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DENTISTRY (266 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 256 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ação Odonto     Open Access  
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Odontologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Stomatologica Marisiensis Journal     Open Access  
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access  
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access  
AJO-DO Clinical Companion : An International Journal Dedicated to Excellence in Clinical Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuel Nordisk Odontologi     Full-text available via subscription  
Al-Rafidain Dental Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Orthodontic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access  
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avicenna Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BDJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Caries Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Caspian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
CES Odontología     Open Access  
Chiang Mai Dental Journal     Open Access  
Ciencia Odontológica     Open Access  
City Dental College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Advances in Periodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Laboratorial Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Dentistry Reviewed     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Oral Implants Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Oral Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cumhuriyet Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Oral Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dental Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dental Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dental Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Journal of Advance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dental Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dental Update     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry 3000     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Dentistry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dentistry Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Der Freie Zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
der junge zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
Die Quintessenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disease-a-Month     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ENDO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Endodontic Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
Endodontology     Open Access  
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Dental Research and Biomaterials Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Oral Implantology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Oral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access  
Evidence-Based Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Faculty Dental Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Giornale Italiano di Endodonzia     Open Access  
Implantologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal  
Insisiva Dental Journal     Open Access  
International Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Contemporary Dental and Medical Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forensic Odontology     Open Access  
International Journal of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Implant Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Odontostomatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Oral Care and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Prosthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Stomatological Research     Open Access  
International Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Japanese Dental Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JDR Clinical & Translational Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Academy of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesive Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Oral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Oral Science     Open Access  
Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Periodontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Craniomandibular Function     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dental Problems and Solutions     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Dentistry Defense Section     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dentistry for Children     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Endodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Academy of Dental Specialist Researchers     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Of International Dental And Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of International Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nepalese Prosthodontic Society (JNPS)     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalese Society of Periodontology and Oral Implantology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oral Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oral Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Orthodontic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Primary Care Dentistry and Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public Health Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Restorative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Of Syiah Kuala Dentistry Society     Open Access  
Journal of the American Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Canadian Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Clinical Dental Research Organization     Open Access  
Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Kesehatan Gigi     Open Access  
Kieferorthopädie     Full-text available via subscription  
Kiru : Revista de la Facultad de Odontología - Universidad de San Martín de Porres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lasers in Dental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Médecine Buccale Chirurgie Buccale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medicina Oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
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Lasers in Dental Science
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2367-2587
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Effects of different photobiomodulation therapy doses on cell viability
           after bacterial and ionizing radiation–induced stress: a pilot in vitro
           study

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      Abstract: Purpose Photobiomodulation therapy has proven to be effective in accelerating cell proliferation, migration, and transcription. The study aimed to analyze the cell viability effects of different parameters of PBMT in a cultured cell line of human gingival fibroblasts after bacterial and ionizing radiation–induced stress. Methods Explant technique was used to produce a primary cell culture. Cells were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with 10% fetal bovine serum until stressful condition induction with lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis protein extract, and ionizing radiation. Laser irradiation was carried out in four sessions set with 660 nm wavelength, an output power of 30 mW and 40 mW and energy density of 2, 3, 4, and 5 J/cm2. Results After 24 h from the last laser irradiation session, the groups outputted in 30 mW of power maintained the cell viability while operating with 2, 4, and 5 J/cm2. However, 3 J/cm2 dose significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05). When the laser irradiation session was set in a higher power (40 mW), cell viability was reduced using 2, 3, and 5 J/cm2 doses, with statistical significance for 5 J/cm2 (p < 0.001). In addition, operating the same energy using lower power seems to be superior to a higher power, being statically significant for 5 J/cm2 dose (p < 0.001). This pattern followed with all different groups, except by 3 J/cm2. Conclusions The present study showed that delivering 2, 4, and 5 J/ cm2 of density of energy with 30 mW and more time of exposure presented better results on cell viability compared to the same density of energy with output power of 40 mW. Further studies comparing density energy should be conducted.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Endodontic impact of cavitation and bubble formation induced by 2780-nm
           Er,Cr:YSGG laser using radial firing tips on simulated root canals

