Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8196 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (105 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (334 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (266 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (43 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (160 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
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    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (331 journals)
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    - PATHOLOGY (96 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (254 journals)
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    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (109 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (76 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)
    - SURGERY (388 journals)

DENTISTRY (266 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 256 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ação Odonto     Open Access  
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Odontologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Stomatologica Marisiensis Journal     Open Access  
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access  
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access  
AJO-DO Clinical Companion : An International Journal Dedicated to Excellence in Clinical Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuel Nordisk Odontologi     Full-text available via subscription  
Al-Rafidain Dental Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Orthodontic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access  
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avicenna Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BDJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Caries Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Caspian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
CES Odontología     Open Access  
Chiang Mai Dental Journal     Open Access  
Ciencia Odontológica     Open Access  
City Dental College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Advances in Periodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Laboratorial Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Dentistry Reviewed     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Oral Implants Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Oral Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cumhuriyet Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Oral Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dental Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dental Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dental Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Journal of Advance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dental Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dental Update     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry 3000     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Dentistry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dentistry Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Der Freie Zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
der junge zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
Die Quintessenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disease-a-Month     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ENDO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Endodontic Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
Endodontology     Open Access  
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Dental Research and Biomaterials Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Oral Implantology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Oral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access  
Evidence-Based Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Faculty Dental Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Giornale Italiano di Endodonzia     Open Access  
Implantologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal  
Insisiva Dental Journal     Open Access  
International Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Contemporary Dental and Medical Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forensic Odontology     Open Access  
International Journal of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Implant Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Odontostomatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Oral Care and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Prosthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Stomatological Research     Open Access  
International Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Japanese Dental Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JDR Clinical & Translational Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Academy of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesive Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Oral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Oral Science     Open Access  
Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Periodontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Craniomandibular Function     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dental Problems and Solutions     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Dentistry Defense Section     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dentistry for Children     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Endodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Academy of Dental Specialist Researchers     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Of International Dental And Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of International Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nepalese Prosthodontic Society (JNPS)     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalese Society of Periodontology and Oral Implantology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oral Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oral Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Orthodontic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Primary Care Dentistry and Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public Health Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Restorative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Of Syiah Kuala Dentistry Society     Open Access  
Journal of the American Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Canadian Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Clinical Dental Research Organization     Open Access  
Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Kesehatan Gigi     Open Access  
Kieferorthopädie     Full-text available via subscription  
Kiru : Revista de la Facultad de Odontología - Universidad de San Martín de Porres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lasers in Dental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Médecine Buccale Chirurgie Buccale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medicina Oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

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Journal of Applied Oral Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.645
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1678-7757
Published by SciELO Homepage  [672 journals]
  • Cleidocranial dysplasia and novel RUNX2 variants: dental, craniofacial,
           and osseous manifestations

    • Authors: Sermporn Thaweesapphithak, Jirawat Saengsin, Wuttichart Kamolvisit, Thanakorn Heerapanon, Thantrira Porntaveetus, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
      Abstract: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a skeletal disorder affecting cranial sutures, teeth, and clavicles, and is associated with the RUNX2 mutations. Although numerous patients have been described, a direct genotype–phenotype correlation for RUNX2 has been difficult to establish. Further cases must be studied to understand the clinical and genetic spectra of CCD. Objectives: To characterize detailed phenotypes and identify variants causing CCD in five unrelated patients and their family members. Methodology: Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed. Genetic variants were identified by exome and Sanger sequencing, data were analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Results: Three cases were sporadic and two were familial. Exome sequencing successfully detected the heterozygous pathogenic RUNX2 variants in all affected individuals. Three were novel, comprising a frameshift c.739delA (p.(Ser247Valfs*)) in exon 6 (Patient-1), a nonsense c.901C>T (p.(Gln301*)) in exon 7 (Patient-2 and affected mother), and a nonsense c.1081C>T (p.(Gln361*)) in exon 8 (Patient-3). Two previously reported variants were missense: the c.673C>T (p.(Arg225Trp)) (Patient-4) and c.674G>A (p.(Arg225Gln)) (Patient-5) in exon 5 within the Runt homology domain. Patient-1, Patient-2, and Patient-4 with permanent dentition had thirty, nineteen, and twenty unerupted teeth, respectively; whereas Patient-3 and Patient-5, with deciduous dentition, had normally developed teeth. All patients exhibited typical CCD features, but the following uncommon/unreported phenotypes were observed: left fourth ray brachymetatarsia (Patient-1), normal clavicles (Patient-2 and affected mother), phalangeal malformations (Patient-3), and normal primary dentition (Patient-3, Patient-5). Conclusions: The study shows that exome sequencing is effective to detect mutation across ethnics. The two p.Arg225 variants confirm that the Runt homology domain is vital for RUNX2 function. Here, we report a new CCD feature, unilateral brachymetatarsia, and three novel truncating variants, expanding the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of RUNX2 , as well as show that the CCD patients can have normal deciduous teeth, but must be monitored for permanent teeth anomalies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • S-PRG-based toothpastes compared to NaF toothpaste and NaF varnish on
           dentin permeability in vitro

    • Authors: Victor Mosquim, Giovanna Speranza Zabeu, Gerson Aparecido Fotatori-Junior, Alessandra Buhler Borges, Daniela Rios, Ana Carolina Magalhães, Linda Wang
      Abstract: Objectives: To analyze the effect of 5 toothpastes containing different percentages of S-PRG fillers compared to NaF toothpaste and NaF varnish on the dentin hydraulic conductance (Lp). Methodology: Dentin disks (1.0±0.2 mm thickness) were cut from third molars, and their Lp values were evaluated using Flodec. The specimens were allocated into 7 groups (n=8). The minimum (smear layer) and the maximum (after acid etching) Lp values were recorded. Lp was also assessed after treatment with either a 0wt.%, 1wt.%, 5wt.%, 20wt.%, or 30wt.% S-PRG toothpaste, a NaF toothpaste, or a NaF varnish. Toothpastes were applied by brushing for 15 s, allowing it to settle for 1 min, and rinsing with deionized water. The NaF varnish was applied for 4 min and was removed with a probe. Specimens were exposed to citric acid (6%, pH 2.1, 1 min) and their final Lp was recorded. The pH of all products was recorded (n=3) and specimens from each group were analyzed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM). Data were subjected to 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni (a=0.05). Results: The highest Lp reduction was noticed for the 5wt.% S-PRG toothpaste, NaF toothpaste, and NaF varnish. However, the toothpastes containing 5wt.%, 20wt.%, and 30wt.% of S-PRG were similar to all toothpastes but differed from the NaF varnish. After erosion, all groups retrieved their maximum Lp values, except for the NaF varnish. The LSCM evidenced deposits on the surface of specimens treated with 5%, 20%, and 30% S-PRG-based toothpastes and NaF toothpaste. Even more deposits were observed for the NaF varnish. After the erosive challenge, the deposits were diminished in all groups. Conclusion: Toothpastes containing 5wt.%, 20wt.%, and 30wt.% of S-PRG fillers behaved similarly to a conventional NaF toothpaste, even after an erosive challenge. The NaF varnish promoted better reduction of the Lp, but its effect was also diminished after erosion.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • In-vitro evaluation of the anti-cariogenic effect of a hybrid coating
           associated with encapsulated sodium fluoride and stannous chloride in
           nanoclays on enamel

