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SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Science & Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
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Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2411-5142
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 52: A Clinical Study to Evaluate the Safety and
           Efficacy of Oral Administration of Microscopic Dose Gold Nanoparticle
           (AuNP) on Knee Joint Health and Function in Arthritis Patients

    • Authors: Xuesheng Han, Edlynne Avelar, Amber Mathai, David Vollmer, Richard Lehman
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether gold nanoparticle (AuNP) supplementation at a dosage of 0.34 mg elemental gold per day can improve knee joint health, function, and quality of life for arthritis patients. A total of 51 participants (24 male and 27 female, age 62.1 ± 13.1) were followed for 20 weeks through a three-phase longitudinal study. Both subjective and objective parameters were used to measure changes in joint health and function, as well as quality of life. The study found patients’ Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) improved with statistical significance. It was reported that 71.42% of the cohort experienced improvements in their perceived knee pain and 61.22% with improvements in knee stiffness. Majority of objective measurements such as pain with range of motion and specific exercises requiring proper knee health and function did not show statistically significant improvement but did show a positive improving trend in support of AuNP supplement. Study cohort showed statistically significant improvements in two specific exercises: sit-to-stand and single-leg squat. By the end of the study, 70% of the study cohort indicated that they would continue to take the supplement even after the study concluded. Though the study has limitations and is not definitely conclusive, it was the first clinical study to show that oral micro-dosage of AuNP as low as 0.34 mg daily is safe and effective for both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. This study opened way for the use of AuNP in both clinical and daily settings to improve joint health and function for both average and athletic users.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7030052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Clinical and Radiological Results after

    • Authors: Vincenzo De Luna, Alessandro Caterini, Chiara Casci, Martina Marsiolo, Kristian Efremov, Fernando De Maio, Pasquale Farsetti
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The authors report the long-term outcome in a series of 26 patients surgically treated for a fracture-dislocation of the ankle by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), reviewed after an average followup of 5.2 years. The average age of the patients was 46.8 years; 17 were female and 9 male; the right side was involved in 22 patients and the left side in 4; 10 patients had a unimalleolar fracture, 11 a bimalleolar fracture, and 5 a trimalleolar fracture. The quality of reduction was excellent in 14 cases and good in 12. The functional results were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, while radiographic results followed the Van Dijk classification. At followup, the AOFAS score ranged from 75 to 98 points with an average of 87.9, while the radiographic results were evaluated as grade 0 in 16 ankles and grade I in 10. Fracture-dislocations of the ankle occurred more frequently after high-energy traumas in younger patients on the right side, but they were also observed in older females after low-energy trauma. Excellent reduction was correlated with better radiographic results at long term followup. However, these injuries may lead to a poor functional outcome, despite an anatomical reduction and good radiographic results; in fact, in nine of our cases (34.6 percent), the AOFAS score was less than 90 points.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Positive Impulse Phase versus Propulsive Impulse
           Phase: Correlations between Asymmetry and Countermovement Jump Performance

    • Authors: Keith B. Painter, William Guy Hornsby, Kevin Carroll, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Michael H. Stone
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The relationship between asymmetry and performance is still undetermined in the literature. Methods of assessing asymmetry have been inconsistent and focused on the analysis of jumping asymmetry. Dual ground reaction forces are prevalent in athlete monitoring, though underutilized in asymmetry research. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of countermovement jump (CMJ) impulse asymmetry to performance in collegiate soccer athletes. Male and female athletes were selected from an ongoing athlete research repository database of NCAA D-I soccer athletes. All athletes contributed two maximal effort unweighted (CMJ0) and weighted countermovement jumps (CMJ20) using the mean for calculations. Propulsive phase asymmetry scores (PrPAS) and positive impulse asymmetry scores (PIAS) were calculated to determine the magnitude of asymmetry for each prospective phase. Statistically significant correlations were found between CMJ0 jump height and unweighted PIAS (r = −0.43) in females. Males had statistically significant correlations between CMJ20 jump height and weighted PIAS (r = −0.49). Neither unweighted PrPAS nor weighted PrPAS produced statistically significant correlations (r < 0.26) to their prospective jump heights. When assessing CMJ asymmetry, it is recommended to conduct both weighted and unweighted CMJ testing, utilizing PIAS as the metric to be assessed.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 32: Positive Effect of Kinesiotape on 1 km Run
           Performance in University-Level Males: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Peter Bartík, Peter Šagát
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Introduction: The kinesiotape (KT) method is used to exert a positive effect on muscular, nervous, and organ systems, recognizing the importance of muscle movement. It is widely applied in runners for performance enhancement. However, there is no scientific background to use it as a running speed modulator. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to verify the KT effect on running performance in university-level students while speed is considered. The 1 km run and 40 m shuttle run were investigated. Participants were highly motivated to run as fast as possible since the research was part of the graded fitness test. Students wanted to perform as well as possible to get good marks. Methods: A total of 150 students aged 19.93 ± 0.85 with BMIs of 26.93 ± 0.98 were randomly distributed to the experimental (EG), placebo (PG), and control group (CG). In the EG, 50 students were measured pre-test (no KT) and post-test (KT applied). In the PG, 50 students were measured the same way using the placebo application post-test. In the CG, 50 students were measured without any intervention pre-test or post-test. The application area was the triceps surae muscle bilaterally with KT tension of 75%. The Kruskal–Wallis test and repeated measures ANOVA were used for analysis with a 0.05 level of significance. Results: A statistically significant group effect was reported in the EG (<0.05) in the 1 km run discipline. The time results obtained were significantly shorter than in the PG and the CG. There was no statistically significant difference (0.717) reported in the 40 m shuttle run discipline between the groups. Conclusions: Applying KT with a tension of 75% on the triceps surae muscle bilaterally might be useful to increase the performance of medium or longer distance runs but may not be effective in improving sprinting ability. We recommend applying the KT in the overall muscle and tendon area with a tension of 75% if there is a focus on performance enhancement.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 33: Moral Disengagement in Youth Athletes: A Narrative

    • Authors: Ambra Gentile, Ivana Milovanovic, Saša Pišot, Antonino Bianco, Gioacchino Lavanco
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The sports environment can be considered as a context characterized by interactions typical of social groups, where children have the chance to learn good values. Positive and negative behaviours in sports, also called prosocial and antisocial behaviours, have been studied according to a moral perspective, as has doping behaviour, taking into consideration the concept of moral disengagement. Moral disengagement in children has been associated with maladaptive behaviours later in life, even though it should disappear with growth. Concerning the sports environment, previous reviews on the topic have extensively illustrated the role of moral variables in sport and their relation to antisocial behaviour and doping, positing some research questions that should be investigated in the future. Starting from these questions, the current narrative review aims to update literature about the effects of moral disengagement on youth athletes. Therefore, new studies about the predictors of moral disengagement are introduced, followed by contributions concerning the relationship between moral disengagement and doping and between moral disengagement and antisocial behaviour. Finally, the review summarizes which research questions have been solved in the last decade and which should be researched further on.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Perception of Velocity during Free-Weight
           Exercises: Difference between Back Squat and Bench Press

