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SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Science & Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Education, Health and Sport
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2391-8306 - ISSN (Online) 1429-9623
Published by Radom University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Pediatric adrenal incidentaloma as a rare and difficult to diagnose
           finding - review

    • Authors: Dominika Pałac, Magdalena Ostrowska, Magdalena Grześk-Kaczyńska, Szymon Kaczyński
      Abstract: Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is an asymptomatic mass localized in the adrenal gland, usually detected during diagnostic imaging performed due to other health issues than the suspected adrenal disease. It occurs in 2% of adults and 0,2% of children. Pediatric AI may cause many difficulties in the diagnostic processes. Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in children. Usually, it is localized in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Many patients do not have any symptoms, but some may present with fever, weariness, weight loss, pain, enlarging mass, etc. The majority of cases are high- risk and the survival rate is less than 50%. The diagnostic protocol consists of laboratory tests and radiological imagining. Treatment depends on the risk group that the patient is assigned to. Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-secreting tumor in children originating in the adrenal medulla. Most pediatric patients present with sustained hypertension. 60% of pheochromocytoma cases are sporadic. The surgical removal of the tumor through adrenalectomy is a standard procedure. To the group of pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT), benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and malignant adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are included. ACA is found in only 20% of cases of ACT. Most of the patients present with signs of virilization, Cushing Syndrome, or both. The 5-years survival rate of ACC in the pediatric population is 46-55%. An adrenal incidentaloma is an unpredictable and possibly dangerous disorder in the pediatric population. Due to the rarity of the finding and their variety, there is not much data and clear recommendations about AI management. Doctors need to know about the prevalence of different types of adrenal tumors in the pediatric population based on age.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Strokes in children

    • Authors: Wiktoria Sielwanowska, Monika Żybowska, Anna Rzewuska, Bartłomiej Syzdoł, Magdalena Chrościńska-Krawczyk
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose A stroke is a group of neurological symptoms that develops when blood flow to the brain is stopped suddenly. Stroke is relatively rare in the group of pediatric patients. The incidence is estimated at 2.5 cases per 100,000 children per year. Mortality is up to 4%. Long-term consequences and complications concern more than half of the patients. Brief description of the state of knowledge The etiopathogenesis of stroke in children is diverse. The main risk factors are congenital heart disease, vascular damage, metabolic diseases and infections. The symptoms of a stroke depend on the location and extent of the ischemic changes. In children they may initially be uncharacteristic. The most common are headaches, vomiting, convulsions, disturbed consciousness, and hemiparesis. The gold standard in cerebral ischemia imaging is brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). In treatment controlling vital parameters plays an important role. Treatment includes anti-aggregating and anticoagulant drugs. It is possible to transfuze blood or surgical treatment. Complications of stroke in children are diversify and depend on a lot of factors. These include movement disorders, cognitive functions impairment, tension headaches and difficulty with expression and fluency of speech. Conclusion A stroke is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment. It can have uncharacteristic symptoms in children. Acute cerebral ischemia in children carries the risk of developing long-term, severe complications. Pediatric patients with a history of acute cerebral ischemia should be under the constant care of specialized treatment and rehabilitation centers, which will enable patients to function independently among their peers.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Plasma cell myeloma – therapeutic opportunities

    • Authors: Aleksandra Orzechowska, Karolina Widłak, Piotr Pawłowski, Karolina Ziętara, Julia Orzechowska
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Introduction: Plasmocytic myeloma (PCM) is a neoplastic disease with a multistage course. Monoclonal plasmocytes undergo uncontrolled, multifocal growth in the bone marrow, which results in the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin or its fragments that damage the bone marrow. Aim: The aim of this study is to present selected therapeutic possibilities of multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: The work uses the method of non-systematic review and analysis of the available scientific literature. Databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Arianta, Scopus, Web of Science were searched. The years 2005-2022 were assumed as the review period. Discussion: Multiple myeloma accounts for 1-2% of all cancer cases, and 10-15% of all hematological cancers. It is the third most common lymphoid neoplasm after chronic lymphocytic leukemia and large B-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of PCM requires the presence of a minimum of 10% clonal plasmocytes in the bone marrow or biopsy confirmed plasmocytoma. Moreover, the CRAB and SLiM CRAB criteria are also important. Treatment should be initiated in all symptomatic patients meeting the SLiM CRAB criteria. The first stage of treatment is to induce remission of the disease.   Conclusions: Thanks to the progress of medicine, an increasing percentage of patients achieve permanent remissions. The success of the therapy is a component of the earliest possible detection of the disease and the use of appropriate, individually selected drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Adult Attachment Styles and Psychosocial Health

