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DENTISTRY (266 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 256 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ação Odonto     Open Access  
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Odontologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Stomatologica Marisiensis Journal     Open Access  
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access  
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access  
AJO-DO Clinical Companion : An International Journal Dedicated to Excellence in Clinical Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuel Nordisk Odontologi     Full-text available via subscription  
Al-Rafidain Dental Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Orthodontic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access  
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avicenna Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BDJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Caries Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Caspian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
CES Odontología     Open Access  
Chiang Mai Dental Journal     Open Access  
Ciencia Odontológica     Open Access  
City Dental College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Advances in Periodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Laboratorial Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Dentistry Reviewed     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Oral Implants Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Oral Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cumhuriyet Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Oral Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dental Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dental Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dental Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Journal of Advance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dental Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dental Update     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry 3000     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Dentistry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dentistry Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Der Freie Zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
der junge zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
Die Quintessenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disease-a-Month     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ENDO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Endodontic Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
Endodontology     Open Access  
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Dental Research and Biomaterials Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Oral Implantology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Oral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access  
Evidence-Based Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Faculty Dental Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Giornale Italiano di Endodonzia     Open Access  
Implantologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal  
Insisiva Dental Journal     Open Access  
International Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Contemporary Dental and Medical Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forensic Odontology     Open Access  
International Journal of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Implant Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Odontostomatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Oral Care and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Prosthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Stomatological Research     Open Access  
International Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Japanese Dental Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JDR Clinical & Translational Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Academy of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesive Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Oral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Oral Science     Open Access  
Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Periodontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Craniomandibular Function     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dental Problems and Solutions     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Dentistry Defense Section     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dentistry for Children     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Endodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Academy of Dental Specialist Researchers     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Of International Dental And Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of International Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nepalese Prosthodontic Society (JNPS)     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalese Society of Periodontology and Oral Implantology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oral Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oral Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Orthodontic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Primary Care Dentistry and Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public Health Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Restorative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Of Syiah Kuala Dentistry Society     Open Access  
Journal of the American Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Canadian Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Clinical Dental Research Organization     Open Access  
Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Kesehatan Gigi     Open Access  
Kieferorthopädie     Full-text available via subscription  
Kiru : Revista de la Facultad de Odontología - Universidad de San Martín de Porres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lasers in Dental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Médecine Buccale Chirurgie Buccale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medicina Oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

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Dentistry Journal
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2304-6767
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 115: Color Stability of Orthodontic
           Ceramic Brackets and Adhesives in Potentially Staining Beverages—In
           Vitro Study

    • Authors: Luka Šimunović, Tadeja Blagec, Andrea Vrankić, Senka Meštrović
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of esthetic ceramic brackets and adhesive samples after immersion in most commonly consumed beverages. A hundred ceramic brackets from five different manufacturers (Forestadent®, G&H®, GC, DynaFlex®, and American Orthodontics) and 120 samples of adhesives (3M™Transbond™ XT and American Orthodontics BracePaste® color change adhesive and BracePaste® adhesive) were immersed into four different solutions: coffee, Coca-Cola®, the vitamin drink Cedevita®, and artificial saliva (control group). The samples were kept in an incubator at 37 °C. Color readings were evaluated before (T0), at 24 h (T1), 72 h (T3), 7 days (T4), and 14 days (T5) after initial immersion using a spectrophotometer according to the L*a*b* color scale. All the examined brackets showed a statistically significant difference in discoloration (p = 0.001). 20/40™ Brackets (American Orthodontics) showed the best color stability, while the greatest color modification was recognized in QuicKlear® III (Forestadent®) brackets. Regarding adhesives, the greatest staining was observed in the BracePaste® color change adhesive and the least in the Transbond™ XT samples. In conclusion, color change occurs in all solutions, including control groups, and coffee has the greatest impact on color stability.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10070115
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 93: Does Ultraviolet Radiation Exhibit
           Antimicrobial Effect against Oral Pathogens Attached on Various Dental
           Implant Surfaces' A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Fahad A. Abdullatif, Mansour Al-Askar
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Background: Dental implant therapy is currently identified as the most effective treatment for edentulous patient. However, peri-implant inflammations were found to be one of the most common complications that leads to the loss and failure of dental implantation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been proposed to enhance bone integration and reduce bacterial attachment. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence regarding the antimicrobial effect of UV on different dental implant surfaces. Methods: Five databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, VHL, and Cochran Library were searched to retrieve relevant articles. All original reports that examined the effect of the application of UV radiation on dental implants were included in our study. Results: A total of 16 in vitro studies were included in this systematic review. Polymethyl methacrylate UV radiation has induced a significant decrease in bacterial survival in PMMA materials, with an increased effect by modification with 2.5% and 5% TiO2 nanotubes. UV-C showed a superior effect to UV-A in reducing bacterial attachment and accumulation. UV wavelength of 265 and 285 nm showed powerful bactericidal effects. UV of 365 nm for 24 h had the highest inhibition of bacterial growth in ZnO coated magnesium alloys. In UV-irradiated commercially pure titanium surfaces treated with plasma electrolytic oxidation, silver ion application, heat or alkali had shown significant higher bactericidal effect vs non-irradiated treated surfaces than the treatment with any of them alone. UVC and gamma-ray irradiation increased the hydrophilicity of zirconia surface, compared to the dry heat. Conclusion: UV radiation on Ti surfaces exhibited significant antibacterial effects demonstrated through the reduction in bacterial attachment and biofilm formation with suppression of bacterial cells growth. Combination of UV and treated surfaces with alkali, plasma electrolytic oxidation, silver ion application or heat enhance the overall photocatalytic antimicrobial effect.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060093
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 94: Does Low-Taper Root Canal Shaping
           Decrease the Risk of Root Fracture' A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Francesco Puleio, Giuseppe Lo Giudice, Angela Militi, Ugo Bellezza, Roberto Lo Giudice
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Minimal root-canal preparation has been suggested to reduce the risk of root fracture, but as a result, satisfactory cleaning and shaping do not take place. Large-scale taper instrumentation can contribute to removing infected tissue; however, it may weaken the tooth structure. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether root-canal shaping with low-taper instruments decreases the risk of root fracture, compared to high-conicity shaping. A search was performed on Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Web of Science. The inclusion criteria were: studies comparing the root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth, shaped with low- and high-conicity taper instruments, in human trials, and via in vitro study. The review includes all types of endodontically treated teeth, with various instrument tapers. The scientific search engines produced 328 results. Only 20 of the results were evaluated after screening. Based on the articles analyzed, it is not clear whether a taper difference can determine differences in root fracture resistance. No randomized controlled trial (RCTs) with long follow-ups have been published to date. It must also be taken into account that the in vitro studies do not consider the numerous differences that there are between in vitro and clinical evaluation. The review was registered on the PROSPERO website, with the protocol number CRD42020151451.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060094
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 95: Assessment of Knowledge towards
           Radiation Protection Measures among Newly Graduated Dentists from Egypt
           and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional

    • Authors: Soha Mohamed Ali Basha, Munerah Saleh BinShabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Background: It is hypothesized that knowledge towards ionizing radiation (IR) protection measures is lacking among newly graduated dentists from Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the present questionnaire-based study was to compare the IR protection knowledge among newly graduated dentists from Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: The present investigation was a questionnaire-based study and had a cross-sectional observational analytical design. Newly graduated dentists were defined as individuals who had graduated from a credentialed dental institution within the past 36-months. The questionnaire was related to knowledge about radiation safety, awareness and practices. The questionnaire comprised of 17 multiple choice questions. Questionnaires in which all the 17 questions were not answered or had missing pages were excluded. Odds ratios were computed for the number of correct and incorrect responses and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Individuals that provided up to 40%, 41% to 70% and >70% correct answers were categorized as having “low competence”; “moderate competence” and “high competence” in IR knowledge. p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean percentage of correct answers provided by dentists from Egypt and KSA were 56.9% and 67.4%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the percentages of correct responses for the 17 questions submitted by respondents from Egypt and KSA. The overall percentage of correct responses ranged between 40.2–71.2% and 45.4–81.4% for respondents from Egypt and KSA, respectively. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals showed no statistically significant correlation in the responses from respondents from Egypt and KSA for each of the 17 questions addressed. Conclusion: Newly graduated dentists from Egypt and KSA are moderately competent regarding IR doses and related safety measures. It is recommended that modifications in the undergraduate dental education curriculum with emphasis on IR safety and practice would help enhance the knowledge and competence of students and newly graduated dentists. Moreover, routine continuing dental education seminars/programs may help enhance the IR knowledge of dental students and dentists.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060095
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 96: The Effect of MI Varnish™ on
           Caries Increment and Dietary Habits among 6- and 12-Year-Old Children in
           Riga, Latvia: A 3-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Jekaterina Gudkina, Bennett T. Amaechi, Stephen H. Abrams, Anda Brinkmane, Eva Petrosina
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Aims: This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of MI Varnish™ (5% NaF/CPP-ACP) on caries increment in 6- and 12-year-old children in Riga, Latvia within 36 months. Methods: Forty-eight 6-year-old children (Group 1) and forty-seven 12-year-old children (Group 3) received quarterly varnish application, while forty-eight 6-year-old children (Group 2) and thirty-seven 12-year-old children (Group 4) did not have varnish applied. All children/parents received the same preventive advice. All children were visually examined using ICDAS-II criteria. Questionnaires on dietary habits were completed by the children/parents at baseline and after 36 months. DMFS and dfs were calculated from ICDAS data. The statistical analysis was performed (α = 0.05) using a Chi-squared test, paired t-test (Welch test) and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The trial registration number is ISRCTN10584414. Results: In Group 1 versus Group 2, the DMFS(SD) (Baseline/36 months) values were 5.02(5.85)/13.21(6.67) (p < 0.001) versus 2.65(4.54)/10.81(6.14) (p < 0.001), respectively; the dfs(SD) (Baseline/36 months) values were 36.75(12.96)/24.04(12.9) (p < 0.001) versus 33.67(12.74)/23.88(11.91) (p < 0.001), respectively. In Group 3 versus Group 4, the DMFS(SD) (Baseline/36 months) values were 48.62(23.18)/70.96(23.28) (p < 0.001) versus 34.73(17.99)/54.95(16.09) (p < 0.001), respectively; the dfs(SD) (Baseline/36 months) values were 1.7(4.4)/0 (p < 0.05) versus 2(6.39)/0 (p = 0.06), respectively. The prevalence of caries (dfs + DMFS) decreased by 4.52 (p < 0.001) and 1.63 (p < 0.001) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, but increased by 20.64 (p < 0.001) and 18.22 (p < 0.001) in Groups 3 and 4, respectively. An analysis of the questionnaires indicated the habitual, frequent consumption of a sugary diet by all the children. A significant correlation (r = 0.321; p < 0.05) was observed between caries increment and the frequency of daily intake of sugary snacks, soft drinks and tea with sugar at baseline only in Group 1. Conclusions: A quarterly application of MI varnish (CPP-ACP/fluoride) reduced caries increment in 6- and 12-year-old children in Riga, Latvia.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060096
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 97: CAMBRA Protocol Efficacy: A
           Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal

    • Authors: Ana Coelho, Inês Amaro, Tainá Iunes, Anabela Paula, Carlos Miguel Marto, José Saraiva, Manuel Marques Ferreira, Eunice Carrilho
      First page: 97
      Abstract: The Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) protocol consists of analyzing the patient’s profile by assessing the risk and protective factors and assigning a risk level to the patient to allow an individualized treatment plan, which combines restorative treatments with a preventive chemical therapy. This systematic review and critical appraisal aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the CAMBRA protocol in reducing the incidence of caries lesions and oral bacterial load. An electronic search was carried out in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase databases. Clinical studies evaluating the incidence of dental caries lesions and/or the reduction of cariogenic bacterial load (Streptococcus mutans and/or Lactobacilli spp.), with at least an intervention group that follows the CAMBRA protocol and a control group published up until January 2022, were included. The methodological quality assessment of the included clinical studies was assessed through the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2). The quality of the case-control study was evaluated according to the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (ROBINS-I). There is currently no scientific evidence to recommend the integration of the CAMBRA protocol into clinical practice. The results reported by the studies included in the systematic review do not suggest a decrease in the incidence of dental caries lesions and/or bacterial load. There is a clear need for the development of new clinical studies with an adequate methodology and follow-up, both for the CAMBRA protocol and for its components individually.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060097
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 98: Dental Academic Degrees in Germany
           Compared to the USA

    • Authors: Nikoletta Vargas, Georgios E. Romanos
      First page: 98
      Abstract: There are different avenues for obtaining postgraduate doctoral/Ph.D. degrees in Germany and abroad. Depending on their interests and career plans, candidates can choose a postgraduate doctorate/Ph.D. that focuses on a career in academia or a doctorate that does not involve all elements of a Ph.D. and is obtained for the title’s sake. Germany offers this type of diversity and flexibility, whereas the USA postgraduate doctorate model presents a more structured doctorate. The current article provides insight regarding various and more flexible pathways for obtaining a postgraduate doctorate by comparing the German and the American model. The diversity of academic degrees in dentistry and medicine, such as postgraduate doctoral degrees and the higher postdoctoral degrees available in Germany for graduates interested in academia, makes educational evaluation processes and credentials recognition challenging. The lack of transparency and a systematic approach for the academic acknowledgment of the different scientific values of each doctorate type is creating confusion, primarily when German postgraduate doctorate holders pursue academic careers internationally. The current article aims to enhance the knowledge about the different academic degrees and facilitate the educational evaluations, specialty applications, and employment processes. Understanding the additional scientific value of each doctorate type offered in Germany is imperative for their credential recognition internationally.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060098
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 99: Pilot Study of a New Mandibular
           Advancement Device

    • Authors: Marzia Segù, Giovanna Campagnoli, Marco Di Blasio, Antonio Santagostini, Matteo Pollis, Luca Levrini
      First page: 99
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a customized mandibular advancement device (MAD) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Eight patients (M = 3; F = 5; mean age = 56.3 ± 9.4) with a diagnosis of OSA confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) were recruited on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5, age between 18 and 75 years, body mass index (BMI) < 25, and PSG data available at baseline (T0). All were treated with the new NOA® MAD by OrthoApnea (NOA®) for at least 3 months; PSG with NOA in situ was performed after 3 months of treatment (T1). The following parameters were calculated at T0 and T1: AHI, supine AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), percentage of recording time spent with oxygen saturation <90% (SpO2 < 90%), and mean oxygen desaturation (MeanSpO2%). Data were submitted for statistical analysis. The baseline values were AHI = 21.33 ± 14.79, supine AHI = 35.64 ± 12.80, ODI = 17.51 ± 13.5, SpO2 < 90% = 7.82 ± 17.08, and MeanSpO2% = 93.45 ± 1.86. Four patients had mild OSA (5 > AHI < 15), one moderate OSA (15 > AHI < 30), and three severe OSA (AHI > 30). After treatment with NOA®, statistically significant improvements in AHI (8.6 ± 4.21) and supine AHI (11.21 ± 7.26) were recorded. OrthoApnea NOA® could be an effective alternative in the treatment of OSA: the device improved the PSG parameters assessed.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060099
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 100: Shear Bond Strength of Ah26 to
           Human Dentin Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide (Dmso)