    • Authors: Ruggero Romagnoli, Maria Francesca Piacentini
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The perception of bar velocity (PV) is a subjective parameter useful in estimating velocity during resistance training. The aim of this study was to investigate if the PV can be improved through specific training sessions, if it differs between the back squat (SQ) and bench press (BP), and if there are differences in perception accuracy in the different intensity zones. Resistance-trained participants were randomly divided in an experimental (EG, n = 16) or a control group (CG, n = 14). After a familiarization trial, both groups were tested before and after 5 weeks of training. The PV was assessed with five blinded loads covering different intensity domains. During the training period, only the EG group received velocity feedback for each repetition. Prior to training, both groups showed a greater PV accuracy in the SQ than in the BP. Post training, the EG showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the delta score (the difference between the real and perceived velocity) for both exercises, while no significant differences were observed in the CG. Prior to training, the perceived velocity was more accurate at higher loads for both exercises, while no difference between loads was observed after training (EG). The results of this study demonstrate that the PV improves with specific training and that differences in the accuracy between loads and exercise modes seen prior to training are leveled off after training.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Effects of Music Volume Preference on Endurance
           Exercise Performance

    • Authors: Kylie M. Nixon, Mckenzie G. Parker, Carson C. Elwell, Anna L. Pemberton, Rebecca R. Rogers, Christopher G. Ballmann
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of preferred versus non-preferred music volume on relative power output, trial time to completion (TTC), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and motivation during endurance rowing exercise. Physically active females (age 18–25) volunteered to participate. In a crossover counterbalanced design, participants completed two trials: non-preferred (NPV) and preferred (PV) music volume. Participants began with a rowing warm-up at 50% of HRmax for 5 min. Following this, participants completed a 2000 m rowing time trial as quickly as possible. Relative power output, HR, and RPE were documented each minute during the exercise bout. TTC and motivation levels were documented at the cessation of exercise. Results showed that there were no significant differences between NPV and PV for relative power output (p = 0.287; d = 0.17), TTC (p = 0.816; d = 0.01), and HR (p = 0.956; d = 0.08). However, RPE was significantly lower (p = 0.002; d = 0.86) and motivation was significantly higher (p < 0.001; d = 2.14) during the PV condition versus NPV. Findings suggest that while PV does not impart performance-enhancing effects during endurance exercise compared to NPV, it may improve psychological responses related to intensity and effort which could have important implications for enduring intense exercise and training.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 36: Integrated Sports Medicine: A First Investigation
           of Heart Performance in Opera Singers

    • Authors: Marco Corsi, Goffredo Orlandi, Vittorio Bini, Laura Stefani
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Introduction: Opera singers are continuously subjected to cardiopulmonary exercise. The impact on cardiac performance has not been studied. Our aim was to verify the impact of singing on heart performance, particularly by the evaluation of ECG and deformation parameters as strain, rotation and twist. Methods: A population of 17 OS (opera singers) underwent a 12-lead ECG and 2D echocardiographic evaluation. A post-processing analysis of the images to obtain the deformation parameters was included. The data expressed as mean as SD were compared to a group of 15 high-level athletes (A). Results: In both groups, the ECG parameters, 2D standard systodiastolic parameters and pulmonary pressure were normal, and in the OS group—LVDd: 47 ± 2.75 mm, LVSd: 31 ± 3.38 mm, E/A: 1.08 ± 0.23, RV: 27.63 ± 3.38 mm; in the A group—LVDd: 51 ± 1.50 mm, LVSd: 32 ± 2.50 mm, E/A: 2.37 ± 0.73, RV: 25.00 ± 3.00 mm. Indexed LV mass was significantly greater in athletes, while ejection fraction (EF) results were higher in OS. Deformation parameters did not differ among the two groups, with the exclusion of GLS expressing a major value in athletes. Rotational parameters resulted in the OS group similar to the athletes. Conclusions: OS show myocardial performance as high as the athletes. The data obtained suggest a positive impact of regular training as an opera singer. Deformation parameters highlight the fitness status in this group with a specific remodeling in RV in the presence of normal PP. Classic music singing appears to have a training effect on the heart. Further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Myocardial Fitness of Bicuspid Aortic Valve
           Athletes during COVID 19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Melissa Orlandi, Marco Corsi, Vittorio Bini, Luciano De Simone, Laura Stefani
      First page: 37
      Abstract: COVID 19 pandemic has induced a large sedentarism in several kinds of sports. Some peculiar categories of athletes could particularly suffer from a prolonged inactivity as those affected by minimal cardiopathies as bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) athletes. This study aims to verify the myocardial performance in a restricted group of BAV athletes compared to a control group of agonistic athletes evaluated by traditional echocardiography and deformation parameters. 2D standard and deformations parameters were measured at rest conditions in BAV athletes and controls. Particularly EF, LVDD/LVS diameters, GLS rotation and twisting were considered as myocardial performance data; E/A, E1 and A1 as diastolic ones. All the 2D standard parameters measured were within the normal range in both groups, especially the EF value. Significant differences were found in the diastolic function with reduced values of E and E1 waves in BAV vs. controls. The strain analysis showed a significant reduction in GLS measured in 2C, 3C, 4C in BAV if compared to controls, while no significant differences were found in torsional and rotational parameters. These results are suggestive for a potential long term negative impact of inactivity on cardiac performance more evident in BAV athletes, if compared to athletes with normal aortic valve. GLS of LV and RV can be considered as a predictive parameter of this mild dysfunction and assumed as follow-up parameter to restore a progressive training.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Physical Exercise and Health: A Focus on Its
           Protective Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    • Authors: Roberto Bonanni, Ida Cariati, Umberto Tarantino, Giovanna D’Arcangelo, Virginia Tancredi
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Scientific evidence has demonstrated the power of physical exercise in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic and/or age-related diseases, such as musculoskeletal, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders. In addition, regular exercise is known to play a key role in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, as it helps to reduce the risk of their onset and counteracts their progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. In this regard, neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), have been suggested as key mediators of brain health benefits, as they are involved in neurogenesis, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. The production of these neurotrophic factors, known to be increased by physical exercise, is downregulated in neurodegenerative disorders, suggesting their fundamental importance in maintaining brain health. However, the mechanism by which physical exercise promotes the production of neurotrophins remains to be understood, posing limits on their use for the development of potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this literature review, we analyzed the most recent evidence regarding the relationship between physical exercise, neurotrophins, and brain health, providing an overview of their involvement in the onset and progression of neurodegeneration.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 39: The Acute Effects of Attaching Chains to the
           Barbell on Kinematics and Muscle Activation in Bench Press in
           Resistance-Trained Men

    • Authors: Roland van den Tillaar, Atle Hole Saeterbakken, Vidar Andersen
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of attaching chains on barbell kinematics and muscle activation in the bench press. Twelve resistance-trained men (height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m, weight: 84.3 ± 13.5 kg, one repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press of 105 ± 17.1 kg) lifted three repetitions of bench press in three conditions: (1) conventional bench press at 85% of 1-RM and bench press with chains that were (2) top-matched and (3) bottom-matched with the resistance from the conventional resistance lift. Barbell kinematics and the muscle activity of eight muscles were measured at different heights during lowering and lifting in the three conditions of the bench press. The main findings were that barbell kinematics were altered using the chains, especially the 85% bottom-matched condition that resulted in lower peak velocities and longer lifting times compared with the conventional 85% condition (p ≤ 0.043). However, muscle activity was mainly only affected during the lowering phase. Based upon the findings, it was concluded that using chains during the bench press alters barbell kinematics, especially when the resistance is matched in the bottom position. Furthermore, muscle activation was only altered during the lowering phase when adding chains to the barbell.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 40: Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscle
           Pathophysiology in Huntington’s Disease