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      Abstract: Limited information exists regarding the induction of explosive vapor and cavitation bubbles in an endodontic rinsing solution. Despite several reports stating the positive effects of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser and radial firing tips (RFT) for root canal system cleansing and smear layer removal, no information is available regarding the basic behavior of cavitation in root canals. Thus, the aim of this visualization study was to understand the cavitation process generated by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, understand its previously reported clinical endodontic implications, and explore future ones. Methods This study investigates the fluid movements and the mechanism of action caused by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser and RFT in a transparent root model using the most commonly reported settings (1.25 W, 60 µs, 50 Hz). Results Results were obtained by a high-speed imaging technique that allowed to observe each individual emitted pulse and their effect in both free water environment and transparent root canal model, resulting in an image of the laser-bubble activity every 10 µs. From this experimental set-up, it was possible to visualize for the first time and attest the speed and diameters of the primary cavitation bubbles, their evolution, and behavior over time. It was also possible to identify the differences between the cavitation process using either the RFT2 or RFT3. From this physical phenomena observation, relevant clinical facts could now be explained: (1) the time required for the cavitation process to become pronounced and its impact on smear layer removal in apical thirds and (2) how negative apical pressure and peri-apical drainage could be obtained by means of secondary cavitation and fluid movements in root canals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Comparative effects of different Er:YAG laser dosages on the surface
           roughness of demineralized enamel

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      Abstract: Purpose Remineralization of incipient caries is important to save a tooth. Although fluoride therapy can reverse the process of demineralization of the tooth, it seems some other factors such as laser can improve its effectiveness. One of the most important factors to evaluate remineralized enamel is enamel roughness. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of combined application of Er:YAG laser energy density and fluoride varnish on the surface roughness of demineralized enamel. Methods Thirty buccal and lingual slabs were taken from impacted human molar teeth and were divided into six groups. All samples underwent acidic cycle to create incipient caries. The positive control group had incipient caries and underwent fluoride varnish. The negative control group had incipient caries without intervention. The third group included teeth with healthy enamel. The last three groups underwent Er:YAG laser therapy, with 6, 8, and 24 J/ \({\mathrm{Cm}}^{2}\) energy density. Surface roughness was measured by a profilometer. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests. Results The groups undergoing 6 and 8 J/ \({\mathrm{Cm}}^{2}\) and fluoride varnish control group had significantly higher roughness in comparison with healthy enamel (P = 0.054, 0.027, 0.029). The group undergoing 24 J/ \({\mathrm{Cm}}^{2}\) showed more similarity in roughness with healthy enamel (P = 0.168). Conclusion It seems use of Er:YAG laser alongside fluoride varnish can improve surface roughness in groups.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Effect of low-level laser therapy on condylar growth in children treated
           with functional appliance: a preliminary study

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      Abstract: Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes achieved by combining low-level laser irradiation applied on the condyle area with twin-block therapy in growing class II malocclusion patients. Methods Fourteen patients (9 males, 5 females; mean age, 11.4 ± 2 years) with skeletal class II mandibular deficiency were recruited. They were divided into two groups (G 1: twin-block + low-level laser therapy, G 2: twin-block only). A semiconductor diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm was applied on the condyle area (100 mW, 2.5 J, 3.9 J/cm2). The laser was applied twice a week in the first month and once a week in the second and third months, totalizing 16 sessions. Skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric parameters were measured and compared at different treatment points. Results Mandibular length (Co-Gn) was significantly increased by 3.6 mm in the experiment group (3.16 SD) and 4.3 mm (4.4 SD) in the control group, with no significant difference between groups at every time point (P-value 0.949 at T2). Similarly, a statistically significant positive effect of treatment was found in both groups on ramus height (Co-Go), upper lip to E-Line, SNA angle, ANB angle, and U1/SN angle with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Based on the results of this preliminary study, low-level laser irradiation with the used parameters seems to have no synergetic impact on the skeletal and dental outcomes of twin-block therapy over 9 months. However, more studies are needed to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy on condylar growth during functional orthodontic treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Photonics (Er,CR:YSGG and photobiomodulation) versus conventional surgery
           for impacted lower third molar tooth extraction: a split-mouth, controlled
           randomized clinical study