    • Authors: Karolina Ludwikowska-Świeboda
      Pages: 36 - 51
      Abstract: Introduction
      Early relationship experiences with parents or other important caregivers provide the matrix on which people form subsequent bonds in their lives. An attachment style relates to how people perceive themselves and significant others in terms of the possibility of obtaining support and care in stressful situations. There can be distinguished a secure attachment style and three insecure patterns of bond: preoccupied, dismissing and fearful (or disorganized). Psychosocial functioning of individuals with particular attachment styles is related to mental health in adulthood.
      The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between different attachment styles and mental health (in the context of emotional regulation, coping with stress, the quality of interpersonal relationships and the prevalence of mental disorders).
      The state of knowledge
      A secure attachment style is positively related to the mentalization ability and fosters forming more satisfying interpersonal relationships. People with a secure attachment style cope better in stressful situations and are less likely to develop depression and anxiety disorders. People with insecure attachment patterns use less social support as an effective coping strategy. Insecure attachment styles are also a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders.
      Professional support aimed at people characterized by insecure attachment styles is very important in the context of developing the ability to form close and satisfying interpersonal relationships, and in the context of mitigating the symptoms of mental health disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Psychiatric manifestations of rheumatic diseases

    • Authors: Hubert Wróblewski, Dariusz Chojęta, Aleksandra Zimna, Ewelina Zygmunt, Anna Kozłowska, Monika Mierzwa, Kinga Wróblewska
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose of the work: Rheumatic diseases are chronic diseases that cause symptoms in many systems of the human body. Their most common symptoms include pain and symptoms of arthritis, their deformities, fatigue, and malaise. The aim of the article is to present the symptoms and mental disorders occurring in the course of selected rheumatic diseases. State of knowledge: The psychological symptoms are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus. Specified is a form of lupus called NSPLE (neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus), which includes neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus. Psychiatric symptoms are also present in the course of other rheumatic diseases. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may affect up to 80% of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome, with 50% to 80% ahead of diagnosis. It has been proven that systemic slcerosis causes microvascular damage, which may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms in the form of mood disorders, anxiety and cognitive disorders. In one study, 59% of patients with fibromyalgia experienced mania, which was more than twice as high as in the control group. Summary: In the course of all rheumatic diseases presented by us, there are symptoms and mental disorders. They are often mood, cognitive and sleep disturbances. It should be emphasized that the etiology of psychiatric symptoms is multifactorial.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • History of treatment of labor pains

    • Authors: Jacek Janowski, Anna Zwierzyńska, Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka
      Pages: 61 - 70
      Abstract: Pain is both a mental and a physical condition. It is considered by many experts to be a serious health problem or even a disease one. WHO describes it as a multidimensional phenomenon consisting of sensory, physiological, affective, spiritual and behavioral factors. Childbirth has always been associated with severe pain. The pain of childbirth has been known for centuries and is presented in every possible way as a very unpleasant sensation, not only physical but also mental. Over the years, efforts have been made to develop the best possible methods of relieving labor pain. These include non-pharmacological, such as: acupuncture, TENS or hypnosis, and pharmacological: administration of opioids and inhalation anesthetics, ending with regional analgesia techniques such as: epidural, subarachnoid anesthesia, etc. The article presents the history of the treatment of labor pain.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Urinary incontinence in women - the overview of pharmacological and
           surgical methods

    • Authors: Karolina Mikut, Aleksandra Wijata, Anna Gorajek, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska
      Pages: 71 - 84
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose of the work: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem among women and the incidence increases with age. It is estimated that about 50% of women will be affected by this problem. There are 5 types of urinary incontinence: exercise, pressure, mixed, overflow and functional. Stress UI is the most common cause among young women, while stress UI is the second most common cause among older women. The widespread use of this phenomenon makes it a significant economic burden. State of knowledge (brief description): Due to the different types of UI and its many causes, treating this disorder becomes a significant challenge. It is important to use combination therapy, starting with pelvic floor muscle strengthening exercise, lifestyle modification, weight loss, and smoking cessation, followed by drug therapy and surgery as necessary. Summary: Currently, many drugs are used in the treatment of urinary incontinence, with different mechanisms of action, which allow the treatment of various types of UI, but pharmacotherapy often does not bring the expected benefits. Surgical treatment appears to be a promising form of treatment, but more research is needed on the long-term effects.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Risk factors of developing inflammatory bowel diseases