    • Authors: Sávio José Cardoso Bezerra, Ítallo Emídio Lira Viana, Idalina Vieira Aoki, Simone Duarte, Anderson Takeo Hara, Taís Scaramucci
      Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to test, in vitro, the anti-cariogenic effect of experimental hybrid coatings, with nano clays of halloysite or bentonite, loaded with sodium fluoride or with a combination of sodium fluoride and stannous chloride, respectively. Methodology: The varnish Fluor Protector (1,000 ppm of F-) was used as positive control and no treatment was the negative control. Enamel specimens (5 mm × 5 mm) were obtained from bovine teeth. The specimens (n=10) had their surfaces divided into two halves (5 mm × 2.5 mm each), in which one half received one of the treatments (Hybrid; Hybrid + NaF; Hybrid + NaF + SnCl2; Hybrid + NaF Loaded; Hybrid + NaF + SnCl2 Loaded). The specimens were submitted to a cariogenic challenge using a biofilm model (S. mutans UA159, for 5 days). Enamel surfaces both under and adjacent to the treated area were analyzed for mineral loss and lesion depth, by transverse microradiography. The pH of the medium was measured twice a day, and the fluoride release was analyzed. Additional specimens were submitted to confocal analysis. Results: Data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (α=0.05). None of hybrid groups were able to reduce the lesion depth; the Hybrid + NaF group, however, was able to reduce mineral loss differing from the negative control (p=0.008). The groups showed no significant difference in the pH measurement and fluoride release. Confocal analysis confirmed that for all groups the biofilm growth was similar. Conclusion: None of the hybrid groups reduced lesion depth, but the Hybrid + NaF group was able to promote protection against mineral loss.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Decreased CD1a + and CD83 + cells in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma
           regardless of HPV status

    • Authors: Ana Guadalupe Gama-Cuellar, Ana Lúcia Noronha Francisco, João Figueira Scarini, Fernanda Viviane Mariano, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Rogério Gondak
      Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role in the immune response against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and represent a therapeutic target in cancer. Objective: To identify and quantify DCs in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) under the influence of HPV infection. Methodology: CD1a and CD83 antibodies were used to identify immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells by immunohistochemistry in 33 primary TSCC and 10 normal tonsils (NTs), respectively. For the TSCC samples, the number of DCs per area was evaluated in the intra- and peritumoral compartments. For the NTs, the quantification of DCs was evaluated in the intra- and peritonsillar compartments. HPV detection methods were determined according to the ASCO Clinical Practice Guidelines from the College of American Pathologists Guideline (2018). Results: There were fewer intratumoral CD1a+ DCs in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC groups than in the NT group (p<0.05). In the peritumoral compartment, there were fewer CD83+ DCs in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC groups than in the NT group (p<0.001). The quantification of DCs subtypes showed no statistical differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC groups (p>0.137). Patients with HPV-positive TSCC had significantly better overall survival rate than those with HPV-negative TSCC (p=0.004). Conclusion: Tumor activity contributes to DC depletion regardless of intralesional HPV positivity. An improved prognosis has been reported in patients with HPV-positive TSCC.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Erratum: Preemptive analgesia with ibuprofen increases anesthetic efficacy
           in children with severe molar hypomineralization: a triple-blind
           randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Fernanda Vicioni-Marques, Francisco Wanderley Garcia de Paula-Silva, Milena Rodrigues Carvalho, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz, Osvaldo de Freitas, David John Manton, Fabrício Kitazono de Carvalho
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Preemptive analgesia with ibuprofen increases anesthetic efficacy in
           children with severe molar hypomineralization

    • Authors: Fernanda Vicioni-Marques, Francisco Wanderley Garcia de Paula-Silva, Milena Rodrigues Carvalho, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz, Osvaldo de Freitas, Maíra Peres Ferreira Duarte, David John Manton, Fabrício Kitazono de Carvalho
      Abstract: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is often accompanied by dental hypersensitivity and difficulty in achieving effective analgesia. Objective:
      This study evaluated the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia in children with severe MIH, post-eruptive enamel breakdown, and hypersensitivity. Methodology: Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg child weight) or placebo was administered, followed by infiltrative anesthesia and restoration with resin composite. Hypersensitivity was evaluated in five moments. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and t-test. Results: Preemptive analgesia provided benefits for the treatment of severe cases of MIH, with an increase in the effectiveness of infiltrative anesthesia and improved patient comfort during the restorative procedure. Conclusion: Preemptive analgesia has shown efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity during restorative dental procedures, evidencing the significance of this study for patients with MIH and hypersensitivity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Residual stress estimated by nanoindentation in pontics and abutments of
           veneered zirconia fixed dental prostheses

    • Authors: Vinicius Pavesi Fardin, Gerson Bonfante, Paulo G Coelho, Edmara T. P. Bergamo, Dimorvan Bordin, Malvin N. Janal, Nick Tovar, Lukasz Witek, Estevam A. Bonfante
      Abstract: Glass ceramics’ fractures in zirconia fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) remains a clinical challenge since it has higher fracture rates than the gold standard, metal ceramic FDP. Nanoindentation has been shown a reliable tool to determine residual stress of ceramic systems, which can ultimately correlate to failure-proneness. Objectives: To assess residual tensile stress using nanoindentation in veneered three-unit zirconia FDPs at different surfaces of pontics and abutments. Methodology: Three composite resin replicas of the maxillary first premolar and crown-prepared abutment first molar were made to obtain three-unit FDPs. The FDPs were veneered with glass ceramic containing fluorapatite crystals and resin cemented on the replicas, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned, and polished. Each specimen was subjected to nanoindentation in the following regions of interest: 1) Mesial premolar abutment (MPMa); 2) Distal premolar abutment (DPMa); 3) Buccal premolar abutment (BPMa); 4) Lingual premolar abutment (LPMa); 5) Mesial premolar pontic (MPMp); 6) Distal premolar pontic (DPMp); 7) Buccal premolar pontic (BPMp); 8) Lingual premolar pontic (LPMp); 9) Mesial molar abutment (MMa); 10) Distal molar abutment (DMa); 11) Buccal molar abutment (BMa); and 12) Lingual molar abutment (LMa). Data were assessed using Linear Mixed Model and Least Significant Difference (95%) tests. Results: Pontics had significantly higher hardness values than premolar (p=0.001) and molar (p=0.007) abutments, suggesting lower residual stress levels. Marginal ridges yielded higher hardness values for connectors (DPMa, MMa, MPMp and DPMp) than for outer proximal surfaces of abutments (MPMa and DMa). The mesial marginal ridge of the premolar abutment (MPMa) had the lowest hardness values, suggesting higher residual stress concentration. Conclusions: Residual stress in three-unit FDPs was lower in pontics than in abutments. The outer proximal surfaces of the abutments had the highest residual stress concentration.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Expression of anti-fungal peptide, β-defensin 118 in oral fibroblasts
           induced by C. albicans β-glucan-containing particles

