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SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Science & Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Sports Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.217
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 33  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0172-4622 - ISSN (Online) 1439-3964
Published by Thieme Publishing Group Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Fecal microbiota monitoring in elite soccer players along the 2019-2020
           competitive season

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      Authors: Viciani; Elisa, Barone, Monica, Bongiovanni, Tindaro, Quercia, Sara, Di Gesu, Roberta, Pasta, Giulio, Manetti, Paolo, Iaia, F. Marcello, Trecroci, Athos, Rampelli, Simone, Candela, Marco, Biagi, Elena, Castagnetti, Andrea
      Abstract: Physical exercise affects the human gut microbiota that, in turn, influences athletes’ performance. The current understanding of how the microbiota of professional athletes changes along with different phases of training is sparse. We aim to characterize the fecal microbiota in elite soccer players along with different phases of a competitive season using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected after the summer off-season period, the pre-season retreat, the first half of the competitive season, and the 8 weeks COVID-19 lockdown that interrupted the season 2019-2020. According to our results, the gut microbiota of professional athletes changes along with the phases of the season, characterized by different training, diet, nutritional surveillance, and environment sharing. Pre-season retreat, during which nutritional surveillance and exercise intensity were at their peak, caused a decrease in bacterial groups related to unhealthy lifestyle and an increase in health-promoting symbionts. The competitive season and forced interruption affected other features of the athletes’ microbiota, i.e. bacterial groups that respond to dietary fibers load and stress levels. Our longitudinal study, focusing on one of the most followed sports worldwide, provides baseline data for future comparisons and microbiome-targeting interventions aimed at developing personalized training and nutrition plans for performances maximization.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T10:22:06+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1858-1810
       
  • Macrophage depletion attenuates acute renal damage after exhaustive
           exercise in mice

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      Authors: Mizokami; Tsubasa, Shimada, Michiko, Suzuki, Katsuhiko
      Abstract: Exhaustive exercise is known to induce acute renal damage. However, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of macrophage depletion on exhaustive exercise-induced acute renal damage. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: sedentary with control liposome (n=8), sedentary with clodronate liposome (n=8), exhaustive exercise with control liposome (n=8), and exhaustive exercise with clodronate liposome (n=8). Mice were treated clodronate liposomes or control liposomes intraperitoneally for 48 h before undergoing exhaustive exercise. Renal function and renal histology were tested at 24 hours. The expression levels of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and inflammatory cytokines in kidney tissues were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and KIM-1 were semi-quantified by immunostaining. As a result, exhaustive exercise increased macrophage infiltration into the kidney. However, clodronate reduced it. Although exhaustive exercise resulted in an increase in KIM-1 expression levels, injection of clodronate liposome reduced it. In addition, TUNEL positive apoptotic cells were increased after exercise, but significantly reduced by clodronate. Clodronate liposome treatment also decreased the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in the kidney after exhaustive exercise. These results suggest that macrophages play a critical role in increasing renal damage by regulating inflammation.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:53:55+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1827-3261
       
  • Physical and Technical Demands and Preparatory Strategies in Female Field
           Collision Sports: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Dane; Kathryn, Simms, Ciaran, Hendricks, Sharief, West, Stephen W., Griffin, Steffan, Nugent, Frank J., Farrell, Garreth, Mockler, David, Wilson, Fiona
      Abstract: Women’s participation in field collision sports is growing worldwide. Scoping reviews provide an overview of scientific literature in a developing area to support practitioners, policy, and research priorities. Our aim is to explore published research and synthesise information on the physical and technical demands and preparation strategies of female field collision sports. We searched four databases and identified relevant published studies. Data were extracted to form (1) a numerical analysis and (2) thematic summary. Of 2318 records identified, 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Physical demands were the most highly investigated (n+=+24), followed by technical demands (n+= 18), tactical considerations (n+=+8) and preparatory strategies (n=1). The key themes embody a holistic model contributing to both performance and injury prevention outcomes in the context of female field collision sports. Findings suggest a gender data gap across all themes and a low evidence base to inform those preparing female athletes for match demands. Given the physical and technical differences in match-demands the review findings do not support the generalisation of male-derived training data to female athletes. To support key stakeholders working within female field collision sports there is a need to increase the visibility of female athletes in the literature.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:53:54+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1839-6040
       
  • Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Quality in Retired Rugby Players:
           The UK Rugby Health Project

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      Authors: Entwistle; Ian, Francis, Peter, Lees, Matthew, Hume, Patria, Hind, Karen
      Abstract: Although athletes from sports such as rugby have greater lean mass and strength during their playing careers, little is known about these characteristics post-retirement. Therefore, this study investigated lean mass, strength, and muscle quality in retired elite and amateur rugby players and non-contact athletes. Retired elite male rugby players (n=42, 43.9±10.3 y; 101.1±13.4 kg; 1.82±0.09 m), amateur rugby players (n=46, 48.0±10.5 y; 98.9±16.6 kg; 1.79±0.07 m) and non-contact athletes (n=30, 51.3±12.5 y; 91.3±13.4 kg; 1.79±0.07 m) received one total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment of appendicular lean mass (ALM) and ALM index (ALMI). Grip strength was measured, and muscle quality (grip strength/unit of arm lean mass) was calculated. Sarcopenia was identified as ALMI
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:53:53+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1854-0052
       
  • Cardiovagal Modulation in Young and Older Male Adults Following Acute
           Aerobic Exercise

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      Authors: Marôco; João Luís, Pinto, Marco, Laranjo, Sérgio, Santa-Clara, Helena, Fernhall, Bo, Melo, Xavier
      Abstract: We compared response patterns of cardiovagal modulation through heart-rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) indices at 10 and 60 min after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in active young and older adults. Twelve young (aged 20–40 years) and older (aged 57–76 years) healthy and active male adults performed an isocaloric acute bout of HIIE, MICE, or a non-exercise condition in a randomized order. HRV and BRS indices were analyzed offline with R-R intervals obtained from a supine position. HIIE decreased natural logarithm (Ln) standard deviation of NN intervals (d=−0.53; 95% CI: −0.77 to −0.30 ms, p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T14:54:41+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1843-7974
       
