for catheter removal. It is questionable if the approach to removal should be different. There are few recent data on repeat and relapsing peritonitis microbiology and clinical outcomes since most studies are from the past decade. This study evaluates the microbiology, clinical outcomes, and impact of relapsing and repeat peritonitis on technique survival and the impact of catheter removal in development of further peritonitis episodes by the same microorganism. We developed a single-center retrospective study from 1998 to 2019 that compared repeat and relapsing peritonitis with a control group in terms of causative microorganisms, cure rate, catheter removal, and permanent and temporary transfer to hemodialysis. We also compared repeat and relapsing peritonitis clinical outcomes when Tenckhoff catheter was not removed. Comparing to the control group, the repeat/relapsing group had a higher cure rate (80.4% versus 74.5%, ) and lower rate of hospitalization (10.9% versus 27.7%, ). Technique survival was superior in the repeat/relapsing group (log rank = 4.5, ). Gram-positive peritonitis was more common in the repeat/relapsing group especially Streptococci viridans (43.5% versus 21.3%, ) and Gram-negatives in the control group (26.6% vs 9.0%, ). When the Tenckhoff catheter was not removed after a repeat episode, 58.6% developed a new repeat/relapsing episode versus 60.0% in the relapsing group. Although repeat and relapsing peritonitis have a higher cure rate, it leads to further episodes of peritonitis and consequent morbidity. When Tenckhoff catheter was not removed, the probability of another peritonitis episode by the same microorganism is similar in repeat and relapsing peritonitis.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jan 2021 14:50:01 +000
  • Effect of Prolonged-Release Pirfenidone on Renal Function in Septic Acute
           Kidney Injury Patients: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. There is no treatment for septic acute kidney injury (sAKI). The anti-inflammatory activity of prolonged-release pirfenidone (PR-PFD) could be beneficial in this clinical setting. Methods. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial in sAKI patients with nephrology consultation at the Civil Hospital of Guadalajara, in addition to the usual treatment of AKI associated with sepsis; patients were randomized to receive either PR-PFD at 1,200 mg/day (group A) or 600 mg/day (group B) or a matched placebo for 7 consecutive days. The primary objective was the decrease in serum creatinine (sCr) and increase in urinary volume (UV); the secondary objectives were changes in serum electrolytes, acid-base status, and mortality. Results. Between August 2016 and August 2017, 88 patients were randomized. The mean age was 54 (17 ± SD) years, and 47% were male. The main site of infection was the lung (39.8%), septic shock was present in 39.1% of the cases, and the mean SOFA score was 8.8 points. 28 patients received PFD 1,200 mg, 30 patients received PFD 600 mg, and 30 patients received placebo. During the study, sCr did not differ among the groups. The reversion rate of sCr, UV, and mortality was not different among the groups (,, and , respectively). Mild adverse events were not different among the groups. Conclusion. PR-PFD did not improve the clinical course of sAKI and seemed to be safe in terms of adverse events. This trial is registered with NCT02530359.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jan 2021 14:50:01 +000
  • Cognition and Implementation of Disaster Preparedness among Japanese
           Dialysis Facilities

    • Abstract: Introduction. Few quantitative studies have explored disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities worldwide. This study examined the levels of disaster preparedness and their related factors in dialysis facilities in Japan. Methods. We conducted a mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire for key persons responsible for disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities (N = 904) associated with the Japanese Association of Dialysis Physicians. Levels of disaster preparedness were evaluated by the implementation rates of four domains: (1) patient, (2) administration, (3) network, and (4) safety. Additionally, we focused on cognitive factors related to disaster preparedness, such as risk perception, outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, self-responsibility, and support from the surroundings. Results. A total of 517 participants answered the survey (response rate: 57.2%). Implementation rates differed according to the domains of disaster preparedness. While the average implementation rate of the safety domain was 81.8%, each average implementation rate was 57.9%, 48.3%, and 38.4% for the administration, network, and patient domains, respectively. The study found that self-efficacy and support from the surroundings of the participants were significantly associated with the four domains of disaster preparedness. Alternatively, risk perception and support from surroundings were significantly associated with one particular domain each. Conclusion. Our results suggest that boosting self-efficacy and support from surroundings among key persons of disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities may contribute to the advancement of the different domains of disaster preparedness.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jan 2021 08:20:01 +000
  • A New Method for the Measurement of International Normalized Ratio in
           Hemodialysis Patients with Heparin-Locked Tunneled Dialysis Catheters