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      Abstract: Purpose Impacted third molars occur commonly and often require surgery for tooth extraction. As consequence, postoperative complications of varying degrees of severity are commonly seen. Thus, searching for less traumatic surgeries protocols is of importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of impacted lower third molar teeth extraction using traditional protocol (scapples and surgical burs) or photonics protocol [Er,CR:YSGG associated with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT)]. Methods Thirty-five patients with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were included in this split-mouth, controlled, and randomized clinical study. Seventy impacted third molars were divided into control group: extraction using traditional surgical scapples for soft tissue and burs for bone cutting or photonics group: extraction using Er,CR:YSGG laser (2780 nm) for soft tissue and bone cutting followed by PBMT (940-nm diode laser). The maximum mouth aperture (MMA) before and after extraction was used for comparing the surgeries’ outcomes. Results Immediately after surgery, the MMA for the control group remained unchanged and decreased significantly at 7 days after surgery. In the photonics group, the MMA remained unchanged during whole experimental time. Conclusion The presented photonics protocol (Er,CR:YSGG laser plus PBMT) for third molar extraction prevents impairment of the maximum mouth aperture.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Nd: YAG laser irradiation consequences on calcium and magnesium in human
           dental tissues

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      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the percentage (%) of metals such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in human dental tissues (enamel and dentin) that varies as a function of energy density when irradiated with an Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 5 ns, 50 mJ) in ambient air for an optimized number of pulses (80 shots). Methods By using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), the laser energy density for ablation threshold of Ca in enamel and dentin tissue was calculated. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to examine the morphological alterations of dental tissues after laser treatment. Moreover, the elemental compositional analysis was performed by employing energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Results The ablation thresholds for Ca in enamel and dentin tissue were found to be 1.41 J/cm2 and 0.38 J/cm2, respectively. Surface and structural analyses suggest that dentin has pores and a spongy structure that is easy to ablate at low laser energy density, while enamel is calcified and its building blocks rods/prisms are difficult to ablate, requiring high energy densities. The decrease in atomic % of Ca in enamel is greater than in dentin, while the trend is vice versa for the reduction in Mg atomic % as laser energy density increases. Conclusions The ablation threshold of Nd: YAG laser for Ca in enamel is significantly four times higher than that of dentin. Morphology of irradiated enamel surrounding regions shows thermal damage, whereas dentin ablation has been achieved without melting. The stable Ca/Mg ratio in dentine at appropriate laser energy density makes the Nd: YAG laser safe and sound for its treatment for clinical applications like caries prevention, cavity preparation, and restoration, killing bacteria, and activating tissue growth.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Acid or laser etching' …. What about the long-term durability of
           the bonding'

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      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Effect of Acid or Laser Treatment on Degradation of Dentin Matrix

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      Abstract: Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dental laser (DL) irradiation on the metalloproteinases (MMP)-mediated dentin collagen degradation. Methods Human dentin disks were prepared (0.3 × 5x6mm, n = 60) and subjected to different treatments (n = 10/group): (1) control group (no treatment); (2) application of 37% phosphoric acid (PA) for 15 s; (3) irradiation with Er:YAG laser (120 mJ, 10 Hz); (4) irradiation with Er:YAG laser (120 mJ, 20 Hz); (5) irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser (130mj, 30 Hz); and (6) irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser (80mj, 50 Hz). After treatment, the total MMP activity and dry mass of each beam were measured, and after rehydration, they were incubated in 1 mL calcium- and zinc-containing incubation media for (a) one week and (b) three weeks. After each time point, dry mass changes were reassessed, and the aliquots of the incubation media were analyzed for pyridinoline-cross-link-containing degradation fragment of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) using ELISA kits. All data were compared using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results ANOVA showed significant differences among tested groups (p < 0.001). Laser-treated beams showed 55–75% less activity compared to 37% phosphoric acid-treated beams. The highest ICTP values were seen when PA was applied to the dentin surface in both time periods (p < 0.05). DL irradiation, be it with Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser, did not increase the ICTP values in both time periods when compared with the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusion The MMP-mediated dentin collagen degradation was the highest when PA was applied to the dentin surface and the lowest in Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser-treated dentin groups in both time periods.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • Quantifying light energy from 450 nm, 650 nm, 810 nm, and 980 nm
           wavelength lasers delivered through dental hard tissue

