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SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Science & Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2055-7647
Published by BMJ Publishing Group Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Impact of different climatic conditions on peak core temperature of elite
           athletes during exercise in the heat: a Thermo Tokyo simulation study

    • Authors: Teunissen, L. P. J; Jansen, K. M. B, Janssen, E, Kingma, B. R. M, de Korte, J. Q, Eijsvogels, T. M. H.
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate how separate and combined climatic parameters affect peak core temperature during exercise in the heat using computer simulations fed with individual data.MethodsThe impact of eight environmental conditions on rectal temperature (Tre) was determined for exercise under heat stress using the Fiala-thermal-Physiology-and-Comfort simulation model. Variations in ambient temperature (Ta±6°C), relative humidity (RH±15%) and solar radiation (SR+921 W/m2) were assessed in isolation and combination (worst-case/best-case scenarios) and compared with baseline (Ta32°C, RH 75%, SR 0 W/m2). The simulation model was fed with personal, anthropometric and individual exercise characteristics.Results54 athletes exercised for 46±10 min at baseline conditions and achieved a peak core temperature of 38.9±0.5°C. Simulations at a higher Ta (38°C) and SR (921 W/m2) resulted in a higher peak Tre compared with baseline (+0.6±0.3°C and +0.5±0.2°C, respectively), whereas a higher RH (90%) hardly affected peak Tre (+0.1±0.1°C). A lower Ta (26°C) and RH (60%) reduced peak Tre by –0.4±0.2°C and a minor –0.1±0.1°C, respectively. The worst-case simulation yielded a 1.5±0.4°C higher Tre than baseline and 2.0±0.7°C higher than the best-case condition.ConclusionCombined unfavourable climatic conditions produce a greater increase in peak core temperature than the sum of its parts in elite athletes exercising in the heat.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:20:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001313
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Clustered cardiovascular disease risk among children aged 8-13 years from
           lower socioeconomic schools in Gqeberha, South Africa

    • Authors: Dolley, D; Walter, C, du Randt, R, Pühse, U, Bosma, J, Aerts, A, Adams, L, Arnaiz, P, Degen, J, Gall, S, Joubert, N, Müller, I, Nienaber, M, Nqweniso, F, Seelig, H, Steinmann, P, Utzinger, J, Gerber, M.
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and clustered CVD risk among children attending schools in periurban areas of Gqeberha and to investigate the independent association between clustered CVD risk, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).MethodsBaseline data were collected in a cross-sectional analysis of 975 children aged 8–13 years. We measured the height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, full lipid panel, 20 m shuttle run performance and accelerometry. The prevalence of individual risk factors was determined, and a clustered risk score (CRS) was constructed using principal component analysis. Children with an elevated CRS of 1 SD above the average CRS were considered ‘at-risk’.ResultsWe found 424 children (43.3%) having at least one elevated CVD risk factor: 27.7% elevated triglycerides, 20.7% depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 15.9% elevated total cholesterol. An elevated clustered risk was identified in 17% (n=104) of the sample; girls exhibited a significantly higher CRS>1 SD than boys (p=0.036). The estimated odds of an elevated clustered risk are doubled every 2 mL/kg/min decrease in VO2max (95% CI 1.66 to 3.12) or every 49 min reduction in MVPA (95% CI 27 to 224).ConclusionA relatively high prevalence of elevated individual and clustered CVD risk was identified. Our results have also confirmed the independent inverse association of the clustered CVD risk with physical activity and CRF. These indicate that increased levels of CRF or MVPA may aid in the prevention and reduction of elevated clustered CVD risk.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:20:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001336
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • What dohealthcare professionalswant from a resource to
           supportperson-centred conversations onphysical activity' A
           mixed-methods, user-centric approach to developing educational resources

    • Authors: Reid, H; Caterson, J, Smith, R, Baldock, J, Jones, N, Copeland, R, on behalf of the Moving Medicine development group
      Abstract: ObjectivesHealthcare is a fundamental action area in population efforts to address the global disease burden from physical inactivity. However, healthcare professionals lack the knowledge, skills and confidence to have regular conversations about physical activity. This study aimed to: (1) understand the requirements of healthcare professionals and patients from a resource to support routine physical activity conversations in clinical consultations and (2) develop such a resource.MethodsThis study used codesign principles across two phases, actively involving relevant stakeholders in an iterative development process. The preparatory phase included a scoping literature review and workshops with multidisciplinary healthcare professionals and patients. The Delphi phase included the development of a draft resource, a three-stage modified online Delphi study and an external review.ResultsThe scoping review highlighted the importance of addressing time restrictions, a behaviour change skill deficit, the need for resources to fit into existing systems and meeting patient expectations. Consultation included 69 participants across two clinical workshops. They recommended using the internet, valued guidance on all aspects of physical activity conversations and were concerned about how to use a person-centred approach. The Delphi phase, including 15 expert participants, met agreement criteria in two stages to develop the resource.ConclusionThis mixed-methods study delivered an online resource that was codesigned with and based on the requirements of healthcare professionals and patients. The resource presents condition-specific ‘1-minute’, ‘5-minute’ and ‘more minute’ person-centred and evidence-based conversation templates on physical activity in an accessible and usable format to meet the needs of real-life clinical practice.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T07:35:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001280
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Behind the athletic body: a clinical interview study of identification of
           eating disorder symptoms and diagnoses in elite athletes

