Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8196 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (105 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (334 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (266 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (43 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (160 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (177 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (331 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (199 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (355 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (76 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (96 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (254 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (800 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (109 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (76 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)
    - SURGERY (388 journals)

SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Science & Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sports Medicine - Open
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2199-1170 - ISSN (Online) 2198-9761
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Practical Blood Flow Restriction Training: New Methodological Directions
           for Practice and Research

    • Abstract: Abstract Most studies with blood flow restriction (BFR) training have been conducted using devices capable of regulating the restriction pressure, such as pneumatic cuffs. However, this may not be a viable option for the general population who exercise in gyms, squares and sports centers. Thinking about this logic, practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) training was created in 2009, suggesting the use of elastic knee wraps as an alternative to the traditional BFR, as it is low cost, affordable and practical. However, unlike traditional BFR training which seems to present a consensus regarding the prescription of BFR pressure based on arterial occlusion pressure (AOP), studies on pBFR training have used different techniques to apply the pressure/tension exerted by the elastic wrap. Therefore, this Current Opinion article aims to critically and chronologically examine the techniques used to prescribe the pressure exerted by the elastic wrap during pBFR training. In summary, several techniques were found to apply the elastic wrap during pBFR training, using the following as criteria: application by a single researcher; stretching of the elastic (absolute and relative overlap of the elastic); the perceived tightness scale; and relative overlap of the elastic based on the circumference of the limbs. Several studies have shown that limb circumference seems to be the greatest predictor of AOP. Therefore, we reinforce that applying the pressure exerted by the elastic for pBFR training based on the circumference of the limbs is an excellent, valid and safe technique.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
  • Serum Bilirubin Concentrations and the Prevalence of Gilbert Syndrome in
           Elite Athletes

    • Abstract: Objectives Bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and immunomodulating substance, which is also implicated in both cell signalling and various metabolic pathways. Mild elevation of systemic bilirubin concentrations provides substantial protection against many diseases of civilization. Rare published reports have suggested that serum bilirubin might also be relevant to sports performance. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate serum bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of Gilbert syndrome (GS) in elite athletes. Methods The study was carried out in 536 consecutive healthy elite athletes and in 2594 individuals of the Czech post-MONICA study representing the general Czech population. Serum bilirubin concentrations, the prevalence of benign hyperbilirubinemia > 17 µmol/L (1 mg/dL, a phenotypic sign of GS), and a variant of the UGT1A1 gene promoter responsible for GS manifestation in Caucasians (rs81753472) were evaluated in study subjects. Results Compared to the general Czech population, significantly higher serum bilirubin concentrations were found in elite athletes (9.6 vs. 11.6 µmol/L, p < 0.001), both in men (11.3 vs. 12.6 µmol/L, p < 0.001) and women (8.3 vs. 10.5 µmol/L, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the prevalence of GS was also significantly higher in elite athletes (9.6 vs. 22%, p < 0.001) together with the tendency to higher frequencies of the genotypes (TA)7/7 and (TA)6/7 UGT1A1. Conclusion Elite athletes have significantly higher concentrations of serum bilirubin, the most potent endogenous antioxidant substance known. Simultaneously, the prevalence of GS syndrome is also much higher in elite athletes, suggesting that a mild elevation of serum bilirubin might predispose to better sports performance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
  • A Proposed Framework to Describe Movement Variability within Sporting
           Tasks: A Scoping Review

    • Abstract: Abstract Movement variability is defined as the normal variations in motor performance across multiple repetitions of a task. However, the term “movement variability” can mean different things depending on context, and when used by itself does not capture the specifics of what has been investigated. Within sport, complex movements are performed repeatedly under a variety of different constraints (e.g. different situations, presence of defenders, time pressure). Movement variability has implications for sport performance and injury risk management. Given the importance of movement variability, it is important to understand the terms used to measure and describe it. This broad term of “movement variability” does not specify the different types of movement variability that are currently being assessed in the sporting literature. We conducted a scoping review (1) to assess the current terms and definitions used to describe movement variability within sporting tasks and (2) to utilise the results of the review for a proposed framework that distinguishes and defines the different types of movement variability within sporting tasks. To be considered eligible, sources must have assessed a sporting movement or skill and had at least one quantifiable measure of movement