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      Abstract: Purpose The energy available to treat the dental pulp after transmittance through overlying structures is clinically important for determining photobiological effects. This ex vivo study aimed to quantify laser energy delivery though the dental crown to the pulp from an initial energy of 5 J using four common laser wavelengths (λ = 450, 650, 810, and 980 nm). Material and methods A total of 30 extracted healthy human teeth (anterior n = 10; premolar n = 10; molar n = 10) were longitudinally sectioned (Project Number: 2021/421, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia). Each sample was methodically exposed in random order to the four wavelengths. Each wavelength was operated at the same power (0.50 W) for 10 s to deliver 5.0 J with a total energy delivery of 10 J/cm2. Laser light was delivered with an 8-mm-diameter fiber bundle probe directed perpendicularly to the buccal cervical-third of the crown. The transmitted energy was measured twice and averaged using a periodically pre-calibrated power meter in blinded conditions. Data were analyzed using a general linear model with logarithmic transformation. Results Wavelength and tooth thickness were significant predictors of optical transmittance (P < 0.05) while tooth type was significant only for the 450 nm wavelength. The average attenuation coefficients (µ) were 2.55, 2.45, 1.87, and 5.42 cm−1 (± 10%) for the 980, 810, 650, and 450 nm groups, respectively. Conclusion Clinicians should recognize that significant attenuation occurs during laser energy delivery to the pulp, influenced by the wavelength, thickness, and tooth type. Our findings support the potential for laser energy delivery to the pulp for photobiomodulation applications.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Blue light photobiomodulation of dental pulp cells

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      Abstract: Purpose Blue light has been reported to enhance the differentiation and mineralisation potential of mesenchymal stem cells. No studies have investigated the photobiomodulation effects of blue light on the odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell-containing populations. This study aimed to determine the effect of 405-nm wavelength on the mineralisation response in these cells. Methods Human dental pulp cells were irradiated using a calibrated 405 nm light source at an irradiance of 57.7 mW/cm2 for 35, 69, 90 and 104 s; delivering energy densities of 2, 4, 5 and 6 J/cm2. Cell proliferation was investigated on days 2 and 4. Alkaline phosphatase activity and dentine matrix protein-1 levels were investigated on days 3 and 5. Mineralised nodule formation was investigated on days 7, 4 and 21. Results The 405-nm blue light had significant inhibitory effects on dental pulp cell proliferation. Simultaneously, blue light irradiation enhanced the mineralisation response, as determined by the upregulation of odontogenic markers. Irradiated cultures also demonstrated a significant increase in mineralised nodule formation compared with the non-irradiated controls at all time points. Conclusion Data indicate that phototherapy utilising a 405-nm wavelength may have therapeutic potential in stimulating odontogenic responses of pulp cells.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
       
  • A contemporary approach to management of gingival hyperpigmentation: a
           case series

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      Abstract: Purpose Excessive pigmentation of the gingiva has a varied etiology and is often considered unesthetic. Depigmentation is a sought-after treatment and can be achieved by different techniques such as surgical blade, electrosurgery, and contemporary approaches such as the lasers. This case series aims to provide a clinical perspective on the use and efficacy of 940 nm diode laser for management of gingival hyperpigmentation. Methods Three patients with excessive gingival pigmentation as identified by using the Dummett-Gupta Oral Pigmentation Index were treated with diode laser (940 nm wavelength) with 2 W power in a continuous wave mode and 300/400-micron fiber. The laser was used in light contact with the gingiva with overlapping brush strokes being used to depigment the area by de-epithelialization of the site. The Dummett-Gupta Oral Pigmentation Index [DOPI] was assessed at baseline and three-month follow-up to assess and quantify the change in pigmentation achieved. Results The Dummett-Gupta Oral Pigmentation Index scores showed a change from 3 at baseline to 1 at 3 months post-surgery in most sites assessed (64.3%). In some sites, the post-operative scores at 3 months follow-up were 0 (35.7%). Conclusion The selective absorption of 940 nm diode laser into melanin allows for efficient depigmentation with low power settings and with minimal collateral tissue damage. Hence, 940 nm diode laser would be an optimum tool for clinical management of depigmentation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Efficacy of diode laser in treating highly attached labial frenum