    • Authors: Lichtenstein, M. B; Johansen, K. K, Runge, E, Hansen, M. B, Holmberg, T. T, Tarp, K.
      Abstract: Eating disorders are more prevalent in athletes than in the general population and may have severe consequences for sports performance and health. Identifying symptoms can be difficult in athletes because restrictive eating and slim body images are often idealised in a sports setting. The Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat and Food) questionnaire (SCOFF) are widely used generic instruments to identify symptoms of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate the instruments’ validity and explore eating disorder symptoms in a sample of athletes.A sample of 28 athletes (25 females) competing at a national level was interviewed based on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. We interviewed 18 athletes with a high score on EDE-Q and 10 with a low score. All interviews were transcribed and analysed from a general inductive approach. We identified 20 athletes with an eating disorder diagnosis, while 8 had no diagnosis. EDE-Q found 90% of the cases, while SCOFF found 94%. EDE-Q found no false-positive cases, while SCOFF found one.The qualitative results showed that most athletes reported eating concerns, restrictive eating, eating control (counting calories), weight concerns, body dissatisfaction (feeling fat and non-athletic), excessive exercise and health problems (eg, pain, fatigue).In conclusion, EDE-Q and SCOFF seem valid instruments to screen athletes’ samples but may fail to find 6%–10% cases with eating disorders. Despite athletic bodies and normal body mass index, many athletes report severe eating problems and dissatisfaction with weight and body appearance. Implementation of regular screening may identify these symptoms at an early stage.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T06:56:15-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001265
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessment and monitoring of Achilles tendinopathy in clinical practice: a
           qualitative descriptive exploration of the barriers clinicians face

    • Authors: Murphy, M. C; Debenham, J, Bulsara, C, Chivers, P, Rio, E. K, Docking, S, Travers, M, Gibson, W.
      Abstract: Our primary objective was to explore the barriers preventing clinicians from implementing what they think is ideal practice as it relates to using tools to aid diagnosis and monitor progress in mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. Our secondary objectives were to describe the assessments employed by clinicians in their own practice to aid with (a) diagnosis and (b) monitoring progress in Achilles tendinopathy and explore the outcome measure domains clinicians believe to be the most and least important when managing patients with Achilles tendinopathy. We employed a qualitative descriptive study design. Thirteen participants (eight female, five male) from across Australia, consisting of two junior physiotherapists, five senior physiotherapists working in private practice, four senior physiotherapists working within elite sports organisations and two sport and exercise medicine doctors, were included and one-on-one interviews were performed. Audio was transcribed then entered into NVivo for coding and analysis. Four main themes were perceived as barriers to implementing ideal practice of assessment and monitoring in people with Achilles tendinopathy: financial constraints, time constraints, access to equipment and patient symptom severity. Assessments related to function, pain on loading, pain over a specified time frame and palpation are commonly used to assist diagnosis. Assessments related to disability, pain on loading, pain over a specified time frame and physical function capacity are used to monitor progress over time. Furthermore, pain on loading and pain over a specified time frame were considered the most important outcome measure domains for assisting diagnosis whereas pain on loading, patient rating of the condition and physical function capacity were the most important outcome measure domains for monitoring progress. A number of barriers exist that prevent clinicians from implementing what they view as ideal assessment and monitoring for Achilles tendinopathy. These barriers should be considered when developing new assessments and in clinical practice recommendations.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T06:56:15-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001355
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Health challenges and acute sports injuries restrict weightlifting
           training of older athletes

    • Authors: Huebner, M; Ma, W.
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo quantify acute injuries sustained during weightlifting that result in training restrictions and identify potential risk factors or preventative factors in Master athletes and to evaluate potentially complex interactions of age, sex, health-related and training-related predictors of injuries with machine learning (ML) algorithms.MethodsA total of 976 Masters weightlifters from Australia, Canada, Europe and the USA, ages 35–88 (51.1% women), completed an online survey that included questions on weightlifting injuries, chronic diseases, sport history and training practices. Ensembles of ML algorithms were used to identify factors associated with acute weightlifting injuries and performance of the prediction models was evaluated. In addition, a subgroup of variables selected by six experts were entered into a logistic regression model to estimate the likelihood of an injury.ResultsThe accuracy of ML models predicting injuries ranged from 0.727 to 0.876 for back, hips, knees and wrists, but were less accurate (0.644) for shoulder injuries. Male Master athletes had a higher prevalence of weightlifting injuries than female Master athletes, ranging from 12% to 42%. Chronic inflammation or osteoarthritis were common among both men and women. This was associated with an increase in acute injuries.ConclusionsTraining-specific variables, such as choices of training programmes or nutrition programmes, may aid in preventing acute injuries. ML models can identify potential risk factors or preventative measures for sport injuries.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T06:56:15-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001372
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Players, parents and staffs perceptions of injury prevention exercise
           programmes in youth rugby union

    • Authors: Sly, N; Soomro, M, Withall, A. L, Cullen, P, Turner, R. M, Flahive, S. R.
      Abstract: Background and aimDespite evidence of their efficacy, there is no widespread adoption of injury prevention exercise programmes (IPEPs) among young players and coaches in community rugby union. The purpose of this study was to (1) analyse the knowledge and perceptions of injury prevention and IPEPs among staff, parents and players in youth rugby union and (2) explore the facilitators and barriers to implementation of IPEPs. With this contextual information, tailored implementation strategies can be created.MethodsParticipants completed an online survey addressing knowledge and perceptions of injury risk, injury prevention practices and a rugby-specific IPEP. Community rugby union players aged 14–18 years, their parents and staff were invited to participate, including school-based and development squads competing at a national level.ResultsSurveys were completed by 18 staff members, 72 parents and 56 players. Staff, parents and players believe that the risk of injury in youth rugby union is high and that injury prevention is important. The perceived role in injury prevention and availability of allied health staff, particularly strength and conditioning coaches, was apparent in this sample. Reported barriers to completion of IPEPs related to time, resources, awareness of the programme and end-users' attitudes or motivations. Leadership, the use of role models and the structure and routine provided by an IPEP were considered facilitative.ConclusionsThese findings inform future implementation strategies for IPEPs in this setting, including the need to provide practical solutions, education and considering the role of allied health staff in facilitating such programmes.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T08:16:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001271
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • High training volume is associated with increased prevalence of
           non-allergic asthma in competitive cross-country skiers