    • Authors: Aleksandra Iwona Zimna, Hubert Wróblewski, Dariusz Chojęta, Ewelina Zygmunt, Anna Kozłowska
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Introduction: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown. It is known to be multi-factorial. The world is seeing an ever increasing number of new cases of these diseases. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the main representatives of inflammatory bowel diseases. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Materials and methods: The results were obtained on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Results: 95 people took part in the survey aged 16 to 72 years old. 35.8% were men and 64.2% were women. 78% lives in cites, only 22% are rural residents.  56.4% of them suffer from ulcerative colitis and 43.6% from Crohn's disease. 40.4% of respondents smoked cigarettes in the past, but currently only 12.6% are still struggling with the addiction. Only 4 people declare brushing their teeth after each meal. 18 people confirm the presence of NCDH in their families, 19 suffer from other autoimmune diseases at the same time. 2 people from among the respondents - also celiac disease. One person had Salmonella and Shigella infection.  Conclusions: Due to the mutual cause-effect relationships between genetic predisposition and the influence of environmental factors, it is currently difficult to state which of the above factors plays a decisive role. Environmental factors that play a role in the etiopathogenesis of IBD include, first and foremost, the intestinal bacterial flora, diet, human environment and smoking. There is a clear tendency for the coexistence of autoimmune diseases in the group of patients with NCJ and a predisposition to the disease in the family. There is also a need to educate patients about the benefits of taking probiotics and taking care of proper eating habits. Key words: inflammatory bowel diseases, risk of developing the disease, irresponsible patient
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Structural functional parameters of the heart in patients with acute
           myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation in the presence of
           pulmonary hypertension

    • Authors: Yaroslav Zemlianiy, Victor Syvolap
      Pages: 92 - 98
      Abstract: Introduction: Acute Myocardial Infarction with ST-Segment Elevation (STEMI) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Pulmonary hypertension (LH) occurs in various clinical conditions, including diseases of the left half of the heart. Objective: To evaluate the structural and functional features of the heart in ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) of the left ventricular wall (LV) in the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Materials and Methods: The study involved 87 patients (48 men and 37 women) with STEMI who were treated in intensive care and emergency cardiology department of the "City hospital and emergency ambulance" Zaporizhia city council. Patients were divided into two groups: 51 patients with STEMI in the presence of PH (mean age 69,30 ± 2,34 years), 36 patients with STEMI without PH (mean age 65,20 ± 2,02 years). Results: Evaluation of the structural and functional features of LV showed that in patients with STEMI with PH compared to patients with STEMI without PH there was a significant decrease in EF (by 25.6%; p <0.05), increase in MMILV by 17.6%; p <0.05) and LVDs (by 13.3%; p <0.05). In patients with PH, the diameter of LA was 12.9% higher than in patients without PH (p <0.05). In the study of LV diastolic function using pulsed Doppler revealed that in patients with STEMI with PH there is a significant acceleration of MVE (by 32,3%; p <0.05) and increasing in the ratio of MV E/A (by 63,4%, p <0,05) compared with patients without PH.  Conclusions: In patients with STEMI pulmonary hypertension develops against the background of dilatation of  the left ventricles of the heart with the formation of eccentric hypertrophy and systolic LV dysfunction. In patients with STEMI and PH we found an overload of the right ventricles of the heart with increasing size of the right ventricle and right atrium. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Pegvisomant therapy in acromegalic patient resistant to other treatment:
           case report

    • Authors: Emilia Nowicka, Michał Obel, Piotr Dzikowski, Martyna Stefaniak, Zofia Pietrzak, Ewa Obel
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: Introduction: Acromegaly is a chronic, rare disorder resulting from growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma. GH stimulates synthesis of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), whom assay should be used as a screening test whenever acromegaly is suspected. Patients with acromegaly normally take from 5 to 10 years to receive a correct diagnosis, leading to complications such as cardiovascuar, respiratory, and endocrine problems that are responsible for an increase mortality. Late diagnosis of the disease also impact the effectiveness of surgical, pharmacological and radiotherapy treatment.    Case report: A 33-year-old acromegalic man with pituitary macroadenoma resistant to therapy of somastatin analogue (octreotide, lanreotide) and dopamine agonist (cabergoline). The patient underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy, after wich high level of GH and IGF-1 were still measured. Due to the lack of the effect of the current treatment, the patient was qualified for pegvisomant therapy, as a result of which biochemical control was achieved without adverse events and with a good compliance of treatment.    Conclusions: Treatment with pegvisomant is now an important therapeutic strategy to achieve full disease control in acromegalic patients resistant or poorly responders to first generation somatostatin receptor ligands and in patients who do not respond adequately to selective excision of pituitary adenoma and /or for whom surgery is not possible.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Complementary methods for the prevention and treatment of stress-induced

    • Authors: N. Chukhraev, W. Zukow, N. Vladimirova, E. Chukhraeva, O. Tereshchenko
      Pages: 107 - 122
      Abstract: The article considers the relationship between stress and diseases of the female reproductive system. A method for the rehabilitation of patients with mastopathy resulting from psycho-emotional stress (stress) based on the use of complementary methods of prevention and medical rehabilitation is proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Level of nurses’ knowledge concerning prevention of hospital-acquired
           infections in surgical wards