variability. A total of 43 peer-reviewed journal article sources were included in the scoping review. A total of 280 terms relating to movement variability terminology were extracted using a data-charting form jointly developed by two reviewers. One source out of 43 (2%) supplied definitions for all types of movement variability discussed. Moreover, 169 of 280 terms (60%) were undefined in the source material. Our proposed theoretical framework explains three types of movement variability: strategic, execution, and outcome. Strategic variability describes the different approaches or methods of movement used to complete a task. Execution variability describes the intentional and unintentional adjustments of the body between repetitions within the same strategy. Outcome variability describes the differences in the result or product of a movement. These types emerged from broader frameworks in motor control and were adapted to fit the movement variability needs in sports literature. By providing specific terms with explicit definitions, our proposed framework can ensure like-to-like comparisons of previous terms used in the literature. The practical goal of this framework is to aid athletes, coaches, and support staff to gain a better understanding of how the different types of movement variability within sporting tasks contribute to performance. The framework may allow training methods to be tailored to optimise the specific aspects of movement variability that contribute to success. This review was retrospectively registered using the Open Science Framework (OSF) Registries (
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
  • Validity and Reliability of Inertial Measurement Units on Lower Extremity
           Kinematics During Running: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are useful in monitoring running and alerting running-related injuries in various sports settings. However, the quantitative summaries of the validity and reliability of the measurements from IMUs during running are still lacking. The purpose of this review was to investigate the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of IMUs for measuring gait spatiotemporal outcomes and lower extremity kinematics of health adults during running. Methods PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases were searched from inception until September 2021. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) evaluated the validity or reliability of measurements from IMUs, (2) measured specific kinematic outcomes, (3) compared measurements using IMUs with those obtained using reference systems, (4) collected data during running, (5) assessed human beings and (6) were published in English. Eligible articles were reviewed using a modified quality assessment. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the pooled correlation coefficients of validity and reliability. Results Twenty-five articles were included in the systematic review, and data from 12 were pooled for meta-analysis. The methodological quality of studies ranged from low to moderate. Concurrent validity is excellent for stride length (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.937 (0.859, 0.972), p < 0.001), step frequency (ICC (95% CI) = 0.926 (0.896, 0.948), r (95% CI) = 0.989 (0.957, 0.997), p  < 0.001) and ankle angle in the sagittal plane (r (95% CI) = 0.939 (0.544, 0.993), p = 0.002), moderate to excellent for stance time (ICC (95% CI) = 0.664 (0.354, 0.845), r (95% CI) = 0.811 (0.701, 0.881), p < 0.001) and good for running speed (ICC (95% CI) = 0.848 (0.523, 0.958), p = 0.0003). The summary Fisher's Z value of flight time was not statistically significant (p = 0.13). Similarly, the stance time showed excellent test–retest reliability (ICC (95% CI) = 0.954 (0.903, 0.978), p < 0.001) and step frequency showed good test–retest reliability (ICC (95% CI) = 0.896 (0.837, 0.933), p < 0.001). Conclusions Findings in the current review support IMUs measurement of running gait spatiotemporal parameters, but IMUs measurement of running kinematics on lower extremity joints needs to be reported with caution in healthy adults. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42021279395.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
  • Resuming Training in High-Level Athletes After Mild COVID-19 Infection: A
           Multicenter Prospective Study (ASCCOVID-19)

    • Abstract: Background There is a paucity of data on cardiovascular sequelae of asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic SARS-Cov-2 infections (COVID). Objectives The aim of this prospective study was to characterize the cardiovascular sequelae of asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic COVID-19 among high/elite-level athletes. Methods 950 athletes (779 professional French National Rugby League (F-NRL) players; 171 student athletes) were included. SARS-Cov-2 testing was performed at inclusion, and F-NRL athletes were intensely followed-up for incident COVID-19. Athletes underwent ECG and biomarker profiling (D-Dimer, troponin, C-reactive protein). COVID(+) athletes underwent additional exercise testing, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Results 285/950 athletes (30.0%) had mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 [79 (8.3%) at inclusion (COVID(+)prevalent); 206 (28.3%) during follow-up (COVID(+)incident)]. 2.6% COVID(+) athletes had abnormal ECGs, while 0.4% had an abnormal echocardiogram. During stress testing (following 7-day rest), COVID(+) athletes had a functional capacity of 12.8 ± 2.7 METS with only stress-induced premature ventricular ectopy in 10 (4.3%). Prevalence of CMR scar was comparable between COVID(+) athletes and controls [COVID(+) vs. COVID(−); 1/102 (1.0%) vs 1/28 (3.6%)]. During 289 ± 56 days follow-up, one athlete had ventricular tachycardia, with no obvious link with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The proportion with troponin I and CRP values above the upper-limit threshold was comparable between pre- and post-infection (5.9% vs 5.9%, and 5.6% vs 8.7%, respectively). The proportion with D-Dimer values above the upper-limit threshold increased when comparing pre- and post-infection (7.9% vs 17.3%, P = 0.01). Conclusion The absence of cardiac sequelae in pauci/asymptomatic COVID(+) athletes is reassuring and argues against the need for systematic cardiac assessment prior to resumption of training (; NCT04936503).