    • Authors: Mäki-Heikkilä, R; Karjalainen, J, Parkkari, J, Huhtala, H, Valtonen, M, Lehtimäki, L.
      Abstract: BackgroundCross-country skiers have a high prevalence of asthma, but its phenotypes and association with success in competitions are not known.ObjectiveTo investigate, by means of a postal survey, the relative proportions of allergic and non-allergic asthma in competitive cross-country skiers compared with the general population, to study how performance level and training volume are related to asthma and its type and to assess the possible risk factors for allergic and non-allergic asthma in competitive skiers.MethodsAll Finnish cross-country skiers enrolled in the largest national competitions in winter 2019 (n=1282), and a random sample (n=1754) of the general population of the same age were sent a postal questionnaire. The response rate was 27.4% (n=351) for skiers and 19.5% (n=338) for the controls. International Ski Federation (FIS) ranking points measured the level of success in skiers. Asthma was defined as self-reported, physician-diagnosed asthma. Asthma was considered allergic if associated with doctor-diagnosed allergy, and exposure to allergens provoked asthma symptoms.ResultsThe prevalence of asthma was higher in skiers than in the controls (25.9% vs 9.2%, p
      Keywords: Open access, Press releases
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T15:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001315
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Hierarchical framework to improve individualised exercise prescription in
           adults: a critical review

    • Authors: Lehtonen, E; Gagnon, D, Eklund, D, Kaseva, K, Peltonen, J. E.
      Abstract: Physical activity (PA) guidelines for the general population are designed to mitigate the rise of chronic and debilitating diseases brought by inactivity and sedentariness. Although essential, they are insufficient as rates of cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, metabolic and other devastating and life-long diseases remain on the rise. This systemic failure supports the need for an improved exercise prescription approach that targets the individual. Significant interindividual variability of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) responses to exercise are partly explained by biological and methodological factors, and the modulation of exercise volume and intensity seem to be key in improving prescription guidelines. The use of physiological thresholds, such as lactate, ventilation, as well as critical power, have demonstrated excellent results to improve CRF in those struggling to respond to the current homogenous prescription of exercise. However, assessing physiological thresholds requires laboratory resources and expertise and is incompatible for a general population approach. A case must be made that balances the effectiveness of an exercise programme to improve CRF and accessibility of resources. A population-wide approach of exercise prescription guidelines should include free and accessible self-assessed threshold tools, such as rate of perceived exertion, where the homeostatic perturbation induced by exercise reflects physiological thresholds. The present critical review outlines factors for individuals exercise prescription and proposes a new theoretical hierarchal framework to help shape PA guidelines based on accessibility and effectiveness as part of a personalised exercise prescription that targets the individual.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:42:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001339
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Prevalence of muscle imbalance and its potential influence on injury among
           female acrobatic dancers

    • Authors: Smith, D; Noorbhai, H.
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle imbalance among young adolescent acrobats (n=15) and if there was a potential link to injury.MethodsIsokinetic strength of the lower extremity, isometric strength of the trunk, and flexibility of both the trunk and lower extremity were assessed. Pearson correlation (r) and 2 correlation tests were performed on all explanatory variables.ResultsSignificant correlations were found between isokinetic peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings (p=0.000) and the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors (p=0.000) on both sides, along with plantar flexor dominance (p=0.000). Non-significant findings were seen when identifying dominance between the quadriceps and hamstrings (p=0.933) as well as when correlating peak torque and flexibility of the lower extremity (right hamstrings: p=0.668, left hamstrings: p=0.338, right quadriceps: p=0.171, left quadriceps: p=0.707, right plantar flexors: p=0.282, left plantar flexors: p=0.382, right dorsiflexors: p=0.297 and left dorsiflexors: p=0.393).ConclusionAcrobats demonstrated noticeably high ranges of flexibility, and the most common injury site was found to be the ankle. However, these mentioned injuries were not all due to acrobatic participation. The limited sample size warrants extensive research with a larger sample size to further verify or dispute the results found in this study. Muscle imbalances found within this population could increase the risk of injury.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T06:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001322
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessing the cumulative effect of long-term training load on the risk of
           injury in team sports

    • Authors: Bache-Mathiesen, L. K; Andersen, T. E, Dalen-Lorentsen, T, Clarsen, B, Fagerland, M. W.
      Abstract: ObjectivesDetermine how to assess the cumulative effect of training load on the risk of injury or health problems in team sports.MethodsFirst, we performed a simulation based on a Norwegian Premier League male football dataset (n players=36). Training load was sampled from daily session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Different scenarios of the effect of sRPE on injury risk and the effect of relative sRPE on injury risk were simulated. These scenarios assumed that the probability of injury was the result of training load exposures over the previous 4 weeks. We compared seven different methods of modelling training load in their ability to model the simulated relationship. We then used the most accurate method, the distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM), to analyse data from Norwegian youth elite handball players (no. of players=205, no. of health problems=471) to illustrate how assessing the cumulative effect of training load can be done in practice.ResultsDLNM was the only method that accurately modelled the simulated relationships between training load and injury risk. In the handball example, DLNM could show the cumulative effect of training load and how much training load affected health problem risk depending on the distance in time since the training load exposure.ConclusionDLNM can be used to assess the cumulative effect of training load on injury risk.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T07:17:25-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001342
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Physical activity in older adults with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer:
           a pilot and feasibility study