    • Authors: Fotis Dimopoulos, Konstantinos Kodonas, Christos Gogos
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the bond strength of AH26 to human coronal dentin exposed to DMSO. A total of 70 dentin specimens were equally divided into two groups. Each dentin surface was pre-treated with 2 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, 3 mL of EDTA 17%, and distilled water. One group was finally rinsed with 50% DMSO. Following the AH26 application, the bond strength was tested by subjecting the samples to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min using universal testing equipment. The results according to paired samples t-test indicated that there was a statistically insignificant difference between the two groups. Therefore, DMSO had no effect on the bond strength of AH26 root sealer to dentin.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060100
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 101: Early Response and Clinical
           Efficacy of a Mouthwash Containing Chlorhexidine, Anti Discoloration
           System, Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Vinyl Acetate and Sodium DNA in Periodontitis
           Model: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Felice Lorusso, Gianluca Tartaglia, Francesco Inchingolo, Antonio Scarano
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP/VA) is a molecule with increased adhesion capacity, and can be associated in the bacterial plaque control with sodium DNA, a natural anti-aging molecule able to improve gingival trophism. The aim of the study is to test at two weeks the antimicrobial and antiplaque properties, subjects affected by chronic periodontitis, showed by a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% with Anti Discoloration System (ADS), PVP-VA, and Sodium DNA in comparison with a placebo mouthwash. A single center randomized controlled trial was conducted on a total of fifty-four (54) subjects. In the test Group (n = 27) patients were treated by a 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash with ADS, PVP-VA, and Sodium DNA, while a placebo mouthwash was used in the control Group (B). The full mouth plaque score (FMPS), full mouth bleeding score (FMBS), and gingival index (GI) were assessed at baseline, and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. FMPS score recorded at baseline (V2) was 52.7 ± 9.2 in the Group Test and 58.2 ± 6.1 in the Group Control (p > 0.05). After 1 week (V3), FMPS was 13.3 ± 5.6 in the Group Test and 18.7 ± 4.3 in the Group Control (p < 0.05), while at V4 (2 weeks), FMPS was 14.2 ± 4.1 in the Group Test and 20.3 ± 5.2 in the Group Control (p < 0.05). FMBS score recorded at baseline (V2) was 46.7 ± 8.7 in the Group Test and 49.2 ± 6.2 in the Group Control (p > 0.05). After 1 week (V3), FMBS was 12.7 ± 4.2 in the test Group Test and 18.5 ± 5.9 in the control Group Control (p < 0.05), while after 2 weeks (V4), it was 13.1 ± 3.2 in the Group Test and 19.8 ± 4.9 Group Control (p < 0.05). This trial has clinically showed the efficacy of a new formulation of chlorhexidine mouthwash in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation. A significant reduction of inflammation and bleeding scores was found in periodontal patients treated by a mouthwash containing CHX 0.2% with ADS, PVP-VA, and Sodium DNA compared to those treated with a placebo mouthwash.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060101
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 102: Impact of Polymerization Technique
           and ZrO2 Nanoparticle Addition on the Fracture Load of Interim
           Implant-Supported Fixed Cantilevered Prostheses in Comparison to CAD/CAM

    • Authors: Faris A. Alshahrani, Shorouq Khalid Hamid, Lujain Ali Alghamdi, Firas K. Alqarawi, Yousif A. Al-Dulaijan, Hamad S. AlRumaih, Haidar Alalawi, Maram A. Al Ghamdi, Fawaz Alzoubi, Mohammed M. Gad
      First page: 102
      Abstract: ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZNPs) have excellent physical properties. This study investigated the fracture load of implant-supported, fixed cantilevered prosthesis materials, reinforced with ZNPs and various polymerization techniques, compared with conventional and CAD/CAM materials. Sixty specimens were made from two CAD/CAM; milled (MIL) (Ceramill TEMP); and 3D-printed (NextDent Denture 3D+). Conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin was used to fabricate the other specimens, which were grouped according to their polymerization technique: conventionally (HP) and autoclave-polymerized (AP); conventionally cured and reinforced with 5 wt% ZNPs (HPZNP); and autoclave reinforced with 5 wt% ZNPs (APZNP). The specimens were thermocycled (5000 cycles/30 s dwell time). Each specimen was subjected to static vertical loading (1 mm/min) using a universal Instron testing machine until fracture. Scanning electron microscopy was used for fracture surface analyses. The ANOVA showed significant fracture load differences between all the tested groups (p = 0.001). The Tukey post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in fracture load between all tested groups (p ˂ 0.001) except HP vs. HPZNP and AP vs. MIL. APZNP had the lowest mean fracture load value (380.7 ± 52.8 N), while MIL had the highest (926.6 ± 82.8 N). The CAD/CAM materials exhibited the highest fracture load values, indicating that they could be used in long-term interim prostheses. Autoclave polymerization improved fracture load performance, whereas ZrO2 nanoparticles decreased the fracture load performance of cantilevered prostheses.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 103: Periodontal and Peri-Implant Health
           Status in Traditional vs. Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco and Electronic Cigarettes
           Smokers: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Francesco D’Ambrosio, Massimo Pisano, Alessandra Amato, Alfredo Iandolo, Mario Caggiano, Stefano Martina
      First page: 103
      Abstract: The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate and possibly differentiate the effects of traditional cigarettes, heat-not-burn tobacco, and electronic cigarettes on periodontal and peri-implant health status. Electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco have become very popular in recent years and have been proposed to consumers as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco smoke, although their effect on periodontal and peri-implant health remains unclear. The study protocol was developed according to PRISMA guidelines, and the focus question was formulated according to the PICO strategy. A literature search was conducted across PubMed/MEDLINE and the COCHRANE library from 2003 to April 2022. From the 1935 titles initially identified, 18 articles were finally included in the study and extracted data were qualitatively synthesized. It may be carefully concluded that e-cigarettes may cause attenuated clinical inflammatory signs of periodontitis and, hypothetically, of peri-implantitis when compared to conventional tobacco smoke. Both alternative smoking products, containing nicotine, may likewise exert negative effects on periodontal and peri-implant health, as demonstrated by in vitro studies. Further investigations are needed to assess the impact of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products on periodontal and peri-implant health status.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060103
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 104: Accuracy of Mini-Implant Placement
           Using a Computer-Aided Designed Surgical Guide, with Information of
           Intraoral Scan and the Use of a Cone-Beam CT

    • Authors: Georgios Vasoglou, Ioanna Stefanidaki, Konstantinos Apostolopoulos, Evmorfia Fotakidou, Michail Vasoglou
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate the accuracy of mini-implant placement with the use of a computer designed surgical guide derived by intraoral scanning alongside Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) or the use of a 2D radiograph. Methods: Thirty-five mini-implants (Aarhus® System: n = 20, Ø: 1.5 mm and AbsoAnchor®: n = 15, Ø: 1.3–1.4 mm) were placed in the maxilla and mandible of 15 orthodontic patients for anchorage purposes in cases where a CBCT was needed due to impacted teeth or for safety reasons. All were placed with the help of a computer designed surgical guide. One implant became loose and was excluded from the study. For 18 mini-implants (study group), CBCT and intraoral scanning were used for guide design, while for 16 (control group) only intraoral scanning and panoramic imaging information were used. Mini-implant position was recorded by angular and linear measurements on digital models created by combining Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and stereolithography (.stl) files. Accuracy in positioning was determined by comparing corresponding measurements for virtual and real positioned mini-implants on digital models before and after operation. The results were statistically analyzed with t-tests and the Mann-Whitney test. Results: No significant statistical differences were found for pre- and post-operational angular measurements in the study group, while significant statistical differences occurred on the same measurements for the control group (coronal angle 13.6° pre-op and 22.7° post-op, p-value = 0.002, axial angle 13.4° pre-op and 15.9° post-op, p-value = 0.034). Linear measurements pre- and post-operational for either group presented no significant statistical differences. Conclusions: A 3D designed and manufactured surgical guide with information concerning CBCT and intraoral scanning ensures accuracy on mini-implant placement while design of the guide without the use of a CBCT is less accurate, especially on inclination of the implant.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060104
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 105: Influence on Implant Bone Healing
           of a Collagen Membrane Placed Subjacent the Sinus Mucosa—A
           Randomized Clinical Trial on Sinus Floor Elevation

    • Authors: Akihiro Morimoto, Nobuhiro Kobayashi, Mauro Ferri, Giovanna Iezzi, Adriano Piattelli, Natalia Fortich Mesa, Daniele Botticelli
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Background: Perforation of the sinus mucosa is quite a frequent complication that might occur during sinus floor elevation. The perforation is often protected with a collagen membrane to avoid the extrusion of graft particles within the sinus. However, this procedure might hinder the innate osteogenic potential of the sinus mucosa. Hence, the aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a placement of a collagen membrane subjacent the Schneiderian membrane during sinus floor elevation on implant bone healing. Methods: Twenty volunteers took part in the trial. Ten were randomly included in the group that received a collagen membrane subjacent the sinus mucosa (Mb group), and ten did not receive the membrane (non-Mb group). A collagenated corticocancellous porcine bone was used to fill the elevated space. Six 6 months after the sinus floor elevation, a mini implant was placed transcrestally and retrieved after a further 3 months. Histological analyses were then performed on the full body of the mini implant as well as on its coronal and apical portions. Results: The new bone apposition proportion onto the implant surface was similar in the Mb and non-Mb groups, both in the apical and coronal portions of the mini implants. A lesser amount of graft was found in contact with the surface. New bone density around the mini implants were similar both in the apical and coronal portions. However, a statistically higher proportion of graft particles was found in the Mb group compared to the non-membrane group. Conclusions: The placement of a collagen membrane subjacent the sinus mucosa did not affect bone healing at implants and bone density.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060105
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 106: Association between Periodontitis
           and COVID-19 Based on Severity Scores of HRCT Chest Scans

    • Authors: Supriya Mishra, Vineeta Gupta, Waheda Rahman, M. P. Gazala, Sukumaran Anil
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Background: A relationship between periodontitis and COVID-19 may exist, as highlighted by several hypothetical models. However, the evidence is limited. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine whether an association exists between periodontitis and COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were divided into three groups—mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19—based on the COVID-19 severity score of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest scans. Periodontal parameters—including the plaque index (PI), ratio of sites with gingival bleeding (BOP), pocket depth (PD), gingival recession (REC), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and mean numbers of mobile and missing teeth due to periodontitis—were recorded for all three groups. Statistical analyses were applied to the data. Results: Of 294 patients with COVID-19, approximately 50.68% (n = 149) had periodontitis, and the highest percentage (87.5%) was reported in the severe COVID-19 group. Additionally, severe and advanced stages of periodontitis (stage III–IV) were found to be significantly more frequent in subjects with severe COVID-19 than in the other two groups. The HRCT severity score (CT-SS) was moderately correlated with increased levels of periodontal parameters. Conclusions: Results of logistic regression analyses showed that the probability of developing severe COVID-19 was 2.81 times higher in patients with periodontitis. An association exists between periodontitis and severe COVID-19.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060106
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 107: Efficiency and Safety of Dental
           Implantation in the Area of Hyperdense Jaw Lesions: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Kimya Taghsimi, Andrey Vyacheslavovich Vasilyev, Valeriya Sergeevna Kuznetsova, Angelina Vladimirovna Galtsova, Varditer Agabekovna Badalyan, Igor Ivanovich Babichenko
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Background. Mineralized lesions of the jaws are often found incidentally on radiographs and computed tomography. Most of them are benign, and only a few rare cases are associated with malignant transformation. However, there is little clinical data on successful rehabilitation with implants in patients with mineralized lesions. This narrative review aimed to study the efficiency and safety of dental implantation in the area of hyperdense lesions. Materials and Methods. A PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct database search was carried out with keywords and manually. Results. The literature exploration identified 323 articles; only 19 of them matched the search criteria and reported cases about dental implantation in the lesion area. It has been shown that in 84.2% of described cases, dental implantation was successful: in the osteoid osteoma, odontoma, cementoblastoma, idiopathic osteosclerosis, and condensing osteitis areas dental implantation was performed without any complications. The possibility of lesion recurrence and implant failure limited the use of dental implants in the area of osteoblastoma and cemento-osseous dysplasia. Although most cases of dental implantation in hyperdense jaw lesions were successful and were not accompanied by complications, further research is needed.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060107
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 108: Estimation of Factors Affecting
           Burnout in Greek Dentists before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Maria Antoniadou
      First page: 108
      Abstract: This study is a comprehensive, cross-sectional survey in occupational burnout, career satisfaction, and quality of life conducted in March 2021 among dentists in the vast area of metropolitan Athens, Greece. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire based on the Copenhagen Questionnaire (CQ) for assessing work stress and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) for evaluating occupational burnout. Using the independent t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression, 804 valid questionnaires were analyzed. During the pandemic, personal exhaustion was affected by gender (b = 1.862, p = 0.0001), age (b = −0.598, p = 0.0001), number of children (b = −0.886, p = 0.020) and higher degree (b = −0.450, p = 0.012). Exhaustion due to working with patients was affected by gender (b = 0.662 p = 0.0001), age (b = −0.513, p = 0.0001), number of children (b = −0.701, p = 0.0001), higher degree (b = −0.207, p = 0.028) and years in practice (b = 0.408 p = 0.0001). Males were more prone to unhappiness, dissatisfaction, and professional physical and emotional exhaustion, but personal resources through higher education, beliefs, values, and hobbies can offer a preventive shield to all dental professionals. Economic management issues can also enhance dentists’ satisfaction and feeling of safety in a rapidly changing environment.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 109: A 3D Digital Analysis of the Hard
           Palate Wound Healing after Free Gingival Graft Harvest: A Pilot Study in
           the Short Term

    • Authors: Tiago Marques, Sara Ramos, Nuno Bernardo Malta dos Santos, Tiago Borges, Javier Montero, André Correia, Gustavo Vicentis de Oliveira Fernandes
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Purpose: Within this context, this pilot study aimed to evaluate the healing dynamics process of the hard palate after free gingival graft harvesting in the short term (3 months), utilizing digital imaging technology and tridimensional analysis software. Furthermore, assessing the results found to verify the existence of a relationship between gender or age with tissue loss. Materials and Methods: For connective-tissue harvesting, fifteen patients with gingival recessions type (RT) 1 and RT2 were selected. On the surgery day (before the procedure) and after three months, palatal impressions were taken in all patients, and cast models were done for posterior model scanning. The following variables were analyzed: mean thickness alterations (x¯ TA), maximum thickness loss (MTL), mean maximum thickness loss (x¯ MTL), and volume alterations (VA). A descriptive and bivariate analysis of the data was done. The data were submitted for statistical evaluation and were significant if p < 0.05. Results: Fifteen patients were analyzed, 11 females (73.3%) and four males (26.7%). The patients’ average age was 28 ± 8.52 years (ranging between 16 and 48 years old). The palatal wound region’s mean thickness and volume changes were −0.26 mm (±0.31) and 46.99 mm3 (±47.47 mm3) at three months. There was no statistically significant result correlating age/gender with any variable evaluated. Conclusions: Connective tissue graft harvesting promoted changes with a standard volume and thickness loss of palatal soft tissue. A 3D digital evaluation was a non-invasive method with a reproducible technique for measuring thickness or volume after connective tissue is collected. There was no relationship between age/gender and any variables analyzed.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060109
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 110: Post-Operative Bleeding
           Complications in a Periodontitis Patient Testing Positive for COVID-19