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
  • The Effect of Sodium Alginate and Pectin Added to a Carbohydrate Beverage
           on Endurance Performance, Substrate Oxidation and Blood Glucose
           Concentration: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction Scientific and public interest in the potential ergogenic effects of sodium alginate added to a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage has increased in the last ~ 5 years. Despite an extensive use of this technology by elite athletes and recent research into the potential effects, there has been no meta-analysis to objectively elucidate the effects of adding sodium alginate to a CHO beverage on parameters relevant to exercise performance and to highlight gaps in the literature. Methods Three literature databases were systematically searched for studies investigating the effects of sodium alginate added to CHO beverage during prolonged, endurance exercise in healthy athletes. For the systematic review, the PROSPERO guidelines were followed, and risk assessment was made using the Cochrane collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias. Additionally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was used to determine the standardised mean difference between a CHO beverage containing sodium alginate and an isocaloric control for performance, whole-body CHO oxidation and blood glucose concentration. Results Ten studies were reviewed systematically, of which seven were included within the meta-analysis. For each variable, there was homogeneity between studies for performance (n = 5 studies; I2 = 0%), CHO oxidation (n = 7 studies; I2 = 0%) and blood glucose concentration (n = 7 studies; I2 = 0%). When compared with an isocaloric control, the meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no difference in performance (Z = 0.54, p = 0.59), CHO oxidation (Z = 0.34, p = 0.71) and blood glucose concentration (Z = 0.44, p = 0.66) when ingesting a CHO beverage containing sodium alginate. The systematic review revealed that several of the included studies did not use sufficient exercise intensity to elicit significant gastrointestinal disturbances or demonstrate any ergogenic benefit of CHO ingestion. Risk of bias was generally low across the included studies. Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that the current literature indicates no benefit of adding sodium alginate to a CHO beverage during exercise. Further research is required, however, before firm conclusions are drawn considering the range of exercise intensities, feeding rates and the apparent lack of benefit of CHO reported in the current literature investigating sodium alginate.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
  • Effects of Resistance and Endurance Training Alone or Combined on Hormonal
           Adaptations and Cytokines in Healthy Children and Adolescents: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Background No previous systematic review has quantitatively compared the effects of resistance training, endurance training, or concurrent training on hormonal adaptations in children and adolescents. Objective was to examine the effects of exercise training and training type on hormonal adaptations in children and adolescents. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO. Eligibility criteria were: population: healthy youth population sample (mean age < 18 years); intervention: resistance training, endurance training, or concurrent training (> 4 weeks duration); comparison: control group; outcome: pre- and post-levels of hormones and cytokines; and study design: randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. We used a random-effect model for the meta-analysis. The raw mean difference in hormones from baseline to post-intervention was presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (CI). Further, the certainty of evidence quality and the risk of bias were assessed. Results A total of 3689 records were identified, of which 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. Most studies examined adolescents with fewer studies on children (age < 12 years, N = 5 studies) and females (N = 2 studies). Nine exercise training programs used endurance training, five studies used resistance training, and no eligible study used concurrent training. The meta-analysis showed no significant effect of exercise training on testosterone (MD = 0.84 nmol/L), cortisol (MD = − 17.4 nmol/L), or SHBG (MD = − 5.58 nmol/L). Subgroup analysis showed that resistance training significantly increased testosterone levels after training (MD = 3.42 nmol/L) which was not observed after endurance training (MD = − 0.01 nmol/L). No other outcome differed between training types. Exercise training resulted in small and non-significant changes in GH (MD = 0.48 ng/mL, p = 0.06) and IGF-I (MD = − 22.90 ng/mL, p = 0.07). GH response to endurance training may be age-dependent and evident in adolescents (MD = 0.59 ng/mL, p = 0.04) but not when children and adolescents are pooled (MD = 0.48 ng/mL, p = 0.06). Limited evidence exists to conclude on IL-6 and TNF-α effects of exercise training. Assessments of GRADE domains (risk of bias, consistency, directness, or precision of the findings) revealed serious weaknesses with most of the included outcomes (hormones and cytokines). Conclusions This systematic review suggests that exercise training has small effects on hormonal concentrations in children and adolescents. Changes in testosterone concentrations with training are evident after resistance training but not endurance training. GH's response to training may be affected by maturation and evident in adolescents but not children. Further high-quality, robust training studies on the effect of resistance training, endurance training, and concurrent training are warranted to compare their training-specific effects. Registration: PROSPERO: CRD42021241130.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
  • Serum Amino Acid Profile Changes After Repetitive Breath-Hold Dives: A
           Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Background The aim of this work was to investigate the serum amino acid (AA) changes after a breath-hold diving (BH-diving) training session under several aspects including energy need, fatigue tolerance, nitric oxide (NO) production, antioxidant synthesis and hypoxia adaptation. Twelve trained BH-divers were investigated during an open sea training session and sampled for blood 30 min before the training session, 30 min and 4 h after the training session. Serum samples were assayed for AA changes related to energy request (alanine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, proline threonine, valine), fatigue tolerance (ornithine, phenylalanine, tyrosine), nitric oxide production (citrulline), antioxidant synthesis (cystine, glutamate, glycine) and hypoxia adaptation (serine, taurine). Main results Concerning the AA used as an energy support during physical effort, we found statistically significant decreases for all the investigated AA at T1 and a gradual return to the basal value at T2 even if alanine, proline and theonine still showed a slight significant reduction at this time. Also, the changes related to the AA involved in tolerance to physical effort showed a statistically significant decrease only at T1 respect to pre-diving value and a returned to normal value at T2. Citrulline, involved in NO production, showed a clear significant reduction both at T1 and T2. Concerning AA involved in endogenous antioxidant synthesis, the behaviour of the three AA investigated is different: we found a statistically significant increase in cystine both at T1 and T2, while glycine showed a statistically significant reduction (T1 and T2). Glutamate did not show any statistical difference. Finally, we found a statistically significant decrease in the AA investigated in other hypoxia conditions serine and taurine (T1 and T2). Conclusions Our data seem to indicate that the energetic metabolic request is in large part supported by AA used as substrate for fuel metabolism and that also fatigue tolerance, NO production and antioxidant synthesis are supported by AA. Finally, there are interesting data related to the hypoxia stimulus that indirectly may confirm that the muscle apparatus works under strong exposure conditions notwithstanding the very short/low intensity of exercise, due to the intermittent hypoxia caused by repetitive diving.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
  • Sleep Regularity and Predictors of Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Duration in
           Elite Team Sport Athletes

    • Abstract: Background Many elite athletes have suboptimal sleep duration and efficiency, potentially due to factors that may impact sleep onset and offset times. Variability in sleep onset and offset may negatively influence sleep. The sleep regularity index (SRI) is a novel metric for sleep regularity, however there are no published descriptions of SRI in elite athletes. Further, contributors to sleep efficiency and duration in elite athletes using objective measures have not been explored. Methods Sleep was monitored over a minimum of seven consecutive days (7 to 43)—in 203 elite team sport athletes (age range = 19–36 years; female, n = 79; male, n = 124, total sleep nights = 1975) using activity monitoring and sleep diaries. The sleep regularity index (SRI) was calculated to reflect the night-to-night shifts in sleep by accounting for changes in sleep onset and sleep offset. Sleep characteristics were compared between regular and irregular sleepers and important contributors to sleep efficiency and total sleep time were assessed using multiple linear regression models. Results The median sleep regularity index and interquartile range were 85.1 (81.4 to 88.8). When compared to irregular sleepers, regular sleepers demonstrated (1) significantly greater sleep efficiency (p = 0.006; 0.31 medium effect size [ES]), (2) significantly less variability in total sleep time (− p ≤ 0.001; − 0.69, large ES) and sleep efficiency (− 0.34, small ES), (3) similar total sleep time and (4) significantly less variation in sleep onset (p ≤ 0.001; − 0.73, large ES) and offset (p ≤ 0.001; − 0.74, large ES) times. Sleep characteristics explained 73% and 22% of the variance in total sleep time and sleep efficiency, respectively. The most important contributor to total sleep time was a later sleep offset time, while the most important contributors to sleep efficiency were an earlier bedtime and less variable sleep onset times. Conclusions Bedtime and a consistent sleep onset time are important factors associated with sleep efficiency in athletes, while sleep offset is an important factor for total sleep time. Coaches and staff can assist their athletes by providing training schedules that allow for both regularity and sufficiency of time in bed where possible.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
  • Urinary Incontinence Among Elite Track and Field Athletes According to
           Their Event Specialization: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background Physical effort in sports practice is an important trigger for urinary incontinence (UI). Among high-impact sports, all track and field events require continuous ground impacts and/or abdominal contractions that increase intra-abdominal pressure and impact on the pelvic floor musculature. However, studies to date have not taken into account the specific sports tasks that elite track and field athletes perform according to the competitive events for which they are training. Methods This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence, type, and severity of UI among elite track and field athletes considering their event specialization and training characteristics. A total of 211 female and 128 male elite track and field athletes answered an online questionnaire including anthropometric measures, medical history, training characteristics, and UI symptoms. To determine self-reported UI, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-UI Short-Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) was used. To determine UI type and severity, the incontinence questionnaire and incontinence severity index were used, respectively. Results The ICIQ-UI-SF showed that 