    • Authors: Brown, J. C; Brighton, E, Campbell, N, McCleary, N. J, Abrams, T. A, Cleary, J. M, Enzinger, P. C, Ng, K, Rubinson, D, Wolpin, B. M, Yurgelun, M. B, Meyerhardt, J. A.
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study determined the feasibility of delivering a 12-week structured physical activity programme during chemotherapy to older adults recently diagnosed with metastatic gastrointestinal (GI) cancer.MethodsThis study used a single-cohort design. Older adults (aged ≥65 years) diagnosed with metastatic oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic or colorectal cancer who planned to initiate chemotherapy were enrolled. The physical activity programme included a combination of aerobic, flexibility, strength and balance modalities delivered by a certified cancer exercise trainer during chemotherapy infusion appointments, then translated and sustained at home by participants. The co-primary endpoints included: (1) accrual of 20 participants in 12 months and (2) physical activity adherence of ≥50%.ResultsBetween March and October 2018, 29 participants were screened, and 20 were enrolled within 12 months (recruitment rate: 69% (90% CI: 55% to 83%); p
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T07:17:25-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001353
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Maximal aerobic capacity is associated with lifting capacity, but not with
           self-reported functioning measures in patients with primary chronic low
           back pain: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Vermue, D. J; Dol, M. V, Ansuategui Echeita, J, Dekker, R, Schiphorst Preuper, H. R, Reneman, M. F.
      Abstract: ObjectiveMaximal exercise testing is considered the gold standard to assess VO2max. However, maximal exercise testing was previously deemed unfeasible and unsafe in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Consequently, most previous studies on aerobic capacity and functioning in patients with CLBP were performed with submaximal testing protocols. A recent study demonstrated the safety, feasibility and tolerance of maximal exercise testing in patients with CLBP. Therefore, the relation between aerobic capacity and functioning should be reevaluated. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity and four measures of functioning: lifting capacity, work ability, pain-related disability and physical functioning in patients with CLBP.MethodsThe maximal aerobic capacity of patients with CLBP was assessed with a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Functioning was measured with a floor-to-waist lifting capacity test and three questionnaires: Work Ability Score, Pain Disability Index and Physical Functioning subscale of RAND-36. The associations between maximal aerobic capacity and each of the functioning measures were analysed with multiple linear regression analyses while controlling for potential confounders.ResultsData of n=74 patients with CLBP were analysed. After controlling for potential confounders, maximal aerobic capacity was moderately associated with lifting capacity (β=0.32, p=0.006), but not with any of the other functioning measures (β=–0.08 to 0.12, p>0.288).ConclusionA higher level of maximal aerobic capacity is moderately associated with a higher lifting capacity, but not with self-reported work ability, pain-related disability and physical functioning.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T06:53:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001253
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Correlation between preseason body composition and sports injury in an
           English Premier League professional football team

    • Authors: Seow, D; Massey, A.
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo identify the correlation between preseason body composition and incidence coupled with injury burden throughout the season in adult male professional football players.MethodsA retrospective case series was performed for linear regression analysis of preseason body composition variables and injury data. R2 >0.10 was deemed of adequate correlation.ResultsAll 36 professional football players in the male first team of an English Premier League professional football team were recruited, with none lost to follow-up. The total and mean incidence of injuries was 83.00 and 2.31 (95% CI 1.72 to 2.89), respectively. The mean injury burden was 58.32 (95% CI 37.67 to 78.98) days missed. Simple linear regression analysis indicated no significant or adequate correlations between incidence and preseason body composition variables. Injury burden revealed non-significant adequate negative correlations to body mass (R2=0.17), body mass index (BMI) (R2=0.15), waist circumference (R2=0.17), total bone mineral density (BMD) (R2=0.11) and mean embedded structures (R2=0.10).ConclusionsPlayers with decreased body mass, BMI, waist circumference, total BMD and mean embedded structures may be prone to greater injury burden. Further studies with a larger sample size that incorporates multiple football teams are warranted to investigate this.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T07:34:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001193
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sedentary Behaviour Intervention as a Personalised Secondary Prevention
           Strategy (SIT LESS) for patients with coronary artery disease
           participating in cardiac rehabilitation: rationale and design of the SIT
           LESS randomised clinical trial

    • Authors: van Bakel, B. M. A; Kroesen, S. H, Günal, A, Scheepmaker, A, Aengevaeren, W. R. M, Willems, F. F, Wondergem, R, Pisters, M. F, Dam, J, Janssen, A. M, de Bruin, M, Hopman, M. T. E, Thijssen, D. H. J, Eijsvogels, T. M. H.
      Abstract: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are more sedentary compared with the general population, but contemporary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes do not specifically target sedentary behaviour (SB). We developed a 12-week, hybrid (centre-based+home-based) Sedentary behaviour IntervenTion as a personaLisEd Secondary prevention Strategy (SIT LESS). The SIT LESS programme is tailored to the needs of patients with CAD, using evidence-based behavioural change methods and an activity tracker connected to an online dashboard to enable self-monitoring and remote coaching. Following the intervention mapping principles, we first identified determinants of SB from literature to adapt theory-based methods and practical applications to target SB and then evaluated the intervention in advisory board meetings with patients and nurse specialists. This resulted in four core components of SIT LESS: (1) patient education, (2) goal setting, (3) motivational interviewing with coping planning, and (4) (tele)monitoring using a pocket-worn activity tracker connected to a smartphone application and providing vibrotactile feedback after prolonged sedentary bouts. We hypothesise that adding SIT LESS to contemporary CR will reduce SB in patients with CAD to a greater extent compared with usual care. Therefore, 212 patients with CAD will be recruited from two Dutch hospitals and randomised to CR (control) or CR+SIT LESS (intervention). Patients will be assessed prior to, immediately after and 3 months after CR. The primary comparison relates to the pre-CR versus post-CR difference in SB (objectively assessed in min/day) between the control and intervention groups. Secondary outcomes include between-group differences in SB characteristics (eg, number of sedentary bouts); change in SB 3 months after CR; changes in light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity; quality of life; and patients’ competencies for self-management. Outcomes of the SIT LESS randomised clinical trial will provide novel insight into the effectiveness of a structured, hybrid and personalised behaviour change intervention to attenuate SB in patients with CAD participating in CR. Trial registration number NL9263.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T07:34:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001364
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessing Open Science practices in physical activity behaviour change
           intervention evaluations