  • Voluntary Increase of Minute Ventilation for Prevention of Acute Mountain
           Sickness

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      Authors: Drago; Sebastian, Campodónico, Juan, Sandoval, Mario, Berendsen, Remco, Buijze, Geert Alexander
      Abstract: This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of voluntary sustained hyperventilation during rapid ascent to high altitude for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Study subjects (n=32) were volunteer participants in a 2-day expedition to Mount Leoneras (4954 m), starting at 2800m (base camp at 4120 m). Subjects were randomized to either: 1) an intervention group using the voluntary hyperventilation (VH) technique targeting an end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2)
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T14:48:35+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1832-0279
       
  • Predictions of the Distance Running Performances of Female Runners Using
           Different Tools

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      Authors: Lerebourg; Lucie, Guignard, Brice, L’Hermette, Maxime, Held, Eric, Coquart, Jérémy Bernard
      Abstract: This study examined the validity and compared the precision and accuracy of a distance-time linear model (DTLM), a power law and a nomogram to predict the distance running performances of female runners. Official rankings of French women (“senior” category: between 23 and 39 years old) for the 3000-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m track-running events from 2005 to 2019 were examined. Performances of runners who competed in the three distances during the same year were noted (n=158). Mean values and standard deviation (SD) of actual performances were 11.28±1.33, 19.49±2.34 and 41.03±5.12 for the 3000-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m respectively. Each performance was predicted from two other performances. Between the actual and predicted performances, only DTLM showed a difference (p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T14:44:50+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1821-6179
       
  • Assessment of fatigue and recovery in sport: narrative review

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      Authors: Bestwick-Stevenson; Thomas, Toone, Rebecca, Neupert, Emma, Edwards, Kimberley L, Kluzek, Stefan
      Abstract: Fatigue is a phenomenon associated with decreases in both physical and cognitive performances and increases in injury occurrence. Competitive athletes are required to complete demanding training programmes with high workloads to elicit the physiological and musculoskeletal adaptations plus skill acquisition necessary for performance. High workloads, especially sudden rapid increases in training loads, are associated with the occurrence of fatigue. At present, there is limited evidence elucidating the underlying mechanisms associating the fatigue generated by higher workloads and with an increase in injury risk. The multidimensional nature and manifestation of fatigue have led to differing definitions and dichotomies of the term. Consequently, a plethora of physiological, biochemical, psychological and performance markers have been proposed to measure fatigue and recovery. Those include self-reported scales, countermovement jump performance, heart rate variability, and saliva and serum biomarker analyses. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the fatigue and recovery plus methods of assessments.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T10:32:53+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1834-7177
       
  • Sports Injury Surveillance Systems and Guidelines in Japan: A Systematic
           Review

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      Authors: Mashimo; Sonoko, Ogaki, Ryo, Suhara, Hirokazu, Yoshida, Naruto
      Abstract: This systematic review aimed to identify sports injury surveillance systems (ISSs) and injury surveillance guidelines (ISGs) developed and currently used in Japan. Additionally, the extent to which ISSs and ISGs developed overseas are employed in Japan was also examined. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed in March 2021. Prospective studies that investigated sports injuries and targeted Japanese athletes or sports in Japan were included to identify the following: (1) details of the ISSs or ISGs developed among sports in Japan, and (2) characteristics of studies focusing on sports in Japan employing ISSs or ISGs developed overseas and the method of use. A total of five ISSs developed among sports in Japan were included, most of which were based on insurance benefits or condolence payment systems. In total, 23 studies used ISSs or ISGs developed overseas, more than half of which were used as a resource for the development of other data collection tools or methods, indicating that the definition of injury and/or classification of items are modified based on the needs among sports in Japan. This review highlights the necessity of establishing club-based or organisational ISSs and ISGs that are appropriate for sports in Japan.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T10:28:42+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1836-0526
       
  • Validity and Reliability of Two Near-infrared Spectroscopy Devices to
           Measure Resting Hemoglobin in Elite Cyclists

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      Authors: Gandia-Soriano; Alexis, Salas-Montoro, José-Antonio, Javaloyes, Alejandro, Lorente-Casaus, Carlos, Zabala, Mikel, Priego-Quesada, Jose Ignacio, Mateo March, Manuel
      Abstract: A new method to monitor internal training load from muscle oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy could be of practical application for research and training purposes. This technology has been validated in different scientific fields, including sports science, and Humon Hex and Moxy are two leading brands. However, its relationship with hemoglobin has not been studied. Forty-eight professional cyclists, 19 men and 29 women, underwent a blood test to measure hemoglobin in the early morning. Immediately afterwards, hemoglobin and muscle oxygenation were monitored at rest by Moxy and Humon Hex on their right quadriceps (where the skinfold was measured). Venous blood hemoglobin was higher than the measurement for both devices (p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:53:59+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1828-8499
       
  • High-speed Training in a Specific Context in Soccer: Transition Games

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      Authors: Asian-Clemente; Jose A., Rabano-Muñoz, Alberto, Requena, Bernardo, Suarez-Arrones, Luis
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to compare the load of three tasks designed to train features of soccer: a transition game, a small-sided game with a change of playing area, and a large-sided game. Twenty young elite players performed these tasks. Variables measured were total distance covered (DC), distance covered at 14.0–17.9 km·h−1 (DC 14.0–17.9 km·h−1), distance covered at 18.0–21 km·h−1 (DC 18–21 km·h−1), distance covered > 21 km·h−1 (DC>21 km·h−1), peak speed, accelerations and decelerations > 1.0 and > 2.5 m·s−2, player load, and rate of perceived exertion. Transition games produced greater DC 18–21 km·h−1, DC>21 km·h−1, peak speed and Acc>2.5 m·s−2 than the other drills (p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:48:41+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1794-9567
       
  • Head Injury Assessment in the Elite Level Rugby Union in Japan: Review of
           3 Seasons