    • Authors: Miyuki Sakuma, Kouji Ohta, Shohei Fukada, Hiroki Kato, Takako Naruse, Takayuki Nakagawa, Hideo Shigeishi, Hiromi Nishi, Masaaki Takechi
      Abstract: Objective: Although oral fibroblasts are thought to have the potential to enhance host defenses against Candida albicans , it is unknown whether they are able to recognize Candida cell components to increase the expression of antifungal peptides, such as defensin factors, against Candida infection. Methodology: We performed expression profiles of defensin genes induced by heat-killed C. albicans in oral immortalized fibroblasts (GT1) using cDNA microarray analysis. From those results, quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the effects of Candida β-glucan-containing particles (β-GPs) on β-Defensin 118 (DEFB 118) expression in oral mucosal cells. Furthermore, the antifungal activities of recombinant DEFB 118 against C. albicans and C. glabrata were investigated using fungicidal assays. Results: Microarray analysis showed that DEFB118, β-Defensin 129 (DEFB129), and α-Defensin 1 (DEFA1) genes were induced by heat-killed C. albicans and that their mRNA expressions were also significantly increased by live as well as heat-killed C. albicans . Next, we focused on DEFB118, and found that GT1, primary fibroblasts, and RT7 (oral immortalized keratinocytes) constitutively expressed DEFB118 mRNA expression in RT-PCR. Furthermore, C. albicans β-GPs significantly increased the expression of DEFB118 mRNA in GT1 and primary fibroblasts. Although DEFB118 mRNA expression in RT7 was significantly induced by both live and heat-killed C. albicans, C. albicans β-GPs failed to have an effect on that expression. Finally, recombinant DEFB118 significantly decreased the survival of both strains of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no effects were seen for both C. glabrata strains. Conclusion: DEFB118, induced by C. albicans β-GPs from oral fibroblasts, may play an important role in oral immune responses against C. albicans infection.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Long-term effects of simulated gastric juice alternated with brushing on
           hardness, substance loss, flexural strength and reliability of CAD-CAM
           monolithic materials

    • Authors: Jailson Rodrigues Oliveira Junior, Marlon Eduardo Menezes da Cruz, Lívia Nordi Dovigo, Renata Garcia Fonseca
      Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate, over a simulated 5-year period, the effect of simulated gastric juice alternated with brushing on CAD-CAM monolithic materials considering microhardness, substance loss, flexural strength, and reliability of the materials. Methodology: Blocks from Lava Ultimate (LU), Vita Enamic (VE), IPS Empress CAD (EMP), IPS e.max CAD (EMAX), and Vita Suprinity (VS) were milled into cylinders and sliced into disks. The EMAX and VS were crystallized, and all specimens were polished with silicon carbide papers and allocated as follows: 1) artificial saliva + brushing or 2) simulated gastric juice (0.113% hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution in deionized water, pH 1.2) + brushing, simulating 1, 3, and 5 years of clinical function. Each year of clinical function was simulated by three repetitions of immersion for 3 hours in artificial saliva or simulated gastric juice followed by 1,217 brushing cycles. The microhardness and substance loss were evaluated at baseline (T0) and at each year by using a Vickers hardness tester and an analytical balance. The biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test was performed in a mechanical testing machine at the end of the 5th year. Weibull modulus was calculated from the BFS data. Results: The microhardness of the LU was not influenced by the treatment, whereas that of the other materials, in certain years, was significantly lower in the gastric juice + brushing groups in comparison with artificial saliva + brushing groups. In general, the materials did not present a significant change in microhardness over time, for either of the treatments. The LU alone showed greater substance loss in the gastric juice + brushing groups for every year. In both treatments, the LU, VE, and EMP exhibited a significant increase in the substance loss over time. The treatment did not affect the BFS of the materials. The gastric juice + brushing decreased the reliability of the VE. Conclusions: All materials were somehow impaired by the gastric juice + brushing in at least one of the evaluated parameters, except for the BFS. However, in a deeper analysis, the LU would be the least indicated materials, followed by VE, for patients with eating disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • DNMT3B (rs2424913) polymorphism is associated with systemic lupus
           erythematosus alone and with co-existing periodontitis in a Brazilian

    • Authors: Larissa Nadine da Silva Dias, Marina de Castro Coêlho, Darlene Camati Persuhn, Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro, Eutilia Andrade Medeiros Freire, Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira, Sabrina Garcia de Aquino
      Abstract: The association between Periodontitis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) has been primarily based on their similar pathophysiology and both are associated with genetic polymorphisms. Objectives: To investigate an association between the methylation-related gene polymorphisms DNMT3B (rs2424913) and MTHFR (rs1801133) to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Periodontitis. Methodology: In total, 196 individuals of all genders aged 24 to 60 years old were allocated into four groups based on their systemic and periodontal status, namely: Healthy control (n=60), periodontitis (n=51), SLE (n=47), and SLE + periodontitis (n=38). Individuals with SLE were stratified according to disease activity (SLEDAI) in inactive or active. We performed polymorphism analysis using PCR-RFLP with genomic DNA from mouthwash. We analyzed data using Fisher’s Exact, Chi-square test, and regression models. Results: Periodontal status were similar in subjects with periodontitis alone and combined with SLE. SLE patients with periodontitis had a longer SLE diagnosis than SLE only (p=0.001). For DNMT3 B polymorphism, the periodontitis, SLE, and Inactive SLE + periodontitis groups showed a higher frequency of T allele and TT genotypes compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Regression analyses showed that the TT genotype is a strong risk factor for periodontitis (OR=4.53; CI95%=1.13–18.05) and also for SLE without periodontitis (OR=11.57; CI95%=3.12–42.84) and SLE with periodontitis (OR=5.27; CI95%=1.25–22.11) when compared to control. Conclusion: SLE patients with periodontitis had a longer length of SLE diagnosis. The DNMT3B (rs2424913) polymorphism was associated with periodontitis and SLE alone or combined with periodontitis. Our study contributes to understanding the genetic mechanisms involved in periodontitis and SLE susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Different formulations of peracetic acid: effects on smear layer removal,
           dentine erosion, cytotoxicity and antibiofilm activity