    • Abstract: Background. To measure International Normalized Ratio (INR) in hemodialysis patients with tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs), blood sampling is frequently obtained via the catheter at the start of the session. INR measurements via finger-prick point of care testing (POCT) and via blood sampling taken from the dialysis circuit are evaluated as alternatives. Methods. In 14 hemodialysis patients with TDCs, treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA), INR measurements via POCT were compared with plasma INR samples taken via the catheter at the start of dialysis and via the dialysis circuit after 30 and 60 minutes during 3 nonconsecutive dialysis sessions. Results. Blood samples taken at the start of dialysis at the catheter site were frequently contaminated with heparin originating from the locking solution (unfractionated heparin concentration (UFH)>1.0 IU/ml in 13.2%). POCT INR at the start of dialysis was not different from plasma INR after 30 and 60 minutes (Wilcoxon test ,n = 37, and ,n = 36, respectively). Moreover, there was no difference between POCT INR at the start of dialysis and POCT INR after 30 and 60 minutes (Wilcoxon test and p = 0.801, respectively; n = 36). Passing and Bablok regression equation was used, y = 0.460 + 0.733x; n = 105. Treatment decisions based on these 2 methods showed a very good overall agreement (kappa = 0.810; 95% CI: 0.732–0.889; n = 105). Conclusions. Measuring plasma INR via the TDC at the start of dialysis should be abandoned. Measuring POCT INR via a finger prick at the start or even after 30 to 60 minutes is an alternative. The most elegant alternative is to take plasma INR samples via the dialysis circuit 30 minutes or later after the start of the dialysis.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 08:35:00 +000
  • Long-Term Prognosis of Hyperferritinemia Induced by Intravenous Iron
           Therapy in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: A 10-Year,
           Single-Center Study

    • Abstract: Optimal ferritin level in hemodialysis patients between Japan and other countries is controversial. Long-term side effects of iron supplementation in these patients remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate whether past hyperferritinemia in hemodialysis patients was associated with high risk of death and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CCVDs). This small retrospective cohort study included approximately 44 patients unintentionally supplemented with excessive intravenous iron. A significantly higher risk of CCVDs was observed in patients with initial serum ferritin levels ≥1000 ng/mL than in the remaining patients. High ferritin levels slowly decreased to
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Dec 2020 14:50:01 +000
  • Renal Transplant Pathology: Demographic Features and Histopathological
           Analysis of the Causes of Graft Dysfunction

    • Abstract: Background. Renal transplant has emerged as a preferred treatment modality in cases of end-stage renal disease; however, a small percentage of cases suffer from graft dysfunction. Aim. To evaluate the renal transplant biopsies and analyze the various causes of graft dysfunction. Materials and Methods. 163 renal transplant biopsies, reported between 2014 and 2019 and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were evaluated with respect to demographics, clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Results. Of 163 patients, 26 (16%) were females and 137 (84%) were males with a mean age of 34 ± 7 years. 53 (32.5%) cases were of rejection (ABMR and TCMR), 1 (0.6%) was borderline, 15 were of IFTA, and rest of 94 cases (57.7%) belonged to the others category. SCr (serum creatinine) in cases of rejection was 3.85 ± 0.55 mg/dl. Causes of early graft dysfunction included active ABMR (7.1 ± 4.7 months), acute TCMR (5.5 months), and acute tubular necrosis (after 6 ± 2.2 months of transplant) while the causes of late rejection were CNIT and IFTA (34 ± 4.7 and 35 ± 7.8 months, respectively). Conclusion. Renal graft dysfunction still remains a concerning area for both clinicians and patients. Biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing the exact cause of graft dysfunction and in planning further management.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2020 08:20:03 +000
  • Bidirectional Interaction of Thyroid-Kidney Organs in Disease States