    • Authors: Bruno Trovato, Benedetta Magrì, Alessandro Castorina, Grazia Maugeri, Velia D’Agata, Giuseppe Musumeci
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare, hereditary, and progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behavioral disturbances. In order to mitigate impairments in motor function, physical exercise was integrated in HD rehabilitative interventions, showing to be a powerful tool to ameliorate the quality of life of HD-affected patients. This review aims to describe the effects of physical exercise on HD-related skeletal muscle disorders in both murine and human models. We performed a literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases on the role of physical activity in mouse models of HD and human patients. Fifteen publications fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. Studies performed on mouse models showed a controversial role played by exercise, whereas in HD-affected patients, physical activity appeared to have positive effects on gait, motor function, UHDMRS scale, cognitive function, quality of life, postural stability, total body mass, fatty acid oxidative capacity, and VO2 max. Physical activity seems to be feasible, safe, and effective for HD patients. However, further studies with longer follow-up and larger cohorts of patients will be needed to draw firm conclusions on the positive effects of exercise for HD patients.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 41: The Association between Multidirectional Speed
           Performance, Dynamic Balance and Chronological Age in Young Soccer Players

    • Authors: Giordano Scinicarelli, Christoph Offerhaus, Boris Feodoroff, Ingo Froböse, Christiane Wilke
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The ability to maintain a stable single-leg balance stance during a fast change of direction movement is a fundamental aspect both for improving sport-specific skills and for prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between multidirectional speed performance (MDS), dynamic balance performance (DBP), and chronological age in young and uninjured soccer players. In addition, it was examined whether chronological age and balance can predict variance in speed performance. One-hundred forty-six young male soccer players (age range 11–19) performed the y-balance test (YBT) and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT). Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were executed. The analyses were carried out on the further variables: for the DBP, the YBT composite score % (CS dominant leg/CS non-dominant leg) and limb symmetry index % (LSI) were used; for the MDS, the LEFT time in seconds (s) was used. Findings revealed LEFT scores to have a significant association with chronological age (p = 0.000), CS dominant (p = 0.019) and LSI (p = 0.044) of the YBT. In addition, CS dominant and chronological age explained the variance of the LEFT by 44%, regardless of LSI. To conclude, MDS revealed a strong association with DBP of the dominant side but a small association with LSI. In addition, a small association was found between quick LEFT times and older players. Finally, MDS variance can be predicted from DBP of the dominant side and chronological age in young soccer players. The tests used in this study could be useful screening tools for the detection of performance deficits, the implementation of prevention training programs, and the optimization of selection strategies in soccer academies.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 42: The Influence of Transcranial Direct Current
           Stimulation on Shooting Performance in Elite Deaflympic Athletes: A Case

    • Authors: Milan Pantovic, Drazenka Macak, Nebojsa Cokorilo, Sheniz Moonie, Zachary A. Riley, Dejan M. Madic, Brach Poston
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to improve motor learning in numerous studies. However, only a few of these studies have been conducted on elite-level performers or in complex motor tasks that have been practiced extensively. The purpose was to determine the influence of tDCS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on motor learning over multiple days on 10-m air rifle shooting performance in elite Deaflympic athletes. Two male and two female elite Deaflympic athletes (World, European, and National medalists) participated in this case series. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, SHAM-controlled, cross-over design. Anodal tDCS or SHAM stimulation was applied to the left DLPFC for 25 min with a current strength of 2 mA concurrent with three days of standard shooting practice sessions. Shooting performance was quantified as the points and the endpoint error. Separate 2 Condition (DLPFC-tDCS, SHAM) × 3 Day (1,2,3) within-subjects ANOVAs revealed no significant main effects or interactions for either points or endpoint error. These results indicate that DLPFC-tDCS applied over multiple days does not improve shooting performance in elite athletes. Different stimulation parameters or very long-term (weeks/months) application of tDCS may be needed to improve motor learning in elite athletes.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Significantly Delayed Medium-Latency Response of
           the Stretch Reflex in Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness of the Quadriceps
           Femoris Muscles Is Indicative of Sensory Neuronal Microdamage

    • Authors: Balázs Sonkodi, Ádám Hegedűs, Bence Kopper, István Berkes
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Unaccustomed or strenuous eccentric exercise is known to cause delayed-onset muscle soreness. A recent hypothesis postulated that mechano-energetic microinjury of the primary afferent sensory neuron terminals in the muscle spindles, namely a transient Piezo2 channelopathy, could be the critical cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness in the form of a bi-phasic non-contact injury mechanism. This theory includes that this microlesion could delay the medium-latency response of the stretch reflex. Our aim with this study was to investigate this hypothesis. According to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of delayed-onset muscle soreness on the medium-latency response of the stretch reflex. Our findings demonstrated that a significant delay in the medium-latency stretch reflex could be observed right after a multi-stage fitness test in the quadriceps femoris muscles of Hungarian professional handball players who consequently experienced delayed-onset muscle soreness. The long-latency stretch reflex and most likely short-latency stretch reflex were unaffected by delayed-onset muscle soreness in our study, which is in line with earlier findings. We translate these findings as indicative of proprioceptive Type Ia terminal microdamage in the muscle spindle in line with the aforementioned new acute non-contact compression axonopathy theory of delayed-onset muscles soreness.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 44: Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on
           Force Steadiness of the Quadriceps Femoris Muscle during Sustained
           Submaximal Isometric Contraction

    • Authors: Matthew D. Cook, Aaron Dunne, Michael Bosworth, Mark E. T. Willems
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Intake of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) can alter physiological responses that enhance exercise performance. In two studies, we examined the effects of NZBC extract on force steadiness during a sustained submaximal isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. With repeated measures designs, male participants in study one (n = 13) and study two (n = 19) performed a 120 s submaximal (30%) isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle following a 7-day intake of NZBC extract and placebo (study one) and following 0 (control), 1-, 4- and 7-day intake of NZBC extract (study two). Participants for both studies were different. In study one, NZBC extract enhanced isometric force steadiness during the 120 s contraction (placebo: 6.58 ± 2.24%, NZBC extract: 6.05 ± 2.24%, p = 0.003), with differences in the third (60–89 s) and fourth quartile (90–120 s) of the contraction. In study two, isometric force steadiness was not changed following 1 and 4 days but was enhanced following 7-day intake of NZBC extract in comparison to control. In study two, the enhanced isometric force steadiness following 7-day intake did occur in the second (30–59 s), third (60–89 s) and fourth (90–120 s) quartiles. Daily supplementation of anthocyanin-rich NZBC extract can enhance force steadiness of the quadriceps femoris muscle during a sustained submaximal isometric contraction. Our observations may have implications for human tasks that require postural stability.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 45: Kynurenine Metabolism as a Mechanism to Improve
           Fatigue and Physical Function in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors
           Following Resistance Training