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      Authors: Tajima; Takuya, Ota, Osamu, Nagayama, Masataka, Takahashi, Masayasu, Yamada, Mutsuo, Ishiyama, Nobuo, Yoshida, Ichiro, Takemura, Masahiro, Hara, Kenji, Akama, Takao, Mitsumori, Norio, Higashihara, Junichiro, Toyama, Yukimasa, Furuya, Masahiro, Chosa, Etsuo, Nakamura, Akihiko
      Abstract: Head Injury Assessment (HIA) is the screening tool for head injury during a rugby game. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HIA in the Japan Rugby Top League (JRTL). The incidences of HIA, defined concussion (per 1,000 player-hours) and repeated concussions were evaluated in three seasons (2016-17, 2017–18, 2018–19; total 360 games). The HIA incidence rates were 12.7 (95% confidence interval 9.5–15.9), 20.8 (16.8–24.9), and 25.0 (20.5–29.5) in each season. HIA-1 criteria 2, which is applied for suspected concussion cases, was performed for 46 cases in the 2016–17 season, 81 cases in the 2017–18 season, and 88 cases in the 2018–19 season. The concussion incidence rates were significantly greater in the 2017–18 season (9.6/1000 player-hours, 95% confidence interval 6.8–12.4) and the 2018–19 season (14.4, 11–17.8) compared to the 2016–17 season (4.8, 2.8–6.8). The number of repeated concussion cases in the same season was 1 in the 2016–17 season and 4 in both the 2017–18 and 2018–19 seasons. This study confirmed significantly higher HIA and concussion incidence rates over time. Although the HIA system might have been established in the three seasons in JRTL, comprehensive management needs to be improved to prevent repeated concussions.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:14:32+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1810-6509
       
  • Cardiovascular Regulation During Acute Gravitational Changes with Exhaling
           on Exertion

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      Authors: Latscha; Rina, Koschate, Jessica, Bloch, Wilhelm, Werner, Andreas, Hoffmann, Uwe
      Abstract: During gravitational changes or changes in the direction of action in relation to the body, fluid displacements can be observed. In special cases different breathing maneuvers (e. g., exhaling on exertion; Ex-Ex) are used to counteract acute fluid shifts. Both factors have a significant impact on cardiovascular regulation. Eight healthy male subjects were tested on a tilt seat, long arm human centrifuge, and parabolic flight. The work aims to investigate the effect of exhaling on exertion on the cardiovascular regulation during acute gravitational changes compared to normal breathing. Possible interactions and differences between conditions (Ex-Ex, normal breathing) for the parameters V’O 2 , V’ E , HR, and SV were analysed over a 40 s period by a three-way ANOVA. Significant (p≤0.05) effects for all main factors and interactions between condition and time as well as maneuver and time were found for all variables. The exhaling on exertion maneuver had a significant influence on the cardiovascular response during acute gravitational and positional changes. For example, the significant increase of V’O2 at the end of the exhalation on exertion maneuver indicates an increased lung circulation as a result of the maneuver.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T11:21:07+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1810-6646
       
  • Sports, Myocarditis and COVID-19: Diagnostics, Prevention and
           Return-to-Play Strategies

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      Authors: Schmidt; Thomas, Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna, Zacher, Jonas, Predel, Georg, Reiss, Nils
      Abstract: Myocarditis is an umbrella term for non-ischemic myocardial inflammation and remains a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in active individuals and athletes. Accurate diagnosing is challenging and diseases could often remain undetected. In the majority of cases, acute myocarditis resolves favourably. However, a relevant proportion of patients may have an increased risk of prognostically relevant cardiac arrhythmias and/or the development and progression of maladaptive myocardial remodelling (dilated cardiomyopathy). This review provides current knowledge on myocarditis and sports with special regard to the COVID-19 pandemic. Possible causes, common symptoms and proposed diagnostics are summarized. The relevance of temporary avoidance of intensive sports activities for both the prevention and therapy of acute myocarditis is discussed. Risk stratification, specific return-to-play recommendations and proposed follow-up diagnostics (also after COVID-19 infection) are presented.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T11:09:30+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1810-5314
       
  • Softball Pitching Propulsion and Performance Differences According to Body
           Fat Percentage

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      Authors: Friesen; Kenzie B, Oliver, Gretchen D
      Abstract: Softball pitchers with a high body-fat percentage (bf%) can often be successful, despite the heightened risk of injury associated with high bf%. Given the importance of propulsion during pitching, those with high bf% may have an advantage performance-wise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in ground reaction force (GRF) development between two groups of pitchers: those with a high-fat percentage (≥32 bf%) and a healthy-fat percentage (
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T12:21:10+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1778-4359
       
  • Can a Short-term Daily Oral Administration of Propolis Improve Muscle
           Fatigue and Recovery'

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      Authors: Tsuchiya; Yuma, Hirata, Naoya, Asama, Takashi, Osakabe, Naomi, Hirata, Kosuke, Akagi, Ryota
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of 1-week oral administration of propolis on muscle fatigue and recovery after performing a fatigue task (total 100 maximal voluntary concentric knee extension repetitions). In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 18 young men consumed a formulation with high Brazilian green propolis dose (H-BGP), a formulation with low Brazilian green propolis dose, or a placebo, for 1 week before performing the fatigue task (an interval between each intervention: 1–2 weeks). Maximal voluntary contraction torque, central fatigue (voluntary activation and root mean square values of the surface electromyography amplitude), and peripheral fatigue (potentiated triplet torque) were assessed before, immediately after, and 2 minutes after the fatigue task. Maximal voluntary contraction torque decreased immediately after the fatigue task in all conditions (P
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T17:39:25+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1808-6319
       
  • Effect of Exercise Training on Arterial Stiffness in Overweight or Obese
           Populations