    • Abstract: Purpose. Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth, development, and physiology of the kidney. The kidney plays a key role in the metabolism, degradation, and excretion of thyroid hormones and its metabolites. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of disease states of thyroid-kidney organs and detecting the correlation between thyroid and kidney function abnormalities. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, a total of forty-five patients with thyroid and kidney dysfunction were investigated. Clinical features, laboratory data at initial presentation, management, and outcomes were collected. The paper has been written based on searching PubMed and Google Scholar to identify potentially relevant articles or abstracts. Median, percentage, mean ± standard deviation (SD), and the two-tailed t-test were used for statistical analyses. The correlation between variables was assessed by Pearson’s, Spearman’s correlation tests and regression analyses. Results. The mean ± SD of age of study patients was 48.2 ± 22.93 years (ranging from 1 to 90 years). There was no correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. No association between antimicrosomal antibodies with estimated glomerular filtration rate was seen. Cardiovascular disease was the most common complication of overt hypothyroidism in kidney dysfunction patients. Conclusion. The present study showed more prevalence of primary hypothyroidism in comparison with other thyroid dysfunctions in patients with kidney dysfunction. Reduced mean values of thyroid function profiles after treatment suggest that this thyroid disease should be considered and ameliorated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with kidney disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 06:35:00 +000
  • A Comparison of Urine Dilution Ability between Adult Dominant Polycystic
           Kidney Disease, Other Chronic Kidney Diseases, and Healthy Control
           Subjects: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: The final dilution of urine is regulated via aquaporin-2 water channels in the distal part of the nephron. It is unclear whether urine dilution ability in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD patients) differs from other patients with similar degree of impaired renal function (non-ADPKD patients). The purpose of this case control study was to measure urine dilution ability in ADPKD patients compared to non-ADPKD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Eighteen ADPKD, 16 non-ADPKD patients (both with chronic kidney disease, stage I-IV), and 18 healthy controls received an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. Urine was collected in 7 consecutive periods. We measured free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolality, urine output, fractional excretion of sodium, urine aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), and urine epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaC). Blood samples were drawn four times (at baseline, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 hours after the water load) for analyses of plasma osmolality, vasopressin, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone. Brachial and central blood pressure was measured regularly during the test. Results. The three groups were age and gender matched, and the patient groups had similar renal function. One hour after water load, the ADPKD patients had an increased CH2O compared to non-ADPKD patients (2.97 ± 2.42 ml/min in ADPKD patients vs. 1.31 ± 1.50 ml/min in non-ADPKD patients, ). The reduction in u-AQP2 and u-ENaC occurred earlier in ADPKD than in non-ADPKD patients. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone and blood pressure measurements did not show any differences that could explain the deviation in urine dilution capacity between the patient groups. Conclusions. ADPKD patients had a higher CH2O than non-ADPKD patients after an oral water load, and u-AQP2 and u-ENaC were more rapidly reduced than in non-ADPKD patients. Thus, urine-diluting capacity may be better preserved in ADPKD patients than in non-ADPKD patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 05:50:00 +000
  • Acute Kidney Injury Caused by Obstructive Nephropathy

    • Abstract: Acute kidney injury secondary to obstructive nephropathy is a frequent event that accounts for 5 to 10% of all acute kidney injury cases and has a great impact on the morbidity and mortality in those affected. The obstruction in the urinary tract has a profound impact on kidney function due to damage produced by ischemic and inflammatory factors that have been associated with intense fibrosis. This pathology is characterized by its effects on the management of fluids, electrolytes, and the acid-base mechanisms by the renal tubule; consequently, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, uremia, and anuria are seen during acute kidney injury due to obstructive nephropathy, and after drainage, polyuria may occur. Acute urine retention is the typical presentation. The diagnosis consists of a complete medical history and should include changes in urinary voiding and urgency and enuresis, history of urinary tract infections, hematuria, renal lithiasis, prior urinary interventions, and constipation. Imaging studies included tomography or ultrasound in which hydronephrosis can be seen. Management includes, in addition to drainage of the obstructed urinary tract system, providing supportive treatment, correcting all the metabolic abnormalities, and initiating renal replacement therapy when required. Although its recovery is in most cases favorable, it seems to be an undervalued event in nephrology and urology. This is because it is mistakenly believed that the resolution and recovery of kidney function is complete once the urinary tract is unobstructed. It can have serious kidney sequelae. In this review, we report the epidemiology, incidence, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of acute kidney injury due to obstructive nephropathy.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Nov 2020 06:35:01 +000
  • Hyponatraemia as a Predictor of Mortality in Medical Admissions in Ghana:
           A Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Background. Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospital admissions. It occurs in a quarter of medical admissions in Ghana, and it is associated with high mortality. Mortality has been suggested to be due to the underlying medical condition and not necessarily the hyponatraemia. We set out to compare the outcomes of patients with documented hyponatraemia as compared to those with normonatraemia in terms of mortality and length of hospital stay. Methods. We conducted a comparative analysis of patients with hyponatraemia and those with normonatraemia on the medical ward at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between May 2018 and December 2018. The medical diagnoses, demographics, and laboratory data of the patients were recorded. Participants’ age and gender were matched. Student’s t-test was used to test for differences in continuous variables when parametric and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for nonparametric variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. A value of
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 13:35:01 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Prevalence of APOL1 Risk Variants in Afro-Descendant
           Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Latin American Country”