51.7% of female and 18.8% of male athletes had UI, with stress UI (SUI) being the most frequent type (64.4%) for female and urge UI for male athletes (52.9%). Of athletes who were not identified as having UI according to the questionnaires, 24.6% of female and 13.6% of male athletes experienced urine leakage during training, mainly during jumping. Although training characteristics (experience, volume, and resting) were not related to UI, female athletes specializing in vertical jumps showed significantly lower UI prevalence compared to those specializing in horizontal jumps (χ2 [1] = 4.409, p = 0.040), middle-distance running (χ2 [1] = 4.523, p = 0.033), and sprint/hurdles events (χ2 [1] = 4.113, p = 0.043). These female athletes also displayed the lowest training volume. No differences were shown for males (p > 0.05). Conclusions Over half of the elite track and field female athletes have self-reported UI, especially SUI, and prevalence is higher when considering urine leakage events during training. Training characteristics and specialization were not related to UI identified by questionnaires, but female athletes specializing in vertical jump events showed the lowest prevalence and training volume. Males showed significantly lower prevalence, without correlation with their specialization. Sport professionals should increase UI detection among elite athletes and design-specific approaches that consider their physical demands to make visible, prevent, or improve pelvic floor dysfunction in this population.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
  • Determinants of Food Choice in Athletes: A Systematic Scoping Review

    • Abstract: Background The individual determinants of food choice have been extensively investigated in the general population, but there have been limited studies in athletes. A better understanding of the food making decisions can help to target interventions that lead to optimal intake for athletes’ health and performance. A scoping review will provide an understanding of the sports and settings that have been investigated, the methods and approaches to assessing food choice, as well as the factors influencing food choice. Objective The objective of this review was to map the available evidence on the multi-faceted determinants of food choice in athletes and describe key influences impacting their choices. Eligibility criteria. Athletes 16 years and over from any country who engage in physical activity with the intent to be competitive. Studies were included if they reported the multi-faceted determinants of food choice as either a primary or secondary outcome. All study designs were considered. Sources of Evidence. This review followed the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews. Eleven databases including PubMed, Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), SPORTDiscus (EBSCO), PsycNET (APA), Health Collection (Informit), CINAHL (EBSCO), the Cochrane Library, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, Trove (National Library of Australia), JBI (Ovid), and Google scholar were searched between September–November 2020 and updated in March 2021. Charting of Data Search results were screened with selected studies extracted into a summary table established a priori by the authors. Study quality was assessed using standardised reporting tools for qualitative and quantitative research designs. The scope and quality of evidence was summarised and reported. Results A total of 15 studies were included. Qualitative research included one research thesis and six primary research studies using both focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative research included one research thesis and seven primary research studies with cross-sectional design using different validated and non-validated survey instruments. No longitudinal or intervention studies were found. The majority of studies have been published since 2018 and conducted across multiple countries with either mixed cohorts of athletes or focused on predominately endurance or team sports. The quality of reporting was variable, particularly for qualitative research. Outcomes suggested that performance and health were relevant to athlete food choice, with varying impact of competition season, the level of experience, the culture of the sport, the cultural background or nationality of the athlete, athlete sex and the food environment. Conclusion More research is needed on the multi-faceted determinants of food choice in different cohorts of athletes, particularly females. Future research could explore the relationship between food choice, nutrition knowledge and diet quality or the change in food choice across the phase of the seasons and through injury and illness. Use of validated measurement tools and robust reporting will enable critical interpretation of the study methods and outcomes for use in practice. Registration OSF Registries: Open-ended registration 25th Sept 2020
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Exercise Training in Heart failure with Preserved and Reduced Ejection
           Fraction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background While exercise training (ET) is an established tool in heart failure (HF), no research to date has analysed the efficacy of ET in both preserved (HFpEF) and reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction phenotypes across the same clinically important parameters. Methods A comprehensive systematic search was performed to identify trials published between 1990 and May 2021. Controlled trials of adults reporting pre- and post-ET peak VO2, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were considered. Parameters of cardiac diastolic function, brain natriuretic peptides (BNP)/N-terminal prohormone of BNP (NTproBNP) and follow-up hospitalisation and mortality data were also analysed. Results Ninety-three studies (11 HFpEF and 82 HFrEF) were included in the final analysis, with a pooled sample size of 11,081 participants. HFpEF analysis demonstrated significant improvements in peak VO2 (weighted mean difference: 2.333 ml·min-1·kg-1, Pfixed < 0.001), 6MWD (WMD: 35.396 m, Pfixed < 0.001), MLHFQ (WMD: − 10.932, Prandom < 0.001), KCCQ (WMD: 3.709, Pfixed = 0.037) and E/e′ (WMD: − 1.709, [95% CI] = − 2.91–0.51, Prandom = 0.005). HFrEF analysis demonstrated significant improvements in peak VO2 (WMD: 3.050 ml·min-1·kg-1, Prandom < 0.001), 6MWD (WMD: 37.299 m, Prandom < 0.001), MLHFQ (WMD: − 10.932, Prandom < 0.001), LVEF (WMD: 2.677%, Prandom = 0.002) and BNP/NTproBNP (SMD: − 1.349, Prandom < 0.001). Outcome analysis was only performed in HFrEF, which found no significant changes in hospitalisation, all-cause mortality or composite end-points. Conclusion ET significantly improves exercise capacity and quality of life in both HFpEF and HFrEF patients. In HFpEF patients, ET significantly improved an important index of diastolic function, with significant improvements in LVEF and NTproBNP/BNP seen in HFrEF patients only. Such benefits did not translate into significantly reduced hospitalisation or mortality after short-term follow-up. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
  • Stroke Kinematics, Temporal Patterns, Neuromuscular Activity, Pacing and
           Kinetics in Elite Breaststroke Swimming: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background Breaststroke is a technically complex stroke characterised by discontinuous propulsive phases, large intracyclic velocity variation and low mean velocity. The performance of this stroke at an elite level is influenced by a number of biomechanical, physiological and psychological factors. The present systematic review aimed to synthesise the biomechanical factors influencing elite breaststroke swimming performance. This review aims to provide elite coaches and performance scientists with a breadth of knowledge from which training and racing interventions can be developed. Methods Electronic searches of Medline, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases were conducted in May 2020 and March 2022. Search results that were peer-reviewed, published in English and published during or after the year 2000 were considered for review. The methodological rigour of studies was assessed using a risk of bias scale previously used for the evaluation of sports science research. Results Thirty-eight articles were included in the present review. Articles investigated elite breaststroke performance in relation to one of the following areas: stroke kinematics, temporal patterns, neuromuscular activity, pacing and kinetics. Discussion Kinematic, temporal and neuromuscular activity comparisons between groups of various race distance, performance or experience level, and athlete sex were common in the literature. These analyses demonstrated differences in stroke rate, stroke length, propulsive time, recovery time, glide time, sum of total integrated EMG and triceps brachii activation patterns between groups. The evaluation of various pacing strategies, and the relationship between kinetics and breaststroke performance was comparatively rare within the literature. Further research into the relationship between kinetics and breaststroke performance, and the manipulation of pacing strategy would increase the breadth of knowledge from which coaches and performance scientists can develop evidence-based training and racing interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
  • Machine Learning for Understanding and Predicting Injuries in Football

    • Abstract: Abstract Attempts to better understand the relationship between training and competition load and injury in football are essential for helping to understand adaptation to training programmes, assessing fatigue and recovery, and minimising the risk of injury and illness. To this end, technological advancements have enabled the collection of multiple points of data for use in analysis and injury prediction. The full breadth of available data has, however, only recently begun to be explored using suitable statistical methods. Advances in automatic and interactive data analysis with the help of machine learning are now being used to better establish the intricacies of the player load and injury relationship. In this article, we examine this recent research, describing the analyses and algorithms used, reporting the key findings, and comparing model fit. To date, the vast array of variables used in analysis as proxy indicators of player load, alongside differences in approach to key aspects of data treatment—such as response to data imbalance, model fitting, and a lack of multi-season data—limit a systematic evaluation of findings and the drawing of a unified conclusion. If, however, the limitations of current studies can be addressed, machine learning has much to offer the field and could in future provide solutions to the training load and injury paradox through enhanced and systematic analysis of athlete data.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
  • Women Have Tendons… and Tendinopathy: Gender Bias is a “Gender Void”
           in Sports Medicine with a Lack of Women Data on Patellar Tendinopathy—A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Introduction Patellar tendinopathy is one of the most common musculoskeletal problems associated with sport. While commonly perceived as a predominantly male problem, recent epidemiological studies revealed that it also affects a large number of sport-active women. The aim of this systematic review was to understand how the available treatments apply to women affected by patellar tendinopathy. Methods We analysed the available literature with a systematic review on three databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science) on February 2021, retrieving a total of 136 studies published from 1983. Results The overall scientific field offers an astonishingly low number of data on treatment results referring to only 78 women (2%) in the entire literature. Only 5% of the retrieved articles considered focusing only or mostly on men to be a limitation. Conclusions Women represent only a minority of patients studied for this topic. The few documented cases are further fragmented by being related to different treatments, thus basically offering no solid evidence for results and limitations of any therapeutic approach in women. This literature analysis showed a greater gender gap than what is recognized in science and general medicine; it showed a gender blindness in sports medicine when investigating a common problem like patellar tendinopathy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