    • Authors: Ronna N. Robbins, Jessica L. Kelleher, Priyathama Vellanki, Jason C. O’Connor, Jennifer S. Mascaro, Joe R. Nocera, Monica C. Serra
      First page: 45
      Abstract: This pilot examines whether resistance training (RT) can induce changes in kynurenine (KYN) metabolism, which may contribute to improved physical function in breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Thirty-six BCSs (63.2 ± 1.1 years) underwent assessments of physical function and visual analog scale (100 cm) fatigue and quality of life before and after 12 weeks of RT (N = 22) or non-exercise control (CBCT©: Cognitively Based Compassion Training, N = 10). Blood was collected before and after interventions for assessment of KYN, kynurenic acid (KYNA), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α). At baseline, the women were moderately fatigued (mean score: 46 cm) and at risk of poor functional mobility. A group*time interaction was observed for all measures of strength with improvements (~25–35%) following RT (p’s < 0.01), but not CBCT. Time effects were observed for fatigue (−36%) and quality of life (5%) (p’s < 0.01), where both groups improved in a similar manner. A group*time interaction was observed for KYN (p = 0.02) and PGC-1α (p < 0.05), with KYN decreasing and PGC-1α increasing following RT and the opposite following CBCT. These changes resulted in KYN/KYNA decreasing 34% post-RT, but increasing 21% following CBCT. These data support RT as a therapeutic intervention to counteract the long-term side effect of fatigue and physical dysfunction in BCSs. Additionally, the results suggest that this effect may be mediated through the activation of PGC-1α leading to alterations in KYN metabolism.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 46: How to Form a Successful Team for the Novel
           Olympic Triathlon Discipline: The Mixed-Team-Relay

    • Authors: Claudio Quagliarotti, Daniele Gaiola, Luca Bianchini, Veronica Vleck, Maria Francesca Piacentini
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The triathlon Mixed-Team-Relay (MTR) is a new race format present for the first time at the Tokyo Olympic Games in 2021. The results of the ITU Triathlon Mixed Relay World Championship from 2014 to 2019 were collected to provide practical suggestions for forming a successful MTR, such as the importance of each leg and discipline on MTR and Super-Sprint performance. The total relay time (Trelay), the time of each team member (leg-from 1 to 4) (Tleg), and the time of each single discipline (swim, T1, cycle, T2, run) were collected from the official website. Inferential analysis was performed to assess prediction and differences between variables. Leg 3 was shown to be the most important to predict Trelay (0.41), which is also the slower. For both Trelay and Tleg, cycling resulted as the most important (>0.60) and longer (~52%) portion, followed by running and swimming. However, higher importance in swimming was found in successful teams compared to running. For a successful MTR, we suggest: (a) use short-distance specialized triathletes; (b) strengthen cycling and swimming; (c) position in legs 1 and 2 athletes capable of racing in a group; in legs 3 and 4 athletes capable of racing in a non-drafting situation.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Recommendations for Resuming PA after Prolonged
           Rest in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Integrative Review of
           Relevance for Immunity

    • Authors: Antonio Cicchella
      First page: 47
      Abstract: This systematic integrative review aims to summarize the protective effect of PA on children and adolescents, with special reference to the immune system. Periods of prolonged inactivity in children and adolescents are rare and due to exceptional events, such as illness or environmental circumstances, e.g., natural disasters, wars, or epidemics. The recent COVID-19 pandemic forced billions of children in developmental ages into inactivity. This exceptional event was the reason for studying the compensational behavioral strategies adopted by children and adolescents to counteract physical inactivity. Several studies showed the rise of spontaneous physical activity (PA) among children and adolescents to compensate for sedentarism. However, for some children, sedentarism could in turn foster other sedentarism. With the restart of “normal daily life” worldwide, a question is posed on both how to resume PA without causing damage and how to improve the immune response. Some key points emerged from the literature. Children must resume PA gradually using different methods, considering age, sex, health status, and the presence of overweight conditions. Immunity can be stimulated with PA by aerobic exercise, resistance training, flexibility exercise, relaxation, and coordinative exercises.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 48: Exercise and Nutrition Strategies for Combating
           Sarcopenia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    • Authors: Dionysia Argyropoulou, Nikolaos D. Geladas, Tzortzis Nomikos, Vassilis Paschalis
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Medical and technology development have drastically the improved quality of life and, consequently, life expectancy. Nevertheless, the more people who enter the third-age, the more geriatric syndromes expand in the elderly. Sarcopenia and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common diseases among the elderly and the literature has extensively studied these two diseases separately. Recent evidence, however, revealed that there is a bidirectional relationship between sarcopenia and T2DM. The aims of the present review were: (1) to present diet and exercise interventions for the management of sarcopenia and T2DM and (2) identify which diet and exercise interventions can be used simultaneously in order to effectively deal with these two disorders. Exercise and a balanced diet are used as effective countermeasures for combating sarcopenia and T2DM in older adults based on their bidirectional relationship. Lifestyle changes such as exercise and a balanced diet seem to play an important role in the remission of the diseases. Results showed that chronic exercise can help towards glycemic regulation as well as decrease the incidence rate of muscle degradation, while diet interventions which focus on protein or amino acids seem to successfully treat both disorders. Despite the fact that there are limited studies that deal with both disorders, it seems that a combined exercise regime (aerobic and resistance) along with protein intake > 1gr/kg/d is the safest strategy to follow in order to manage sarcopenia and T2DM concurrently.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 49: A Unique Variation of Quadratus Plantae in
           Relation to the Tendons of the Midfoot

    • Authors: Lokesh A. Coomar, Daniel T. Daly, Jay Bauman
      First page: 49
      Abstract: A novel combination of variations involving the quadratus plantae muscle (QP) and its relationship to the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon was observed unilaterally in the right foot of an 88-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection. The medial head of QP was observed inserting onto the tendon of FHL rather than the tendon of flexor digitorum longus (FDL), while also contributing to an anomalous tendinous slip to the second digit in conjunction with the tendon of FHL. The tendon of FHL also gave off a slip to the third digit. Both tendinous slips attached distally to the digital tendons of FDL. Lastly, the lateral head of QP inserted onto the tendinous slip from FHL to the third digit. Ninety-five additional feet were assessed for these variations, but none were observed. This combination of variations expands upon the proposed actions of QP in the literature. Furthermore, connections between the tendons of the midfoot are of clinical significance for harvesting tendon grafts.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Analysis of the Contact Area for Three Types of
           Upper Limb Strikes

    • Authors: Vaclav Beranek, Petr Stastny, Frederic Turquier, Vit Novacek, Petr Votapek
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Performance in strike combat sports is mostly evaluated through the values of the net force, acceleration, or speed to improve efficient training procedures and/or to assess the injury. There are limited data on the upper limb striking area, which can be a useful variable for contact pressure assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the contact area of the upper limb in three different strike technique positions. A total of 38 men and 38 women (n = 76, 27.3 ± 8.5 years of age, 73.9 ± 13.8 kg of body weight, 173.3 ± 8.4 cm of body height) performed a static simulation of punch with a fist, palm strike, and elbow strike, where three segments of the right upper limb were scanned. The analysis of 684 images showed a correlation (r = 0.634) between weight and punch technique position in men and significant differences in elbow strike (p < 0.001) and palm strike (p < 0.0001) between women and men. In both groups, the palm demonstrated the largest area and the elbow the smallest one. These data may be used to evaluate strike contact pressure in future studies in forensic biomechanics and assessment of injury in combat sports and self-defense.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Can the Combination of Rehabilitation and Vitamin
           D Supplementation Improve Fibromyalgia Symptoms at All Ages'