    • PubDate: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 06:50:01 +000
  • The Association between the Activin A Serum Level and Carotid Intima-Media
           Thickness in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high mortality rates, mainly as a result of cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, recent studies have suggested a role of a homodimer protein called activin A in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) conditions that may exist in the vascular calcification and osteolytic process. Ultrasound examination of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a noninvasive method to assess vascular calcification. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the activin A serum level and cIMT in patients with CKD at Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang, Indonesia. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of consecutive CKD patients at the Department of Internal Medicine, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, from July to November 2019. The level of activin A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, cIMT measurements were collected by B-mode ultrasound imaging. Results. A total of 55 patients with CKD were included in this investigation. The median serum activin A level in these patients was 236.17 (116.33–283) pg/mL, while the median cIMT was 0.8 (0.6–1.45) mm. A relationship between the serum activin A level and cIMT (r  =  0.449; ) was observed. During multivariate analysis with linear regression, triglyceride , phosphate , and activin A serum levels were factors associated with cIMT. Conclusion. In this study, a relationship between the activin A serum level and cIMT in patients with CKD was identified. Vascular calcification should be screened for in all CKD patients by the measurement of cIMT.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Nov 2020 07:35:04 +000
  • Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Outcome of Tuberculosis in Patients
           with Chronic Kidney Disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health threat in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at higher risk of developing new infection as well as reactivation of TB. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical presentations, and outcome of TB in patients with CKD in Nepal. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), a tertiary level referral centre in Kathmandu, Nepal. We included patients older than 16 years with the diagnosis of CKD stage 3, 4, 5, and 5D (CKD 5 on maintenance dialysis); renal transplant recipients and patients living with HIV/AIDS were excluded. Tuberculosis was diagnosed based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Prior written informed consent was obtained. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Institute of Medicine. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS v21. Results. A total of 401 patients with CKD were included in the study (mean age, 50.92 ± 17.98 years; 64.8% male). The prevalence of TB in CKD patients was found to be 13.7% (55), out of which 49 were newly diagnosed cases. The most common clinical presentations of TB in CKD were anorexia (85.7%), fever (83.7%), weight loss (51%), and cough (49%). Thirty-eight patients (69.1%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), 12 (21.8%) had pulmonary TB, 3 (5.5%) had disseminated TB, and 2 (3.6%) had miliary TB. Only 4.1% of cases were sputum smear positive. Pleural effusion (34.2%) was the most common EPTB. At 2 months of starting antitubercular therapy, 29 patients out of the 49 newly diagnosed cases of TB (59.2%) had responded to therapy. Mortality at 2 months was 28.6% (14 died amongst 49 patients). Four out of 49 patients (8.2%) did not improve, and 2 (4%) patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion. Prevalence and mortality of TB were higher in patients with CKD. Special attention must be given to these people for timely diagnosis and treatment as the presentation is different and diagnosis can be missed.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Nov 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Effect of a Supervised Peridialytic Exercise Program on Serum Asymmetric
           Dimethylarginine in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    • Abstract: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) have alarmingly high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) is the principal endogenous antiatherosclerotic molecule. Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor, was strongly implicated in endothelial dysfunction, premature atherosclerosis, vascular events, and mortality. Regular physical exercise effectively decreased serum ADMA in several patient cohorts, but this potential benefit has not been specifically explored among MHD patients. Forty-four middle-aged ESRD patients treated with thrice-weekly MHD for ≥6 months completed a 6-months regimen of peridialytic lower limb exercise comprising predialytic 10–12 stretching cycles and 20–30 minutes of intradialytic pedaling cycles. Before and after the study, predialytic haemoglobin, serum ADMA, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Dialysis adequacy was assessed by single-pool Kt/V. The average total physical activity (PA) level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). values
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Oct 2020 13:20:01 +000
  • Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Induction Therapies for the Treatment
           of Patients with Proliferative Lupus Nephritis in South Africa