    • Authors: Georgios Loukas, Madeline X. F. Kosho, Spiros Paraskevas, Bruno G. Loos
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Recent scientific evidence states that a subset of COVID-19 patients may have a risk of increased bleeding tendency. This case report presents a healthy 38-year-old woman with generalized stage III, grade C periodontitis with an abnormal post-operative blood clot formation who tested positive for COVID-19 after a standard periodontal surgery. Previously, two periodontal surgeries proceeded without any complications and were considered standard. On day one after the third periodontal surgery the patient had no complaints. On day two the patient reported excess bleeding in the oral cavity from the operated area simultaneously with fever and loss of taste. On day three the patient was seen in our clinic; general malaise symptoms and bleeding tendency had started to decline and the patient received a COVID-19 PCR test. At day four the test resulted positive, and she reported no further complaints of intraoral bleeding. Six months later the taste of the patient was still distorted. For this patient with free medical anamnesis, we suggest that the patient had increased plasma levels of tissue plasminogen activator during the crucial postoperative period due to an acute COVID-19 infection. This led to increased plasmin levels with a hyper-fibrinolytic state as a consequence.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060110
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 111: Factors Associated with Pre-Dental
           Students’ Intention and Willingness to Serve in the Underserved
           Community and Vulnerable Population

    • Authors: Brent Lin, Jungsoo Kim, Michael Lin, Jyu-Lin Chen
      First page: 111
      Abstract: A potential solution to the problem of how to increase access to dental care for the underserved and vulnerable populations is to establish an early pipeline of underrepresented and minority college students for a career in dentistry. This study aims to explore factors associated with such pre-dental students’ future intentions to serve. A cross-sectional design was utilized with 144 participants completing the questionnaire with four sections, including participants’ demographics, experience in access to dental care, psychosocial factors, and intention to serve the underserved and vulnerable populations. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. A positive attitude (OR = 12.03) and higher confidence towards addressing access to dental care issues (OR = 10.43) were found to be the strongest factor for higher intention to serve the underserved and vulnerable populations. Higher knowledge on the prevalence of dental caries among children (OR = 3.18) and participants who experienced difficulty in getting a dental appointment, or finding an available dentist when needed (OR = 3.43), were also associated with higher intention. Identifying key factors associated with higher intention to serve the underserved and vulnerable populations as a future dentist may facilitate workforce recruitment in the Health Profession Shortage Areas (HPSAs).
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060111
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 112: In Vitro Comparison of Three
           Intraoral Scanners for Implant—Supported Dental Prostheses

    • Authors: Vitória Costa, António Sérgio Silva, Rosana Costa, Pedro Barreiros, Joana Mendes, José Manuel Mendes
      First page: 112
      Abstract: With continuing technological developments, there have been advances in the field of fixed prosthetics, particularly in impression-taking techniques. These technological advances mean that a wide variety of diagnostic and/or rehabilitation possibilities can be explored without the need for physical models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three intraoral scanners used in oral implant rehabilitation using an extraoral scanner as a reference and varying the scanning area. Three models representing different clinical scenarios were scanned 15 times by each intraoral scanner and three times by the extraoral scanner. The readings were analyzed and overlaid using engineering software (Geomagic® Control X software (Artec Europe, Luxembourg)). Statistically significant differences in accuracy were found between the three intraoral scanners, iTero® (Align Technology Inc., San Jose, CA, USA), Medit® (Medit®: Seoul, Korea), and Planmeca® (Planmeca®: Helsinki, Finland). In all clinical scenarios, the iTero® scanner had the best trueness (24.4 μm), followed by the Medit® (26.4 μm) and Planmeca® (42.1 μm). The Medit® showed the best precision (18.00 μm) followed by the iTero® (19.20 μm) and Planmeca® (34.30 μm). We concluded that the iTero® scanner had the highest reproducibility and accuracy in the clinical setting.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060112
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 113: Clinical and Radiographic
           Evaluation of a Novel Triangular Implant Neck Design: A Case Series

    • Authors: James Rudolph Collins, Brendha P. Ogando, Houlin Hong, Wei Hou, Georgios E. Romanos
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic behavior of a novel triangular neck implant configuration in partially edentulous patients. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 58.3 years, were rehabilitated with 25 implants inserted in the healed sites of the maxilla and mandible; implant diameter was Ø3.3 and 3.9 mm. Clinical and radiographic measurements were first performed at prosthesis delivery that served as baseline; they were further evaluated after a mean period of 15.6 months. The interproximal peri-implant bone levels were the primary outcome; the mesial and distal data were recorded and a mean value was calculated. Secondary outcomes included peri-implant probing depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BoP). The paired t-test was used to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes between baseline and follow-up. The mean bone levels at the mesial and distal aspects at baseline were 0.45 (0.47) and 0.57 (0.69), respectively; at follow-up they were 0.59 (0.42) and 0.78 (0.59), respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, no significant differences were found for the clinical parameters. Within the limitations of the present study, it could be concluded that this new triangular neck bone level implant macro-design was used successfully to treat partially edentulous patients. Larger controlled clinical studies are warranted to confirm the present radiographic and clinical findings.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060113
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 114: Initial Displacement and Stress
           Distribution of Upper Central Incisor Extrusion with Clear Aligners and
           Various Shapes of Composite Attachments Using the Finite Element Method

    • Authors: Pratchawin Laohachaiaroon, Bancha Samruajbenjakun, Ekachai Chaichanasiri
      First page: 114
      Abstract: A clear aligner is an esthetic and more comfortable option for patients who need orthodontic treatment. However, some types of tooth movement, such as extrusion, are difficult with this tool. Therefore, composite attachments have been suggested to improve tooth movement. This study aims to evaluate the initial displacement and stress distribution during upper central incisor extrusion using the conventional composite attachments. Maxillary models with the upper teeth, clear aligners, and composite attachments placed on the labial surface of the upper right central incisor were constructed. Four models were created to simulate upper central incisor extrusion: (1) without any composite attachment; (2) rectangular beveled attachment; (3) ellipsoid attachment; and (4) horizontal rectangular attachment. Clear aligners were designed to perform upper central incisor extrusion. The constructed models were analyzed using the finite element method. Initial displacement and stress distribution were analyzed. Output analysis found that the upper right central incisor in the model with a horizontal rectangular attachment had the greatest extrusive movement, followed by the model with ellipsoid attachment and the model with beveled attachment. Maximum compressive stress was seen at the cervical region of the composite attachment. Composite attachments including horizontal rectangular attachment, ellipsoid attachment, and rectangular beveled attachment can be used to perform upper central incisor extrusion.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10060114
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 73: Structural Conformation Comparison
           of Different Clear Aligner Systems: An In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Aseel Alhendi, Rita Khounganian, Raisuddin Ali, Saeed Ali Syed, Abdullazez Almudhi
      First page: 73
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural conformations of three clear aligner systems, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity®, and compare them with the most commonly used system, Invisalign®. Clear aligner samples from Invisalign®, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity® were cut into 5 × 5 mm squares and exposed to artificial saliva for 2 weeks. The specimens were then subjected to a Vickers hardness test by applying three separate indentations with a 25 gf load for 15 s. Hardness was calculated using the following formula: Vickers hardness number = 1.854 (F/D2). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed, with a diamond hemisphere and infrared beam being allowed to pass through each specimen. A mid-infrared range from 4000 to 375 cm−1 was recorded. The samples were also evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis spectroscopy at different magnifications. No statistically significant differences were observed between the included systems with regard to hardness. All systems showed a polyurethane-based material, as illustrated by the FTIR analysis. Some structural variations were noted in the Invisalign® system, which had a more homogeneous architecture. Statistically significant differences in the carbon weights were found among the systems. The four systems presented comparable hardness levels. Mild molecular composition differences were found, but all systems had the similarity of being composed of a polyurethane-based material. Carbon and oxygen were the main elements, as they were located in all studied clear aligners. The SEM analysis revealed that Invisalign® had a smoother surface than the other three systems. All included clear aligners had similar characteristics with minimal differences, providing a wide variety of options for clinical orthodontic treatment according to patients’ demands.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 74: Root Fractures in the Primary Teeth
           and Their Management: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Enrico Spinas, Gianni Di Giorgio, Martina Salvatorina Murgia, Valentino Garau, Mara Pinna, Nicoletta Zerman
      First page: 74
      Abstract: (1) Background: Traumatic dental injuries constitute a major global health problem. Primary deciduous teeth of the upper frontal group are frequently affected by trauma, especially at an early age. It is important to treat primary traumatic injuries because early tooth loss can lead to aesthetic and functional alterations. The most common injuries are extrusion, lateral luxation, and intrusion. Root fracture is a less common complication that can lead to tooth extraction if not properly diagnosed and managed. However, there are a lack of data regarding primary root fracture treatment. The literature was reviewed to study the current knowledge on the treatment of these injuries, and to propose an operative protocol based on the results obtained. (2) Methods: A literature search was performed on Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. The research focused on the following features: age of the patient; localization of the root fracture and type of displacement suffered (intrusive, extrusive, or lateral); type of emergency treatment or diagnostic test performed and their compliance with IADT guidelines; follow-up duration. (2) Results: Only 8 articles fully met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 46 patients and 62 root fractures. Out of a total of 62 root fractures, regarding only upper incisors, the most common treatment was splinting (n = 39) for a period ranging from 3 weeks to 3 months (with an average of six weeks). No treatment was performed for 23 of the root fractures. The splinting performed in most of the included cases was semi-rigid, with the splint held in place using a composite resin material. An orthodontic splint using brackets and 0.5 mm stainless steel wire was used in only in one study. (4) Conclusions: We deduced that the root fracture of primary teeth is a rare traumatic dental injury that can cause numerous complications, such as eruptive problems in the permanent teeth. Correct radiological diagnosis, immediate repositioning and semi-rigid splinting could be conservative methods to prevent premature tooth loss in very young patients.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 75: Novel Magnetic Attachment System
           Manufactured Using High-Frequency Heat Treatment and Stamp Technique:
           Introduction and Basic Performance

    • Authors: Adityakrisna Yoshi Putra Wigianto, Yuichi Ishida, Takashi Matsuda, Takaharu Goto, Megumi Watanabe, Tetsuo Ichikawa
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Recently, a novel magnetic attachment with extremely low cost and high performance was developed. This article aims to introduce a novel magnetic attachment and to evaluate its basic eligibility for denture retention in clinical practice. The novel magnetic attachment system used in this study was the direct-bonding root-keeper-type Magteeth™ MT800 (MagneDesign, Nagoya, Japan). The retentive force without displacement (position 0) and after horizontal displacement to positions 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mm were measured. The values relative to the retentive force without displacement were gradually decreased to 82.7 ± 16.3%, 68.8 ± 17.1%, 62.4 ± 15%, 47.2 ± 13.1%, 35.7 ± 9.9%, and 20.7 ± 6.5%, respectively. The retentive force and magnetic field strength did not change significantly after the load test (100 N load, 10,000 times). No new gap between the metal and resin was found in the root keeper- and magnet assembly-embedded blocks after the load test. Some scratches on magnetic assembly and root keeper surface, while no change in the resin texture after the load test were observed. Based on the findings of this preliminary study, this novel low-cost magnetic attachment exhibited favorable retention, strength, and durability for clinical use.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 76: Comparative Evaluation of the
           Effectiveness of a Combination of Absorbable Gelatin Sponge and Calendula
           officinalis with Absorbable Gelatin Sponge Used Alone as a Hemostatic
           Agent—An In-Vitro Study

    • Authors: Bharath Kumar Ayyanahalli Matta, Santhosh Kumar, Chetan Hasmukh Mehta, Usha Yogendra Nayak, Patricia Garcia Rodriguez
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Excessive bleeding can complicate surgical intervention; this could be managed using an effective hemostatic agent that provides immediate and early bleeding control. Gelatin sponge and Calendula officinalis have been proven to have good hemostatic properties. The present In-vitro study analyzed the cytotoxicity and hemostatic properties of gelatin sponge and Calendula officinalis. The cytotoxic concentration/effective concentration of Calendula officinalis was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The drug release was determined using a vertical Franz diffusion cell apparatus; solid-state characterization was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The MTT assay showed 7% Calendula officinalis to be cytocompatible, and there was an increase in cell proliferation. When the 7% Calendula officinalis was loaded into the sponge, it was compatible, and the drug content was found to be 56.28 ± 13.84%. The time taken for the blood clot formation was measured using the Lee–White method. The gelatin sponge’s time for clot formation was 161.70 ± 3.11 s, and the Calendula officinalis loaded gelatin sponge’s time for clot formation was 158.75 ± 4.60 s. Hence, it could be concluded that when Calendula officinalis is incorporated into a gelatin sponge, it shows material compatibility and cytocompatibility, reduces the time for clot formation, and could be used as an alternative to other hemostatic agents.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 77: Influence of Implant Tilting and
           Length on the Biomechanics of Single-Tooth Restoration: A Finite Element
           Analysis in Atrophic Mandible

    • Authors: Eduardo Anitua, Naiara Larrazabal Saez de Ibarra, Iñigo Morales Martín, Luis Saracho Rotaeche
      First page: 77
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to assess by means of finite element models the effect on bone stresses of implant length and tilting in single-unit implant restorations. The factors that were analyzed in this study were implant length (4.5, 5.5, and 10 mm), implant titling (0, 17°, 30°, and 45°), bone type (0/I, II, and III), and loading (immediate and delayed). An axial load of 200 N was applied to the occlusal surface of the prosthesis at a height of 11 mm and the Von Mises equivalent stress in the bone was analyzed. Finite element analysis indicated that the most determinant factor was implant tilting. Tilting the implant by 17° doubled the Von Mises stress received by bone. The highest increase was in the case of implant tilting at 45° (by 1300%). The use of extra-short implants did not produce a significant increase in Von Mises stress in bone. Moreover, the length of the implant did not affect the stress value in bone types I and II. Based on the obtained results, an axially placed short implant would be a better option than titling a standard-length implant to support a crown restoration in an atrophic mandible from a biomechanical point of view.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050077
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 78: A Scoping Review about the
           Characteristics and Success-Failure Rates of Temporary Anchorage Devices
           in Orthodontics