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      Authors: Gong; Lijing, Liu, Yujia
      Abstract: The purpose was to analyze the effects of exercise training (ET) on arterial stiffness in all-age overweight or obese individuals. Sixty-one trials were included with ET improving flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and intima-media thickness (IMT). In the subgroup analysis: (i) ET improved FMD in overweight or obese children and adolescents with a large effect size (SMD=0.83, 95% CI 0.42–1.25). PWV was decreased after ET regardless of age. IMT was decreased by ET in participants younger than 60, (ii) ET improved FMD, PWV, and IMT in participants whose BMI were smaller than 30 kg/m2, but ET only improved PWV of participants whose BMI were larger than 30 kg/m2. (iii) AE improved FMD, PWV, and IMT. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) decreased IMT. (iv) The increase of FMD only happened when training duration was longer than eight weeks. However, ET decreased PWV when the training duration was no longer than 12 weeks. IMT was decreased when the training duration was longer than eight weeks. ET instigated an improvement in endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight or obese populations, but depending on the different characteristics of exercise intervention and participants’ demographics.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1795-2940
       
  • Cardiac Rehabilitation Improves Endothelial Function in Coronary Artery
           Disease Patients

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      Authors: Manresa-Rocamora; Agustín, Ribeiro, Fernando, Casanova-Lizón, Antonio, Flatt, Andrew A., Sarabia, José Manuel, Moya-Ramón, Manuel
      Abstract: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention for improving endothelial function in coronary artery disease patients. Therefore, this systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to (a) estimate the training-induced effect on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, respectively, in coronary artery disease patients; and to (b) study the influence of potential trial-level variables (i. e. study and intervention characteristics) on the training-induced effect on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function. Electronic searches were performed in Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase up to February 2021. Random-effects models of standardised mean change were estimated. Heterogeneity analyses were performed by using the Chi 2 test and I 2 index. Our results showed that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation significantly enhanced flow-mediated dilation (1.04 [95% confidence interval=0.76 to 1.31]) but did not significantly change nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (0.05 [95% confidence interval=–0.03 to 0.13]). Heterogeneity testing reached statistical significance (p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1717-1798
       
  • Exercise to Lower Postprandial Lipemia: Why, When, What and How

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      Authors: Petridou; Anatoli, Mougios, Vassilis
      Abstract: We review recent findings on the ability of exercise to lower postprandial lipemia (PPL). Specifically, we answer why exercise is important in lowering PPL, when it is most effective to exercise to achieve this, what the preferred exercise is and how exercise reduces PPL. Most findings confirm the power of exercise to lower PPL, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exercise is most effective when performed on the day preceding a high- or moderate-fat meal. This effect lasts up to approximately two days; therefore, one should exercise frequently to maintain this benefit. However, the time of exercise relative to a meal is not that important in real-life conditions, since one consumes several meals during the day; thus, an exercise bout will inevitably exert its lowering effect on PPL in one or more of the subsequent meals. Although moderate-intensity continuous exercise, high-intensity intermittent exercise, resistance exercise and accumulation of short bouts of exercise throughout the day are all effective in lowering PPL, submaximal, high-volume interval exercise seems to be superior, provided it is tolerable. Finally, exercise reduces PPL by both lowering the rate of appearance and increasing the clearance of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins from the circulation.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1810-5118
       
  • Current Insights into Cellular Senescence and Myotoxicity Induced by
           Doxorubicin: The Role of Exercise and Growth Factors

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      Authors: Andreou; Charalampos, Matsakas, Antonios
      Abstract: Doxorubicin is an anti-neoplasmic drug that prevents DNA replication but induces senescence and cellular toxicity. Intensive research has focused on strategies to alleviate the doxorubicin-induced skeletal myotoxicity. The aim of the present review is to critically discuss the relevant scientific evidence about the role of exercise and growth factor administration and offer novel insights about newly developed-tools to combat the adverse drug reactions of doxorubicin treatment on skeletal muscle. In the first part, we discuss current data and mechanistic details on the impact of doxorubicin on skeletal myotoxicity. We next review key aspects about the role of regular exercise and the impact of growth factors, administered either pharmacologically or via genetic interventions. Future strategies such as combination of exercise and growth factor administration remain to be established to combat the pharmacologically-induced myotoxicity.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1797-7622
       
  • Leukocyte-rich and Leukocyte-poor Platelet-rich Plasma in Rotator Cuff
           Repair: A Meta-analysis

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      Authors: Peng; Yundong, Guanglan, Wang, Jia, Shaohui, Zheng, Cheng
      Abstract: To systematically review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compared the effects of leukocyte-rich and leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Two independent reviewers comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Comparison of leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma or leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repair in a level I RCTs. Methodological quality assessment was carried out using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3 software. P
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1790-7982
       
  • Comparison of Velocity and Percentage-based Training on Maximal Strength:
           Meta-analysis

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      Authors: Zhang; Mingyang, Tan, Qiang, Sun, Jian, Ding, Shicong, Yang, Qun, Zhang, Zhiyong, Lu, Junbing, Liang, Xingyue, Li, Duanying
      Abstract: The purpose was to analyze the comparison of velocity-based resistance training and one-repetition maximum (%1RM) percentage-based training in maximal strength improvement by meta-analyzing and to find the reasons for the controversial findings of different studies. Ten studies were included in the systematic review and seven were subjected to meta-analysis. A total of 139 subjects were selected from the included articles after exclusion, including athletes of different specialties (N=93) and non-athletes mainly from fitness groups (N=46). The overall effect size was SMD=0.26 (95%CL 0.03 to 0.49, P=0.03, I²=0). As for the comparison of the analysis of different intervention objects as subgroups, the effect size of athletes as the subgroup was 0.35 (95%CI 0.06 to 0.64, p=0.02, I²=0), indicating that in the RCT with athletes as the intervention target, the effect of VBRT in improving the maximal strength was significantly different from that of PBT. Velocity-based resistance training might be more effective than percentage-based training in maximal strength improvement, in which velocity-based resistance training is more suitable for athletes in season, while percentage-based training is more suitable for the general sports population. More high-quality researches should deal with the effect of other athletic performance with velocity-based resistance training in the future.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1790-8546
       
  • Efficacy of repair for ACL injury: a meta‑analysis of randomized
           controlled trials