    • Authors: Lidia Sierpińska, Sebastian Jaworski
      Pages: 123 - 138
      Abstract: Introduction. Prevention of hospital-acquired infections in surgical wards is associated with a high level of nurses’ knowledge and skills in the area of the observance of procedures, standards of prevention of infections, use of personal protection means, and isolation of patients infected with the alert pathogen. Objective. The aim of the study was recognition of the level of knowledge concerning prevention of hospital-acquired infections among nursing staff in surgical wards. Materials and Method. The study was conducted in 2021, and included 115 nurses employed in hospital wards in two hospitals. The research method was a diagnostic survey, the technique – a questionnaire, and the research tool – an author-constructed questionnaire. Results. The majority of the examined nurses (68.0%) presented a ‘mediocre’ level of knowledge concerning hospital-acquired infections, while 38.9% - a ‘low’ level. More than a half of the respondents (60.0%) knew the purpose for hygienic handwashing. Approximately ¾ of respondents knew that there is no necessity for using sterile gloves during procedures related with the risk of contact with blood or body fluids. The majority of nurses in the study (62.5%) had a deficit of knowledge about transient flora inhabiting the skin, and 1/3 of respondents had no established principles of observance of personal protection means. More than a half of nurses (65.2%) did not know the objective of isolation of patients infected with an alert pathogen. Nearly a half of respondents (47.8%) knew that standard isolation is applied in each patient, irrespective of the previous medical history taking. Almost 2/3 of respondents (64.3%) knew that isolations applied in infections transmitted through contact, by airborne-droplet and airborne-dust routes are the types of above-standard isolation. Conclusions. The results of the study confirm the need for expanding the scope of knowledge about prevention of hospital-acquired infections, the time of hygienic and surgical handwashing, as well as the principles of using personal protection means. The nurses presented a deficit of knowledge concerning transient flora of pathogenic microorganisms inhabiting the surface of the hands, and the principles of using personal protection means. Nurses require the expansion of the scope of knowledge about the goal and principles of standard and above-standard isolation of patients infected with alert pathogen.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Atypical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a patient with
           Ollier's disease - a case report

    • Authors: Anna Kochanowska, Kinga Knop, Zuzanna Piasecka, Maria Kowalczuk, Grzegorz Rudzki
      Pages: 139 - 145
      Abstract: Background Nowadays, we can distinguish more than two types of diabetes mellitus. Due to blood glucose measurement and genetic tests, different types of diabetes (such as autoimmune, monogenetic, atypical) can be detected. Despite the constantly updated recommendations and the progress of diagnostic tests, making a diagnosis may be difficult. Case report A 23-year old patient was admitted to the Department of Endocrinology due to diagnosed diabetes mellitus to determine its primary cause. Elevated blood glucose level was identified during periodic medical test and was confirmed by OGTT test. In the patient’s medical history: Ollier’s disease with multiple enchondromas, treated surgically in childhood, no typical symptoms and risk factors of hyperglycaemia. 
      During hospitalization the laboratory tests showed decreased level of C-peptide, nevertheless the patient represented acceptable levels of glycaemia following only by diet restriction. MODY, LADA and diabetes due to Ollier’s disease was speculated. Due to suspicion of autoimmunological cause the diagnostic was extended by testing antibodies: IAA, IA2, GAD, IC, which confirmation allowed to recognise untypical diabetes mellitus type 1.
      The patient objected to insulin treatment, limited it only to a diet and maintained normoglycemia for 15months. However, after an increase in glycaemia and in HbA1c, insulin therapy was introduced. Disscussion with conclusion Atypical course of diabetes should be considered in patients with a known disorder or with comorbidities associated with diabetes and without typical symptoms of hyperglycaemia. Atypical forms of diabetes are uncommon and require etiology-specific therapies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Efficacy and safety of atropine to control childhood myopia progression

    • Authors: Martyna Lewkowicz, Katarzyna Nowakowska, Mateusz Pawlina, Karolina Raksa, Karolina Ziętara, Magdalena Kozioł
      Pages: 146 - 154
      Abstract: Introduction: Nearsightedness is one of the most common eye defects in people all over the world. If left untreated, it leads to a number of serious eye complications that can result in irreversible loss of vision. It is estimated that by 2050. Half of humanity will be burdened with this disadvantage, so it has become a priority to try to find ways to prevent and treat myopia, among which the administration of atropine drops is very effective. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of atropine in controlling the progression of myopia and to investigate the relationship between the dose of atropine and the effectiveness of controlling the progression of myopia. Material and methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were used to review the literature. Results: Eye drops with 1% atropine showed the greatest efficacy in the control of myopia. However, their use was limited due to the occurrence of side effects such as impaired accommodation and photophobia. In the ATOM 2 study, which investigated the use of atropine in a variety of concentrations, it was found that 0.01% is the optimal concentration with good efficacy and minimal side effects. One of the breakthroughs was the LAMP study using atropine at a concentration of 0.05%, 0.025%, 0.01% in eye drops. This study provided evidence for the first time that low-concentration atropine is effective compared with placebo in myopia. In addition, both efficacy and side effects followed a concentration-dependent response ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% of atropine. Among them, 0.05% of atropine was the optimal concentration to achieve the best efficacy and safety profile. Conclusion: Low concentration of atropine is effective in the control of myopia. Its widespread use can help prevent the progression of myopia. However, further investigation of the rebound phenomenon and a long term, individualized approach to treatment are warranted.    
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Effectiveness of physiotherapeutic techniques in urinary incontinence: a
           review of the literature