    • Authors: Norris, E; Sulevani, I, Finnerty, A. N, Castro, O.
      Abstract: ObjectivesConcerns on the lack of reproducibility and transparency in science have led to a range of research practice reforms, broadly referred to as ‘Open Science’. The extent that physical activity interventions are embedding Open Science practices is currently unknown. In this study, we randomly sampled 100 reports of recent physical activity randomised controlled trial behaviour change interventions to estimate the prevalence of Open Science practices.MethodsOne hundred reports of randomised controlled trial physical activity behaviour change interventions published between 2018 and 2021 were identified, as used within the Human Behaviour-Change Project. Open Science practices were coded in identified reports, including: study pre-registration, protocol sharing, data, materials and analysis scripts sharing, replication of a previous study, open access publication, funding sources and conflict of interest statements. Coding was performed by two independent researchers, with inter-rater reliability calculated using Krippendorff’s alpha.Results78 of the 100 reports provided details of study pre-registration and 41% provided evidence of a published protocol. 4% provided accessible open data, 8% provided open materials and 1% provided open analysis scripts. 73% of reports were published as open access and no studies were described as replication attempts. 93% of reports declared their sources of funding and 88% provided conflicts of interest statements. A Krippendorff’s alpha of 0.73 was obtained across all coding.ConclusionOpen data, materials, analysis and replication attempts are currently rare in physical activity behaviour change intervention reports, whereas funding source and conflict of interest declarations are common. Future physical activity research should increase the reproducibility of their methods and results by incorporating more Open Science practices.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T07:58:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001282
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessment of 24-hour physical behaviour in children and adolescents via
           wearables: a systematic review of free-living validation studies

    • Authors: Giurgiu, M; Kolb, S, Nigg, C, Burchartz, A, Timm, I, Becker, M, Rulf, E, Doster, A.-K, Koch, E, Bussmann, J. B. J, Nigg, C, Ebner-Priemer, U. W, Woll, A.
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies that assess all three dimensions of the integrative 24-hour physical behaviour (PB) construct, namely, intensity, posture/activity type and biological state, are on the rise. However, reviews on validation studies that cover intensity, posture/activity type and biological state assessed via wearables are missing.DesignSystematic review. The risk of bias was evaluated by using the QUADAS-2 tool with nine signalling questions separated into four domains (ie, patient selection/study design, index measure, criterion measure, flow and time).Data sourcesPeer-reviewed validation studies from electronic databases as well as backward and forward citation searches (1970–July 2021).Eligibility criteria for selecting studiesWearable validation studies with children and adolescents (age
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T06:49:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001267
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Modelling the potential spread of virus during soccer matches

    • Authors: Knudsen, N. S; Thomasen, M. M. D, Andersen, T. B.
      Abstract: ObjectiveIn the present study, we model the potential spread of virus during soccer matches.MethodsTracking data from 14 elite soccer matches was used. One player in each match was designated as a virus carrier (called ‘infected player’) for the purpose of the study. The exposure score (measured in seconds) was calculated as time spent closer than 1.5 m from the infected player or time spent in an exponentially declining zone, where the infected player was positioned earlier.ResultsThe results revealed that, on average, each player was exposed for 87.8 s per match.ConclusionPotential spread of virus during soccer matches was modelled and it revealed that the exposure to a virus during soccer matches is limited.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T06:49:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001268
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Risk assessment and implementation of risk reduction measures is not
           associated with increased transmission of SARS-CoV-2 compared with
           standard isolation at professional golf events

    • Authors: Robinson, P. G; Murray, A, Watson, M, Close, G, Kinane, D. F.
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this prospective study was to report incidence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2, among professional golfers and essential support staff undergoing risk assessment and enhanced risk reduction measures when considered a close contact as opposed to standard isolation while competing on the DP World Tour during the 2021 season.MethodsThis prospective cohort study included all players and essential support staff participating in 26 DP World Tour events from 18 April 2021 to 21 November 2021. High-risk contacts were isolated for 10 days. Moderate-risk contacts received education regarding enhanced medical surveillance, had daily rapid antigen testing for 5 days, with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tesing on day 5, mandated mask use and access to outside space for work purposes only. Low-risk contacts typically received rapid antigen testing every 48 hours and RT-PCR testing on day 5.ResultsThe total study cohort compromised 13 394 person-weeks of exposure. There were a total of 30 positive cases over the study period. Eleven contacts were stratified as ‘high risk’. Two of these subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. There were 79 moderate-risk contact and 73 low-risk contacts. One moderate-risk contact subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 but did not transmit the virus. All other contacts, remained negative and asymptomatic to the end of the tournament week.ConclusionsA risk assessment and risk reduction-based approach to contact tracing was safe in this professional golf event setting when Alpha and Delta were the predominant variants. It enabled professional golfers and essential support staff to work.
      Keywords: Open access, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T06:49:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001324
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Correction: Youth sport injury research: a narrative review and the
           potential of interdisciplinarity

    • Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T08:11:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000933corr1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psychological safety in elite sport settings: a psychometric study of the
           Sport Psychological Safety Inventory

    • Authors: Rice, S; Walton, C. C, Pilkington, V, Gwyther, K, Olive, L. S, Lloyd, M, Kountouris, A, Butterworth, M, Clements, M, Purcell, R.
      Abstract: ObjectivesEffectively supporting the mental health of elite athletes and coaches requires validated tools that assess not only individual-level factors but organisational-level influences. The aim of this study was to develop a bespoke scale assessing perceived psychological safety within high-performance environments.Methods337 elite athletes (M=24.12 years) and 238 elite-level coaches and high-performance support staff (HPSS; M=41.9 years) identified via the Australian Institute of Sport provided data across a range of mental health and well-being domains. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n=169 athletes) with parallel analysis identified the Sport Psychological Safety Inventory (SPSI) factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated the identified structure in separate validation subsamples of athletes (n=168) and coaches/HPSS (n=238).ResultsEFA identified the 11-item, 3-factor SPSI. Factors assessed domains of the Mentally Healthy Environment, Mental Health Literacy and Low Self-Stigma. All scale items loaded strongly on their specific domain. CFA model fit indices validated scale structure for athletes and coaches/HPSS. Internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity were evident. Logistic regression indicated that incrementally higher Mentally Healthy Environment scores reduced the likelihood of athletes scoring in the ‘moderate’ range of general and athlete-specific distress, with a stronger endorsement of the Low Self-Stigma subscale reducing the likelihood of being identified for athlete-specific distress.ConclusionPsychometric properties of the SPSI support scale utility among athletes and coaches/HPSS in elite sports settings, though further psychometric efforts are needed. This brief measure may support benchmarking efforts across elite sporting contexts to improve mental health culture and broader well-being among athletes and coaches/HPSS.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T08:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001251
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Predicting lying, sitting and walking at different intensities using
           smartphone accelerometers at three different wear locations: hands, pant
           pockets, backpack

    • Authors: Khataeipour, S. J; Anaraki, J. R, Bozorgi, A, Rayner, M, A Basset, F, Fuller, D.
      Abstract: ObjectiveThis study uses machine learning (ML) to develop methods for estimating activity type/intensity using smartphones, to evaluate the accuracy of these models for classifying activity, and to evaluate differences in accuracy between three different wear locations.MethodForty-eight participants were recruited to complete a series of activities while carrying Samsung phones in three different locations: backpack, right hand and right pocket. They were asked to sit, lie down, walk and run three Metabolic Equivalent Task (METs), five METs and at seven METs. Raw accelerometer data were collected. We used the R, activity counts package, to calculate activity counts and generated new features based on the raw accelerometer data. We evaluated and compared several ML algorithms; Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree, Linear Discriminant Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbours using the caret package (V.6.0–86). Using the combination of the raw accelerometer data and the computed features leads to high model accuracy.ResultsUsing raw accelerometer data, RF models achieved an accuracy of 92.90% for the right pocket location, 89% for the right hand location and 90.8% for the backpack location. Using activity counts, RF models achieved an accuracy of 51.4% for the right pocket location, 48.5% for the right hand location and 52.1% for the backpack location.ConclusionOur results suggest that using smartphones to measure physical activity is accurate for estimating activity type/intensity and ML methods, such as RF with feature engineering techniques can accurately classify physical activity intensity levels in laboratory settings.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T08:12:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001242
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cross-sectional survey on researchers experience in using accelerometers
           in health-related studies

    • Authors: Albrecht, B. M; Flasskamp, F. T, Koster, A, Eskofier, B. M, Bammann, K.
      Abstract: ObjectivesAccelerometers are widely applied in health studies, but lack of standardisation regarding device placement, sampling and data processing hampers comparability between studies. The objectives of this study were to assess how accelerometers are applied in health-related research and problems with accelerometer hardware and software encountered by researchers.MethodsResearchers applying accelerometry in a health context were invited to a cross-sectional web-based survey (August 2020–September 2020). The questionnaire included quantitative questions regarding the application of accelerometers and qualitative questions on encountered hardware and software problems. Descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative data and content analysis was applied to qualitative data.ResultsIn total, 116 health researchers were included in the study (response: 13.7%). The most used brand was ActiGraph (67.2%). Independently of brand, the main reason for choosing a device was that it was the standard in the field (57.1%–83.3%). In children and adolescent populations, sampling frequency was higher (mean: 73.3 Hz ±29.9 Hz vs 47.6 Hz ±29.4 Hz) and epoch length (15.0s±15.6s vs 30.1s±25.9s) and non-wear time (42.9 min ±23.7 min vs 65.3 min ±35.4 min) were shorter compared with adult populations. Content analysis revealed eight categories of hardware problems (battery problems, compliance issues, data loss, mechanical problems, electronic problems, sensor problems, lacking waterproofness, other problems) and five categories of software problems (lack of user-friendliness, limited possibilities, bugs, high computational burden, black box character).ConclusionsThe study confirms heterogeneity regarding accelerometer use in health-related research. Moreover, several hardware and software problems were documented. Both aspects must be tackled to increase validity, practicability and comparability of research.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T08:12:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001286
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of physical activity on COVID-19-related symptoms and perception of
           physical performance, fatigue and exhaustion during stay-at-home orders