    • Authors: Dalila Scaturro, Fabio Vitagliani, Sofia Tomasello, Mirko Filippetti, Alessandro Picelli, Nicola Smania, Giulia Letizia Mauro
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Several studies have indicated a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and widespread chronic pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia. During this study, the effect of supplementation with vitamin D in association with physical exercise in patients with fibromyalgia was evaluated, in terms of improvement of pain, functional capacity and quality of life, also evaluating the presence of any differences in age. A single-center, observational, comparative study was conducted in 80 fibromyalgia patients. They are randomized into 2 groups: Group A, consisting of patients ≤50 years; and group B, consisting of patients >50 years. Both received weekly supplementation with 50,000 IU cholecalciferol for 3 months in association with a rehabilitation protocol. Patients were assessed at enrollment (T0), 3 months (T1), and 6 months (T2) from the initial assessment with blood vitamin D dosage and administration of rating scales (NRS, FIQ, and SF-12). From the comparison between the two groups, we have seen that in young people, supplementation with high-dose vitamin D improves short-term musculoskeletal pain and long-term functional capacity. Conversely, musculoskeletal pain and long-term quality of life improve in the elderly. Supplementing with high doses of vitamin D in fibromyalgia patients improves the quality of life and pain in the elderly and also the functional capacity in the young.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7020051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 6: Lower Limb Kinematic Coordination during the
           Running Motion of Stroke Patient: A Single Case Study

    • Authors: Noboru Chiba, Tadayoshi Minamisawa
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to clarify the lower limb joint motor coordination of para-athletes during running motion from frequency characteristics and to propose this as a method for evaluating their performance. The subject used was a 43-year-old male para-athlete who had suffered a left cerebral infarction. Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, the angles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were measured during 1 min of running at a speed of 8 km/h on a treadmill. Nine inter- and intra-limb joint angle pairs were analyzed by coherence and phase analyses. The main characteristic of the stroke patient was that there were joint pairs with absent or increased coherence peaks in the high-frequency band above 4 Hz that were not found in healthy subjects. Interestingly, these features were also observed on the non-paralyzed side. Furthermore, a phase analysis showed different phase differences between the joint motions of the stroke patient and healthy subjects in some joint pairs. Thus, we concluded there was a widespread functional impairment of joint motion in the stroke patient that has not been revealed by conventional methods. The coherence analysis of joint motion may be useful for identifying joint motion problems in para-athletes.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 7: Coronal Shear Fractures of the Distal Humerus

    • Authors: Enrico Bellato, Riccardo Giai Via, Daniel Bachman, Ilaria Zorzolo, Antonio Marmotti, Filippo Castoldi
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, frequently comminuted, and are without consensus for treatment. The aim of this paper is to review the current concepts on the diagnosis, classification, treatment options, surgical approaches, and complications of capitellar and trochlear fractures. Computed Tomography (CT) scans, along with the Dubberley classification, are extremely helpful in the decision-making process. Most of the fractures necessitate open reduction and internal fixation, although elbow arthroplasty is an option for comminuted fractures in the elderly low-demand patient. Stiffness is the most common complication after fixation, although reoperation is infrequent.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 8: The Best of Two Different Visual Instructions in
           Improving Precision Ball-Throwing and Standing Long Jump Performances in
           Primary School Children

    • Authors: Vincenzo Sorgente, Erez James Cohen, Riccardo Bravi, Diego Minciacchi
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Two observational learning approaches have been shown to be successful in improving children’s motor performances: one is “technique-focused”, another is “goal-focused”. In this study, we sought to compare the effectiveness of these two strategies, thus testing for the more efficient method of observational learning to enhance motor skills in primary school children. To this end, two experiments were designed. Experiment 1 involved a precision ball throwing task. Experiment 2 involved a standing long jump task. A total of 792 subjects (aged 6–11) participated in this study and were divided into technique-focus (Experiment 1 n = 200; Experiment 2 n = 66), goal-focus (Experiment 1 n = 195; Experiment 2 n = 68), and control groups (Experiment 1 n = 199; Experiment 2 n = 64). The experiments were divided into pretest, practice, and retention phases. During the practice phase, the technique-focus and goal-focus groups were given different visual instructions on how to perform the task. The results showed that children aged 10–11 belonging to the technique-focus group performed significantly better in the practice phase than both the goal-focus and the control group (p < 0.001), but only for the precision ball throwing task. These findings could be useful for training adaptation in the context of motor learning and skills acquisition.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 9: The Effects of Body Tempering on Force Production,
           Flexibility and Muscle Soreness in Collegiate Football Athletes

    • Authors: Christopher B. Taber, Roy J. Colter, Jair J. Davis, Patrick A. Seweje, Dustin P. Wilson, Jonathan Z. Foster, Justin J. Merrigan
      First page: 9
      Abstract: There has been limited research to explore the use of body tempering and when the use of this modality would be most appropriate. This study aimed to determine if a body tempering intervention would be appropriate pre-exercise by examining its effects on perceived soreness, range of motion (ROM), and force production compared to an intervention of traditional stretching. The subjects for this study were ten Division 1 (D1) football linemen from Sacred Heart University (Age: 19.9 ± 1.5 years, body mass: 130.9 ± 12.0 kg, height: 188.4 ± 5.1 cm, training age: 8.0 ± 3.5 years). Subjects participated in three sessions with the first session being baseline testing. The second and third sessions involved the participants being randomized to receive either the body tempering or stretching intervention for the second session and then receiving the other intervention the final week. Soreness using a visual analog scale (VAS), ROM, counter movement jump (CMJ) peak force and jump height, static jump (SJ) peak force and jump height, and isometric mid-thigh pull max force production were assessed. The results of the study concluded that body tempering does not have a negative effect on muscle performance but did practically reduce perceived muscle soreness. Since body tempering is effective at reducing soreness in athletes, it can be recommended for athletes as part of their pre-exercise warmup without negatively effecting isometric or dynamic force production.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 10: Negative Effects of Mental Fatigue on Performance
           in the Yo-Yo Test, Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests: A

    • Authors: Jozo Grgic, Ivan Mikulic, Pavle Mikulic
      First page: 10
      Abstract: We aimed to examine the effects of mental fatigue on the Yo-Yo test and Loughborough soccer passing and shooting tests performance using a meta-analysis. The search for studies was performed through eight bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AUSPORT, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro checklist. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed for data analysis. After reviewing 599 search results, seven studies with a total of ten groups were included in the review. All studies were classified as being of good methodological quality. Mental fatigue reduced the distance covered in the Yo-Yo test (Cohen’s d: −0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66, −0.32). In the Loughborough soccer passing test, mental fatigue increased the original time needed to complete the test (Cohen’s d: −0.24; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.03), increased penalty time (Cohen’s d: −0.39; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.31), and decreased performance time (Cohen’s d: −0.52; 95% CI: −0.80, −0.24). In the Loughborough soccer shooting test, mental fatigue decreased points per shot (Cohen’s d: −0.37; 95% CI: −0.70, −0.04) and shot speed (Cohen’s d: −0.35; 95% CI: −0.64, −0.06). Overall, the findings presented in this review demonstrated that mental fatigue negatively impacts endurance-based running performance as well as soccer passing and shooting skills.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Seasonal Accumulated Workloads in Collegiate
           Women’s Soccer: A Comparison of Starters and Reserves