    • Authors: Agata Wójcik, Magdalena Lamch, Natalia Błasik, Monika Jabłońska, Julia Tomys, Urszula Strugała , Kornelia Kędziora–Kornatowska
      Pages: 155 - 169
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose : Urinary incontinence is a common condition characterized by involuntary urine leakage from urethra. It particularly affects elderly women and is a serious medical, social and economic problem. As a result of recently observed population ageing, the incidence of this anomaly is expected to rise. Due to multifactorial etiology, several types of incontinence are distinguished. Proper diagnostic procedures lead to diagnosis confirmation and allow appropriate therapeutic intervention. Both conservative and surgical methods are used in management of urine incontinence. In addition to pharmacological therapy, physiotherapeutic methods have an important meaning in conservative approach. The aim of this article is a review presenting the results of recent studies on the effectiveness of physiotherapy procedures in treatment of various types of urine incontinence. Description of the state of knowledge: In the study 33 articles which published physiotherapy techniques in 2004-2021 regarding the role of physiotherapeutic methods in the treatment of urinary incontinence were analyzed. The results of studies assessing the effectiveness of physiotherapy techniques (acupuncture, behavioral therapy, yoga, magnetic stimulation, pelvic floor muscle training, vaginal cones, vibration therapy, kinesiotheraphy techniques, stimulation) in reducing the severity of urinary incontinence symptoms and improving the quality of patients’ life were presented on the basis of analyzed literature. Conclusions: Physiotherapy is an effective method of treatment of urinary incontinence and it supports other types of therapy. Therapy should be interdisciplinary approached and the choice of physiotherapeutic methods should be dependent on the individual needs of the patient.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Physical activity promotion at the local government level among the local

    • Authors: Karolina Sobczyk, Mateusz Grajek, Mateusz Rozmiarek, Krzysztof Sas-Nowosielski
      Pages: 170 - 178
      Abstract: Physical inactivity is a major public health issue. For the prevention and management of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, and a number of malignancies, regular physical activity is a critical protective factor. Along with helping to maintain a healthy weight and overall wellbeing, physical activity has positive effects on mental health, including the avoidance of cognitive decline and the symptoms of despair and anxiety. Local governments all across the world have responded to this problem by launching population-level projects that give locals access to exercise opportunities. Local governments, through the implementation of their own tasks of health promotion and protection, carry out public health tasks as defined by the Law of 11 September 2015 on Public Health. These tasks include activities in the area of physical activity.           The aim of the article was to show the role of local government in promoting physical activity among the local community. The article discusses such issues as WHO recommendations for physical activity as well as activities undertaken by local governments in the area of health promotion in the form of health policy programs and activities carried out in cooperation with NGOs.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Acupuncture as complementary treatment for lower back pain

    • Authors: Ilona Jastrzębska, Magdalena Kołodziej, Halina Piecewicz-Szczęsna
      Pages: 179 - 184
      Abstract: Abstract Introduction: Lower back pain is one of the most common disorders in the world. Acupuncture is one the methods of treatment, but its efficiency is still researched. Aim of the study: To verify the effectiveness of acupuncture on low back pain. Material and Methods: Search of the PubMed database using the following keywords: acupuncture, lower back pain. Only full-length articles were taken into consideration. Results: The studies show that acupuncture is effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain and is not inferior to the usual care. However its efficiency in treatment of acute low back pain is not satisfactory and patients still require additional pharmacotherapy. Conclusion: Acupuncture is efficient in the treatment of chronic low back pain, however more research is needed on its efficiency in treatment of acute low back pain.   Keywords: acupuncture, lower back pain
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Symptoms of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system among