    • Authors: Gehlhar, A; Schmidt, N, Eisenburger, N, Feddern, S, Kossow, A, Niessen, J, Wessely, S, Wiesmüller, G. A, Grüne, B, Joisten, C, On behalf of the CoCo-Fakt Group
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe measures used to contain the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction in physical activity. Due to the health benefits of exercise, recommendations were made for lockdown restrictions. Within the CoCo-Fakt study (Cologne-Corona counselling and support for index and contacts during the quarantine period), we aimed to determine how these recommendations were implemented, especially by individuals who were officially quarantined due to an infected persons (IPs) or as close contacts (CPs), and how this affected their physical and psychological condition.MethodsFrom 12 December 2020 to 6 January 2021, all IPs and CPs registered by Cologne’s public health department up to the survey period were surveyed online. Of 10 547 people in the CoCo-Fakt sample, 8102 were integrated into the current analysis. In addition to demographic data, information regarding COVID-19-specific and persistent symptoms or conditions and their association with the amount and type of exercise and screen time before and during the quarantine were collected.ResultsBefore quarantine, 66.9% of IPs and 69% of CPs were physically active; during quarantine, this decreased by 49.4% in IPs depending on the course of the disease and by 30.6% in CPs. Physically active IPs and CPs felt less exhausted and more fit during their quarantine periods than those who were inactive, with active IPs significantly less likely to report prolonged physical and psychological symptoms than their more sedentary counterparts.ConclusionGiven the acute and long-term positive effects of exercise on quarantined individuals, corresponding recommendations should be communicated to those affected, especially CPs. Recommendations for IPs depend on their health status.
      Keywords: Open access, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T08:05:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001319
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Returning persons with SARS-CoV-2 to the field of play in professional
           golf: a risk assessment and risk reduction approach

    • Authors: Robinson, P. G; Murray, A, Close, G, Glover, D, Du Plessis, W. J.
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis pilot study aimed to see whether a risk assessment and risk reduction approach was a practical and feasible approach, as compared with standard isolation for fully vaccinated, asymptomatic persons positive for SARS-CoV-2.MethodsThis prospective cohort study included all players and caddies participating in two large professional golf events from 7 to 20 February 2022 in South Africa. Fully vaccinated persons testing positive who were asymptomatic were subject to risk assessment and risk reduction measures to protect the integrity of the event. Asymptomatic individuals who could socially distance in outdoor areas were allowed to participate. Close contacts were subject to daily rapid antigen tests and asked to prioritise outdoor space.ResultsThe protocols put in place for the events were practical, feasible, and well accepted by event participants and staff during the study period. There was a total of 378 player-week episodes and 378 caddie-week episodes during the study period. Three persons tested positive while registered at events during the study period (0.4% of person episodes). The positive tests were returned from two players and one caddie, all of which were asymptomatic at the time of testing. There was one high-risk contact who consistently returned negative antigen tests. There was no evidence of transmission.ConclusionsThe approach was practical and feasible. A risk assessment and risk reduction approach allowed fully vaccinated asymptomatic persons with SARS-CoV-2 to participate in golf, an outdoor sport where social distancing is possible, compared with standard isolation.
      Keywords: Open access, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T07:08:04-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001347
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • 'What does not kill us can make us stronger: can we use injury experience
           as an opportunity to help athletes and their teams engage in injury risk

    • Authors: Edouard, P; Bolling, C, Chapon, J, Verhagen, E.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:39:56-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001359
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Health conditions among retired professional footballers: a scoping review

    • Authors: Carmody, S; Anemaat, K, Massey, A, Kerkhoffs, G, Gouttebarge, V.
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo conduct a scoping review providing an overview of the health conditions occuring in retired male and female professional footballers, with an emphasis on musculoskeletal, mental, neurocognitive, cardiovascular and reproductive health conditions.MethodsIn January 2022, a comprehensive systematic literature search in three databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, SPORTDiscus via EBSCOhost and EMBASE) was conducted for common health conditions among retired male and female professional footballers. Primary research studies (full text available online) which described the incidence or prevalence of a health condition (musculoskeletal, mental, neurocognitive, cardiovascular, reproductive) among retired male and female professional footballers were included for review. Case reports, qualitative research and grey literature were omitted.ResultsIn total, 917 eligible articles were identified from the databases, with 41 meeting the eligibility criteria. Osteoarthritis of the hip, knee and ankle were found to be common among retired professional footballers. Mental health symptoms (eg, anxiety, depression) are experienced by retired male and female professional footballers. The incidence of neurocognitive disease appears to be higher among retired male professional footballers than among matched controls. There is very limited evidence examining the presence of health conditions in retired female professional footballers.ConclusionOsteoarthritis of the lower limb, musculoskeletal pain and mental health symptoms are common among retired professional footballers. Knowledge about the occurrence and timing of musculoskeletal, mental health and neurocognitive conditions among retired professional footballers can be used by a wide range of stakeholders to proactively intervene during and after a player’s career to mitigate risk.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T07:44:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001196
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • The journey so far: professional sport during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Murray, A; Pluim, B, Robinson, P. G, Mountjoy, M. L, Falvey, E. C, Budgett, R, Massey, A, Cox, C.
      Keywords: Open access, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:33:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001362
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • 'That time of the month ... for the biggest event of your career!
           Perception of menstrual cycle on performance of Australian athletes
           training for the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games