    • Authors: Daniel Jaramillo-Bedoya, Gustavo Villegas-Giraldo, Andrés A. Agudelo-Suárez, Diana Milena Ramírez-Ossa
      First page: 78
      Abstract: This study synthesized the scientific evidence concerning the main characteristics of the Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) used in orthodontics and reported the success-failure rates during treatment. For that means, this scoping review collected articles from previous research. A complementary search was carried out in the databases PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and EMBASE, focusing on original studies published from 2010 to 2020. We analyzed the main characteristics of the publications. As a result, 103 articles were included. Most of the research was conducted among different groups, who needed TADs principally in the maxilla and an interradicular location between the second premolar and first molar. AbsoAnchor, Dentos Inc., Daegu, Korea, was the most used brand of TADs. The most common characteristics of the devices and biomechanics were a diameter and length of 1.6 mm and 8 mm, a self-drilled system, a closed technique for placement, immediate loading, and forces that ranged between 40 and 800 g. Of the studies, 47.6% showed success rates ≥90%. In conclusion, high success rates were found for TADs, and differences were found according to sociodemographic and clinical variables. The studies showed variability in methodological design, and scientific publications were concentrated in certain countries. We recommend further scientific research on TADs using more standardized designs.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050078
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 79: A Case of Necrotizing Periodontitis
           in a Care-Requiring Elderly Person Treated and Managed by
           Interprofessional Collaboration

    • Authors: Masahiko Okubo, Ryutaro Kuraji, Hideyuki Kamimura, Yukihiro Numabe, Ko Ito, Tsuyoshi Sato, Shoichiro Kokabu
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Background: Necrotizing periodontitis (NP) is a reactive and destructive inflammatory process that occurs in response to bacterial infection. Predisposing factors such as compromised host immune responses contribute significantly to NP pathogenesis. NP occasionally progresses to a more advanced and life-threatening state. Case presentation: A 73-year-old man in need of nursing care visited our dental clinic with severe gingival pain and intraoral bleeding. He had a disability and was immunocompromised because his medical history included cerebral infarction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was diagnosed with NP based on his typical symptoms, such as prominent bleeding and suppurative discharge from the gingiva, in addition to crater-shaped ulcerations of the interdental papillae. To improve daily oral hygiene, periodontists, dentists, and dental hygienists educated care workers and other staff at the nursing home on appropriate oral cleansing, including brushing three times a day using the Bass technique. Basic periodontal therapy, including whole-mouth scaling and debridement of the root surfaces using hand and ultrasonic instruments, was also performed. After this basic treatment of NP, we extracted the hopeless teeth. Currently, dentists visit the patient fortnightly to manage his oral hygiene. To date, good oral health has been maintained.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 80: Development of a Clinically Relevant
           Index for Tooth Wear Treatment Needs

    • Authors: Yahya Deeban, Keyvan Moharamzadeh, Moosa Abuzayeda, Nicolas Martin
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Background: This study aimed to develop a tooth wear classification system that combined the extent, severity, and aesthetic impact of tooth wear and correlated them with the most appropriate clinical management strategy. Methods: Three hundred photographs were used to develop a classification tool that contained four levels of severity and aesthetic impact (0, 1, 2, and 3) in three age groups of patients. Ten examiners assessed and classified the cases using validated forms. Additionally, they selected the recommended treatment modality for each level. The analysis was conducted using a coefficient correlation test. Results: The coefficient correlation for the severity was 0.81, 0.82 in the upper anterior and posterior segments, and 0.85 and 0.77 for the lower anterior and posterior segments, respectively. The aesthetic impact correlation coefficient was 0.84. Examiners had agreed that minor cases required monitoring or simple restorative interventions. The moderate-level cases had variety in the recommended management options depending on the aim of treatment. The severe level cases often required rehabilitation at an increased occlusal vertical dimension. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this preliminary study, a good agreement between the examiners was found using the provided tools. More strict criteria in the classification part of the tool can further improve the examiners’ agreement.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050080
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Improving Nasal Airflow with a Novel
           Nasal Breathing Stent

    • Authors: Hiroshi Suzuki, Arisa Sawa, Tatsuo Yagi, Yoshihiro Iwata, Toshiyuki Nakayama, Chin-Moi Chow, Osamu Komiyama
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Nasal obstruction requires close attention, as it is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study evaluated airflow rates of our newly designed nasal breathing stent (NBS) compared with those of existing nasal dilators in 10 adult men. We hypothesized that the NBS would expand the nasal passage more than the other nasal dilators by means of airflow measurements. We compared airflow measurements between the NBS and three existing appliances and no appliance. Velocity measurements were recorded by analyzing 499 videographic images when each appliance was placed next to a steam generator at 0, 5, and 10 mm from the outlet port for airflow visualization. The peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) rate was measured using an inspiratory flow meter. The NBS resulted in significantly higher airflow velocity measurements at all distances from the outlet port and a higher PNIF rate than the other appliances. Thus, the NBS offers a significantly decreased resistance to air movement compared with other appliances. Future in-depth investigations are required to demonstrate the use of NBS as a nasal dilator in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure/oral appliance treatments in patients with OSA.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050081
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 82: Distally Tilted Implants According
           to the All-on-Four® Treatment Concept for the Rehabilitation of
           Complete Edentulism: A 3.5-Year Retrospective Radiographic Study of
           Clinical Outcomes and Marginal Bone Level Changes

    • Authors: Árpád László Szabó, Ádám László Nagy, Csaba Lászlófy, Márió Gajdács, Péter Bencsik, Krisztina Kárpáti, Zoltán Baráth
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Bone grafting procedures during the use of dental implants may be avoided by the use of tilted implants in the maxilla and the mandible; advantages of angled implants are associated with the extension of the distal cantilever, leading to better implant survival rates. However, the bending effect on the single tilting implants may increase the marginal bone stress. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively assess the clinical success and proximal bone loss rate following the implantation of distally tilted implants according to the All-on-Four™ prosthetic concept—based on radiographic findings—in a single-center experience, in addition to the assessment of the outcomes in the context of various clinico-epidemiological correlates. During the study period, n = 36 patients (24 males and 12 females) with complete records of periapical radiographs, received a full-arch fixed bridge supported by two axial and two distal tilted implants; overall n = 144 and n = 144 implants (Nobel B) were place in the maxilla and mandibles of patients, respectively. Mean age of patients at the time of fixture installation was 58.75 ± 13.71 years; n =11 patients presented with relevant underlying conditions/habits. To assess peri-implant bone-level changes, matched and calibrated orthopantomogram (OPT) images were taken at follow-ups after 1.5 years, 2.5 years, and 3.5 years post-restoration, and marginal bone levels were assessed on the mesio- (MA) and disto-approximal (DA) aspects. All implants were successful, resulting in a 100% overall survival rate. The radiographic mean bone loss levels at baseline (mean ± SEM) were 0.181 ± 0.011 mm and 0.178 ± 0.017 mm in the maxilla and mandible, respectively, while by the 3.5-year mark, bone loss was 0.770 ± 0.029 mm and 0.713 ± 0.026 mm in the maxilla and mandible (p > 0.05), respectively; bone-level changes were significant over time (p = 0.035 and p = 0.033). Peri-implant bone loss was more aggressive around titled distal implants versus mesial actual position implants. The effect of smoking and other underlying conditions showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) bone resorption levels when assessed on an individual implant-level, while during patient-level analysis, only a tendency was shown for higher bone loss rates for both MA and DA implants (p > 0.05). Within its limitations, our study has concluded that the use of All-on-Four™ prosthetic concept for total arch rehabilitation yields higher bone loss in association with tilted implants and, in some cases, on the MA surfaces at vertically positioned implants after >40 months in function.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050082
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 83: Clinical Performance Comparing
           Titanium and Titanium–Zirconium or Zirconia Dental Implants: A
           Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Paulo Rafael Esteves Fernandes, Ada Isis Pelaez Otero, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Leonardo Mohamad Nassani, Rogerio Moraes Castilho, Gustavo Vicentis de Oliveira Fernandes
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to compare clinical results between titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zr), or titanium–zirconium (TZ) dental implants and to analyze survival rate (SR), bleeding on probing (BoP), marginal bone loss (MBL), and/or probing depth (PD). Data source: Manual and electronic searches were conducted (PubMed and Web of Science) to identify randomized controlled trials that compared the outcomes of at least two implant types (control and test group) within the same study. The focused question was determined according to the PICOT strategy. Seven studies were included out of 202 research studies initially found. The follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 80 months, and the mean age was from 43.3 to 65.8 years old. The SR for Ti, TZ, and Zr implants ranged from 92.6% to 100%, 95.8% to 100%, and 87.5% to 91.25%, respectively; MBL for Ti, TZ, and Zr implants varied from −1.17 mm to −0.125 mm for Ti, −0.6 mm to −0.32 mm for TZ, and −0.25 mm to −1.38 mm for Zr. Studies showed a low incidence of mucositis and peri-implantitis; however, BoP for Zr was 16.43%, Ti ranged between 10% and 20%, and TZ from 10% to 13.8%. PD for Ti ranged from 1.6 mm to 3.05 mm, TZ was 3.12 mm (only one study), and Zr ranged from 2.21 mm to 2.6 mm. Conclusion: All three types of implants showed similar tissue behavior. However, the TZ group had better results when compared with Ti and Zr for SR, MBL, and BoP, except for PD. Furthermore, the worst SR was found in the Zr implants group.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050083
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 84: On the Role of Dietary Nitrate in
           the Maintenance of Systemic and Oral Health

    • Authors: Ulrich Schlagenhauf
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The assessment of the significance of nitrates ingested with food has undergone a fundamental change in recent years after many controversial discussions. While for a long time, a diet as low in nitrates as possible was advocated on the basis of epidemiological data suggesting a cancer-promoting effect of nitrate-rich diets, more recent findings show that dietary nitrate, after its conversion to nitrite by nitrate-reducing bacteria of the oral microbiota, is an indispensable alternative source for the formation of nitric oxide (NO), which comprises a key element in the physiology of a variety of central body functions such as blood pressure control, defense against invading bacteria and maintenance of a eubiotic microbiota in the gut and oral cavity. This compact narrative review aims to present the evidence supported by clinical and in vitro studies on the ambivalent nature of dietary nitrates for general and oral health and to explain how the targeted adjuvant use of nitrate-rich diets could open new opportunities for a more cause-related control of caries and periodontal disease.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050084
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 85: Mechanistic Effects of E-Liquids on
           Biofilm Formation and Growth of Oral Commensal Streptococcal Communities:
           Effect of Flavoring Agents

    • Authors: Christina P. Xu, Dominic L. Palazzolo, Giancarlo A. Cuadra
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Background: Vaping has become a global health concern. As research continues, more studies are beginning to question the relative safety of E-liquid flavoring additives. The oral cavity is the first site of exposure to E-liquid aerosol, making it critical for investigation. Because of the importance of commensal bacterial biofilms for oral health, we sought to explore the effects of E-liquids ± flavors on the formation and growth of single- and multi-species biofilms and to investigate the mechanism of inhibition. Methods: Quantitative and confocal biofilm analysis, death curves, and colony-forming units (CFU) were evaluated with flavorless and flavored (tobacco, menthol, cinnamon, strawberry, blueberry) E-liquids using four strains of oral commensal bacteria (Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis). Results: All flavoring agents show a dose-dependent inhibition in the growth of single-species and multi-species biofilms. Furthermore, CFUs, death curves, and light microscopy show that flavoring agents have a bactericidal mode of inhibition on the growth of these oral streptococci. Conclusions: These results show that flavored, rather than unflavored, E-liquids are more detrimental to biofilm formation and growth of oral commensal bacteria. Consequently, E-liquid flavorings agents could pose risks to the oral microenvironment, and by extension, to systemic health.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050085
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Etiology and Treatment of
           Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Dehiscences: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Charalampos Kaddas, Eirini Papamanoli, Yiorgos A. Bobetsis
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Implant soft tissue dehiscences compromise not only the aesthetics of the supported restorations but implant survival in the long run. The aim of this narrative review was to briefly present the causative factors of buccal peri-implant soft tissue dehiscences (PSTDs), how these are classified, and the current therapeutic approaches. Implant malposition and the thin peri-implant phenotype are the two major determinants for the occurrence of PSTDs, but other risk factors have also been identified. The most common surgical procedure for treating PSTDs is the split-thickness coronally advanced flap combined with either a connective tissue graft or acellular dermal matrix materials. However, depending on the class and subtype of the dehiscence, the combination of surgical techniques with modifications in the restoration may further ameliorate the final result. In general, within a five-year follow-up period, most techniques lead to a satisfactory aesthetic result, although full coverage of the implant/abutment surface is not always achievable, especially in more extended lesions.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050086
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 87: Smile Aesthetic Evaluation on
           Videographs: An Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Agreement Study

    • Authors: Mathias Faure-Brac, Angéline Antezack, Sebastien Melloul, Mehdi Hadj Hadj Saïd, Anne Raskin, Virginie Monnet-Corti
      First page: 87
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess on videographs the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of the Smile Esthetic Index (SEI) that has been previously validated on photographs. Smile videographs were obtained using a smartphone associated with the Smile Lite MDP mounted on a tripod. They were then randomized and evaluated twice consecutively at a 1-week interval by three periodontists according to the SEI based on 10 variables. Cohen’s Kappa and Fleiss’ Kappa tests were performed to measure intra- and inter-rater agreement. Sixty-five smile videographs of 24 men and 41 women (mean age 33 ± 11.3 years) were scored. A mean intra-rater agreement of 0.68 (0.64–0.73) was obtained, representing substantial agreement. The inter-rater agreement calculated for each variable ranged from 0.31 for the variable “absence of visible excessive gingiva” to 0.90 for the variable “absence of diastema and/or missing inter-dental papilla.” Within the limits of this study, we have demonstrated that it was possible to use videographs to reproducibly evaluate an aesthetic score (SEI) previously validated on photographs.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050087
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 88: Implant-Retained Mandibular
           Overdentures: Patient-Related Outcome Measurements after Seven Years of

    • Authors: Jan D'haese, Carine Matthys, Hamed Sahak, Jos Besseler, Hugo De Bruyn
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Denture wearers often complain about jeopardized function and reduced quality of life due to lack of prosthesis’ retention. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures, on two non-connected implants (2IOD) are well-proven solutions to overcome these issues. We prospectively assessed 69 patients and scrutinized clinical records until at least seven years of function. Thirty-six were retained on Locator® Abutments (LA) and thirty-tree on Ball Abutments (BA). Both systems were compared regarding the type, amount, and total cost of required maintenance. One implant was lost, yielding 98.7% survival after seven years. In total, 438 technical issues occurred: 121 (27.35%) in BA and 317 (72.4%) in LA. Out of these, 343 events (78%) were solved chairside: 191 (43.6%) were replacements of retention caps, 113 (25.8%) were minor acrylic repairs, 26 (5.9%) pressure ulcers had to be relieved, and 13 (3%) were related to abutments. LA required 179 insert replacements compared to 12 in the BA group. The overall initial treatment cost was EUR 3850 (base year of the analysis: 2003). The average total maintenance cost in relation to the initial cost for the LA and BA groups was 19.11 (range 0–82.24%) and 18.91% (range 0–113.26%) respectively (p = 0.540). Conclusions: The seven-year maintenance costs for a 2IOD is acceptable when the patient is regularly checked and professionally maintained. Most events are easily solvable chairside, but a few patients required more expensive interventions, regardless of the type of attachment used.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050088
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 89: Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of
           the Jaw in Dental Practice: A Retrospective Analysis of Data from the
           Milan Cohort