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      Authors: Li; Zhuoyang
      Abstract: We aim to compare the curative effect of primary repair for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury with reconstruction and provide the reliable evidence for its clinical application. The literatures were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Springer, and other medical literature databases published between January 1970 and June 2021. Basic characteristics, surgery technique, clinical outcome scores and physical examination results were recorded and evaluated. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCT) were eligible for inclusion. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between arthroscopic ACL repair and ACL reconstruction for Tegner, Lysholm, Lachman, KT-1000, range of motion (ROM), functional outcomes and reoperation rate (P > 0.05), even the result of IKDC scores showed that arthroscopic repair was better than reconstruction (P = 0.04). However, through the subgroup analysis, it was found that the short-term follow-up results of arthroscopic ACL repair were indeed better than those of open ACL repair. Therefore, we can assume that the arthroscopic ACL repair technique is an optional and promising surgical method to treat ACL injury.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1755-4925
       
  • Application of the Force-velocity-power Concept to the 3-Min all-out
           Running Test

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      Authors: Kramer; Mark, Thomas, Emma Jayne, Pretorius, Christiaan
      Abstract: Force-velocity-power (FVP) profiling offers insights related to key factors that may enhance or hinder sprinting performances. Whether the same FVP principles could be applied to the sprinting portion of the 3-minute all-out test for running (3MT) has not been previously investigated. Twenty moderately trained participants volunteered for the study (age: 24.75 ± 3.58 yrs; height: 1.69±0.11 m; mass: 73.74±12.26 kg). After familiarization of all testing procedures, participants completed: (i) a 40-m all-out sprint test, and (ii) a 3MT. Theoretical maximal force and power, but not velocity, were significantly higher for the 40-m sprint test. Most FVP variables from the two tests were weakly to moderately correlated, with the exception of maximal velocity. Finally, maximal velocity and relative peak power were predictive of D’, explaining approximately 51% of the variance in D’. Although similar maximal velocities are attained during both the 40-m sprint and the 3MT, the underlying mechanisms are markedly different. The FVP parameters obtained from either test are likely not interchangeable but do provide valuable insights regarding the potential mechanisms by which D’ may be improved.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T17:09:58+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1873-1829
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Body Size, Fatness and Skeletal Age in Female Youth Soccer Players

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      Authors: Martinho; Diogo V., Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J., Gonçalves Santos, João, Oliveira, Tomas G., Minderico, Cláudia S., Seabra, Andre, Valente-dos-Santos, Joao, Sherar, Lauren B., Malina, Robert M.
      Abstract: Growth and maturation are central concerns in the organization of training and competitions in youth sports. This study examined maturity-associated variation in body size and adiposity among adolescent girls participating in competitive age group youth soccer. The sample included 441 players 10.08-16.73 years of age. Stature and body mass were measured and body composition was predicted. The Fels method was used to estimate skeletal age. Skeletally maturity status (late, average or early maturing) was based on the difference between chronological and skeletal age for each player. Mean stature approximated the 50th percentiles of the general population in all competitive age groups, while mean weight fluctuated between 50th and 75th percentiles. Age- and maturity-specific means for estimated fat mass ranged between 18.0% and 28.2%. The number of players classified as skeletally mature increased with competitive age groups (under-13: 0%; under-15: 8%; under-17: 49%). In general, early maturing girls tended to be heavier than their age group peers and especially when compared to late maturing players.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T17:08:01+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1686-4563
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Reproducibility of 20-min Time-trial Performance on a Virtual Cycling
           Platform

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      Authors: Matta; Guilherme, Edwards, Andrew, Roelands, Bart, Hettinga, Florentina, Hurst, Philip
      Abstract: This study aimed to analyse the reproducibility of mean power output during 20-min cycling time-trials, in a remote home-based setting, using the virtual-reality cycling software, Zwift. Forty-four cyclists (11 women, 33 men; 37±8 years old, 180±8 cm, 80.1±13.2 kg) performed 3×20-min time-trials on Zwift, using their own setup. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and typical error (TE) were calculated for the overall sample, split into 4 performance groups based on mean relative power output (25% quartiles) and sex. Mean ICC, TE and CV of mean power output between time-trials were 0.97 [0.95–0.98], 9.4 W [8.0–11.3 W], and 3.7% [3.2–4.5], respectively. Women and men had similar outcomes (ICC: 0.96 [0.89–0.99] vs. 0.96 [0.92–0.98]; TE: 8.3 W [6.3–13.1] vs. 9.7 W [8.2–12.2]; CV: 3.8% [2.9–6.1] vs. 3.7% [3.1–4.7], respectively), although cyclists from the first quartile showed a lower CV in comparison to the overall sample (Q1: 2.6% [1.9–4.1] vs. overall: 3.7% [3.2–4.5]). Our results indicate that power output during 20-min cycling time-trials on Zwift are reproducible and provide sports scientists, coaches and athletes, benchmark values for future interventions in a virtual-reality environment.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T17:02:39+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1848-8478
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Exercise Dose and Aerobic Fitness Response in Alzheimerʼs Dementia:
           Findings from the FIT-AD Trial

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      Authors: Salisbury; Dereck, Mathiason, Michelle A., Yu, Fang
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month cycling aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and the dose-response relationship in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate Alzheimerʼs dementia. The FIT-AD trial was a single blind, 2-parallel group, pilot randomized controlled trial. The aerobic exercise group participated in a 6-month, thrice weekly, moderate-vigorous intensity cycling intervention while control group performed stretching. Cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by peak oxygen consumption from cardiopulmonary exercise test and peak walking distance from the shuttle walk test and 6-minute walk test. Aerobic exercise dose was calculated using the novel heart rate physical activity score. The aerobic exercise group significantly increased peak oxygen consumption (1.28 ml/kg/min; p=0.03) in subgroup who achieved maximal criteria on cardiopulmonary exercise test. Changes in peak oxygen consumption and peak walking distance on the shuttle walk and 6-minute walk tests did not significantly differ between aerobic exercise and stretching groups. Notably, the aerobic exercise dose was strongly and significantly correlated to change in peak oxygen consumption (r=0.60; n=16; p=0.01), in subset who met maximal test criteria. Emphasis on exercise dose is needed in aerobic exercise programs to maximize cardiorespiratory fitness gains in persons with mild-moderate Alzheimerʼs dementia.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T16:52:01+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1639-2307
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Differences in Training Characteristics Between Junior, Under 23 and
           Professional Cyclists