    • Authors: McNamara, A; Harris, R, Minahan, C.
      Abstract: ObjectiveThis study explored the perceived effect of the menstrual cycle (MC) on the performance of Australian female athletes, preparing for the Tokyo Olympic and/or Paralympic Games.Methods195 female athletes, nominated by 24 National Sporting Organisations as preparing for the Tokyo Olympic and/or Paralympic Games, completed an online questionnaire (‘MCq perceptions’). The MCq perceptions investigated menstrual symptoms, hormonal contraceptive (HC) use and a preferred competition window within the MC.ResultsTwo-thirds (65.6%) athletes reported that their MC affected their performance; in training (65.6%) compared with competition (58.0%).Aesthetic-sport athletes were most likely to perceive their performance to be affected by their MC (RR=1.40) compared with endurance (RR=0.88) and strength-sport (RR=1.04) athletes. Athletes experiencing three or more symptoms were twice as likely to identify as affected. Athletes who reported pain (RR=1.89) or the use of analgesia (RR=1.45) were more likely to identify as affected by their MC.A preferred competition window was identified by athletes as ‘just after your period’ (41.5%). For athletes not using HC, this window was identified by 53.7%.ConclusionIn Australia, elite-female athletes perceive their MC to affect their performance, and many have a preferred performance window. Performance-focused strategies should be created for ‘affected’ athletes, aiming to provide these athletes with education, and where appropriate, control over predictability, timing and symptoms of their MC.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T09:05:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001300
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Facilitating national football teams return to training and competition
           during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Guard, A; Brenneman, A, Bradley, M, Chiampas, G. T.
      Abstract: ObjectivesProvide a robust framework to provide a safe environment for return to training and competition of the US national soccer teams following domestic and international travel.MethodsUS Soccer COVID-19 working group created a return to play manual for its national teams, prescribing discrete phases to return to training and competition. This was underpinned by strict health and safety and travel protocols for specific venues and persons. This was complemented by an aggressive testing cadence and isolation policies for delegations (players, internal and external support staff). Between September 2020 and April 2021, there were nine events for males and females at the youth, senior and Paralympic level, with international opponents hosted domestically.ResultsIn total, 6590 point of care (POC) (n=1810) and PCR (n=4780) tests combined were run. Overall positivity rate for players and staff in male events of 0.10% (n=2) and 0.00% (n=0) for females were recorded. Staff positivity rate was 0.14% overall, and external vendors 0.10%. Total POC and PCR positives in male events (n=2) occurred either the day of arrival or the following day.ConclusionThe implementation of strictly adhered to protocols and testing cadences yielded low positivity rates within team delegations. By comparison, initial league-wide COVID-19 testing in mid-2020 in other sports reported league-wide positivity rates of 2.9% (National Football League), 2.7% (Major League Soccer) and 5.3% (National Basketball Association). The English Premier League reported an increase in positivity rate in early 2021 from 1.22% to 1.74%.With the implementation of regimented protocols and stringent testing, it is possible to hold elite-level international sporting competitions involving long-haul travel while ensuring continued safety during a global pandemic.
      Keywords: Open access, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:39:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001295
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Creating a Sport and Exercise Medicine Masters syllabus for doctors: a
           Delphi study

    • Authors: Vishnubala, D; Iqbal, A, Marino, K. R, Salman, D, Pringle, A, Nykjaer, C, Bazira, P, Finn, G.
      Abstract: ObjectiveSport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) Masters curricula vary. This Delphi study is aimed to create a consensus curriculum for doctors undertaking SEM Masters courses.MethodsA modified Delphi survey was used. An expert panel was established of individuals deemed to have adequate knowledge of the field. The research group developed the initial draft of the curriculum by collating and reviewing previously published UK-based postgraduate SEM-related curricula. There were two phases. In phase 1 the expert group either accepted, rejected or modified each learning objective (LO). During phase 2 the expert group were asked to accept or reject each LO that did not get accepted outright previously. The research group analysed the levels of agreements and the comments given by the expert panel after each phase.ResultsThe expert panel consisted of 45 individuals, with 35 completing phase 2 (78% retention rate). Of the 136 LOs initially collated: 71 (52%) were accepted outright, 60 (44%) were altered in some way and reincluded in phase 2, and 5 (4%) were removed after phase 1. The research group added 2 (1%) new LOs on reflection over comments made by the expert panel. The final curriculum contained 133 LOs, divided into 11 subthemes.ConclusionsThe findings will better inform educators when developing SEM Masters curricula and inform students what they should look for when considering an SEM Masters. This consensus curriculum is an important step in standardising postgraduate SEM education.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T07:23:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001252
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cocreating injury prevention training for youth team handball: bridging
           theory and practice

    • Authors: Ageberg, E; Brodin, E. M, Linnell, J, Moesch, K, Donaldson, A, Adebo, E, Benjaminse, A, Ekengren, J, Graner, S, Johnson, U, Lucander, K, Myklebust, G, Moller, M, Tranaeus, U, Bunke, S.
      Abstract: Although it is advocated that end-users are engaged in developing evidence-based injury prevention training to enhance the implementation, this rarely happens. The ‘Implementing injury Prevention training ROutines in TEams and Clubs in youth Team handball (I-PROTECT)’ uses an ecological participatory design incorporating the perspectives of multiple stakeholders throughout the project. Within the I-PROTECT project, the current study aimed to describe the development of holistic injury prevention training specifically for youth handball players through using knowledge from both end-users (coaches and players) and researchers/handball experts. Employing action evaluation within participatory action research, the cyclical development process included three phases: research team preparation, handball expert-based preparation and end-user evaluation to develop injury prevention training incorporating both physical and psychological perspectives. To grow the knowledge of the interdisciplinary research team, rethinking was conducted within and between phases based on participants’ contributions. Researchers and end-users cocreated examples of handball-specific exercises, including injury prevention physical principles (movement technique for upper and lower extremities, respectively, and muscle strength) combined with psychological aspects (increase end-user motivation, task focus and body awareness) to integrate into warm-up and skills training within handball practice. A cyclical development process that engaged researchers/handball experts and end-users to cocreate evidence-based, theory-informed and context-specific injury prevention training specifically for youth handball players generated a first pilot version of exercises including physical principles combined with psychological aspects to be integrated within handball practice.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T07:33:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2021-001263
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
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