  • Fatigue and Recovery Time Course After Female Soccer Matches: A Systematic
           Review And Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Background This study aimed to analyze the extent of fatigue responses after female soccer matches and the ensuing recovery time course of performance, physiological, and perceptual responses. Methods Three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched in October 2020 and updated in November 2021. Studies were included when participants were female soccer players, regardless of their ability level. Further, the intervention was an official soccer match with performance, physiological, or perceptual parameters collected pre- and post-match (immediately, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h-post). Results A total of 26 studies (n = 465 players) were included for meta-analysis. Most performance parameters showed some immediate post-match reduction (effect size [ES] = − 0.72 to − 1.80), apart from countermovement jump (CMJ; ES = − 0.04). Reduced CMJ performance occurred at 12 h (ES = − 0.38) and 24 h (ES = − 0.42) and sprint at 48 h post-match (ES = − 0.75). Inflammatory and immunological parameters responded acutely with moderate-to-large increases (ES = 0.58–2.75) immediately post-match. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase alterations persisted at 72 h post-match (ES = 3.79 and 7.46, respectively). Small-to-moderate effects were observed for increased cortisol (ES = 0.75) and reduced testosterone/cortisol ratio (ES = -0.47) immediately post-match, while negligible to small effects existed for testosterone (ES = 0.14) and estradiol (ES = 0.34). Large effects were observed for perceptual variables, with increased fatigue (ES = 1.79) and reduced vigor (ES = − 0.97) at 12 h post-match, while muscle soreness was increased immediately post (ES = 1.63) and at 24 h post-match (ES = 1.00). Conclusions Acute fatigue exists following female soccer matches, and the performance, physiological, and perceptual parameters showed distinctive recovery timelines. Importantly, physical performance was recovered at 72 h post-match, whereas muscle damage markers were still increased at this time point. These timelines should be considered when planning training and match schedules. However, some caution should be advised given the small number of studies available on this population. Registration The protocol for this systematic review was pre-registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, Registration Number: CRD42021237857).
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Effects of Different Long-Term Exercise Modalities on Tissue Stiffness

    • Abstract: Abstract Stiffness is a fundamental property of living tissues, which may be modified by pathologies or traumatic events but also by nutritional, pharmacological and exercise interventions. This review aimed to understand if specific forms of exercise are able to determine specific forms of tissue stiffness adaptations. A literature search was performed on PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify manuscripts addressing adaptations of tissue stiffness as a consequence of long-term exercise. Muscular, connective, peripheral nerve and arterial stiffness were considered for the purpose of this review. Resistance training, aerobic training, plyometric training and stretching were retrieved as exercise modalities responsible for tissue stiffness adaptations. Differences were observed related to each specific modality. When exercise was applied to pathological cohorts (i.e. tendinopathy or hypertension), stiffness changed towards a physiological condition. Exercise interventions are able to determine tissue stiffness adaptations. These should be considered for specific exercise prescriptions. Future studies should concentrate on identifying the effects of exercise on the stiffness of specific tissues in a broader spectrum of pathological populations, in which a tendency for increased stiffness is observed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Effects of Intermittent Hypoxia–Hyperoxia on Performance- and
           Health-Related Outcomes in Humans: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background Intermittent hypoxia applied at rest or in combination with exercise promotes multiple beneficial adaptations with regard to performance and health in humans. It was hypothesized that replacing normoxia by moderate hyperoxia can increase the adaptive response to the intermittent hypoxic stimulus. Objective Our objective was to systematically review the current state of the literature on the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia–hyperoxia (IHH) on performance- and health-related outcomes in humans. Methods PubMed, Web of Science™, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched in accordance with PRISMA guidelines (January 2000 to September 2021) using the following inclusion criteria: (1) original research articles involving humans, (2) investigation of the chronic effect of IHH, (3) inclusion of a control group being not exposed to IHH, and (4) articles published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Results Of 1085 articles initially found, eight studies were included. IHH was solely performed at rest in different populations including geriatric patients (n = 1), older patients with cardiovascular (n = 3) and metabolic disease (n = 2) or cognitive impairment (n = 1), and young athletes with overtraining syndrome (n = 1). The included studies confirmed the beneficial effects of chronic exposure to IHH, showing improvements in exercise tolerance, peak oxygen uptake, and global cognitive functions, as well as lowered blood glucose levels. A trend was discernible that chronic exposure to IHH can trigger a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The evidence of whether IHH exerts beneficial effects on blood lipid levels and haematological parameters is currently inconclusive. A meta-analysis was not possible because the reviewed studies had a considerable heterogeneity concerning the investigated populations and outcome parameters. Conclusion Based on the published literature, it can be suggested that chronic exposure to IHH might be a promising non-pharmacological intervention strategy for improving peak oxygen consumption, exercise tolerance, and cognitive performance as well as reducing blood glucose levels, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in older patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases or cognitive impairment. However, further randomized controlled trials with adequate sample sizes are needed to confirm and extend the evidence. This systematic review was registered on the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO-ID: CRD42021281248) (