    • Authors: Andrew R. Jagim, Andrew T. Askow, Victoria Carvalho, Jason Murphy, Joel A. Luedke, Jacob L. Erickson
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Research quantifying the unique workload demands of starters and reserves in training and match settings throughout a season in collegiate soccer is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to compare accumulated workloads between starters and reserves in collegiate soccer. Methods: Twenty-two NCAA Division III female soccer athletes (height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.42 ± 6.33 kg; fat-free mass: 48.99 ± 3.81 kg; body fat %: 25.22 ± 4.78%) were equipped with wearable global positioning systems with on-board inertial sensors, which assessed a proprietary training load metric and distance covered for each practice and 22 matches throughout an entire season. Nine players were classified as starters (S), defined as those playing >50% of playing time throughout the entire season. The remaining 17 were reserves (R). Goalkeepers were excluded. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the extent of differences in accumulated training load throughout the season by player status. Results: Accumulated training load and total distance covered for starters were greater than reserves ((S: 9431 ± 1471 vs. R: 6310 ± 2263 AU; p < 0.001) and (S: 401.7 ± 31.9 vs. R: 272.9 ± 51.4 km; p < 0.001), respectively) throughout the season. Conclusions: Starters covered a much greater distance throughout the season, resulting in almost double the training load compared to reserves. It is unknown if the high workloads experienced by starters or the low workloads of the reserves is more problematic. Managing player workloads in soccer may require attention to address potential imbalances that emerge between starters and reserves throughout a season.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 12: Impact of BMI, Physical Activity, and Sitting Time
           Levels on Health-Related Outcomes in a Group of Overweight and Obese
           Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    • Authors: Roberto Pippi, Lucia Cugusi, Marco Bergamin, Vittorio Bini, Carmine Giuseppe Fanelli, Valentina Bullo, Stefano Gobbo, Andrea Di Blasio
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors affect health status in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2); their assessment is mandatory to properly prescribe exercise programs. From January 2011 to February 2014, 293 overweight/obese adults (165 women and 128 men, mean age of 51.9 ± 9.5 years and 54.6 ± 8.3 years, respectively), with and without DM2, participated in a three-month intensive exercise program. Before starting, participants were allocated into three subgroups (overweight, body mass index or BMI = 25–29.9; class 1 of obesity, BMI = 30–34.4; or class 2 (or superior) of obesity, BMI > 35). The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-it) was used to evaluate participants’ baseline sitting time (SIT) and physical activity level (PAL). Stratified multiple analyses were performed using four subgroups of SIT level according to Ekelund et al., 2016 (low, 8 h/day of SIT) and three subgroups for PAL (high, moderate, and low). Health-related measures such as anthropometric variables, body composition, hematic parameters, blood pressure values, and functional capacities were studied at the beginning and at the end of the training period. An overall improvement of PAL was observed in the entire sample following the three-month intensive exercise program together with a general improvement in several health-related measures. The BMI group factor influenced the VO2 max variations, leg press values, triglycerides, and anthropometric variables, while the SIT group factor impacted the sitting time, VO2 max, glycemic profile, and fat mass. In this study, baseline PAL and SIT did not seem to influence the effects of an exercise intervention. The characteristics of our educational program, which also included a physical exercise protocol, allowed us to obtain positive results.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 13: Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Biomechanics

    • Authors: Christopher P. Roche
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) prosthesis has been demonstrated to be a viable treatment option for a variety of end-stage degenerative conditions of the shoulder. The clinical success of this prosthesis is at least partially due to its unique biomechanical advantages. As taught by Paul Grammont, the medialized center of rotation fixed-fulcrum prosthesis increases the deltoid abductor moment arm lengths and improves deltoid efficiency relative to the native shoulder. All modern reverse shoulder prostheses utilize this medialized center of rotation (CoR) design concept; however, some differences in outcomes and complications have been observed between rTSA prostheses. Such differences in outcomes can at least partially be explained by the impact of glenoid and humeral prosthesis design parameters, surgical technique, implant positioning, patient-specific bone morphology, and usage in humeral and glenoid bone loss situations on reverse shoulder biomechanics. Ultimately, a better understanding of the reverse shoulder biomechanical principles will guide future innovations and further improve clinical outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 14: The Efficacy of Flywheel Inertia Training to
           Enhance Hamstring Strength

    • Authors: Joey O’ Brien, Declan Browne, Des Earls, Clare Lodge
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the efficacy of flywheel inertia training to increase hamstring strength. Hamstring strain injury is common in many sports, and baseline strength deficits have been associated with a higher risk of hamstring strain injury. As a result, strength and conditioning professionals actively seek additional techniques to improve hamstring strength with the aim of minimising the incidence of hamstring strain injury. One method of strength training gaining popularity in hamstring strength development is flywheel inertia training. In this review, we provide a brief overview of flywheel inertia training and its supposed adaptions. Next, we discuss important determinants of flywheel inertia training such as familiarisation, volume prescription, inertia load, technique and specific exercise used. Thereafter, we investigate its effects on hamstring strength, fascicle length and hamstring strain injury reduction. This article proposes that hamstring specific flywheel inertia training can be utilised for strength development, but due to the low number of studies and contrary evidence, more research is needed before a definite conclusion can be made. In addition, as with any training modality, careful consideration should be given to flywheel inertia training determinants. This review provides general recommendations of flywheel inertia training determinants that have value when integrating flywheel inertia training into a hamstring strengthening program.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 15: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Journal of
           Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2021

    • Authors: Journal of Functional Morphology Kinesiology Editorial Office Journal of Functional Morphology Kinesiology Editorial Office
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Is Muscle Architecture Different in Athletes with
           a Previous Hamstring Strain' A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Eleftherios Kellis, Chrysostomos Sahinis
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Hamstring strains are a frequent injury in sports and are characterized by a high recurrence rate. The aim of this review was to examine the muscle and tendon architecture in individuals with hamstring injury. A systematic literature search in four databases yielded eleven studies on architecture following injury. Differences in the fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and muscle size measures (volume, thickness and physiological cross-sectional area) at rest were not significantly different between the previously injured limb and the contralateral limb (p > 0.05). There was moderate evidence that biceps femoris long head (BFlh) FL shortening was greater during contraction in the injured compared to the contralateral limb. The BFlh FL was smaller in athletes with a previous injury compared to uninjured individuals (p = 0.0015) but no differences in the FL and PA of other muscles as well as in the aponeurosis/tendon size were observed (p > 0.05). An examination of the FL of both leg muscles in individuals with a previous hamstring strain may be necessary before and after return to sport. Exercises that promote fascicle lengthening of both injured and uninjured leg muscles may be beneficial for athletes who recover from a hamstring injury.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 17: Drop Jumping on Sand Is Characterized by Lower
           Power, Higher Rate of Force Development and Larger Knee Joint Range of

    • Authors: George Giatsis, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Iraklis A. Kollias
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Plyometric training on sand is suggested to result in advanced performance in vertical jumping. However, limited information exists concerning the biomechanics of drop jumps (DJ) on sand. The purpose of the study was to compare the biomechanical parameters of DJs executed on rigid (RIGID) and sand (SAND) surface. Sixteen high level male beach-volleyball players executed DJ from 40 cm on RIGID and SAND. Force- and video-recordings were analyzed to extract the kinetic and kinematic parameters of the DJ. Results of paired-samples t-tests revealed that DJ on SAND had significantly (p < 0.05) lower jumping height, peak vertical ground reaction force, power, peak leg stiffness and peak ankle flexion angular velocity than RIGID. In addition, DJ on SAND was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) larger rate of force development and knee joint flexion in the downward phase. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the temporal parameters. The compliance of SAND decreases the efficiency of the mechanisms involved in the optimization of DJ performance. Nevertheless, SAND comprises an exercise surface with less loading during the eccentric phase of the DJ, thus it can be considered as a surface that can offer injury prevention under demands for large energy expenditure.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 18: Extracellular to Intracellular Body Water and
           Cognitive Function among Healthy Older and Younger Adults