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      Abstract: Aim To evaluate the efficiency of 810 nm diode laser in the treatment of patient undergoing orthodontic treatment with highly attached upper labial frenum. Case presentation A 38-year-old female patient undergoing orthodontic treatment with spacing between upper two centrals was referred to treat the cause and facilitate orthodontic treatment. During examination, large diastema was observed. The patient advised for frenectomy which was done using 810 nm diode laser in contact and continuous wave mode with an output power of 1.5 W and initiated 400 µm tip diameter. The total time of the procedure was 15 min and the time of laser application was approximately 40 s. The patient was advised to avoid hot and spicy foods and drinks at the day of the procedure, and just 500 mg paracetamol was prescribed to the patient if needed. The patient was recalled after 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 6 months for follow-up. Results Optimal healing was after 2 weeks, and complete healing was noted after 3 weeks. After 6-month follow-up, there is no relapse with normal mucosa. Conclusion 810 nm diode laser is an effective tool for frenectomy, as well as it provides fast healing with no bleeding and without needs of dressing or antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-022-00151-4
       
  • Management of gingival hyperpigmentation using 980 nm diode laser:
           case reports

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      Abstract: Purpose This article reports the effectiveness of a 980-nm diode laser (Simpler, Dr Smile) for the treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation. Introduction Although gingival melanin pigmentation does not represent a medical problem, it is a real esthetic concern for many individuals, especially, among those with an excessive gingival display when smiling or speaking. Gingival hyperpigmentation is removed by various techniques such as by rotary instruments, scalpel technique, electrosurgery, cryosurgery, and different types of lasers (CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, diode) (5). Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Case reports Four patients benefited from depigmentation by 980-nm diode laser. The surgery was performed either without or with very little anesthesia. No discomfort, tooth sensitivity, pain, or bleeding complications were observed intra or post-operatively. Therefore, no antibiotics or analgesics were prescribed for these patients. Healing was satisfactory after 1 month with pink coloration, comparable to nearby untreated areas, resulting in significant improvement in esthetic appearance. Conclusion The patients had no complications during the laser sessions, and their post-operative periods were uneventful. We, therefore, conclude that the 980-nm diode laser is an excellent therapeutic alternative in the treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation, within the limitations of these four reported cases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-022-00148-z
       
  • Comparison of the efficacy of 940-nm diode laser, Gluma, and 5% sodium
           fluoride varnish in dentinal tubule occlusion

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      Abstract: Background and aim Various treatments have been proposed to reduce dentinal hypersensitivity. This study compares the efficacy of 940-nm diode laser, Gluma, and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish in dentinal tubule occlusion. Materials and methods In this experimental study, the enamel of 40 intact human premolars was removed, with an area of 2 × 2 mm and a depth of 2 mm, from the cervical midline of the buccal surface. The samples were divided into four groups: NaF varnish, Gluma, 940-nm diode laser, and control. After the interventions, the samples were examined under a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The total number of dentinal tubules and the number of open, completely occluded, and semi-occluded tubules were counted. The results were analyzed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tamhane’s test. Results The highest mean rate of dentinal tubule occlusion was 84.01 ± 12.08% in the 940-nm laser group, 74.4% ± 11.62 in the Gluma group, 61.78 ± 15.25% in the NaF varnish group, and 15.03% ± 3.39 in the control group. This rate in the control group was significantly different from that of the Gluma, NaF varnish, and 940-nm laser groups (P < 0.05). The Gluma group showed no significant difference with the NaF varnish and 940-nm laser groups (P > 0.05). The NaF varnish group exhibited a significant difference with the 940-nm laser group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Based on the results, 940-nm diode laser, Gluma, and 5% NaF varnish are effective in sealing of dentinal tubules. Gluma had the same effect as the other two modalities, but the effect of the 940-nm diode laser was greater than that of NaF varnish.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-021-00139-6
       
  • Evaluation of TGF-β1 in gingival crevicular fluid and clinical parameters
           of smoker and nonsmoker patients treated with low-level laser therapy as
           an adjunct to scaling and root planing