    • Authors: Kennia Scapin Viola, Hernán Coaguila-Llerena, Elisandra Marcia Rodrigues, Cíntia Silva Santos, Gisselle Moraima Chávez-Andrade, Miriam Graziele Magro, Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Gisele Faria
      Abstract: Objective: To assess the effects of different peracetic acid (PAA) formulations on smear layer (SL) removal, dentine erosion, cytotoxicity, and antibiofilm activity. Methodology: SL removal and dentine erosion were assessed using 90 premolars, distributed into six groups, according to final irrigation: PAA formulations (1% Sigma, 1% Bacterend OX, 1% Arposept, and 0.09-0.15% Anioxyde), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and water (control). Cytotoxicity was assessed by methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effectiveness was evaluated against Enterococcus faecalis. For cytotoxicity and antibiofilm activity assessment, the 2.5% NaOCl was also included. Results: EDTA, Sigma, and Bacterend OX removed more SL than Arposept, Anioxyde, and water (p<0.05). EDTA caused more severe dentine erosion than Sigma and Bacterend OX (p<0.05). Sigma and Bacterend OX had higher cytotoxicity than the other solutions (p<0.05). NaOCl, Bacterend OX, Sigma, and Anioxyde significantly reduced E. faecalis colony-forming units (CFU) (p<0.05). The 2.5% NaOCl solution promoted greater biofilm biomass reduction (p<0.05) than the other solutions. All PAA formulations promoted greater biomass reduction than 17% EDTA (p<0.05). Conclusions: Although Sigma and Bacterend OX had higher cytotoxicity, they had a SL removal capability similar to that of EDTA, were as effective as NaOCl against E. faecalis biofilm, and promoted less dentine erosion than EDTA. Arposept and Anioxyde failed to remove the SL, had lower cytotoxicity, and showed less bacterial activity than NaOCl.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Periodontal status of maxillary central incisors after orthodontic

    • Authors: Louise Resti Calil, Guilherme Janson, Vinicius Merino da Silva, Marcos Roberto de Freitas, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga de Almeida, Daniela Garib
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic periodontal status of impacted permanent maxillary central incisors (Mx.1) after a long term of orthodontic traction. Methodology: This split-mouth study evaluated a sample of 11 patients (five females, six males) treated with Mx.1 unilateral traction one to 28 years after the removal of orthodontic appliances. The traction Group (TG) consisted of 11 Mx.1 and the Comparison Group (CG) comprised 11 spontaneously erupted contralateral Mx.1. High-resolution CBCT exams of central incisors were performed using Accuitomo (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan). Cross-section imagens passing through the center of maxillary central incisors were used to measure buccal and lingual alveolar bone level. Presence of fenestration, root dilacerations, root coverage, and position of the root apex were also assessed in the same images. Clinical parameters included periodontal probing depth, attachment level, gingival bleeding index, plaque index, degree of gingival recession, amount of gingival mucosa, and evaluation of interproximal papilla and black triangle. Digital model analysis included an assessment of clinical crown height and width. Intergroup comparisons were performed using paired t-, McNemar’s, and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05). Results: Compared to CG, we found a significantly thinner labial bone plate thickness in TG at the middle (p=0.000) and apical (p=0.009) root level. We also observed an apical displaced labial bone crest level in TG (p=0.000). The Traction Group showed a greater frequency of root dilacerations and gingival recessions, a decreased amount of keratinized mucosa, and a decreased clinical attachment level at the labial aspect compared to contralateral teeth.  Conclusions: A decreased thickness and height of labial alveolar bone and gingival recessions were found in maxillary central incisors 15 years after orthodontic traction. Though incisor traction might cause some periodontal impact, differences are acceptable under a clinical point of view considering the cost-benefit ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells surpass the capacity of bone marrow aspirate
           concentrate for periodontal regeneration

    • Authors: Camila Alves Costa, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Rodrigo Paolo Flores Abuna, Thaisângela Lopes Rodrigues, Sérgio Luis Scombatti de Souza, Daniela Bazan Palioto
      Abstract: Regenerative approaches using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been evaluated to promote the complete formation of all missing periodontal tissues, e.g., new cementum, bone, and functional periodontal ligaments. MSCs derived from bone marrow have been applied to bone and periodontal defects in several forms, including bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and cultured and isolated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal regeneration capacity of BMAC and cultured BM-MSCs in the wound healing of fenestration defects in rats. Methodology: BM-MSCs were obtained after bone marrow aspiration of the isogenic iliac crests of rats, followed by cultivation and isolation. Autogenous BMAC was collected and centrifuged immediately before surgery. In 36 rats, fenestration defects were created and treated with suspended BM-MSCs, BMAC or left to spontaneously heal (control) (N=6). Their regenerative potential was assessed by microcomputed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometry, as well as their cell phenotype and functionality by the Luminex assay at 15 and 30 postoperative days. Results: BMAC achieved higher bone volume in 30 days than spontaneous healing (p<0.0001) by enhancing osteoblastic lineage commitment maturation, with higher levels of osteopontin (p=0.0013). Defects filled with cultured BM-MSCs achieved higher mature bone formation in early stages than spontaneous healing and BMAC (p=0.0241 and p=0.0143, respectively). Moreover, significantly more cementum-like tissue formation (p<0.0001) was observed with new insertion of fibers in specimens treated with BM-MSCs within 30 days. Conclusion: Both forms of cell transport, BMAC and BM-MSCs, promoted bone formation. However, early bone formation and maturation were achieved when cultured BM-MSCs were used. Likewise, only cultured BM-MSCs were capable of achieving complete periodontal regeneration with inserted fibers in the new cementum-like tissue.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Characterization of white spot lesions formed on human enamel under
           microcosm biofilm for different experimental periods