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      Authors: Gallo; Gabriele, Leo, Peter, March, Manuel Mateo, Giorgi, Andrea, Faelli, Emanuela, Ruggeri, Piero, Mujika, Iñigo, Filipas, Luca
      Abstract: The aim was to compare the training characteristics of junior, under 23 and professional road cyclists. Training data collected during the 2019 competitive season of thirty male cyclists, divided into three age-related categories (JUN; U23; PRO), were retrospectively analyzed for training characteristics, external and internal training load. Higher duration per training session were observed in PRO (2.6±0.3 h) compared to both U23 (2.2±0.3 h; P
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T08:53:43+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1847-5414
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Clarifying the Link Between the Blood Lactate Concentration and
           Cardiovascular Risk

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      Authors: Ahlgrim; Christoph, Baumstark, Manfred W., Roecker, Kai
      Abstract: The blood lactate value at rest (Lacrest) is linked to cardiovascular outcomes. It is unclear whether this association holds true in younger, healthy subjects, especially as the pathophysiological connection between Lacrest and cardiometabolic disease is not well understood. The aim of this study is clarifying the link between Lacrest and cardiovascular risk, and to study explanatory factors for the variance of Lacrest concerning metabolism and physical activity in a population of healthy patient-athletes. The distribution and intra-individual variability of Lacrest was assessed based on 9051 samples. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was then approximated using the Framingham risk score in a group of 1315 samples from patient-athletes. Cross-validated linear regression was used to analyze explanatory variables for Lacrest and 10-year cardiovascular risk. Lacrest is weakly associated with the Framingham score. This association disappears when adjusting for blood lipids. Lacrest is also linked to the predominant type of exercise with endurance athletes featuring a higher Lacrest. Lacrest does not independently predict the estimated cardiovascular risk but is associated with lipid parameters. Moreover, the intra-individual variability of Lacrest is high in a relevant number of subjects, which does not point towards the feasibility to use Lacrest as an individual risk factor.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T20:14:39+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1812-5840
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Effects of Moderate Altitude Training Combined with Moderate or
           High-altitude Residence

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      Authors: Usaj; Anton, Kapus, Jernej, Štrumbelj, Boro, Debevec, Tadej, Vodičar, Janez
      Abstract: We aimed to identify potential physiological and performance differences of trained cross-country skiers (V˙o2max=60±4 ml ∙ kg–1 ∙ min–1) following two, 3-week long altitude modalities: 1) training at moderate altitudes (600–1700 m) and living at 1500 m (LMTM;N=8); and 2) training at moderate altitudes (600–1700 m) and living at 1500 m with additional nocturnal normobaric hypoxic exposures (FiO2 =0.17;LHTM; N=8). All participants conducted the same training throughout the altitude training phase and underwent maximal roller ski trials and submaximal cyclo-ergometery before, during and one week after the training camps. No exercise performance or hematological differences were observed between the two modalities. The average roller ski velocities were increased one week after the training camps following both LMTM (p=0.03) and LHTM (p=0.04) with no difference between the two (p=0.68). During the submaximal test, LMTM increased the Tissue Oxygenation Index (11.5±6.5 to 1.0±8.5%; p=0.04), decreased the total hemoglobin concentration (15.1±6.5 to 1.7±12.9 a.u.;p=0.02), and increased blood pH (7.36±0.03 to 7.39±0.03;p=0.03). On the other hand, LHTM augmented minute ventilation (76±14 to 88±10 l·min−1;p=0.04) and systemic blood oxygen saturation by 2±1%; (p=0.02) with no such differences observed following the LMTM. Collectively, despite minor physiological differences observed between the two tested altitude training modalities both induced comparable exercise performance modulation.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T10:25:05+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1885-4053
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Reliability of Running Economy Measurements: Influence of Shoe
           Familiarisation

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      Authors: Nielsen; Anders, Heyde, Christian, Simonsen, Morten Bilde, Larsen, Ryan Godsk, Hansen, Rasmus Kopp, Kersting, Uwe, Zee, M De, Brund, René Børge Korsgaard
      Abstract: The purpose was to investigate differences in reliability of running economy measurements between familiar and unfamiliar shoes. Thirty-seven runners were included who all ran in familiar and unfamiliar running shoes while running economy was measured at steady state using a treadmill. Each participant was tested on two different visits (three sessions in total), with two trials in each of the three shoe conditions completed at each visit. Coefficient of variation, standard deviation of differences, and limits of agreement of running economy were used to quantify the repeatability (within-visit variation) and reproducibility (between-visit variation). The coefficient of variation showed a marginal difference in reproducibility across shoe conditions, whereas no differences were seen in coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the differences, or limits of agreement for repeatability across shoes. All three shoe conditions showed greater repeatability than reproducibility for running economy, and enhanced repeatability at visit 3 compared to visit 2. Our results indicate that familiarisation to shoes might not be needed for reliable measurements of running economy. Based on our results, when evaluating benefits in running shoes we suggest that running economy be assessed within the same day. Further, our data suggest a beneficial effect of using multiple familiarisation sessions if small differences between shoe conditions are expected.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T10:19:35+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1820-7023
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Movement Velocity as a Determinant of Actual Intensity in Resistance
           Exercise

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      Authors: García; Juan Manuel Yáñez, Mora-Custodio, Ricardo, Ribas-Serna, Juan, González-Badillo, Juan José, Rodríguez-Rosell, David
      Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the acute mechanical, metabolic and EMG response to five resistance exercise protocols (REP) in the full squat (SQ) exercise performed with two velocity conditions: maximal intended velocity (MaxV) vs. half-maximal velocity (HalfV). Eleven resistance-trained men performed 10 REP (5 with each velocity conditions) in random order (72–96 h apart). The REP consisted of three sets of 8–3 repetitions against 45–65% 1RM. The percent change in countermovement jump (CMJ) height, velocity attained with the load that elicited a ~1.00 m·s−1 (V1-load), surface EMG variables and blood lactate concentration were assessed pre- vs. post-exercise protocols. MaxV resulted in greater percent changes (Δ: 12–25%) and intra-condition effect sizes (ES: 0.76–4.84) in loss of V1-load and CMJ height compared to HalfV (Δ: 10–16%; ES: 0.65–3.90) following all REP. In addition, MaxV showed higher post-exercise lactate concentration than HalfV (ES: 0.46–0.83; p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T12:04:40+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1834-6693
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Plasma Endogenous Endotoxin Core Antibody Response to Exercise in
           Endurance Athletes