    • Authors: Jinhyun Lee, Richard K. Shields
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Compromised cognitive function is associated with increased mortality and increased healthcare costs. Physical characteristics including height, weight, body mass index, sex, and fat mass are often associated with cognitive function. Extracellular to intracellular body water ratio offers an additional anthropometric measurement that has received recent attention because of its association with systemic inflammation, hypertension, and blood–brain barrier permeability. The purposes of this study were to determine whether extracellular to intracellular body water ratios are different between younger and older people and whether they are associated with cognitive function, including executive function and attention, working memory, and information processing speed. A total of 118 healthy people (39 older; 79 younger) participated in this study. We discovered that extracellular to intracellular body water ratio increased with age, was predictive of an older person’s ability to inhibit information and stay attentive to a desired task (Flanker test; R2 = 0.24; p < 0.001), and had strong sensitivity (83%) and specificity (91%) to detect a lower executive function score. These findings support that extracellular to intracellular body water ratio offers predictive capabilities of cognitive function, even in a healthy group of elderly people.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Effects of COVID-19 Syndemic on Sport Community

    • Authors: Giuseppe Musumeci
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Nowadays, we live in a society crossed by the greatest public health crisis in over a century: the COVID-19 pandemic [...]
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 20: Hybrid Hyaluronic Acid versus High Molecular
           Weight Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Hip Osteoarthritis in
           Overweight/Obese Patients

    • Authors: Dalila Scaturro, Fabio Vitagliani, Pietro Terrana, Sofia Tomasello, Vincenzo Falco, Daniele Cuntrera, Italia Spoto, Massimo Midiri, Giulia Letizia Mauro
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Background: Obesity is the main risk factor for hip osteoarthritis, negatively affecting the outcome of the disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of viscosupplementation with hybrid hyaluronic acid compared to that with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid in overweight/obese patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: 80 patients were divided into two groups: a treatment group received two ultrasound-guided intra-articular hip injections of hybrid HA 15 days apart; a control group received a single ultrasound-guided infiltration with medium-high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (1500–2000 kDa). We assessed the pain, functional and cardiovascular capacity of the patients at baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months of the infiltrative sessions. Results: The treatment group showed greater improvements in the scores on the NRS scale (5.4 ± 0.8 vs. 6.3 ± 0.8; p < 0.05) and in the Lequesne index (11.4 ± 2.6 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) and in the distance traveled at 6MWT (238.1 ± 53.9 m vs. 210.7 ± 46.2 m; p = 0.02) both at 3 months (T1) and at 6 months (T2). Conclusions: This study underlines the importance of exploiting the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and chondrogenic properties of hybrid HA for the treatment of hip OA in overweight/obese patients.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 21: Training Load, Maturity Timing and Future National
           Team Selection in National Youth Basketball Players

    • Authors: Jorge Arede, Tomás T. Freitas, David Johnson, John F. T. Fernandes, Sean Williams, Jason Moran, Nuno Leite
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Despite its importance to the management of training stress, monotony and recovery from exercise, training load has not been quantified during periods of intensity training in youths. This study aimed to (1) examine and quantify the training load (TL) in youth national team basketball players during a 2-week training camp according to maturity timing and (2) determine which parameters were related to under-18 (U18) national team selection. Twenty-nine U-16 national team basketball players underwent an anthropometric assessment to determine maturity timing. Players were categorised by maturity timing (early vs. average), whilst TL parameters during a 2-week training camp (i.e., 21 sessions) prior to FIBA U16 European Championship were used for group comparison and to predict future U-18 national team selection. The early-maturing players, who were taller and heavier (p < 0.05), experienced greater training strain in week 1 (p < 0.05) only. Irrespective of maturity timing, training loads in week 2 were predictive of onward selection for the U-18 national team. Conclusion: Based on present findings, practitioners are encouraged to develop their athletes’ ability to tolerate high weekly loads, but also to be mindful that athletes’ perceived exertion during national team training may be influenced by maturity timing.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 22: Recovery Strategies in Endurance Athletes

    • Authors: Robyn Braun-Trocchio, Austin J. Graybeal, Andreas Kreutzer, Elizabeth Warfield, Jessica Renteria, Kaitlyn Harrison, Ashlynn Williams, Kamiah Moss, Meena Shah
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In order to achieve optimal performance, endurance athletes need to implement a variety of recovery strategies that are specific to their training and competition. Recovery is a multidimensional process involving physiological, psychological, emotional, social, and behavioral aspects. The purpose of the study was to examine current implementation, beliefs, and sources of information associated with recovery strategies in endurance athletes. Participants included 264 self-identified endurance athletes (male = 122, female = 139) across 11 different sports including placing top three overall in competition (n = 55) and placing in the top three in their age group or division (n = 113) during the past year. Endurance athletes in the current study preferred hydration, nutrition, sleep, and rest in terms of use, belief, and effectiveness of the recovery strategy. Female endurance athletes use more recovery strategies for training than males (p = 0.043, d = 0.25), but not in competition (p = 0.137, d = 0.19). For training, top three finishers overall (p < 0.001, d = 0.61) and by division (p < 0.001, d = 0.57), used more recovery strategies than those placing outside the top three. Similar findings were reported for competition in top three finishers overall (p = 0.008, d = 0.41) and by division (p < 0.001, d = 0.45). These athletes are relying on the people around them such as coaches (48.3%) and fellow athletes (47.5%) along with websites (32.7%) for information and recommendations. Endurance athletes should be educated on other strategies to address the multidimensionality of recovery. These findings will be useful for healthcare professionals, practitioners, and coaches in understanding recovery strategies with endurance athletes.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 23: Intraoperative Load Sensing in Total Knee
           Arthroplasty Leads to a Functional but Not Clinical Difference: A
           Comparative, Gait Analysis Evaluation

    • Authors: Michele Giuntoli, Michelangelo Scaglione, Enrico Bonicoli, Nicola Piolanti, Gianmarco Puccioni, Karlos Zepeda, Emanuele Giannini, Stefano Marchetti, Pier Francesco Indelli
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Introduction: Although Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure, a significant number of patients are still unsatisfied, reporting instability at the mid-flexion range (Mid-Flexion Instability-MFI). To avoid this complication, many innovations, including load sensors (LS), have been introduced. The intraoperative use of LS may facilitate the balance of the knee during the entire range of motion to avoid MFI postoperatively. The objective of this study was to perform a Gait Analysis (GA) evaluation of a series of patients who underwent primary TKA using a single LS technology. Methods: The authors matched and compared two groups of patients treated with the same posterior stabilized TKA design. In Group A, 10 knees were intraoperatively balanced with LS technology, while 10 knees (Group B) underwent standard TKA. The correct TKA alignment was preoperatively determined aiming for a mechanical alignment. Clinical evaluation was performed according to the WOMAC, Knee Society Score (KSS) and Forgotten Joint Score, while functional evaluation was performed using a state-of-the-art GA platform. Results: We reported excellent clinical results in both groups without any statistical difference in patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs); from a functional standpoint, several GA space–time parameters were closer to normal in the sensor group when compared to the standard group, but a statistically significant difference was not reached. Conclusions: Gait Analysis represents a valid method to evaluate TKA kinematics. This study, with its limitations, showed that pressure sensitive technology represents a valid aid for surgeons aiming to improve the postoperative stability of TKA; however, other factors (i.e., level of intra-articular constraint and alignment) may play a major role in reproducing the normal knee biomechanics.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Progress of Journal of Functional Morphology and
           Kinesiology in 2021