    • Authors: Flávia Mauad Levy, Aline Silva Braga, Vinícius Taioqui Pelá, Stacey Lavender, Dennis Zhang, Shira Pilch, Zilson Malheiros, Bernal Stewart, Ana Carolina Magalhães, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf
      Abstract: The initial characteristics of white spot lesion (WSLs), such as the degree of integrated mineral loss (ΔZ), depth and pattern of mineral distribution, have an impact on further demineralization and remineralization. However, these lesion parameters have not been evaluated in WSLs produced from microcosm biofilms. Objective: This study characterized artificial white spot lesions produced on human enamel under microcosm biofilm for different experimental periods. Methodology: In total, 100 human enamel specimens (4x4mm) were assigned to 5 distinct groups (n=20/group) differing according to the period of biofilm formation (2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days). Microcosm biofilm was produced on the specimens from a mixture of human and McBain saliva at the first 8h. Enamel samples were then exposed to McBain saliva containing 0.2% sucrose. WSLs formed were characterized by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results: A clear time-response pattern was observed for both analyses, but TMR was able to better discriminate among the lesions. Regarding QLF analysis, median (95%CI; %) changes in fluorescence ∆Z were -7.74(-7.74:-6.45)a, -8.52(-8.75:-8.00)ab, -9.17(-10.00:-8.71)bc, -9.58(-10.53:-8.99)bc and -10.01(-11.44:-9.72)c for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days, respectively. For TMR, median (95%CI; vol%.µm) ∆Z were 1410(1299-1479)a, 2420(2327-2604)ab, 2775(2573-2899)bc, 3305(3192-3406)cd and 4330(3972-4465)d, whereas mean (SD; µm) lesion depth were 53.7(12.3)a, 71.4(12.0)a, 103.8(24.8)b, 130.5(27.2)bc, 167.2(39.3)c for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. Conclusion: The progression of WSLs formed on human enamel under microcosm biofilm can be characterized over 2-10 days, both by QLF and TMR analyses, although the latter provides better discrimination among the lesions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Photobiomodulation reduces inflammation but does not influence the
           hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in pulp tissue of rats after bleaching

    • Authors: Isabela Joane Prado Silva, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra, Edilson Ervolino, Hebertt Gonzaga dos Santos Chaves, Gustavo Sivieri-AraúJo, André Luiz Fraga Briso, Leopoldo Cosme-Silva, Francine Benetti
      Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the influence of photobiomodulation with infrared laser (IRL) in the rat pulp tissue after bleaching, considering the immunolabeling of interleukin (IL)-23 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Methodology: The right and left molars of forty rats were divided into groups: Control – with placebo gel and Bleached – with 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Half of the rats received one IRL application on both sides, establishing a split-mouth design, which resulted in 4 groups with 20 hemi-maxillae each: Control, Bleach, IRL, and Bleached-IRL. Rats (n=10) from each group were euthanized, at 2- and 30-days mark, and the pulp tissue was evaluated using inflammation and immunolabeling scores. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical tests were performed (p<0.05). Results: At the 2-days mark, the Bleached group had severe inflammation and necrosis in the occlusal thirds of the pulp, and moderate to severe inflammation in cervical third, whereas the Bleached-IRL had mild to moderate inflammation (p<0.05). At the 30-days mark, there was no inflammation, but tertiary dentine formation in the bleached groups. Regarding IL-23, severe immunolabeling was observed in the Bleached group (p<0.05) at the 2-days mark; at the 30-days mark, there was a reduction in immunolabeling, in which the Bleached group had moderate and the Bleached-IRL group had mild immunolabeling (p>0.05). HIF-1α was more evident at the 2-days mark in the Bleached group, without significant difference with the Bleached-IRL (p>0.05). The difference was observed between the bleached and control groups, without immunolabeling (p<0.05); at the 30-days mark, the Bleached group had reduction in HIF-1α immunolabeling, while the Bleached-IRL had an increase; the difference remained between the bleached and the controls groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Photobiomodulation using IRL minimized the inflammation and IL-23 immunolabeling in the pulp tissue of rats after dental bleaching, but did not influence significantly the HIF-1α immunolabeling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Genetic polymorphisms of genes involved in oxidative stress and
           inflammatory management in oncopediatric patients with chemo-induced oral

    • Authors: Marina Castro Coêlho, José Maria Chagas Viana Filho, Beatriz Fernades de Souza, Ana Maria Gondim Valença, Darlene Camati Persuhn, Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira
      Abstract: Oral mucositis (OM) is a painful inflammatory oral condition that affects children who undergo chemotherapy. Oxidative stress is a known OM mediator and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the amplification of the immune response. Objective: To investigate the possible associations of rs4880 (superoxide dismutase 2, SOD2 47 C/T), rs7943316 (catalase, CAT −21 A/T), rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor α, TNF- α −308 G/A), and rs1800795 (interleukin 6, IL-6 −174 G/C) polymorphisms with chemo-induced OM occurrence and severity in oncopediatric patients. Methodology: We conducted a single-center, observational cross-sectional study with sample collection of oral epithelial cells from 95 children and adolescents with hematological cancers who underwent chemotherapy, followed by genomic DNA extraction. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed with PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Demographic data and information concerning OM occurrence were obtained from dental charts of the multidisciplinary oral care team. Information on OM severity was obtained from appropriately-filled Oral Assessment Guide records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted with Student's T test, chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test, with p≤0.05. Results: The mean age was 10 years-old and most patients were male individuals (57.89%). Female sex was considered a protective factor for OM occurrence (OR=4.83; CI=[1.14; 16.57]). The AA genotype for CAT was the most frequent amongst individuals with severe OM (p=0.04). The GA genotype for TNF- α was the most frequent amongst individuals without severe OM (p=0.03). For SOD2 and IL-6 , the most frequent genotypes were CT and GG respectively for all groups (p>0.05). Conclusion:
      The AA genotype for CAT −21 A/T was a tendency among the group with severe OM. Data on TNF- α −308 G/A were inconclusive. No associations were detected for SOD2 47 C/T and IL-6 −174 G/C polymorphisms in oncopediatric patients with chemo-induced oral mucositis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Effect of systemic antibiotic and probiotic therapies as adjuvant
           treatments of subgingival instrumentation for periodontitis: a randomized
           controlled clinical study