    • Authors: Cristina Mirelli, Sonia Marino, Andrea Bovio, Sara Pederielli, Cristina Dall’Agnola, Aldo Bruno Gianni, Roberto Biagi
      First page: 89
      Abstract: A retrospective analysis was performed with the aim of understanding whether the risk factors showed in the literature for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) in cancer patients are also relevant in osteoporotic patients taking antiresorptive drugs (ARDs). Data were retrospectively pooled from health records of patients on ARDs who requested a dental visit between January 2006 and April 2020 in the Dental Unit at Fondazione Ca’ Granda IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan. A total of 434 patients were included. The following variables were collected: sex, age, smoking habit, type of ARD, duration of treatment, route of administration, therapeutic indication, concurrent systemic therapies and pathologies. Statistical analysis confirmed the relevance of chemotherapy, smoking, and immunosuppressive drugs as risk factors. In addition, a higher frequency of MRONJ in osteoporotic patients was reported in our cohort in association with an immunodeficiency disorder of variable origin. In conclusion, the identification of individual risk-profile before dental treatments is crucial for prevention. Anamnesis should include main risk factors, such as immunosuppression, dental extractions, smoking, trauma, and poor dental health. Nevertheless, our suggestion for dental professionals is to conduct a complete medical history of patients who mention long-term per oral therapies with ARDs for osteoporosis. Osteoporotic, as well as cancer patients, may also benefit from periodic monitoring of the ARDs therapy in order to prevent MRONJ.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050089
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 90: A Video-Game-Based Oral Health
           Intervention in Primary Schools—A Randomised Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Ahmad Aljafari, Rawan ElKarmi, Osama Nasser, Ala’a Atef, Marie Therese Hosey
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Background: Poor oral health practices and high levels of dental caries have been reported among children in the developing world. Video games have been successful in promoting oral health in children. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an oral-health-education video game on children’s dietary knowledge and dietary and toothbrushing practices; Methods: Two Schools in Amman, Jordan were randomly selected and assigned to either intervention or control. Six- to eight-year old children took part. The intervention group played the oral-health-education video game; the control group received no intervention. The groups were compared in terms of changes in: child dietary knowledge, dietary and toothbrushing practices, plaque scores, and parental familiarity with preventive treatments. Data were submitted to statistical analysis with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Two hundred and seventy-eight children took part. Most (92%) had carious teeth. At baseline, children reported having more than one sugary snack a day and only 33% were brushing twice a day. Most parents were unaware of fluoride varnish (66%) or fissure sealants (81%). At follow-up, children in the intervention group had significantly better dietary knowledge, and parents in both groups became more familiar with fluoride varnish. There were no significant changes in children’s plaque scores, toothbrushing and dietary practices, or parental familiarity with fissure sealants in either group. Conclusions: Using an oral-health-education video game improved children’s dietary knowledge. However, future efforts should target children together with parents, and need to be supplemented by wider oral-health-promotion.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050090
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 91: Dental Emergencies and Coronavirus
           Disease-2019: Scoping Review of the Literature and Single Centre

    • Authors: Agostino Guida, Annamaria Carotenuto, Vladimiro Lanza, Francesco Antonucci, Paola Salerno, Dario Marasca, Umberto Esposito, Maurizio Gargiulo
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental emergencies. A systematic review of the literature (PubMed/Scopus) searching for articles on COVID-19 and dental abscess and a retrospective cohort study with quantitative/qualitative data analysis of our hospital E.R. patients admitted for cervico-facial abscess of dental origin were performed. Thirteen studies could be included in the review, concerning characteristics/management of patients with dental emergencies in hospitals/private practices, generally with poor evidence. For the retrospective analysis, 232 consecutive patients were included (100 study vs. 132 control). The prevalence of dental emergencies (abscess) and relative complications (mediastinitis, exitus) increased. Dental care availability was limited, with strong heterogeneity amongst regions/nations. At-risk (aerosol-generating) procedures were generally avoided, and hospitalization length reduced. Comorbidity patients and males seem less likely to restore regular dentist attendance during the post-lockdown pandemic. Despite the poor scientific evidence, COVID-19 seems to have impacted dental emergencies through limited routine dental care availability and influence on physicians’ and patients’ behaviour.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050091
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 92: Interventions to Improve the Oral
           Hygiene of Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Antonio Barrenechea-Pulache, Rubén Aguirre-Ipenza, Daniel Comandé, Diego Azañedo
      First page: 92
      Abstract: This systematic review evaluates published evidence on oral hygiene interventions conducted in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source, and Web of Science were searched for articles published up to 19 April 2021. The main outcomes of interest were the Plaque index score (PI), oral health knowledge of participants or their caregivers, and behaviors and attitudes towards oral hygiene. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies of the National Institutes of Health. The study was conducted under PROSPERO registration code CRD42021247733. Two studies met the inclusion criteria. One was a pre-post study conducted in Brazil, and the other was a prospective cohort study carried out in China. The sample sizes of these studies were 29 and 168, respectively. Both studies were carried out in institutionalized patients and presented a significant loss to follow-up. The PI and gingival index scores both improved after the application of the respective interventions, yet the differing methodologies used precluded further comparisons. The studies were deemed to be of good and regular quality, respectively. Despite the need for more comprehensive interventions to ensure a better oral health status and a higher quality of life for AD patients, an alarming lack of studies have been conducted in this population.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10050092
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Age Assessment in Children and
           Adolescents by Measuring the Open Apices in Teeth: A New Sardinian Formula

    • Authors: Enrico Spinas, Giorgia Melis, Nicoletta Zerman, Stefano De Luca, Roberto Cameriere
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Age estimation in children is fundamental in both clinical and forensic fields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Cameriere’s European and Italian formulae for age estimation in Sardinian children and adolescents, a genetically isolated population. A sample of 202 orthopantomograms of healthy Sardinian children and adolescents (100 females and 102 males) aged between 6 and 17 years was retrospectively evaluated. The seven left mandibular teeth were assessed with the Cameriere’s European and Italian formulae. The teeth with closed apex (N0) were counted and, in the teeth with open apex, the distance between the inner sides was calculated. All variables showed a significant and negative correlation with age except N0 and g. Sex (g), the variables s, N0, and the first-order interaction between them, contributed substantially to the age measurement (p < 0.001). Although the value of x5 had a low prediction level, it generated the following multiple linear regression formula, specific for the Sardinian sample: Age = 10.372 + 0.469 g + 0.810 N0 − 1.079 s − 0.398 s ∙ N0 − 0.326 × 5. Only the Sardinian and European formulae allowed to obtain an acceptable interclass agreement (both the lower and upper >0.7). The results showed that the European formula could be accurate for assessing age in this sample of children and adolescents.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 51: Rehabilitation of Worn Dentition
           with Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Case Report

    • Authors: Marta Blasi Beriain, Giovanni Tommaso Rocca, Leonardo Franchini, Didier Dietschi, Carlo Massimo Saratti
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The incidence of tooth wear has steadily increased in all Western populations during the past decades. A through-care strategy, extendable for a lifetime, has become crucial to prevent the extensive loss of sound dental structure and to make an eventual retreatment affordable in the long term. An interceptive treatment using resin composite materials and no-preparation approaches meets these requirements. Moreover, continual developments in digital dentistry makes possible to predict the treatment plan for the restorative rehabilitation of the mouth. The availability of digital resources allows clinicians to increase predictability for excellent esthetics and good functional results. This article provides a step-by-step description of a full-mouth additive rehabilitation achieved by employing digital workflows and direct resin composite restorations. A comprehensive functional and esthetic evaluation of the treatment is proposed and discussed.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 52: The Effect of Symmetric and
           Asymmetric Loading of Frontal Segment with Two Curved Cantilevers: An In
           Vitro Study

    • Authors: Malgorzata Bilinska, Michel Dalstra
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Cantilevers generate statically determined force systems. The frontal segment loading with symmetric and asymmetric cantilevers in a three-piece intrusion base arch can be used to correct midline asymmetry. Three types of 0.017″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium cantilevers: tip-back (TB), deep curve (DC), utility arch (UA) were tested on typodonts simulating intrusion of the maxillary anterior segment. Typodonts with symmetric and asymmetric cantilevers were scanned with intraoral scanner (3Shape, TRIOS, Copenhagen, Denmark) before (T0) and after (T1) the experiment, scans were superimposed using Mimics software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). Data were analysed with qualitative analysis. All cantilevers generated vertical and horizontal forces. For symmetric design, the DC and TB displayed intrusive force with retrusive component, UA intrusion and protrusion. The asymmetric cantilevers produced transverse displacement of anterior segment. DC created lateral, UA medial force, the anterior segment displacement was consistent with the used configuration. The movement of an anterior segment with TB is smaller compared to DC and UA. Symmetric cantilevers configurations can achieve simultaneous intrusion and retrusion or protrusion of the anterior segment. The asymmetric design with transversal force can clinically aid the correction of midline discrepancies. The effect of the cantilever configuration on delivered force direction was confirmed.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 53: Early Preventive Dental Visits: Do
           They Reduce Future Operative Treatments'

    • Authors: Man Hung, Frank W. Licari, Martin S. Lipsky, Ryan Moffat, Val Joseph Cheever, Amir Mohajeri, Michael Stewart, Dean Orton, David Stewart
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This study assessed the longitudinal impact of early preventive dental visits on the number of dental operative procedures in a prevention-oriented pediatric dental practice. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients zero to four years of age with at least two years of preventive services provided by the practice. Early preventive visits were the intervention and dental operative procedures were the assessed outcome. The goal was to determine if preventive visits at an early age decreased the number of operative procedures needed by the patient. The patients were divided into two groups: those with older siblings in the practice and those without older siblings in the practice. A secondary outcome was to compare these two patient groups to determine if a child who had older siblings previously treated in this preventive practice had better outcomes than those without siblings in the practice. ANCOVA tests were used to compare the average number of operative procedures in two age groups (<2 years and ≥2 years), and for those with and without dental insurance, in addition to children being younger sibling versus children without sibling, adjusting for the effect of covariates. The study sample consisted of 363 pediatric patients. Patients’ age at first visit ranged from 0 to 4 years old (mean = 2.13; SD = 1.15). The average number of operative procedures per year increased as the age at first visit increased (p < 0.05). The average number of operative procedures in two age groups (<2 years and ≥2 years) differed (p < 0.05) with those whose age at first visit ≥2 years experiencing more dental operative procedures than the younger group. The average number of operative procedures was similar between younger siblings (mean = 1.91; SD = 7.44) and children without siblings (mean = 1.54; SD = 2.1) (p > 0.05). The difference in the average number of operative procedures in children with insurance (mean = 1.59; SD = 5.25) and children without insurance (mean = 1.58; SD = 2.38) was non-significant (p > 0.05). More dental cleaning examinations were associated with fewer dental operative procedures (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that dental examinations before two years of age and more dental cleaning examinations lead to a decrease in the number of dental operative procedures needed by children.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Assessment of Oral Human
           Papillomavirus Prevalence in Pediatric and Adult Patients within a
           Multi-Ethnic Clinic Population

    • Authors: Melissa Solomon Kornhaber, Taylor Florence, Trexton Davis, Karl Kingsley
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) encompasses a large family of oncogenic viruses responsible for increasing rates of both cervical and oral cancer, particularly among minority and low-income populations. Although this represents an increasingly significant public health risk, few studies have screened for oral HPV within Nevada. Based upon this information, the primary objective of this study was to provide a temporal analysis of oral HPV screening among a primarily low-income, minority patient population. Methods: This retrospective analysis was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). In brief, unstimulated saliva samples were previously obtained from clinical patient volunteers who provided informed consent and pediatric assent (if applicable). DNA was isolated and screened using spectrophotometry for quality (A260:A280 ratio > 1.70) and quantity (concentration > 100 ng). Validated qPCR primers were used to screen repository samples for high-risk HPV strains HPV16 and HPV18. Results: A total of N = 930 samples were identified for this study, which involved n = 555 samples from adults and n = 375 from pediatric patients treated between 2011 and 2019. A demographic analysis revealed nearly equal distribution between males and females with most derived from non-White (minority) patients. A qPCR screening revealed an overall increase in high-risk HPV of 3.17-fold from 5.7% in 2011 to 18.1% in 2019 and a coefficient of determination or R2 = 0.764, suggesting a strong, positive correlation between more recent sample years and HPV-positive results, which was observed among both pediatric (R2 = 0.671) and adult (R2 = 0.971) patients. In addition, although the average age among adult patients increased over time, a significant decrease was observed among pediatric patients from an average of 16.0 years to 14.81 years. Conclusions: These data suggest temporal changes and positive increases in the prevalence of oral HPV among both the pediatric and adult patient samples taken from this clinic population. These data are important as considerations are made regarding which HPV vaccination education and awareness programs are introduced and the specific populations most likely to benefit from these interventions.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Resin Cement Residue Removal
           Techniques: In Vitro Analysis of Marginal Defects and Discoloration
           Intensity Using Micro-CT and Stereomicroscopy

    • Authors: Mara Gaile, Evaggelia Papia, Vita Zalite, Janis Locs, Una Soboleva
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The objective was to compare marginal defects and evaluate discoloration for adhesively cemented veneers in vitro when using two cement removal techniques. Twenty premolars were prepared with chamfer and borders in enamel. IPS e.max CAD veneers were cemented using Panavia V5 and divided in two groups (n = 10): cement excess removed with a probe after tack-curing for 3–5 s, or cement excess removed with a brush, then completely polymerized. All teeth were stored in alginate gel until micro-CT examination. Scanning was performed twice: directly after cementation and after thermocycling (5000 cycles, between 5 and 55 °C). To analyze discoloration, teeth were colored using 0.5% basic fuchsine and examined under a stereomicroscope. Depth of dye infiltration was scored 0 (no discoloration) to 5 (discoloration along the entire margin). Statistically significant differences of cement defects before thermocycling were reported, where brushing showed more defects than probing (p = 0.0161). After thermocycling, the defects increased for both groups. Extensive discoloration was the most common (55.56%) when removing excess by probing; by brushing, 90% of the specimens exhibited slight discoloration (p = 0.008). Regression analysis showed no relationship between type of defect and degree of discoloration. Removing cement with a brush causes more marginal defects, however less discoloration after thermocycling.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Prevalence of Moderate to Severe
           Periodontitis in an 18–19th Century Sample—St. Bride’s
           Lower Churchyard (London, UK)