    • Authors: Martyna Odzimek
      Pages: 185 - 196
      Abstract: INTRODUCTION The stomatognathic system is a morphological and functional group of tissues and organs, the main task of which is food intake, initial chewing and digestion, but also emotional expression, speech articulation and breathing. Dysfunctions in the masticatory system may take the form of: muscle or joint pain, excessive muscle tension, crackles in the temporomandibular joints and reduced mobility, tooth clenching or ear ailments, especially in the form of: noise, hypersensitivity or deterioration of hearing. OBJECTIVE The main aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of functional dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system among students. The research was carried out from January to February 2022 using the proprietary online questionnaire and the results were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant relationship (p≤0,05) between the occurrence of stomatognathic system disorders and the location of the headache (rc = 0,0252 – weak strength of the relationship), muscle tension (rc = 0,304 - average strength of the relationship) and ear ailments (rc = 0,35 - average strength of the relationship). CONCLUSIONS The most important issue in the treatment of stomatognathic system disorders is the interdisciplinary and holistic view of the patient. It is important to introduce multidirectional and multi-stage therapy, thanks to which we can achieve maximum therapeutic effects.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.12775/JEHS.2022.12.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Alveolar osteitis: the current state of knowledge

    • Authors: Aleksandra Dryla, Michał Szymoniuk, Kamil Rogatko, Halina Piecewicz-Szczęsna
      Pages: 204 - 216
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose: Alveolar osteitis, also known as dry socket is a common complication after tooth extraction, especially third molar extraction. Taking into consideration only third molar extractions, the prevalence of dry socket reaches even 45%. The aim of this literature review was to describe current knowledge about etiology, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of dry socket. State of knowledge: The symptoms of alveolar osteitis most frequently are reported between the first and third post-extraction days and they include discomfort, lancing, and intense pain which radiates to the neck and ear. The etiopathogenesis of dry socket remains unclear. However, the currently accepted hypothesis describes a loss of formed after an extraction blood clot from the alveolar socket as the main cause of this pathology. Several factors may increase the risk of dry socket and include smoking, oral hygiene, female gender, oral contraceptive drugs, and anesthesia. In the treatment of alveolar osteitis, irrigation of the socket with chlorhexidine gluconate, iodopovidone, or physiological saline followed by filling the socket with intra-alveolar dressing constitute a current fundamental procedure. Plenty of substances are currently used as an intra-alveolar dressing. Part of them exhibits only pain-decreasing features, whereas some drugs can also stimulate the regeneration of treated tissue. In the prevention, the use of alveolar osteitis warm saline, antibiotics, chlorhexidine, ozone gas, or autologous platelet therapy may be useful maneuvers. Conclusion: This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge about causes, risk factors, and therapeutic and preventive methods with regard to alveolar osteitis.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Senior education and the quality of life of women in different periods of
           old age

    • Authors: Beata Jurkiewicz, Edyta Barnaś, Małgorzata Kołpa
      Pages: 217 - 230
      Abstract: Introduction. The current evolution in thinking considers the concern for the dignity of the elderly and their relationship with society. The intellectual and causal potential of older people, which was ignored so far, has also begun to be appreciated. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life and its determinants in the group of women over 65 years of age (including age groups), using various forms of education for seniors. Material and methods. The study was conducted among women aged 65+ living in the Tarnów province (southern Poland): 205 educationally active seniors (group I) and 207 women who do not benefit from senior education (group II). The diagnostic survey method and standardized interview technique using the WHOQoL-AGE quality of life questionnaire were used. Results and conclusions. A higher level of quality of life was associated primarily with participation in senior education, lower age and better material status of the examined women. It is recommended to carry out activities promoting participation in various forms of senior education, especially in the two oldest age groups (old & oldest old).
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Physical activity and quality of life in the group of women participating
           in senior education

    • Authors: Beata Jurkiewicz, Edyta Barnaś, Małgorzata Kołpa
      Pages: 231 - 243
      Abstract: Introduction. Maintaining mobility and extending the period of functional activity in everyday life is the basis for gerontological prevention for the elderly. An important task in the physical culture strategy for an aging society is to prepare both oneself and one’s family for old age (education "in old age" and "towards old age"). Educational institutions for activation of seniors play a very important role in this area. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity and quality of life of women 65+, including participation in senior education. Material and methods. The study was conducted among inhabitants of Tarnów province (southern Poland) aged 65+: 205 educationally active seniors (group I) and 207 women who do not benefit from senior education (group II). The diagnostic survey method and standardized interview technique using the WHOQoL-AGE quality of life questionnaire were used. The level of significance was adopted as p≤0.05. Results and conclusions. Educationally active seniors significantly more often declared systematic physical activity. Regular physical activity was most often undertaken by women in the youngest age group. It is recommended to carry out activities promoting participation in various forms of physical activity, especially in the two oldest age groups (old & oldest old). It is also proposed to continue research on the quality of life and its determinants by gender, and the results of these studies can be used by managers and decision-makers in the local health care sector to develop health-promoting strategies targeted at specific groups.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Mindfulness sessions delivered via smartphone applications and their
           potential benefits

    • Authors: Katarzyna Nowakowska, Martyna Lewkowicz, Karolina Raksa, Julita Szarpak, Mateusz Pawlina, Karolina Niedziałek, Karolina Ziętara
      Pages: 244 - 249
      Abstract: Mindfulness, as a practice of focusing one’s attention on the present moment without evaluating, is used in mindfulness based interventions (MBI) therapy. Traditionally, these sessions are conducted in person. At this moment, we are witnessing a global trend in which patients are turning to technology and are looking for alternative, more convenient solutions. There are studies assessing the effectiveness of mindfulness training conducted in a new unconventional way, which is using an application installed on patient's smartphone. This paper discusses possible benefits of online conducted mindfulness sessions. 