    • Authors: Tatiane Caroline de Souza Ramos, Mariéllen Longo Vilas Boas, Camilla Magnoni Moretto Nunes, Camila Lopes Ferreira , Cláudio Mendes Pannuti, Mauro Pedrine Santamaria, Maria Aparecida Neves Jardini
      Abstract: Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of two adjunct therapies (antibiotic and probiotic) for periodontal treatment based on clinical and immunological parameters in patients with Stage II and III Grade B periodontitis. Methodology: 45 patients were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CG); antibiotic group (GAtb), in which 500 mg amoxicillin + 400 mg metronidazole were used; and probiotic group (GProb), for which Lactobacillus reuteri was used. Patients received medications after undergoing periodontal debridement. Clinical and immunological parameters were assessed at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days. Results: All therapies reduced bleeding on probing (BoP) in the evaluated periods, and the GAtb had a greater reduction at 90 days (p=0.03). The GProb group showed better results for plaque index (PI) and gingival recession (GR) compared to the GAtb at 90 days (p=0.0014; p=0.006). The area of inflammation (PISA Index) significantly decreased in all therapies in the evaluated periods. Therapies had no significant differences regarding moderate pockets. The GAtb had a greater reduction in probing depth (PD) for deep pockets (p=0.03) at 90 days and in the number of deep pocket sites at 30 days (p=0.04). The occurrence of adverse effects was commonly reported in the GAtb as a percentage per patient. The GAtb had a significant reduction in the concentration of interleukins IL-1β and IL-8 and an increase in IL-10 and TNF-α. The CG had a reduction in IL-6 and IL-1 β, whereas in the GProb there was no difference. Conclusion: After three months, none of the adjuvant therapies provided any additional benefit for subgingival instrumentation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Novel pulp capping material based on sodium trimetaphosphate: synthesis,
           characterization, and antimicrobial properties

    • Authors: Nayara Rodrigues Sartori Franzin, Michela Melissa Duarte Seixas Sostena, Alailson Domingos dos Santos, Marcia Regina Moura, Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo, Thayse Yumi Hosida, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, João Carlos Silos Moraes
      Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical, physicochemical, and antimicrobial properties of four different formulations containing micro- or nanoparticles of sodium trimetaphosphate (mTMP and nTMP, respectively). Methodology: Four experimental groups were used in this investigation: two mTMP groups and two nTMP groups, each containing zirconium oxide (ZrO2), and solution containing either chitosan or titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Setting time, compression resistance, and radiopacity were estimated. The agar diffusion test was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of the formulations against five different microbial strains: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were performed after evaluating homoscedasticity data (p<0.05). Results: From the properties evaluated, nTMP cements required less setting time and showed greater resistance to compression. Cements containing TiO2 showed greater radiopacity for both nTMP and mTMP. All four cement formulations showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. casei.  Conclusion: Formulations containing nTMP have shorter setting times and higher compressive strength, and those with TiO2 nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities. Clinical relevance: The cement containing nTMP, ZrO2, and TiO2 could be an alternative material for protecting the pulp complex.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Comparison between the rotary (Hyflex EDM®) and manual (k-file) technique
           for instrumentation of primary molars: a 12-month randomized clinical
           follow-up study

    • Authors: Andressa Cardoso Amorim, Amanda Valentim Caldeira, Samara Catarino Sampaio, Natalino Lourenço Neto, Thais Marchini Oliveira, Denismar Alves Nogueira, Ana Beatriz da Silveira Moretti, Vivien Thiemy Sakai
      Abstract: Rotational instrumentation is an alternative for the clinical practice of pediatric dentists. However, there are few records in the literature on the clinical and radiographic aspects of treated teeth over time. Objectives: Compare instrumentation time and filling quality between manual (k-file) and rotary (Hyflex EDM®) files, and clinically and radiographically follow-up the treated teeth for 12 months. Moreover, the characteristics of glass ionomer restorations and their interference in the treatment prognosis over time were evaluated. Methodology: In total, 40 children with pulp involvement in primary molars received treatment with Hyflex EDM® or manual rotary files, performed by an operator. Clinical and radiographic aspects were observed at different times to determine the effectiveness of each technique. Results: The rotary system reduced instrumentation time when compared to the use of manual files (p≤0.05), but there was no difference in filling quality between the groups (p≥0.05). Moreover, both types of instrumentation were effective for 12 months (p≥0.05), and restoration retention influenced the emergence of periapical lesions (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Although rotary files reduce clinical time, the clinical and radiographic aspects of both techniques were similar over 12 months. Moreover, restoration retention has been shown to be related to treatment prognosis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0527
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Can the delta neutrophil ındex be used as a preliminary biomarker ın the
           evaluation of periodontal disease: a pilot study

    • Authors: Eda Çetin Özdemir, Emrah Bilen, Fatih M. Yazar
      Abstract: Objective: Tissue destruction in periodontal diseases is related to inflammatory mediators in the host. However, it is unknown whether a relationship between delta neutrophil index (DNI) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in Stage 3 Grade A patients occurs. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and DNI and NLR. Methodology: The study included 74 systemically healthy, non-smoking adults separated into 3 groups. Group 1: 26 subjects with good periodontal health, Group 2: 26 subjects with gingivitis, and Group 3: 22 subjects with Stage 3 Grade A periodontitis. After determining which group the patient will be included in, a clinical periodontal examination was made of each patient and pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PI) parameters were measured. Venous blood samples were taken and examined with an automatic hematology analyzer for DNI, immature granulocytes (IG), NLR, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count. Results: DNI, IG, CRP, and neutrophil count were observed to be highest in Group 3, followed by Group 2, and the difference between the groups in these parameters was determined to be statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.046, p=0.016). DNI, IG, CRP and neutrophil count were observed to be positively correlated with periodontal parameters. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the role of DNI as a new biomarker for periodontal diseases. DNI may better reflect the systemic level of stage 3 grade A periodontitis than traditional inflammatory markers.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0555
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in subjects with
           different stages of periodontitis according to the new classification

    • Authors: Ahu Dikilitas, Fatih Karaaslan, Esra Özge Aydin, Umut Yigit, Abdullah Seckin Ertugrul
      Abstract: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates inflammatory responses in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) for GM-CSF, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) levels in patients with stage I, stage II, stage III, and stage IV periodontitis (SI-P, SII-P, SIII-P, and SIV-P). Methodology: A total of 126 individuals were recruited for this study, including 21 periodontal healthy (PH), 21 gingivitis (G), 21 SI-P, 21 SII-P, 21 SIII-P, and 21 SIV-P patients. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), presence of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and attachment loss (AL) were used during the clinical periodontal assessment. GCF samples were obtained and analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: GCF GM-CSF, MIP-1α, and IL-1β were significantly higher in SII-P and SIII-P groups than in PH, G, and SI-P groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference among the PH, G, and SI-P groups in IL-1β, GM-CSF, and MIP-1α levels (p>0.05). Conclusions: These results show that GM-CSF expression was increased in SII-P, SIII-P, and SIV-P. Furthermore, GM-CSF levels may have some potential to discriminate between early and advanced stages of periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0423
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Effect of fluoride, chlorhexidine or Nd:YAG on the progression of root

    • Authors: Sérgio Eduardo de Paiva Gonçalves, Ana Carolina Magalhães, Eduardo Bresciani, Aline Silva Braga, Lucélia Lemes Gonçalves, Tânia Mara da Silva, Andrea Maselli
      Abstract: Quantification of collagen degradation is an important parameter to evaluate dentin caries for preventive aid. Objectives: Evaluate preventive methods against root collagen degradation by the hydroxyproline assay (HYP) and microradiography technique (MRT). Methodology: Five bovine root dentin blocks were obtained and subjected to an artificial demineralization process by acetate buffer (pH 5) to induce carious lesion formation. Samples were subjected to the following therapeutic treatments: 1) 0.12% chlorhexidine for 1 min, 2) 2% fluoride for 1 min, 3) Nd:YAG Laser (400 μm diameter optical fiber, 10 Hz frequency, 60 mJ/pulse energy, 48 J/cm2 energy density, in noncontact mode for 10 s), 4) deionized water (control) for 1 min, 5) MRT control group (without treatment and removal of collagen). Samples were exposed to degradation by a collagenase enzyme for five days. The enzyme solution was collected, by colorimetry in a spectrophotometer, from the collagen matrix for the hydroxyproline release analysis. The same samples were subjected to an additional two days of demineralization to induce the progression of mineral loss. Samples were analyzed by MRT for the visualization of their degraded areas (estimation of lesion depth and mineral loss). ANOVA was applied to compare hydroxyproline release rates. MRT data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Dunn’s test. Comparisons between the initial five-day and the subsequent two-day demineralization processes were performed by repeated t-test or Wilcoxon (p<0.05) measurements. Results: The amount of HYP released from the dentin samples failed to show significant differences among the groups (p=0.09). Fluoride and chlorhexidine were able to interact with the samples, reducing the progression of dentin caries after removal of the demineralized organic matrix. CHX was the only treatment able to show significant lower lesion depth than the negative control. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine and fluoride were effective in reducing root caries progression.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0496
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Therapeutic potential of PPARα agonist in ligature-induced
           experimental periodontitis

    • Authors: Ying Chen, Yang Hu
      Abstract: Inflammation-related immune responses and bone metabolism lead to extensive tooth loss in periodontitis. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist anti-inflammatory treatment in vitro and in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in vivo . Methodology: Splenocytes were isolated from C57BL/6J mice and cultured for 48 hours under the following conditions: control, P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml); experimental, LPS (1 µg/ml) + PPARα agonist (fenofibrate) at 1, 10, 50, 100 µM. MRNA and secreted protein levels of TNF-α expression were detected by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Silk ligatures (7-0) were tied around maxillary second molars of C57BL/6J mice for two weeks. Optimized doses of fenofibrate (50 µM) and vehicle control were injected into the contralateral side of the palatal gingiva on days three, six, and nine. At day 14, bone resorption, osteoclastogenesis, and gingival mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and RANKL/OPG were measured by micro-computed tomography, Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and Real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Results: TNF-α expression in cultured spleen cells were significantly increased in the presence of LPS, when compared with the control group, and significantly reduced by fenofibrate treatment in a dose-dependent manner from 1-100 µM (p<0.05). Gingival mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and the ratio of RANKL/OPG, were significantly decreased after injection of fenofibrate, when compared to the control side (p<0.05). Periodontal bone loss and TRAP positive cell formation were significantly decreased on the side with an injection of fenofibrate, as compared to the control side (p<0.05). Conclusions: An anti-inflammatory treatment, PPARα agonist, inhibited inflammation and periodontal bone loss in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0648
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Drug delivery systems for oral disease applications

    • Authors: Yue Zhang, Ruining Jiang, Lei Lei, Yingming Yang, Tao Hu
      Abstract: There are many restrictions on topical medications for the oral cavity. Various factors affect the topical application of drugs in the oral cavity, an open and complex environment. The complex physical and chemical environment of the oral cavity, such as saliva and food, will influence the effect of free drugs. Therefore, drug delivery systems have served as supporting structures or as carriers loading active ingredients, such as antimicrobial agents and growth factors (GFs), to promote antibacterial properties, tissue regeneration, and engineering for drug diffusion. These drug delivery systems are considered in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, periodontal disease, periapical disease, the delivery of anesthetic drugs, etc. These carrier materials are designed in different ways for clinical application, including nanoparticles, hydrogels, nanofibers, films, and scaffolds. This review aimed to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of different carrier materials. We discuss synthesis methods and their application scope to provide new perspectives for the development and preparation of more favorable and effective local oral drug delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0349
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Formulations of desensitizing toothpastes for dentin hypersensitivity: a
           scoping review

    • Authors: Carolina Castro Martins, John Joseph Riva, Ramon Targino Firmino, Holger Jens Schünemann
      Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to review evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to describe: 1) the active ingredients and desensitizing toothpaste brands; 2) the evaluation of these active ingredients over time, and 3) the fluoride and abrasive content in the formulations designed to treat dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methodology: In total, 138 RCTs and their tested toothpastes were included. Searches were updated up to August 19, 2021. Formulations, reported brands, active ingredients over time, and type of fluoride (ionizable or ionic fluoride) and abrasive (calcium or silica-based) were analyzed (PROSPERO #CRD42018086815). Results: Our trials assessed 368 toothpaste formulations, including 34 placebo (9%), 98 control toothpastes with fluoride (27%), and 236 (64%) with active ingredients to treat DH. We tested the following active ingredients: potassium compounds (n=68, 19%), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP) (n=37, 10%), strontium compounds (n=28, 8%), arginine (n=29, 8%), stannous fluoride (SnF2) (n=21, 6%), hydroxyapatite (n=9, 2%), potassium combined with another active ingredient (n=19, 5%), inorganic salt compounds (n=11, 3%), citrate (n=5, 1%), formaldehyde (n=3, 1%), herbal (n=4, 1%), copolymer (n=1, 0.5%), and trichlorophosphate (TCP) (n=1, 0.5%). The number of toothpaste formulations increased since 1968, with the greatest increment after 2010. Most toothpastes described their type of fluoride as sodium monofluorphosphate (MFP) (n=105, 29%) and NaF (n=82, 22%), with silica-based (n=84, 23%) and calcium-based (n=64, 17%) abrasives. Conclusion: Patients and dentists enjoy an increasing number of brands and active ingredients to decide what desensitizing toothpaste to use. The most common types of fluoride are MFP and NaF.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0410
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Immunoexpression of PD-L1, CD4+ and CD8+ cell infiltrates and
           tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the microenvironment of actinic
           cheilitis and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma

    • Authors: Vinícius Gonçalves de Souza, Damilys Joelly Souza Santos, Ana Gabriela Silva, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro, Adriano Mota Loyola, Sérgio Vitorino Cardoso, Carla Silva Siqueira Miranda, Ludimila Paula Vaz Cardoso
      Abstract: Lower lip squamous cell carcinomas (LLSCC) could be associated with a previous history of potentially malignant oral diseases (PMOD), especially actinic cheilitis (AC), with high sun exposure being a well-described risk factor. Immune evasion mechanisms, such as the PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1) pathway has been gaining prominence since immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors showed a positive effect on the survival of patients with different types of neoplasms. Concomitant with the characterization of the tumor microenvironment, the expression of either or both PD-1 and PD-L1 molecules may estimate mutual relations of progression or regression of the carcinoma and prognostic values of the patient. Objective: Considering the importance of tumor microenvironment characterization, this study aims to determine the immunoexpression of PD-L1 and correlate with the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in AC and LLSCC lesions and with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in LLSCC and its relationship with histopathological characteristics. Methodology: This sample includes 33 cases of AC and 17 cases of LLSCC. The cases were submitted to histopathological analysis and to CD4+, CD8+, and PD-L1+ cell determination by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a significant difference among the frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, and PD-L1+ cells between AC and LSCC cases, higher in the last group. Moreover, histopathological and atypical changes in AC and LLSCC were correlated with the frequencies of PD-L1+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells. In AC, PD-L1+ cases had a low frequency of CD4+ cells, but on the other hand, PD-L1+ cases of LLSCC had a higher frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Conclusion: Therefore, the PD-L1 molecule may be a potential escape route for the immune response in oral lesions, but the mechanisms differ between AC and LLSCC. Future studies related to immune evasion and immunotherapy in oral lesions should consider the analysis of inflammatory infiltrate and TILs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0344
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Expression of epithelial growth factors and of apoptosis-regulating
           proteins, and presence of CD57+ cells in the development of inflammatory
           periapical lesions

    • Authors: Walter Arthur Silva Valente, Déborah Barrocas, Luciana Armada, Fábio Ramôa Pires
      Abstract: The mechanisms that stimulate the proliferation of epithelial cells in inflammatory periapical lesions are not completely understood and the literature suggests that changes in the balance between apoptosis and immunity regulation appear to influence this process.  Objective: To evaluate the expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF), its receptor (EGFR) and of the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), the presence of CD57+ cells, the epithelial cell proliferation index, and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein in inflammatory periapical lesions (IPL) at different stages of development. Methodology: Our sample was composed of 52 IPLs (22 periapical granulomas - PG - and 30 periapical cysts - PC), divided into three groups: PGs, small PCs, and large PCs. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Sections were evaluated according to the amount of positive staining for each antibody. Results: We found no significant differences among the groups regarding Bcl-2 (p=0.328) and Ki-67 (p>0.05) expression or the presence of CD57+ cells (p=0.748). EGF (p=0.0001) and KGF (p=0.0001) expression was more frequent in PCs than in PGs, and CD57+ cells were more frequent in IPLs with intense inflammatory infiltrates (p=0.0001). We found no significant differences in KGF (p=0.423), Bcl-2 (p=0.943), and EGF (p=0.53) expression in relation to inflammatory infiltrates or to the type of PC epithelial lining, but observed greater KGF expression (p=0.0001) in initial PCs. EGFR expression was similar among the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: More frequent EGF and KGF expression in PCs and the greater presence of CD57+ cells in lesions with intense inflammatory infiltrates suggest that these factors influence IPL development. The greater KGF expression in initial PCs suggests its importance for the initial stages of PC formation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0413
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Bone regeneration of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from
           peripheral blood cells in collagen sponge scaffolds

    • Authors: Hiroshi Kato, Katsuhito Watanabe, Akiko Saito, Shoko Onodera, Toshifumi Azuma, Masayuki Takano
      Abstract: Stem cell-based regeneration therapy offers new therapeutic options for patients with bone defects because of significant advances in stem cell research. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are the ideal material for bone regeneration therapy using stem cell, they are difficult to obtain. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are now considered an attractive tool in bone tissue engineering. Recently, the efficiency of establishing iPSCs has been improved by the use of the Sendai virus vector, and it has become easier to establish iPSCs from several type of somatic cells. In our previous study, we reported a method to purify osteogenic cells from iPSCs. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic ability of iPSCs derived from peripheral blood cells. Methodology: Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were obtained from human peripheral blood. Subsequently, T cells were selectively obtained from these MNCs and iPSCs were established using Sendai virus vectors. Established iPSCs were evaluated by the expression of undifferentiated markers and teratoma formation assays. Osteoblasts were induced from these iPSCs and evaluated by the expression of osteoblast markers. Additionally, the induced osteoblasts were transplanted into rat critical size calvaria bone defect models with collagen sponge scaffolds. Samples were evaluated by radiographical and histological assessments. Results: Induced osteoblasts expressed several osteoblast-specific markers. The results of radiographical and histological assessments revealed that the cell transplant group had bone formations superior to those of the control group. Conclusions: This study suggests that peripheral blood MNCs have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts. Although there are some hurdles in iPSC transplantation, osteoblasts obtained from MNC-iPSCs could be applied to bone regeneration therapy in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0491
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
  • Evaluation by 3D stereophotogrammetry of facial changes in edentulous
           patients after rehabilitation

    • Authors: Guilherme Hideki de Lima Toyoshima, Maria Giulia Rezende Pucciarelli, Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek, Chiarella Sforza, Márcio de Menezes, Thaís Marchini Oliveira, Simone Soares
      Abstract: To assess facial changes after oral rehabilitation with complete dentures (CDs) by 3D technology allows understanding the results of a treatment that changes facial proportions. Precise outcome parameters can improve decision making. Objective: This descriptive observational research aimed to assess facial changes in completely edentulous patients after oral rehabilitation with a CD by a 3D stereophotogrammetry system. Methodology: 30 edentulous patients (7 men and 23 women), aged 50 to 75, were analyzed with stereophotogrammetry at 28 previously determined anthropometric landmarks, at 2 different times: T1, before treatment, and T2, after inserting the CDs. Images were analyzed with a specific software for linear and angular measurements. The paired t-test was used to compare timestamps (α=0.05). Results: Major changes were observed in 7 of the 13 linear measures and 7 of the 9 angular measures. The following linear measurements had an increase: Sn-Gn (lower third of the face), Ls-Li (height of the vermilion lip), and ChL-ChR (mouth width). Sn-Ls (nasal philtrum height) decreased. For angular measurements, Sn-St-Pg (lower facial convexity) angles increased, and the Prn-Sn-Ls (nasolabial angle) and GoR-Pg-GoL (mandible convexity) angles decreased. Conclusions: Major facial changes in newly rehabilitated edentulous patients with CDs included an increase of the lower third of the face, of the vermilion lip, of mouth width, and of the lower facial convexity, and a decrease of the nasolabial angle and mandible convexity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2021-0462
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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