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
  • Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Mid-portion and Insertional Achilles
           Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Background Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is used commonly to treat pain and function in Achilles tendinopathy (AT). The aim of this study was to synthesize the evidence from (non-) randomized controlled trials, to determine the clinical effectiveness of ESWT for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (mid-AT) and insertional Achilles tendinopathy (ins-AT) separately. Methods We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase (Ovid), and Cochrane Central, up to January 2021. Unpublished studies and gray literature were searched in trial registers (ACTRN, ChiCTR, ChiCtr, CTRI, DRKS, EUCTR, IRCT, ISRCTN, JPRN UMIN,, NTR, TCTR) and databases (,,, Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were eligible when investigating the clinical effectiveness of ESWT for chronic mid-AT or chronic ins-AT. We excluded studies that focused on treating individuals with systemic conditions, and studies investigating mixed cohorts of mid-AT and ins-AT, when it was not possible to perform a subgroup analysis for both clinical entities separately. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment, data extraction, and grading of the evidence levels. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion or by consulting a third reviewer when necessary. Results We included three RCTs on mid-AT and four RCTs on ins-AT. For mid-AT, moderate quality of evidence was found for the overall effectiveness of ESWT compared to standard care, with a pooled mean difference (MD) on the VISA-A of 9.08 points (95% CI 6.35–11.81). Subgroup analysis on the effects of ESWT additional to standard care for mid-AT resulted in a pooled MD on the VISA-A of 10.28 points (95% CI 7.43–13.12). For ins-AT, we found very low quality of evidence, indicating that, overall, ESWT has no additional value over standard care, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of − 0.02 (95% CI − 0.27 to 0.23). Subgroup analysis to determine the effect of ESWT additional to standard care for ins-AT showed a negative effect (SMD − 0.29; 95% CI − 0.56 to − 0.01) compared to standard care alone. Conclusions There is moderate evidence supporting the effectiveness of ESWT additional to a tendon loading program in mid-AT. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of ESWT for ins-AT is lacking. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Database; No. CRD42021236107.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
  • Match Analysis in Team Ball Sports: An Umbrella Review of Systematic
           Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    • Abstract: Background Match analysis has evolved exponentially over the past decades in team sports resulting in a significant number of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. An umbrella review of the available literature is needed to provide an integrated overview of current knowledge and contribute to more robust theoretical explanations of team performance. Methods The Web of Science (all databases), PubMed, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for relevant publications prior to 19 February 2021. Appraisal of the methodological quality of included articles was undertaken using the tool for Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR-2). Twenty-four studies were reviewed that met the following criteria: (1) contained relevant data from match analyses in team ball sports; (2) were defined as systematic reviews or/and meta-analyses; and (3) were written in the English language. Results The overall methodological quality of the 24 included reviews, obtained through the AMSTAR-2, revealed very low confidence ratings (Critically Low, n = 12) for the results of most systematic reviews of match analyses in team ball sports. Additionally, the results showed that research is focused mainly on four levels of analysis: (1) dyadic (microlevel); (2) individual (molecular level; predominant); (3) group (mesolevel), and (4) team dynamics (macrolevel). These levels of analysis included tactical, technical, physical, and psychosocial variables. Team performance was contextualized at two levels, with reference to: (1) match context (e.g. match status, match location, match period, quality of opposition) and (2) sociodemographic and environmental constraints (sex, age groups, competitive level, altitude, temperature, pitch surface). Conclusions The evolution of methods for match analysis in team ball sports indicates that: (1) an individual-level performance analysis was predominant; (2) the focus on intermediate levels of analysis, observing performance in dyadic and group interactions, has received less attention from researchers; (3) neglected areas of research include psychosocial aspects of team sports and women’s performance; and (4) analyses of match contexts need greater depth. Registration: The protocol was registered in the International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols with the number 202080067 and the
      DOI number
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-