    • Authors: Giuseppe Musumeci
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (JFMK, ISSN: 2411-5142), which was first released in March 2016, has gone from strength to strength in 2021 [...]
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 25: Association between Concentric and Eccentric
           Isokinetic Torque and Unilateral Countermovement Jump Variables in
           Professional Soccer Players

    • Authors: Bruno Mazziotti Oliveira Alves, Robson Dias Scoz, Ricardo Lima Burigo, Isabella Christina Ferreira, Ana Paula Silveira Ramos, Jose Joao Baltazar Mendes, Luciano Maia Alves Ferreira, Cesar Ferreira Amorim
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Isokinetic tests have been highly valuable to athletic analysis, but their cost and technical operation turn them inaccessible. The purpose of this study was to verify the correlation between unilateral countermovement jump variables and isokinetic data. Thirty-two male professional soccer players were subjected to the isokinetic testing of both knee extensors and flexors in concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. They also executed unilateral countermovement vertical jumps (UCMJ) to compare maximum height, ground reaction force, and impulse power with isokinetic peak torque. Data analysis was conducted through Pearson correlation and linear regression. A high correlation was found between dominant unilateral extensor concentric peak torque and the UCMJ maximum height of the dominant leg. The non-dominant leg jump showed a moderate correlation. No other variable showed statistical significance. Linear regression allowed the generation of two formulae to estimate the peak torque from UCMJ for dominant and non-dominant legs. Although few studies were found to compare our results, leading to more studies being needed, a better understanding of the unilateral countermovement jump may be used in the future as a substitute to the expensive and technically demanding isokinetic testing when it is unavailable, allowing the assessment of lower limb physical asymmetries in athletic or rehabilitation environments.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Electromyographic Analysis of the Lumbar Extensor
           Muscles during Dynamic Exercise on a Home Exercise Device

    • Authors: John M. Mayer, Brian E. Udermann, Joe L. Verna
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Resistance exercise with devices offering mechanisms to isolate the lumbar spine is effective to improve muscle strength and clinical outcomes. However, previously assessed devices with these mechanisms are not conducive for home exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lumbar extensor muscles during dynamic exercise on a home back extension exercise device. Ten adults (5 F, 5 M) performed dynamic lumbar extension exercise on a home device at three loads: 1.00 × body weight (BW), 1.25 × BW and 1.50 × BW. Surface EMG activity from the L3/4 paraspinal region was collected. The effect of exercise load, phase of movement, and position in the range of motion on lumbar extensor EMG activity (normalized to % maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was assessed. Lumbar extensor EMG activity significantly increased from 1.00 BW to 1.50 BW loads (p = 0.0006), eccentric to concentric phases (p < 0.0001), and flexion to extension positions (p < 0.0001). Exercise using a home back extension exercise device progressively activates the lumbar extensor muscles. This device can be used for home-based resistance exercise programs in community-dwelling adults without contraindications.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Baseline Physical Activity Behaviors and
           Relationships with Fitness in the Army Training at High Intensity Study

    • Authors: Katie M. Heinrich, Aspen E. Streetman, Filip Kukić, Chunki Fong, Brittany S. Hollerbach, Blake D. Goodman, Christopher K. Haddock, Walker S. C. Poston
      First page: 27
      Abstract: United States Army soldiers must meet physical fitness test standards. Criticisms of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) include limited testing of only aerobic and muscular endurance activity domains; yet, it is unclear what levels of aerobic and muscle strengthening activity may help predict performance in aspects of the new Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT). This study explored relationships between baseline self-reported aerobic and muscle strengthening activities and APFT- and ACFT-related performance. Baseline participant data (N = 123) were from a cluster-randomized clinical trial that recruited active-duty military personnel (mean age 33.7 ± 5.7 years, 72.4% White, 87.0% college-educated, 81.5% Officers). An online survey was used for self-report of socio-demographic characteristics and weekly aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity behaviors. Participants also completed the APFT (2 min push-ups, 2 min sit-ups, 2-mile run) and ACFT-related measures (1-repetition maximum deadlift, pull-up repetitions or timed flexed arm hang, horizontal jump, and dummy drag). Bivariate logistic regression found greater aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity predicted better APFT performance, while better ACFT-related performance was predicted by greater muscle-strengthening activity. Although our data are mostly from mid-career officers, command policies should emphasize the new Holistic Health and Fitness initiative that encourages regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity for soldiers.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Frequency Shifts in Muscle Activation during
           Static Strength Elements on the Rings before and after an Eccentric
           Training Intervention in Male Gymnasts

    • Authors: Beat Göpfert, Christoph Schärer, Lisa Tacchelli, Micah Gross, Fabian Lüthy, Klaus Hübner
      First page: 28
      Abstract: During ring performance in men’s gymnastics, static strength elements require a high level of maximal muscular strength. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of a four-week eccentric–isokinetic training intervention in the frequency spectra of the wavelet-transformed electromyogram (EMG) during the two static strength elements, the swallow and support scale, in different time intervals during the performance. The gymnasts performed an instrumented movement analysis on the rings, once before the intervention and twice after. For both elements, the results showed a lower congruence in the correlation of the frequency spectra between the first and the last 0.5 s interval than between the first and second 0.5 s intervals, which was indicated by a shift toward the predominant frequency around the wavelet with a center frequency of 62 Hz (Wavelet W10). Furthermore, in both elements, there was a significant increase in the congruence of the frequency spectra after the intervention between the first and second 0.5 s intervals, but not between the first and last ones. In conclusion, the EMG wavelet spectra presented changes corresponding to the performance gain with the eccentric training intervention, and showed the frequency shift toward a predominant frequency due to acute muscular fatigue.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • JFMK, Vol. 7, Pages 29: Analgesic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock-Wave
           Therapy in Individuals with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized Controlled

    • Authors: Salameh Aldajah, Anas R. Alashram, Giuseppe Annino, Cristian Romagnoli, Elvira Padua
      First page: 29
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) on pain, grip strength, and upper-extremity function in lateral epicondylitis. A sample of 40 patients with LE (21 males) was randomly allocated to either the ESWT experimental (n = 20) or the conventional-physiotherapy control group (n = 20). All patients received five sessions during the treatment program. The outcome measures used were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Taiwan version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and a dynamometer (maximal grip strength). Forty participants completed the study. Participants in both groups improved significantly after treatment in terms of VAS (pain reduced), maximal grip strength, and DASH scores. However, the pain was reduced and upper-extremity function and maximal grip strength were more significantly improved after ESWT in the experimental group. ESWT has a superior effect in reducing pain and improving upper-extremity function and grip strength in people with lateral epicondylitis. It seems that five sessions of ESWT are optimal to produce a significant difference. Further studies are strongly needed to verify our findings.
      Citation: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jfmk7010029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
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