    • Authors: Ruqayah Al-Mutairi, Helen Liversidge, David Geoffrey Gillam
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in 18–19th century skulls in the St Bride’s Lower Churchyard in London, UK. Materials and methods: A total of 105 adult skulls (66 M: F 39) from the Museum of London collection were examined for evidence of dental disease. The primary method was to measure the presence of moderate to severe periodontitis. Other dental pathologies were recorded such as tooth wear, calculus, and caries. Results: Overall, the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in the sample was 21–24%. Males were observed to be more susceptible to periodontal disease than females. The severity of bone loss in the skull collection also increased with age. There was no significant difference in the amount of calculus deposition when comparing either age or sex. A total of 14% of the individuals in the sample showed signs of smoking. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in an 18–19th century skull sample was 21–24%, which was higher than in previous studies. This may be due to the lack of basic personal mouth care and professional dental treatment as well as known risk factors such as smoking, stress, low socioeconomic status, and malnutrition.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 57: Maximizing Student Clinical
           Communication Skills in Dental Education—A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Rod Moore
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Dental student training in clinical communication skills and behavioral aspects of treatment are lauded as clinically meaningful in the dental education literature. However, many dental school curricula still only provide didactic, one-time coursework with multiple choice examination assessment and little or no student skill-activating activities. This article aims to review literature relevant to optimizing clinical communication and behavioral skills in dental education. The review summarizes findings of several relevant reviews and usable models to focus on four themes: (1) special characteristics of dentistry relevant to communication skill needs, (2) essential components of dental student learning of communications skills, (3) clinical consultation guides or styles and (4) optimal curricular structure for communication learning effectiveness. Contexts of communications in the dental chair differ from medical and other allied health professions, given the current mostly dentist-dominant and patient-passive relationships. Patient-centered communication should be trained. Dental students need more practical learning in active listening and patient-centered skills including using role-play, videotaping and ultimately, real patient training. Medical consultation guides are often unwieldy and impractical in many dental contexts, so a shortened guide is proposed. Communication skills need to be learned and taught with the same rigor as other core dental skills over the entire course of the dental curriculum.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 58: Radiographic and Histomorphologic
           Evaluation of the Maxillary Bone after Crestal Mini Sinus Lift Using
           Absorbable Collagen—Retrospective Evaluation

    • Authors: Saverio Cosola, Biagio Di Dino, Tonino Traini, Young-Sam Kim, Young-Min Park, Simone Marconcini, Ugo Covani, Raffaele Vinci
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Background: After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone loses volume in height and width over time, meaning that reconstructive procedures may be necessary to perform implant placement. In the maxilla, to increase the bone volume, a mini-invasive surgery, such as a sinus lift using the crestal approach, could be performed. Methods: A crestal approach was used in this study to perform the sinus lift, fracturing the bone and inserting collagen (Condress®). The single dental implant was placed in the healed bone after six months. Results: The newly formed bone was histologically analyzed after healing. Histomorphological analyses confirmed the quality of the new bone formation even without graft biomaterials. This is probably due to the enlargement of the space, meaning more vascularization and stabilization of the coagulum. Conclusion: Using just collagen could be sufficient to induce proper new bone formation in particular clinical situations, with a minimally invasive surgery to perform a sinus lift.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Influence of Needle Design and
           Irrigant Flow Rate on the Removal of Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms In

    • Authors: Charley Provoost, Giovanni Tommaso Rocca, Anna Thibault, Pierre Machtou, Serge Bouilllaguet
      First page: 59
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of needle design and irrigant flow rate on the removal of Enterococcus faecalis mature biofilms during sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Forty-eight single-rooted human teeth were instrumented (ProTaper F3), autoclaved and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis to establish a two-week-old biofilm. E. faecalis biofilms were treated with Sodium hypochlorite that was injected in the root canals using three types of needles (NaviTip, ProRinse, IrriFlex). For the IrriFlex needle, one, two, or four bars of pressure was applied to the irrigating solution to increase flow rates. Bacteria were labeled with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit, and viability was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM). Results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison intervals (α = 0.05). Bacterial viability was significantly reduced after sodium hypochlorite passive irrigation but the number of viable bacteria retrieved from root canal specimens irrigated with the Pro-Rinse needle was significantly higher compared to NaviTip and IrriFlex needles (p < 0.05). When the irrigant flow rate was increased, the viability of bacterial biofilms was significantly reduced compared to passive irrigation using the IrriFlex needle (p < 0.05). Applying higher flow rates during irrigation using the IrriFlex needle did not further reduce bacterial viability.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 60: Perceived Didactic Curricular
           Effectiveness of In-Person vs. Virtual Formats amongst Fourth-Year Dental

    • Authors: Robert D. Bowers, Lance Brendan Young, Carissa L. Comnick, Hariyali P. Kasundra, Christopher A. Barwacz
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic altered the methodologies of dental education delivery, resulting in both immediate and more enduring changes. To assess student perceptions of learning effectiveness, graduating dental students from the class of 2020 were surveyed to identify student comfort with technology and content retention, individual motivation and mental focus, and access to resources pertaining to an abrupt transition to a virtual learning didactic seminar approach in March 2020. Methods: a voluntary, 18-question electronic survey was distributed to fourth-year dental students prior to graduation to assess perceptions of learning outcomes and preferences of a virtual seminar format relative to previous in-person didactic seminars experienced. Results: 34 of 80 dental students (42.5%) completed the electronic survey. Comfort and retention of concepts through virtual learning were reported ≥ by 91% and 85% of the respondents, respectively. Increased distractions and multitasking were reported with virtual learning in 56% and 71%, respectively. Desires to have all teaching conducted through virtual learning platforms was reported at 21%. Conclusions: the positive student responses obtained when comparing virtual to in-person seminars in the survey assessment demonstrates the long-term potential for such delivery modalities to be intentionally incorporated into an evolving predoctoral curriculum in a hybrid nature.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 61: Lipid Profiles and Cardiovascular
           Risk in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus

    • Authors: Tomislav Radic, Livia Cigic, Ana Glavina, Ana Hrboka, Ana Druzijanic, Ivona Musa Leko, Dolores Biocina-Lukenda
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Background: It has been reported that dyslipidemia prevalence and cardiovascular disease risk were increased in subjects with oral lichen planus diagnose. On the other hand, so far, there is no available data on the topic of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in subjects with oral lichen planus (OLP). The main aim of this study, due to lack of any other study covering this topic, was to investigate lipid profile and assess CVR in patients with OLP. Materials and Methods: To create a routine lipid profile, we collected triglyceride serum levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 63 OLP patients and 63 healthy people representing control subjects. For every patient their individual cardiovascular risk was measured. Results: In comparison with the tested control subjects, patients with OLP had all parameters of the lipid profile elevated, with no differences of statistical importance. Furthermore, the experimental (OLP) and control groups shared similar mean values of the lipid profile parameters. Conclusions: The association of OLP with cardiovascular risk was not established and further studies with more subjects involved are required to validate this connection.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 62: A Novel Approach to Immediate
           Implants: The CastleWall Surgical Technique

    • Authors: Cameron Castle
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the volumetric stability around immediate implants, in which a 360-degree socket-shield was retained using the CastleWall Surgical Technique (CWST). Material and methods: This retrospective study examined the results of the CWST used for 25 consecutive patients, involving 31 immediate implants. Silicone impressions taken prior to extraction, and at a review appointment were converted to STL files and compared. The median follow-up time was 14.2 ± 5.5 months. Volumetric changes and gingival recession on both buccal and lingual sites were measured. Papillary height changes were also evaluated from available photographs taken before and after treatment. Patients in the study completed a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for evaluation of post-operative discomfort and overall satisfaction with this procedure. Results: All implants integrated successfully without complications. Mean loss of buccal and lingual tissue was 0.30 ± 0.32 mm and 0.17 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Mean recession at the mid-buccal and mid-lingual gingival margin was 0.66 ± 0.64 mm and 0.87 ± 0.84 mm, respectively. Mean recession of the mesial and distal papilla was 0.26 ± 0.55 mm and 0.29 ± 0.52 mm, respectively. Patients reported 97.74 ± 5.60% satisfaction with this procedure using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), with minimal post-operative discomfort. Conclusions: The results of this study showed excellent soft tissue stability and aesthetics were achieved using the CWST, with minimal postoperative pain. The other main advantage of retaining a 360-degree socket-shield, is there is more available surface area to lock the implant to the shield to prevent shield migration over time.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 63: Dental Students’ Knowledge,
           Confidence, Ability, and Self-Reported Difficulties in Periodontal
           Education: A Mixed Method Pilot Study

    • Authors: Amirsalar Mofidi, Arnaldo Perez, Ida Kornerup, Liran Levin, Silvia Ortiz, Hollis Lai, Jacqueline Green, Seongju Kim, Monica P. Gibson
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Evidence on periodontal education areas in which students have difficulties and their factors are limited. In this study, third- and fourth-year dental students’ knowledge was assessed as well as their confidence and ability in five periodontal educational areas using a mixed-method approach. A survey was used to collect data related to history-taking, medical examination, diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. Student answers were compared to the consensual answers of an expert panel using the cosine-similarity index (CSI). Descriptive statistics assessed confidence and ability for diagnosis. Semi-structured individual interviews were used to collect data on reported reasons for difficulties in periodontal education. A content analysis was employed to analyze the interview data. Eighteen third- and fourth-year dental students completed the survey and eleven were interviewed. Students’ knowledge was adequate regarding diagnosis and treatment planning. Third-year students’ median CSI were 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. Fourth-year students’ median CSI were 0.9 and 0.93, respectively. Students felt confident in history-taking and examination but lacked confidence and ability in diagnosis and treatment planning. Reported reasons for difficulties in periodontal education were linked to both preclinical and clinical pedagogical issues. Further improvements in preclinical and clinical periodontal education are needed to address students’ lack of knowledge, confidence, and skills in key periodontal areas.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Molar Incisor Hypomineralization:
           Awareness among Postdoctoral Dental Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Jana Negrescu, Laurenc Kodra, Hassan Ziada, Tanya Al-Talib, Neamat Hassan Abubakr
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is the presentation of an enamel defect, where incisors and one (or more) molars are affected. Identifying MIH is significant in restoring its visual defect and avoiding pain or other consequences of this condition. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the awareness, ability, and confidence in identifying MIH among postgraduate residents in the state of Nevada. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among postdoctoral dental residents at the School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. This cross-sectional study used images of cases of MIH and a survey to collect the data. The survey included demographics, educational background, and basic knowledge of MIH. Results: The response rate to the invitation to participate was 91%. The confidence in identifying MIH was 100%, 50%, and 33.3% for pediatric, orthodontic, and general practice residency (GPR). A total of 70% were aware of this anomaly from their predoctoral dental education and indicated the need for further related education. There was 33% confusion with fluorosis and 16.6% with amelogenesis imperfecta. A total of 66.6% of the participants indicated that they require further education relating to MIH. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present investigation, MIH awareness among the investigated groups varied but was highest amongst the pediatric residents.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Stress Concentration of Hybrid
           Occlusal Splint-Mouthguard during a Simulated Maxillofacial Traumatic
           Impact: 3D-FEA

    • Authors: João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva, Les Kalman
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Mouthguards (MG) are protective devices that can reduce the risks of facial trauma. However, many athletes do not use them. Additionally, MG wear with coincidental parafunctional activity has not been considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution as a consequence of a direct impact comparing a conventional MG with a novel hybrid appliance (HMG). Using computer-aided design (CAD) software, a human skull was modeled with the teeth inserted into their respective alveolus. The models were divided according to the MG type (conventional or hybrid). The geometries were exported to the computer-aided engineering (CAE) software and the materials were considered isotropic. Fixation was defined at the base of the maxilla. The load was applied using a hockey puck. The total deformation (mm) and the von Mises stress (MPa) results were obtained for the MGs (conventional and hybrid), upper teeth, lower teeth, and maxillary bone. Despite the presence of an MG, it is still possible to observe generated stress in all structures. However, the hybrid design was more efficient than the conventional design in reducing the displacement during the impact and consequently the stress on the upper teeth, lower teeth, and maxillary bone. Higher stress magnitude was more concentrated at the inner portion of the hybrid design than the conventional device. The HMG appliance decreased the stress concentration in the teeth and in the bone, limiting the areas susceptible to injuries to the regions directly impacted by the hockey puck. Although the novel HMG may mitigate injury, some stress will still result, and any possible injury should be evaluated by a dental professional.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Trusting the Dentist—Expecting
           a Leap of Faith vs. a Well-Defined Strategy for Anxious Patients

    • Authors: Rod Moore
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This article aimed to set into perspective the unique aspects of trust within the dentist–patient relationship by exploring the literature as well as historical aspects of dentistry in the association between trust/distrust and patient anxiety. In order to characterise this uniqueness, the assumptions for trusting in dentistry are compared and contrasted with other professions using a conceptual analysis. The professions of medicine, sociology, psychology, nursing and dentistry were check listed according to the tenets of a concept analytical approach reported by Hupcey et al., in 2001. Recommendations for patient/person-centred care, as opposed to dentist-centred care, that would improve trust are specified according to the literature. These include empowering patients, practicing active listening, empathy and relationship building that might benefit dental patients in relation to the perceived risks of anxiety or induced pain. It was concluded that global distrust of dominating dentists must give way to person-centred professional strategies so that dentists and patients can tackle their dental anxiety-trust challenges, both in the public’s image of the dental profession and in clinical relationships. Future directions would be to explore incentives for dentists to change to patient/person-centred care.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Exploring the Association between
           Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance and Stress Factors among
           Dental Students: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Shah Saif Jahan, Jayashri Tamanna Nerali, Ali Davod Parsa, Russell Kabir
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Background: Numerous studies have been conducted to explicate the scope of emotional intelligence in educational success and coping with stress in different academic sectors, but very few have been conducted with dental students. This scoping review aimed to ascertain the role of emotional intelligence in academic performance and stress factors among dental students. Methods: All publications in the English language between 2001 and 2020 were retrieved employing MeSh keywords. Academic resources such as Pubmed, Pubmed Central, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO-Host, Cochrane, PROSPERO, and ARU E-library were comprehensively searched for empirical research. One thousand, three hundred and fifty-nine papers were screened according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards for inclusion and exclusion criteria. These publications were then evaluated further by deleting duplicates, examining full-text articles, and conducting an abstract assessment. This review included a critical appraisal of 24 articles. Results: The narrative analysis method was applied to evaluate the data retrieved from publications regarding EI, academic performance, and stress factors. The review found that EI had a greater impact on the educational success of dental students throughout their clinical years. Moreover, EI may be a key tool in coping with stress and negative emotions. Higher EI scores were shown to be associated with better performance in organizational and leadership abilities, which are important for career advancement. Conclusion: The review suggested including EI training in the dental curriculum. Furthermore, EI should be used as a selection criterion for admission to dental education.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 68: The Stockholm Study: Over 30
           years’ Observation of the Effect of Oral Infections on Systemic

    • Authors: Jukka H. Meurman, Birgitta Söder
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The Stockholm Studies are a series of investigations started in 1985 and still ongoing. Out of 105,798 inhabitants, aged 30 and 40 years and living in the greater Stockholm area in Sweden, 3273 subjects were randomly selected. Of them, 1676 were clinically examined focusing on oral health. The subjects were then followed up using national population and health registers in order to study associations between oral health parameters and systemic health outcomes and finally death. The 35 years of observation provides unique possibilities to analyze, for example, how periodontitis links to a number of systemic health issues. The results have consequently provided numerous new associations and confirmed earlier observations on how poor oral health is associated with heart diseases and cancer.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 69: Effects of Fermented Lingonberry
           Juice Mouthwash on Salivary Parameters—A One-Year Prospective Human
           Intervention Study