      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • A review of studies evaluating medical cannabis for the chronic pain

    • Authors: Justyna Żyga
      Pages: 250 - 256
      Abstract: Introduction: Medical cannabis for patients with chronic pain related to various conditions has been the focus of numerous investigations. Cannabis-based medicine has been described for hundreds of years but only recently have we seen the more scientific, evidence-based approach to its use, and ongoing investigations continue to explore its potential medical benefits.  State of knowledge: As the results of studies assessing medical cannabis in pain alleviate seem promising, only weak recommendations are available. Important factors to consider in the development of guidelines include optimal doses, routes of administration and used types of cannabinoids. In discussed studies no serious adverse events were reported and treatment was well tolerated by participants. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that cannabis-based medicine can be safe and effective in pain relief. Further high-quality randomised clinical trial studies are needed. It is important to assess the safety profile of each individual cannabinoid formulation and define the population that can benefit from cannabis therapy for establishment of prospective recommendations and guidelines.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Opinions on the impact of studying/working remotely on vision impairment
           and the use of eye hygiene principles

    • Authors: Magdalena Sowa, Karolina Pulnik, Beata Jurkiewicz
      Pages: 257 - 264
      Abstract: Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the introduction of remote learning and working. Symptoms of digital eye fatigue are increasingly reducing the quality of life. The aim of the study was to collect opinions on the impact of studying/working remotely on vision impairment and to find out the eye hygiene methods used by the respondents. Material and methods. An original questionnaire consisting of 20 closed-ended questions was used for the study. The form was filled out by 194 people aged 18-55 years (mean: 23.15 ± 6.91 years) who were studying or working at least partially remotely. Results. Respondents working remotely were most likely to spend more than 8 hours a day in front of the computer (49.02%), those working hybrid most often marked 5-6 hours (38.04%). Less than half - 44.85% - had a subjective feeling that their eyesight had deteriorated since they started learning/working remotely, and 19.07% declared that the deterioration of their eyesight had been confirmed by an examination with a specialist. Since starting to study/work online, respondents most often complained of eye fatigue (52.58%), dry eyes (34.54%), and sore/burning eyeballs (25.78%). Among eye hygiene rules, the largest percentage declared using a matte screen (48.97%), using "night mode" on an electronic device after dark (51.55%), sleeping for 7-9 hours (45.36%), and taking a break from the screen by blinking (41.24%). Few people are familiar with and use the exercise of closing and shading their eyes (6.70%) the 20-20-20 rule (4.12%), and do not use a smartphone/computer immediately before bed (2.58%). Conclusions. Most of the respondents stated subjectively, or confirmed by a specialist, that their eyesight had deteriorated, and they associate this with learning/working remotely. The most common ocular symptom in the surveyed group was eye fatigue. There is a large deficit in the knowledge and application of eye hygiene principles that can benefit the organ of vision.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • The Current State of Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder

    • Authors: Joanna Dmochowska, Eryk Mikos, Karol Kanon, Sara Moqbil, Martyna Wasyluk
      Pages: 265 - 269
      Abstract: Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit psychoactive drug and contains substances that affect the brain and body. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified.
      Cannabis use disorder is defined as the continued use of cannabis despite clinically significant impairment. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people who use marijuana will become addicted. CUD is a problematic pattern of cannabis use that causes clinically significant impairment. There is not an available medication to successfully treat CUD, but psychotherapeutic models hold promise. Cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management can substantially reduce cannabis use and cannabis-related problems.
      The legalization of non-medical cannabis use in some high-income countries may increase the prevalence of CUD. Since this approach has not yet been validated for CUD, the improvement of psychosocial treatments with pharmacological therapies should be further explored in future clinical research.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Impact of gut microbiota on severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder
           (OCD) - a short review