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      Abstract: Objective Periodontitis is an infectious oral disease characterized by periodontal pocket, clinical attachment loss and alveolar bone loss. Smoking has a negative impact on the outcome of periodontal treatment, and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) has shown to enhance wound healing by biostimulatory action on various cells, increasing angiogenesis and release of growth factors. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) possesses both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory characteristics and plays a role in tissue remodeling and tissue regeneration. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of LLLT as an adjunct to SRP on healing by evaluating clinical parameters—gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and TGF-β1 in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) of nonsmokers and smokers with periodontitis. Materials and methods A total of 30 patients with periodontitis were selected and further sub divided into Group I (15 patients)—smokers with periodontitis and Group II (15 patients)—nonsmokers with periodontitis. The GCF was collected to analyze TGF-β1 levels on day 1, day 7 and day 30. Clinical parameters such as GI, PI, PD and CAL were assessed on day 1 and day 30. Result The TGF-β1 levels decreased post treatment in both the groups with a good reduction seen in nonsmokers when compared to smokers. All the clinical parameters (GI, PI, PD and CAL) reduced from day 1 to day 30 with statistical significance (p = 0.001) in both the groups. There was a statistically significant reduction in the TGF-β1 levels in both the groups at all time intervals. Conclusion In the present study the TGF-β1 was present in all the three GCF samples that were collected on day 1 and on day 7 and day 30 post SRP and LLLT. A higher level of TGF-β1 was noticed on day 1 (before treatment) that gradually reduced after SRP and LLLT in both smokers and nonsmokers. In addition to the regular wound healing, the addition of LLLT increases neovascularization and enhances healing after SRP, which may prove beneficial in smokers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-022-00147-0
       
  • 980 nm diode laser irritation on Streptococcus mutans growth
           inhibition: in vitro study

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      Abstract: Aim Streptococcus mutans has been detected as one of the most invasive microbial pathogens in oral disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of 980 nm diode laser against S. mutans species. Method In this in vitro study, ATCC 10,662 strain of Streptococcus mutans was provided, incubated, and then cultured in blood agar. The specimen was divided randomly into 5 groups, one control group and four experimental groups with 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 w output power respectively. Antimicrobial surveillance was evaluated by a microtube test, and the resulted data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and with 0.05 significance. Results The results of the following study showed that the average and minimum growth rate of the groups was the same (100 w) but the maximum rate of growth was 0 in the 1.5 w group which was lower than the other groups (100 w). The difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.722). Conclusion The findings of the following study suggested that using 980 nm diode laser could not significantly reduce S. mutans growth rate, so it is suggested to perform further investigations with more equipment and further modalities.
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-021-00140-z
       
  • Chemical and morphological analysis of dentin collagen degradation after
           Nd:YAG laser irradiation

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      Abstract: Objective The present study aimed to evaluate root dentin collagen degradation after Nd:YAG laser irradiation by using polarized light microscopy and spectroscopy analysis. Background Quantification of collagen degradation is an important parameter to evaluate dentin caries progression. Methods Discs (2 mm in thickness × 6 mm in diameter) of bovine root dentin were obtained and submitted to demineralization by artificial caries lesion formation. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups according to the following treatments: C—control (no treatment) and L—Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1064 nm; 60 mJ; 10 Hz; 48 J/cm2; non-contact; 30 s). After the treatment, the specimens were exposed to the collagenase enzyme challenge for 5 days. Chemical analysis of the dentin surface was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Specimens were sectioned longitudinally to prepare slides for polarized light microscopy evaluation to provide the measure of depth of the degraded collagen in the demineralized area. Data were submitted to the Student’s t-test (p < 0.05). Results According to the t-Student test (t-value = 5.089), it was observed that the Nd:YAG laser showed statistically significant differences when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Chemical differences in dentin were observed through the reduction of amide, carbonate, and phosphate groups present in the collagen matrix after laser irradiation. Conclusions Nd:YAG laser promoted chemical and morphological changes in the surface of the root dentin, showing effectiveness in reducing collagen degradation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-022-00149-y
       
  • Effect of different power outputs of Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength
           of resin cement to zirconia in comparison to sandblasting