    • Authors: Pirjo Pärnänen, Sari Lomu, Ismo T. Räisänen, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa
      First page: 69
      Abstract: A one-year prospective human intervention study was performed to examine the effects of fermented lingonberry juice (FLJ), used as a mouthwash for six months, on salivary parameters. A total of 25 adult participants used 10 mL of FLJ as mouthwash 30 s daily for 6 months in addition to their normal oral homecare routines. Standard oral examinations and gathering of samples were performed at the beginning of the study and after six months and one year. Resting and stimulated saliva secretion rates, resting saliva pH, and stimulated saliva buffering capacity were determined. A questionnaire of participants’ subjective sensations of mouth dryness was also recorded at each timepoint. Fermented lingonberry juice mouthwash had positive effect to all five salivary parameters and were, according to the omnibus test, statistically significant during the study period. Analysis of the subjective dry mouth sensation questionnaires revealed that symptoms of xerostomia decreased due to the use of FLJ. This study revealed that the once-a-day use of FLJ mouthwash had a beneficial, increasing effect on salivary flow rates, buffering capacity, and salivary pH. FLJ thus can be safely used as an adjunctive and beneficial therapy in oral homecare, protecting teeth and oral mucosa, including periodontium, and also relieving dry mouth symptoms.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 70: Salivary Scca1, Scca2 and Trop2 in
           Oral Cancer Patients—A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

    • Authors: Ivana Karmelić, Ivan Salarić, Ksenija Baždarić, Marko Rožman, Ivan Zajc, Marinka Mravak-Stipetić, Ivona Bago, Davor Brajdić, Jasna Lovrić, Darko Macan
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is frequently diagnosed in the advanced stages. The purpose of this paper is to determine the salivary values of SCCA1, SCCA2 and TROP2 in patients with T1N0M0 OSCC and to compare them with the values obtained from healthy individuals. Unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated (SWS) saliva was sampled from 29 patients with T1N0M0 OSCC and 29 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals. Statistical difference was observed in SCCA1 and SCCA2 levels both in UWS and SWS samples. TROP2 was not measurable in most of the salivary samples. Both SCCA1 and SCCA2 could represent potential biomarkers for the early-stage OSCC. Research on a larger sample and biomarker validation is needed to assess the clinical potential of SCCA1 and SCCA2 in the OSCC early diagnostics.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040070
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 71: Comparison of Two Root Canal Filling
           Techniques: Obturation with Guttacore Carrier Based System and Obturation
           with Guttaflow2 Fluid Gutta-Percha

    • Authors: Guido Migliau, Gaspare Palaia, Daniele Pergolini, Tommaso Guglielmelli, Roberta Fascetti, Afrah Sofan, Alessandro Del Vecchio, Umberto Romeo
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare the quality of the root canal obturation obtained with two different techniques, i.e., thermoplastic gutta-percha introduced through a carrier (GuttaCore) and fluid gutta-percha (GuttaFlow2). Materials and Methods: The study included 40 permanent single-rooted human teeth, divided into two groups and obturated with Guttaflow (group G) and with GuttaCore (group T). The teeth were fixed and transversely sectioned, they were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The dentin–cement–gutta–percha interface and the percentage of voids produced by the two techniques were statistically analyzed. Results: GuttaCore showed a better filling in the apical third of the canal with a percentage of voids equal to 5%. GuttaFlow showed a lower percentage of voids in the middle and coronal thirds of the canal, 1.6% of coronal voids. Statistical analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the percentage of voids in the two groups (GuttaCore and Guttaflow2) in each portion. Conclusions: GuttaFlow2 seems to flow optimally in the middle and coronal third of the canal, with greater difficulty in filling the apical third. Due to the rigidity of the carrier, GuttaCore is able to reach better the most apical portions of the canals, with greater difficulty in creating the three-dimensional seal at the level of the middle third and coronal third.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040071
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 72: Antibiotics Efficiency in the
           Infection Complications Prevention after Third Molar Extraction: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Diana Sologova, Ekaterina Diachkova, Ilana Gor, Susanna Sologova, Ekaterina Grigorevskikh, Liana Arazashvili, Pavel Petruk, Svetlana Tarasenko
      First page: 72
      Abstract: (1) Background: Antibiotics are used in every medical field including dentistry, where they are used for the prevention of postoperative complications in routine clinical practice during the third molar extraction. (2) Methods: This study is reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The present systematic review aimed to evaluate and systematize the use of antibacterial drugs in order to prevent postoperative complications in outpatient oral surgery for wisdom teeth extraction. We conducted a systematic review using electronic databases such as Medline PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included randomized clinical trials published up to 2021 investigating the antibiotic prescription for third molar extraction. (3) Results: We selected 10 studies after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results showed that the most widely used antibiotic was amoxicillin both with and without clavulanic acid, in different dosages and duration. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups for development of postoperative complications. (4) Conclusions: Based on the analysis of the included studies, penicillin is currently the most widely prescribed group of antibiotics. The widespread use of this antibiotic group can lead to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Due to increasing prevalence of bacteria resistance to penicillins, clinicians should carefully prescribe these antibiotics and be aware that the widespread use of amoxicillin may do more harm than good for the population.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10040072
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 32: Absence of Oral Opportunistic
           Infections in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Receiving
           Anti-TNF-α and Anti-Integrin-α4β7 Therapy

    • Authors: Ema Saltović, Brankica Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Alen Braut, Ivana Škrobonja, Ella Sever, Irena Glažar, Sonja Pezelj-Ribarić, Miranda Muhvić-Urek
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Biological therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries an increased risk for the development of opportunistic infections due to immunomodulation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of oral infections in IBD patients treated with biological (anti-TNF-α and anti-integrin-α4β7) and conventional medication protocols. The study included 20 IBD patients receiving anti-TNF-α therapy, 20 IBD patients receiving anti-integrin-α4β7 therapy and 20 IBD patients without immunomodulatory therapy. Participants completed questionnaires on medical information, oral lesions and symptoms. For each patient, clinical examination and a salivary flow rate test were performed, followed by a swab of the oral mucosa. The swab samples were cultured to identify Candida spp. and oral bacteria. No bacterial opportunistic infections were detected. Candidiasis was detected in four participants, with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.765). Hyposalivation was most common in the anti-TNF-α group, with a significant difference between groups (p = 0.036). There were no significant differences between groups in self-reported oral mucosal lesions and symptoms (p > 0.05), or in the distribution of oral mucosal lesions (p > 0.05). This study suggests that IBD patients receiving biological therapy are at no greater risk of developing oral opportunistic infections than IBD patients not receiving immunomodulatory therapy.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 33: Interfacial Biomaterial–Dentin
           Bacterial Biofilm Proliferation and Viability Is Affected by the Material,
           Aging Media and Period

    • Authors: Muna Q. Marashdeh, Celine Lévesque, Shimon Friedman, Cameron A. Stewart, Yoav Finer
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Biomaterial–dentin interfaces undergo degradation over time, allowing salivary, tissue fluid, and bacterial movement between the root filling or restoration and dentin. This study aims to investigate the effect of aging in simulated human salivary/bacterial/blood esterases (SHSE) on proliferation and viability of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm within the dentin interface with four materials used to fill/restore the endodontic space. Root canals of human anterior teeth were prepared and filled with gutta-percha and one of the following: self-cured resin composite (BisfilTM 2B, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL, USA) with either self-etch (SE) (EasyBond) or total-etch (TE) (ScotchbondTM, 3M, Saint Paul, MN, USA) methacrylate-based adhesives, epoxy-resin sealer (AH Plus®, Dentsply Sirona, York, PA, USA), or bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence® BC Sealer™, Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA, USA). Specimens were aged in SHSE or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for up to 360 days, followed by cultivation of steady-state E. faecalis biofilm. Depth and viability of interfacial bacterial biofilm proliferation were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and live/dead staining. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc analyses. Initial depths of biofilm proliferation were similar among material groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed significantly deeper biofilm proliferation with increased aging period (p < 0.05). SHSE aging increased interfacial biofilm depth for TE, SE and BC (p < 0.05) but not AH. For unaged interfaces, BC exhibited the lowest ratio of live bacteria, followed by AH, TE, and SE (p < 0.05). Interfacial bacterial biofilm proliferation and viability were dependent on the biomaterial, aging media, and period.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 34: Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: A
           Series of Three Cases

    • Authors: Asad Ullah, Christian Cullen, Samantha N. Mattox, Diana Kozman, Nikhil Patel, Suash Sharma, Rafik Abdelsayed
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Background: Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare malignant odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of the jaws. It is composed of irregular nests of clear to faintly eosinophilic cells resembling clear cell rests of primitive dental lamina and an intermixed hyalinized fibrous stroma. Most cases occur in the 5th and 6th decades of life, with a female predominance. The mandible is affected more than the maxilla. Clinical features vary from asymptomatic to non-specific pain, ill-defined radiolucency, root resorption, and sometimes soft tissue extension. Histology varies from bland to high grade. CCOC demonstrated a significant tendency to recur. Metastasis typically involves regional lymph nodes, which haves been reported in 20–25% of cases. Pulmonary metastasis rarely occurs. Differential diagnoses are broad and include odontogenic, salivary, melanocytic, and metastatic neoplasia. CCOCs are positive for cytokeratins, mainly AE1/AE3 and CK19. Most cases show EWSR1 rearrangement and rarely, the BRAFV600E mutation. Design: Patient charts were reviewed at our institution. A total of three cases were found in electronic medical records, which were diagnosed as clear cell odontogenic carcinoma over a period of six years (2014–2019). Patient charts were reviewed for medical history and radiology data. The pathology slides were reviewed by one or more faculty members. Results: We present three cases of CCOC, ranging in age from 40 to 69 years (two women and one man). Two cases involved the maxilla and one involved the mandible. Two presented with painful swelling and one with mass recurrence. Radiography results show that two had poorly defined radiolucent lesions, and one was heterogeneous with a small nodule projecting into the maxillary sinus. Histological examination revealed an epithelial neoplasm composed of irregular sheets, cords, and nests of polygonal cells with central hyperchromatic, mildly pleomorphic nuclei surrounded by clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, with occasional mitotic figures. The tumor had infiltrated the bone and soft tissues. Two cases were immunopositive for CK5/6 and one case was positive for p63 and CK19. Interestingly, the eosinophilic dentinoid matrix interspersed among tumor cells in one case was consistent with its odontogenic origin. Histochemical staining showed PAS-positive and diastase-labile intracytoplasmic material consistent with glycogen. Conclusion: Our study highlights the potential diagnostic significance of dentinoid (although reportedly seen in only 7% of cases), along with CK5/6 immunopositivity, in supporting the histologic diagnosis of CCOC among a variety of neoplasia in its differential diagnosis.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 35: Duplicating Complete Dentures with
           Conventional and Digital Methods: Comparisons of Trueness and Efficiency

    • Authors: Li Chen, Deli Li, Jianfeng Zhou, Wei-Shao Lin, Jianguo Tan
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Background: A complete denture (CD) can be duplicated with a conventional or digital protocol. However, there are no comparative studies of these methods. This study aimed to compare the trueness and efficiency of conventional and digital CD duplication methods. Methods: A mandibular CD was digitized as the virtual reference model and duplicated using five methods (n = 10). The trueness (root mean square (RMS)) was calculated for the whole denture and across the dentition, cameo denture extension, and intaglio portions. The manual labor time spent during denture duplication was also recorded at different steps. The trueness and labor time comparisons were statistically analyzed among the five groups (α = 0.05). Results: The conventional group was the least true with the largest RMS (mean, 95% CI) in all of the comparisons. The four digital groups yielded similar trueness values across the dentition, cameo denture extension, and intaglio areas, yet they had a significant difference in the whole denture comparison between the Digital-CBCT-SLA printer (0.17, 0.15–0.19 mm) and Digital-Laboratory Scanner-SLA printer (0.13, 0.11–0.15 mm). The conventional protocol required longer trimming and finishing time (7.55 ± 1.02 min), as well as total labor time (27.64 ± 1.72 min) than the other four digital techniques. Conclusions: The conventional CD duplication method was less true and efficient than digital techniques.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 36: The Effects of Ultrasonic Scaling
           and Air-Abrasive Powders on the Decontamination of 9 Implant-Abutment
           Surfaces: Scanning Electron Analysis and In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Francesco Gianfreda, Patrizio Bollero, Maurizio Muzzi, Andrea Di Giulio, Eleonora Nicolai, Luigi Canullo
      First page: 36
      Abstract: (1) Background: The aim of this study is to understand from a microscopic point of view whether bicarbonate air-abrasive powders associated with ultrasonic instruments can decontaminate nine different surfaces used for the abutment/implant junction. Fibroblast growth was carried out on decontaminated surface in order to understand if there are significative differences in terms of biocompatibility. (2) Methods: After taking samples of patient plaque, nine different surfaces were contaminated and analyzed by SEM, then their wettability was evaluated. Fibroblasts were cultured on the decontaminated surfaces to understand their ability to establish a connective tissue seal after decontamination. The results were analyzed from a statistical point of view to hypothesize a mathematical model capable of explaining the properties of the surfaces. (3) Results: A negative correlation between roughness and contamination has been demonstrated, whereas a weak correlation was observed between wettability and decontamination capacity. All surfaces were topographically damaged after the decontamination treatment. Grade 5 titanium surfaces appear tougher, whereas anodized surfaces tend to lose the anodizing layer. (4) Conclusions: further studies will be needed to fully understand how these decontaminated surfaces affect the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts and osteoblasts.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Intrasulcular Restorations of
           Anterior Teeth According to the BAIR Technique: Evaluation of Periodontal

    • Authors: Luca Giachetti, Francesca Cinelli, Michele Nieri
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Some clinical situations, such as the closure of pronounced diastemas, and the transformation of malformed, small, or peg-shaped teeth, require a rebalancing of dental proportions accompanied by a modification of the gingival contour. A traditional treatment plan can include surgical, prosthetic, and/or orthodontic treatments. In some cases, it can be considered too invasive, and not all patients are willing to undertake long therapies. To overcome these limitations, a possible solution could be the application of the Biologically Active Intrasulcular Restoration (BAIR) technique, which allows us to modify the natural emergence tooth profile using simple intrasulcular direct restorations. The aims of this paper are to investigate possible effects on gingival health, and to assess the patient satisfaction about the aesthetic intervention performed. Periodontal data were collected, and patient satisfaction was registered using the VAS questionnaire. All sites healed without complications, no adverse events were registered or reported by the patients, and no signs of periodontal morbidity were visible. The results show that the patients evaluated the final aesthetics in a positive way, and they perceived a good condition of periodontal health as well. The intervention is felt as almost painless, and patients do not report significant post-operative distress. In conclusion, the BAIR technique can provide a valid therapeutic alternative for patients for whom traditional treatments are not indicated. It is a minimally invasive intervention where both the operating times and the biologic and economic costs are reduced.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 38: Investigation of the Molecular
           Profile of Granular Cell Tumours and Schwannomas of the Oral Cavity