    • Abstract: Background. Lupus nephritis (LN) can be complicated with requirement for kidney replacement therapy and death. Efficacy of induction therapies using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCYC) has been reported from studies, but there is limited data in Africans comparing both treatments in patients with proliferative LN. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN diagnosed and treated with either MMF or IVCYC in a single centre in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 5-year period. The primary outcome was attaining complete remission after completion of induction therapy. Results. Of the 84 patients included, mean age was 29.6 ± 10.4 years and there was a female preponderance (88.1%). At baseline, there were significant differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and presence of glomerular crescents between both groups (). After completion of induction therapy, there was no significant difference in remission status (76.0% versus 87.5%; ) or relapse status (8.1% versus 10.3%; ) for the IVCYC and MMF groups, respectively. Mortality rate for the IVCYC group was 5.5 per 10,000 person-days of follow-up compared to 1.5 per 10,000 person-days of follow-up for the MMF group (), and there was no significant difference in infection-related adverse events between both groups. Estimated GFR at baseline was the only predictor of death (OR: 1.0 [0.9–1.0]; ).Conclusion. This study shows similar outcomes following induction treatment with MMF or IVCYC in patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN in South Africa. However, a prospective and randomized study is needed to adequately assess these outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Knowledge about COVID-19 and Practices among Hemodialysis Technicians in
           the COVID-19 Pandemic Era

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hemodialysis technicians play a crucial role in infection control practices in hemodialysis units. Thus, it is important to assess the knowledge and attitude towards COVID-19 among hemodialysis technicians in this pandemic situation. Materials and Methods. An online survey composed of 22 closed-ended questions using Google Forms was conducted in the month of April (13th to 19th) 2020. The survey consisted of questions regarding the knowledge of COVID-19 and current hemodialysis practice among hemodialysis technicians. The study was approved by the institutional ethics board. The survey was administered online through a mobile phone invitation. Basic statistics (mean and standard deviation or total number and percent) were computed for all covariates. Results. Out of 150, 115 technicians participated in the survey. 80.9% of the participants were males. The mean age of respondents was 28.22 + 6.97 years. Most of the respondents could correctly identify fever (87.8%), breathlessness (86.08%), and dry cough (81.7%) as the symptoms of COVID-19 infection. 75.7% of the technicians were aware that it can be transmitted by asymptomatic persons. 61.1% of the technicians were segregating patients who had symptoms such as fever and cough to the last shift of the day. 81.1% of the technicians read the guidelines issued by the Indian Society of Nephrology—COVID-19 working group. But, only 25.5% of the respondents could rightly identify to keep a minimum distance of two meters between two beds while dialyzing a suspected patient of COVID-19 along with other patients to minimise risk of COVID-19 transmission. 60% of the technicians have received hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis against coronavirus infection. Conclusion. Our study shows a significant knowledge gap among hemodialysis technicians about COVID-19. Effective COVID-19 education campaigns should be carried out intensively with relevant information among hemodialysis technicians to address the knowledge gap. A well-informed hemodialysis technician can prove to be a great tool to spread the right infection control practices among dialysis-dependent patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2020 13:50:02 +000
  • Chronic Kidney Disease among Diabetes Patients in Ethiopia: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Though different primary studies have reported the burden of chronic kidney disease among diabetes patients, their results have demonstrated substantial variation regarding its prevalence in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors among diabetes patients in Ethiopia. Method. PubMed, African Journals Online, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Wiley Online Library were searched to identify relevant studies. The I2 statistic was used to check heterogeneity across the included studies. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled effect size across studies. A funnel plot and Egger’s regression test were used to determine the presence of publication bias. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA™ version 14 software. Result. In this meta-analysis, a total of 12 studies with 4,075 study participants were included. The estimated prevalence of CKD among diabetes patients was found to be 35.52% (95% CI: 25.9–45.45, I2 = 96.3%) for CKD stages 1 to 5 and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.5–18.49, I2 = 91.1%) for CKD stages 3 to 5. Age greater than 60 years (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.56–5.73), female sex (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.69), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.38–5.51), body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.41–3.00), type 2 diabetes (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.73–3.73), poor glycemic control (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.34–3.02), fasting blood glucose >150 mg/dl (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.79–3.72), high density lipoprotein >40 mg/dl (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30–0.85–25), systolic blood pressure>140 mmHg (OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 2.24–4.74), and diabetic retinopathy (OR = 4.54; CI: 1.08–25) were significantly associated with CKD. Conclusion. This study revealed that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease remains high among diabetes patients in Ethiopia. This study found that a long duration of diabetes, age>60 years, diabetic retinopathy, female sex, family history of kidney disease, poor glycemic control, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and high level of high-density lipoprotein were associated with chronic kidney disease among diabetic patients. Therefore, situation-based interventions and context-specific preventive strategies should be developed to reduce the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease among diabetes patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Oct 2020 14:35:02 +000
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