    • Authors: Kacper Niewęgłowski, Natalia Wilczek, Michał Rycharski, Julita Niewęgłowska
      Pages: 283 - 288
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose  Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has an unclear etiology. Genetic and environmental factors dominate among the etiologic factors. The disorder is characterized by the presence of obsessions (repetitive and persistent thoughts, images, impulses or urges) and compulsions (rituals; repetitive behaviours or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession). This disorder has less than 4% of the population. Treatment is a long and difficult process, and the best results are with SSRIs (e.g., fluoxetine) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The aim of the study was to review articles linking gut microbiota and obsessive-compulsive disorder issues.    A brief description of the state of knowledge  The gut microbiota-gut-brain axis perhaps has an impact on the etiology of psychiatric diseases. Its existence has been well researched in animals. Researches suggest that there possibly may be changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the gut microbiota composition may worsen the patient's condition. The use of probiotics may help improve the patient's condition and reduce symptoms of the disorder.    Summary (conclusions)  More research is needed to explore the potential impact of the gut microbiota on obsessive-compulsive disorder. This could perhaps lead to future applications of probiotics, e.g., in the adjunctive treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • What impact do the current anti-vaccine movementsand the Covid-19 pandemic
           have on the vaccination coverage of Poles' Statistical analysis of
           epidemiological data on the level of vaccination of Poles in the years

    • Authors: Kinga Ruszel, Robert Dubel, Aleksandra Czekaj, Natalia Namroży, Julia Dubel, Halina Piecewicz-Szczęsna
      Pages: 299 - 306
      Abstract: Vaccine-preventable diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. As new vaccines prove effective and the incidence of some infections decreases, vaccination practices are changing. Therefore, every year in Poland, the need for preventive vaccination on given pathogenic entities in the population is verified and analyzed. Every year, the Chief Sanitary Inspector issues a communication pursuant to Article 17(11) of the Act of 5 December 2008 on preventing and combating infections and infectious diseases in humans (Journal of Laws of 2020, item 1845, as amended(1)) and announces the Preventive Vaccination Program for a given calendar year. The communication contains mandatory and recommended vaccinations, rules for carrying out vaccinations and general information on this principle of carrying out and organizing vaccination. Most vaccine-preventable diseases still carry a significant risk of recurrence and epidemics in the coming years.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Opinions and experiences of physicians regarding complementary and
           alternative medicine (CAM). A research report from Poland

    • Authors: Magdalena Leśniewska, Ilona Kozioł, Julia Budzyńska, Agnieszka Kopystecka, Rafał Patryn
      Pages: 307 - 316
      Abstract: Background: The term CAM denotes complementary and alternative medicine. However, CAM is practiced by individuals without academic medical education and formal eligibility for treating people. The extent of interest in CAM is considerable. The WHO global report on traditional and complementary medicine has demonstrated that 87% of all WHO Member States legally recognise individual forms of CAM, and 100 Member States have national policies regarding such practices. In Poland, performing medical activities without appropriate qualifications is prohibited. Material and Methods: Diagnostic survey distributed as Google Forms was used as the basic research method with the research technique of a questionnaire. The questionnaire starting with a metrics part consisted of several questions regarding popularity and tendency of CAM, causes of CAM popularity, approach to those types of practices and patients as well as role of CAM during the pandemic. Sixty-one responses were obtained from physicians of different age, experience and speciality. Results: Ninety-five percent (95%) of doctors believe that alternative medicine can be dangerous; 67.2% think that the phenomenon of alternative medicine should be combated; almost half of the physicians surveyed believe that there is a fundamental contradiction between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and alternative medicine. Furthermore, according to 48% of respondents, physicians in Poland should be able to recommend and combine methods of traditional and alternative medicine. Conclusion: Doctors point to the increasing popularity of CAM among patients in Poland, the consequences of which cannot be determined because there is still a lack of research on the safety of alternative methods. The most frequently cited reasons for interest in CAM suggest that there is a need for a better tailored biomedical approach to individual patient needs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
  • Kawasaki disease: a comprehensive review

    • Authors: Aleksandra Osiejewska, Dominika Wojtachnio, Jakub Bartoszewicz, Anna Grądzik, Izabela Nowakowska, Małgorzata Kudan, Anna Gorajek
      Pages: 317 - 327
      Abstract: Introduction and purpose: Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of medium arteries, and it affects children under 5 years old. It can lead to coronary artery aneurysms. Brief description of the state of knowledge: Pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease is unclear. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings. The characteristic symptoms are polymorphous skin rashes, conjunctivitis, erythema, dryness, cracking and bleeding of the lips, erythema and swelling of palms and soles and cervical lymphadenopathy. Kawasaki disease is defined as a fever for 5 days accompanied by 4 or more of the diagnostic symptoms described above. The classic diagnosis is based on the exclusion of other diseases too. The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease is suggested if less than 4 main clinical features are found.  It is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children. Kawasaki disease can lead to coronary artery aneurysm, myocarditis and pericarditis so it is very important to treat this illness correctly. Basic treatment is a single infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose aspirin. Recurrent Kawasaki disease (persistent fever after first line treatment with IVIG and aspirin) requires the same treatment as used for the first episode. Corticosteroids and immune-modulating therapies can be used as second and third line options. Quick recognition and early treatment result in a reduction of coronary artery abnormalities. Conclusion: This article reviews basic informations, history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, complications and treatment of Kawasaki disease.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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