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      Authors: Young; Pascale, Rauch, Christopher, Russo, Isabella, Gaskell, Stephanie, Davidson, Zoe, Costa, Ricardo J. S.
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the impact of laboratory-controlled exertional and exertional-heat stress on concentrations of plasma endogenous endotoxin core antibody (EndoCAb). Forty-four (males n=26 and females n=18) endurance trained (V̇ O 2max 56.8min/kg/min) participants completed either: P1–2h high intensity interval running in 23°C ambient temperature (Tamb), P2–2h running at 60% V̇ O2max in 35°C Tamb, or P3–3h running at 60% V̇ O2max in 23°C Tamb. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise to determine plasma IgM, IgA, and IgG concentrations. Overall resting pre-exercise levels for plasma Ig were 173MMU/ml, 37AMU/ml, and 79GMU/ml, respectively. Plasma IgM concentration did not substantially change pre- to post-exercise in all protocols, and the magnitude of pre- to post-exercise change for IgM was not different between protocols (p=0.135). Plasma IgA and IgG increased pre- to post-exercise in P2 only (p=0.017 and p=0.016, respectively), but remained within normative range (35–250MU/ml). P2 resulted in greater disturbances to plasma IgA (p=0.058) and IgG (p=0.037), compared with P1 and P3. No substantial differences in pre-exercise and exercise-associated change was observed for EndoCAb between biological sexes. Exertional and exertional-heat stress resulted in modest disturbances to systemic EndoCAb responses, suggesting EndoCAb biomarkers presents a low sensitivity response to controlled-laboratory experimental designs within exercise gastroenterology.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T12:03:40+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1827-3124
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • French Athletics Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Relevance and Expectations
           on Injury Prevention

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      Authors: Edouard; Pascal, Ruffault, Alexis, Bolling, Caroline, Navarro, Laurent, Martin, Simon, Depiesse, Frédéric, Oestergaard Nielsen, Rasmus, Verhagen, Evert
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore how stakeholders in athletics perceive the relevance of injury prevention, determine their communication preferences, and describe their expectations regarding injury prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an exploratory online survey with high-level athletes (i. e. listed by the French ministry of sports), non-high-level athletes (i. e. all competitive level except high-level athletes), coaches, and health professionals licensed with the French Federation of Athletics. The survey was composed of three parts regarding stakeholder’s characteristics (4 questions), perceived relevance (2 questions), communication preferences and expectations (3 questions) towards injury prevention. There were 2,864 responders to the survey. Almost all responders found that injury prevention is relevant (97.7% [95% CI 97.0% to 98.2%]), without any significant differences in the distribution between stakeholders’ age, experience and sex (p>0.05). About three-quarters of the stakeholders preferred to find injury prevention information on a website (77.4%) without significant differences between stakeholders’ categories (p>0.05); other media to find injury prevention information was chosen by less than 50% of responders. Expectations about injury prevention were mainly explanations, advice and tips about injury knowledge, management and prevention, based on expert opinion and/or scientific research. In conclusion, these results confirm that injury prevention is a challenge shared by numerous stakeholders in athletics, within France, and provide some orientation on how and what information to disseminate to these stakeholders.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T12:01:26+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1843-6533
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Systematic Review of Innovative Diagnostic Tests for Chronic Exertional
           Compartment Syndrome

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      Authors: Ritchie; Ewan D., Vogels, Sanne, van Dongen, Thijs T. C. F., van der Burg, Boudewijn L. S. Borger, Scheltinga, Marc R. M., Zimmermann, Wes O., Hoencamp, Rigo
      Abstract: The diagnosis chronic exertional compartment syndrome is traditionally linked to elevated intracompartmental pressures, although uncertainty regarding this diagnostic instrument is increasing. The aim of current review was to evaluate literature for alternative diagnostic tests. A search in line with PRISMA criteria was conducted. Studies evaluating diagnostic tests for chronic exertional compartment syndrome other than intracompartmental pressure measurements were included. Bias and quality of studies were evaluated using the Oxford Levels of Evidence and the QUADAS-2 instrument. A total of 28 studies met study criteria (MRI n=8, SPECT n=6, NIRS n=4, MRI and NIRS together n=1, miscellaneous modalities n=9). Promising results were reported for MRI (n=4), NIRS (n=4) and SPECT (n=3). These imaging techniques rely on detecting changes of signal intensity in manually selected regions of interest in the muscle compartments of the leg. Yet, diagnostic tools and protocols were diverse. Moreover, five studies explored alternative modalities serving as an adjunct, rather than replacing pressure measurements. Future research is warranted as clinical and methodological heterogeneity were present and high quality validation studies were absent. Further optimization of specific key criteria based on a patient’s history, physical examination and symptom provocation may potentially render intracompartmental pressure measurement redundant.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T11:40:37+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1866-5957
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Hemodynamic Response During Different Set Configurations of a
           Moderate-load Resistance Exercise

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      Authors: Rúa-Alonso; María, Mayo, Xian, Rial-Vázquez, Jessica, Fariñas, Juan, Aracama, Asier, Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo
      Abstract: We aimed to determine the cardiovascular responses to two different set configuration resistance-exercise protocols during a knee extension composed of 40 repetitions with a 15RM load and a total resting time of 360 seconds. Twenty-four healthy sport science students randomly performed two sessions: (a) a long set configuration (LSC: 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 2 min rest between sets), and (b) a short set configuration (SSC: 8 sets of 5 repetitions with 51 s rest between sets). Before and during exercise, peak and mean values of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product, and pulse pressure were obtained. Results showed that both protocols increased the overall peak and mean blood pressure values (p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T11:33:40+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1843-8778
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Practices and Applications of Heart Rate Variability Monitoring in
           Endurance Athletes