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      Abstract: Purpose This study aimed to investigate the effect of different powers of Er:YAG laser on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement in comparison to sandblasting. Methods Seventy-five zirconia disks (10 mm × 3 mm) were fabricated and randomly divided into 5 groups according to the assigned surface treatment: group 1, no treatment (control); group 2: sandblasting with 50-μm Al2O3 particles; groups 3, 4, and 5: irradiation with Er:YAG laser with 3-W, 4-W, and 6-W power outputs, respectively. The surface morphology of one specimen from each group was investigated under SEM. Then composite resin cylinders with 3 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height were fabricated. After applying ceramic primer to zirconia ceramic surface, the composite cylinders were cemented to zirconia disks with Panavia F2.0 resin cement and stored in distilled water for 24 h. The shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine after thermocycling. The data were statistically analyzed by Welch and Games-Howell tests at 0.05 significance. Results There was a significant difference between the mean shear bond strength of control group and other groups (P < 0.001). The mean shear bond strength in sandblast group was significantly higher than 3-W (P = 0.005) and 4-W laser groups (P = 0.007). There was no significant difference among three laser groups. Despite mixed failures observed in sandblast group, the failure mode was predominantly adhesive in laser and control groups. Conclusion The highest bond strength was observed in the sandblast group, and there was no differences between Er:YAG laser groups.
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-022-00146-1
       
  • Effects of ultraviolet irradiation equipment on endodontic
           disease–related bacteria

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      Abstract: Introduction Dental caries and apical periodontitis are ones of the most prevalent chronic diseases and involve infection by cariogenic and endodontic bacteria. It can be said that the most required to cure is disinfection. We hypothesized that NB-UVB could be used for intraoral disinfection without affecting cells, and that it could be used in combination with TiO2 to disinfect complex root canals. The objectives were to investigate the effects of UV on dental pulp cells and oral bacteria and to evaluate the enhancement effect of a photocatalyst on bactericidal effects of UV irradiation. Methods UV irradiation devices of UVB (310, 285 nm) and UVC (265 nm) were prepared. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays after UV irradiation were performed using human dental pulp cells. The antibacterial activity of UV irradiation was investigated in Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. A curved simulated root canal with plastic training block was used to evaluate the effect of combined UV and TiO2 treatment. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05) followed by Tukey’s post hoc tests (p < 0.05). Results Human dental pulp cell proliferation was decreased by 265 nm, 285 nm, and 310 nm UV irradiation, although 310 nm UV irradiation did not show cytotoxic effects on these cells. Oral bacterial growth was suppressed following UV irradiation at 285 nm and 265 nm. Viability of all bacteria significantly decreased with UV irradiation. In the curved simulated root canal, viability of E. faecalis in UV irradiation at 285 nm with long taper fibers was significantly decreased in the 300 s irradiation group. E. faecalis proliferation was inhibited by combined UV irradiation and TiO2 application with long taper fibers in the curved simulated root canal. Conclusions The wavelength of UVB and UVC showed bactericidal effects on oral bacteria including caries-related bacteria and apical periodontitis–related bacteria while NB-UVB did not. UVB with longer fibers was more effective in disinfection on E. faecalis in curved simulated root canal, and the combined use of photocatalyst further improved the disinfection effect.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-021-00145-8
       
  • The effectiveness of diode lasers in detoxification of exposed implant
           surfaces in comparison with mechanical and chemical measures in the
           treatment of peri-implantitis: a literature review

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      Abstract: The aim This study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of diode lasers (810 nm and 980 nm) in detoxification of exposed implant surfaces in comparison with mechanical and chemical measures in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Materials and methods PubMed and Google Scholar electronic database are used for the articles published in the years between January 2005 and March 2020 that address the impact of using diode lasers (810 nm and 980 nm) to detoxify the exposed contaminated implant surfaces in comparison with mechanical and chemical measures in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Results The diode laser is an effective adjunctive tool in the treatment of peri-implantitis in combination with chemical and mechanical treatments, whereas the conventional therapy cannot remove the bacteria completely alone, and the favorable settings are 810 nm in non-contact continuous wave mode at 1 W for 20 s, five times with 30-s pause after each 20-s application time, and 600-μm fiber tip or 810 nm in non-contact pulse wave mode at 1 W, 50 Hz, and a pulse duration of 100 ms/pulse, 30-s application time. Conclusion Combination protocols for both wavelengths (810 nm–980 nm) of diode lasers and the conventional non-surgical treatments of peri-implantitis have shown positive clinical and radiographic results, whereas a conventional therapy cannot remove bacteria completely and effectively alone.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41547-021-00142-x
       
 
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