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      Authors: Lundstrom; Christopher J, Foreman, Nicholas A, Biltz, George
      Abstract: Heart rate variability reflects fluctuations in the changes in consecutive heartbeats, providing insight into cardiac autonomic function and overall physiological state. Endurance athletes typically demonstrate better cardiac autonomic function than non-athletes, with lower resting heart rates and greater variability. The availability and use of heart rate variability metrics has increased in the broader population and may be particularly useful to endurance athletes. The purpose of this review is to characterize current practices and applications of heart rate variability analysis in endurance athletes. Important considerations for heart rate variability analysis will be discussed, including analysis techniques, monitoring tools, the importance of stationarity of data, body position, timing and duration of the recording window, average heart rate, and sex and age differences. Key factors affecting resting heart rate variability will be discussed, including exercise intensity, duration, modality, overall training load, and lifestyle factors. Training applications will be explored, including heart rate variability-guided training and the identification and monitoring of maladaptive states such as overtraining. Lastly, we will examine some alternative uses of heart rate variability, including during exercise, post-exercise, and for physiological forecasting and predicting performance.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T15:13:56+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1864-9726
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • The Effects of Exercise Therapy Moderated by Sex in Rehabilitation of
           COVID-19

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      Authors: Rausch; Linda, Puchner, Bernhard, Fuchshuber, Jürgen, Seebacher, Barbara, Löffler-Ragg, Judith, Pramsohler, Stephan, Netzer, Nikolaus, Faulhaber, Martin
      Abstract: Standardized exercise therapy programs in pulmonary rehabilitation have been shown to improve physical performance and lung function parameters in post-acute COVID-19 patients. However, it has not been investigated if these positive effects are equally beneficial for both sexes. The purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes of a pulmonary rehabilitation program with respect to sex differences, in order to identify sex-specific pulmonary rehabilitation requirements. Data of 233 post-acute COVID-19 patients (40.4% females) were analyzed before and after a three-week standardized pulmonary rehabilitation program. Lung function parameters were assessed using body-plethysmography and functional exercise capacity was measured by the Six-Minute Walk Test. At post-rehabilitation, females showed a significantly smaller improvement in maximal inspiration capacity and forced expiratory volume (F=5.86, ω2=.02; p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T15:09:09+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1866-6092
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Tracking the Fatigue Status after a Resistance Exercise through Different
           Parameters

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      Authors: Brisola; Gabriel Motta Pinheiro, Dobbs, Ward C., Zagatto, Alessandro Moura, Esco, Michael R.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of back squat bar velocity, isometric mid-thigh pull, heart rate variability parameters, perceived recovery scale and step counts for tracking the muscular fatigue time-course (reduction in countermovement jump [CMJ] performance) after strenuous acute lower limb resistance exercise. Sixteen healthy men performed heart rate variability assessment, perceived recovery scale, CMJ, back squat bar velocity, isometric mid-thigh pull, and daily step counts before and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post a strenuous acute lower limb resistance exercise (8×10 repetitions). The CMJ height decreased at 24 and 48 h after exercise session (p≤0.017), evidencing the muscular fatigue. The perceived recovery scale presented lower values compared to baseline until 72 h after exercise session (p
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T13:23:10+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1766-5945
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Aerobic Adaptations to Resistance Training: The Role of Time under Tension
           

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      Authors: Mang; Zachary Aaron, Ducharme, Jeremy B., Mermier, Christine, Kravitz, Len, de Castro Magalhaes, Flavio, Amorim, Fabiano
      Abstract: Generally, skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise are perceived through a dichotomous lens where the metabolic stress imposed by aerobic training leads to increased mitochondrial adaptations while the mechanical tension from resistance training leads to myofibrillar adaptations. However, there is emerging evidence for cross over between modalities where aerobic training stimulates traditional adaptations to resistance training (e.g., hypertrophy) and resistance training stimulates traditional adaptations to aerobic training (e.g., mitochondrial biogenesis). The latter is the focus of the current review in which we propose high-volume resistance training (i.e., high time under tension) leads to aerobic adaptations such as angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased oxidative capacity. As time under tension increases, skeletal muscle energy turnover, metabolic stress, and ischemia also increase, which act as signals to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, which is the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. For practical application, the acute stress and chronic adaptations to three specific forms of high-time under tension are also discussed: Slow-tempo, low-intensity resistance training, and drop-set resistance training. These modalities of high-time under tension lead to hallmark adaptations to resistance training such as muscle endurance, hypertrophy, and strength, but little is known about their effect on traditional aerobic training adaptations.
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1664-8701
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Sport Supplements and the Athlete’s Gut: A Review

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      Authors: Wilson; Patrick
      Abstract: Vigorous or prolonged exercise poses a challenge to gastrointestinal system functioning and is associated with digestive symptoms. This narrative review addresses 1) the potential of dietary supplements to enhance gut function and reduce exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms and 2) strategies for reducing gastrointestinal-related side effects resulting from popular sports supplements. Several supplements, including probiotics, glutamine, and bovine colostrum, have been shown to reduce markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability with exercise. Yet the clinical ramifications of these findings are uncertain, as improvements in symptoms have not been consistently observed. Among these supplements, probiotics modestly reduced exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in a few studies, suggesting they are the most evidenced-based choice for athletes looking to manage such symptoms through supplementation. Carbohydrate, caffeine, and sodium bicarbonate are evidence-based supplements that can trigger gastrointestinal symptoms. Using glucose-fructose mixtures is beneficial when carbohydrate ingestion is high (>50 g/h) during exercise, and undertaking multiple gut training sessions prior to competition may also be helpful. Approaches for preventing caffeine-induced gastrointestinal disturbances include using low-to-moderate doses (
      Citation: Int J Sports Med ; : -
      PubDate: 2021-11-23T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1704-3086
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
 
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