    • Authors: Benjamin Rogala, Zia Ali Khan, Linda Jackson-Boeters, Mark Roger Darling
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are rare submucosal lesions, thought to develop from Schwann cells, characterised by large polygonal cells with abundant lysosomes. The objectives of this study are to investigate whether GCTs have an antigen-presenting cell (APC) phenotype or a neural crest phenotype using immunohistochemistry and to compare expression profiles with Schwannomas. Immunoreactivity to CD68, HLA-DR, CD163, CD40 and CD11c (APC phenotype) and markers of neural crest cell (NCC) origin S100, SOX10, NSE and GAP43 in 23 cases of GCTs and 10 cases of Schwannomas were evaluated. RT-qPCR was used to identify a possible NCC developmental phenotype in 6 cases of GCTs. GAP43 was identified as a new NCC marker for GCTs, and some evidence was found for an APC phenotype from CD68 and HLA-DR immunoreactivity. RT-qPCR failed to identify an NCC developmental phenotype of GCTs, likely due to technical issues.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 39: Short Narrow Dental Implants versus
           Long Narrow Dental Implants in Fixed Prostheses: A Prospective Clinical

    • Authors: Eduardo Antiua, Virginia Escuer, Mohammad H. Alkhraisat
      First page: 39
      Abstract: There is a paucity of studies that assess short and narrow dental implants. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the performance of both short (≤8 mm) and narrow (≤3.5 mm width) dental implants supporting fixed prostheses in the atrophic maxilla or mandible. Towards that aim, patients with short implants were included in the study. The control group was those with long and narrow dental implants (length > 8 mm and diameter ≤ 3.5 mm). Clinical and demographic variables were extracted from clinical records. During the follow-up, implant survival and marginal bone loss were evaluated and statistically analysed. Forty-one implants were included (18 and 23 implants in the test and control groups, respectively). The median follow-up time was 26 months since insertion in both groups. The results revealed that there was no implant failure and no statistically significant differences in terms of marginal bone loss. Only one screw-loosening effect occurred in the short implants group. Short, narrow dental implants could be an alternative for the restoration of severely resorbed jaws.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 40: Intention of Collaboration among
           Dental Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Kyriaki Hadjichambi, Evie Georgiadou, Vasileios Margaritis, Maria Antoniadou
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Interpersonal communication skills (ICS) are crucial for effective dental practice and interprofessional collaboration. The current study aimed to assess the attitudes of Greek dental undergraduate students towards team working and their cooperation abilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. One-hundred and twenty-seven fourth-semester dental students (N1 = 127) out of 145 (N0) filled in the online survey placed on Google forms. The “Dental Students Cooperation Questionnaire” (DSC) consisted of 49 questions and was available for completion for one week during April 2020. Bivariate (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis of data revealed that mean scores of the questionnaire increased as the parents’ educational level also increased. Data analysis showed that dental students had the required ICS and the intention to collaborate with each other. Many participants managed to achieve group goals, were willing to support other members to fulfill the project’s goals, and there was no competition among them. They acknowledged the importance of feedback, the reward at the end of a group project and social media as a tool for teamworking communication. The students reported that the most important characteristics of an academic teacher were patience, willingness to cooperate, friendliness, politeness, willingness to help, accessibility and availability. It is suggested that group work should be included in the curriculum of dental schools to enhance the integration and evolution of students’ ICS, and the DSC questionnaire can be an effective tool to assess these skills.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Volumetric Evaluation of Voids and
           Gaps of Different Calcium-Silicate Based Materials Used in Furcal
           Perforations: A Micro-CT Study

    • Authors: Cassia Cestari Toia, Fabricio Batista Teixeira, Carolina Cucco, Marcia Carneiro Valera, Bruno Neves Cavalcanti
      First page: 41
      Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating volumetrically gaps and voids of calcium-silicate based materials of different generations and handling properties (BC—Endosequence BC RRM-Fast Set Condensable Putty, MTA—ProRoot MTA, and BIO—Biodentine) in simulated furcal perforations in an ex vivo setup by microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) analysis. Thirty-six extracted human mandibular molars with sound furcation areas were selected. Standardized perforations were created in the furcation area of the pulp chamber using #4 diamond burs. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups (BC, MTA and BIO; n = 12). Samples were then scanned (SkyScan 1172; Bruker-microCT, Kontich, Belgium), and three-dimensional (3D) images reconstructed. The relative volume of gaps (VG%) and voids (VV%) present on each material was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s HSD test (p < 0.05). Mean VG% for BC, MTA, and BIO groups were, respectively, 0.513%, 1.128%, 1.460%, with BC presenting statistically (p < 0.05) fewer gaps formation than the other groups. Mean VV% were, respectively, 0.018%, 0.037%, and 0.065%. The was no statistical difference regarding VV%. There were no gap-free and void-free samples. BC group had the lowest VG% among the groups with a significant statistical difference (p < 0.05).
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Water Sorption, Solubility, and
           Translucency of 3D-Printed Denture Base Resins

    • Authors: Mohammed M. Gad, Saleh Z. Alshehri, Shahad A. Alhamid, Alanoud Albarrak, Soban Q. Khan, Faris A. Alshahrani, Firas K. Alqarawi
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, and translucency of 3D-printed denture base resins (NextDent, FormLabs, and Asiga), compare them to heat-polymerized acrylic denture base resins, and assess their performance under the effects of thermal cycling. A total of 80 acrylic disc specimens were used in the current study, categorized into four groups (n = 10); in one group, the samples were fabricated conventionally with a heat-polymerizing process (control), while the other three groups were fabricated digitally from different 3D-printed reins (NextDent, FormLabs, and Asiga). Specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturers’ recommendations and immersed in distilled water for 48 h at 37 °C. Data on water sorption, solubility, and translucency measurements (T1) were obtained. All the specimens were subjected to 5000 thermal cycles, and then the measures were repeated using the same method (T2). Data analysis was attained via ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey test (α = 0.05). The type of resin significantly affected the values of water sorption, solubility, and translucency (p < 0.001). The water sorption of 3D-printed resins was increased significantly in comparison to control with or without a thermal cycling effect. In terms of solubility, a significant increase in 3D-printed resins before thermocycling was observed; however, after thermocycling, Asiga had a significantly low value compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). Thermal cycling increased the water sorption and solubility of all tested materials. In comparison to control, the translucency of the 3D-printed resins was significantly decreased (p < 0.001). The translucency was significantly decreased per material in terms of the thermal cycling effect (before and after). NextDent showed significantly low translucency values (p < 0.001) compared to the other groups. All 3D-printed resin groups had higher water sorption and solubility and lower translucency values in comparison to the heat-polymerized resin group. Regardless of resin types, thermal cycling adversely affected all tested properties.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Thermal Load and Heat Transfer in
           Dental Titanium Implants: An Ex Vivo-Based Exact Analytical/Numerical
           Solution to the ‘Heat Equation’

    • Authors: Grigorios P. Panotopoulos, Ziyad S. Haidar
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Introduction: Heat is a kinetic process whereby energy flows from between two systems, hot-to-cold objects. In oro-dental implantology, conductive heat transfer/(or thermal stress) is a complex physical phenomenon to analyze and consider in treatment planning. Hence, ample research has attempted to measure heat-production to avoid over-heating during bone-cutting and drilling for titanium (Ti) implant-site preparation and insertion, thereby preventing/minimizing early (as well as delayed) implant-related complications and failure. Objective: Given the low bone–thermal conductivity whereby heat generated by osteotomies is not effectively dissipated and tends to remain within the surrounding tissue (peri-implant), increasing the possibility of thermal-injury, this work attempts to obtain an exact analytical solution of the heat equation under exponential thermal-stress, modeling transient heat transfer and temperature changes in Ti implants (fixtures) upon hot-liquid oral intake. Materials and Methods: We, via an ex vivo-based model, investigated the impact of the (a) material, (b) location point along implant length, and (c) exposure time of the thermal load on localized temperature changes. Results: Despite its simplicity, the presented solution contains all the physics and reproduces the key features obtained in previous numerical analyses studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first introduction of the intrinsic time, a “proper” time that characterizes the geometry of the dental implant fixture, where we show, mathematically and graphically, how the interplay between “proper” time and exposure time influences temperature changes in Ti implants, under the suitable initial and boundary conditions. This fills the current gap in the literature by obtaining a simplified yet exact analytical solution, assuming an exponential thermal load model relevant to cold/hot beverage or food intake. Conclusions: This work aspires to accurately complement the overall clinical diagnostic and treatment plan for enhanced bone–implant interface, implant stability, and success rates, whether for immediate or delayed loading strategies.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Burning Mouth Syndrome
           (BMS)—Treatment with Verbal and Written Information, B Vitamins,
           Probiotics, and Low-Level Laser Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Božana Lončar-Brzak, Ivana Škrinjar, Vlaho Brailo, Danica Vidović-Juras, Lada Šumilin, Ana Andabak-Rogulj
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Background: The objective of this study was to determine the most effective treatment option for burning mouth syndrome. Methods: Informative treatment alone, B vitamin injections, oral cavity probiotics, and low-level laser therapy were evaluated and compared. The study included new patients diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome, who were randomly allocated into one of four treatment groups. The primary outcome was improvement in patient’s quality of life as determined by a self-perceived Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) quality of life questionnaire before and after therapy. The secondary outcome was determination of mucosal symptom intensity according to visual analog scale (VAS) grading from 0 to 10. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 62 patients completed the study. Oral cavity probiotics and LLLT scores for OHIP-14 resulted in a statistically significant difference before and after therapy. Standardized effect sizes between OHIP scores before and after treatment were the greatest for patients who had received oral cavity probiotics. Conclusions: Oral cavity probiotics and LLLT were the most effective treatment for improvement in quality of life. Further investigation on a larger group of patients is required.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 45: Association of Dental Fear with
           Caries Status and Self-Reported Dentition-Related Well-Being in Finnish

    • Authors: Antti Kämppi, Tarja Tanner, Olavi Viitanen, Vesa Pohjola, Jari Päkkilä, Leo Tjäderhane, Vuokko Anttonen, Pertti Patinen
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of dental fear among Finnish conscripts. Other aims were to study the association between dental fear and cariological status as well as their self-reported, dentition-related well-being. The study material consisted of 13,564 men and 255 women conscripts who underwent oral examinations. Of those, 8713 responded to a computer-based questionnaire. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) was used in analyses for cariological status. Self-reported dental fear, dentition-related well-being and regular check-ups were analysed. Data were analysed with cross tables, Pearson Chi-Square tests, Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regressive analysis. High dental fear or finding dental visits very scary was associated with DT > 2 both among women (14.6%, when DT = 0; 33.3%, when DT > 2) and men conscripts (2.3% and 10.8%, respectively). In addition, those reporting that dental health had a negative impact on their well-being and had no regular check-ups were more likely to need cariological treatment than the rest. A high education level, both one’s own and parental, was a protective factor for restorative treatment need in male conscripts. The findings of this study support the concept of a vicious cycle of dental fear and dental caries. A preventive, interactive way of work by dental teams would most likely be beneficial for dental health, avoiding the development of dental fear, and dentition-related well-being.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 46: Abrasion Behavior of Different
           Charcoal Toothpastes on Human Dentin When Using Electric Toothbrushes

    • Authors: Nadin Osmanaj, Svea Petersen, Michael Eisenburger, Andreas Greuling
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate abrasion on human dentin after brushing with activated charcoal toothpastes. A self-designed brushing machine was used to brush five groups (Group A: Water, Group B: Sensodyne Pro Schmelz, Group C: Splat Blackwood, Group D: Curaprox Black is White, and Group E: Prokudent Black Brilliant) with electrically powered toothbrushes for 4 h. The abrasive dentin wear was calculated using profilometry data. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analyses and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the composition of the toothpastes. Mean dentin loss by brushing were (71 ± 28) µm (Splat Blackwood), (44 ± 16) µm (Curaprox Black is White), (38 ± 13) µm (Prokudent Black Brilliant), (28 ± 14) µm (Sensodyne Pro Schmelz), and (28 ± 13) µm (Water). Groups A/B/D/E and group C each lie in one subset, which is statistically different from the other subset according to a post hoc Tukey test (p = 0.05). Within the limitations, it can be concluded that the content of activated charcoal in charcoal toothpastes had little influence on the observed abrasive behavior, although one of the charcoal toothpastes showed the highest abrasion on dentin.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 47: Temporal and Permanent Changes
           Induced by Maxillary Sinus Lifting with Bone Grafts and Maxillary
           Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in the Voice
           Characteristics—Systematic Review

    • Authors: Rafael Delgado-Ruiz, Daniele Botticelli, Georgios Romanos
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Sinus surgery procedures such as sinus lifting with bone grafting or maxillary functional endoscopy surgery (FESS) can present different complications. The aims of this systematic review are to compile the post-operatory complications of sinus elevation with bone grafting and FESS including voice changes, and to elucidate if those changes are either permanent or temporary. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used, and the literature was exhaustively searched without time restrictions for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies, cohort studies (prospective and retrospective), and clinical case reports with ≥4 cases focused on sinus lift procedures with bone grafts and functional endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery. A total of 435 manuscripts were identified. After reading the abstracts, 101 articles were selected to be read in full. Twenty articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included for analysis. Within the limitations of this systematic review, complications are frequent after sinus lifting with bone grafts and after FEES. Voice parameters are scarcely evaluated after sinus lifting with bone grafts and no voice changes are reported. The voice changes that occur after FESS include a decreased fundamental frequency, increased nasality, and nasalance, all of which are transitory.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 48: Deep Margin Elevation: A Literature

    • Authors: Theodora Kalliopi Samartzi, Dimokritos Papalexopoulos, Panagiotis Ntovas, Christos Rahiotis, Markus B. Blatz
      First page: 48
      Abstract: A conservative approach for restoring deep proximal lesions is to apply an increment of composite resin over the preexisting cervical margin to relocate it coronally, the so-called “deep margin elevation” (DME). A literature search for research articles referring to DME published from January 1998 until November 2021 was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), Ovid, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Semantic Scholar databases applying preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Elevation material and adhesive system employed for luting seem to be significant factors concerning the marginal adaptation of the restoration. This technique does not affect bond strength, fatigue behavior, fracture resistance, failure pattern or repairability. DME and subgingival restorations are compatible with periodontal health, given that they are well-polished and refined. The available literature is limited mainly to in vitro studies. Therefore, randomized clinical trials with extended follow-up periods are necessary to clarify all aspects of the technique and ascertain its validity in clinical practice. For the time being, DME should be applied with caution respecting three criteria: capability of field isolation, the perfect seal of the cervical margin provided by the matrix, and no invasion of the connective compartment of biological width.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Chronic Stress and Depression in
           Periodontitis and Peri-Implantitis: A Narrative Review on Neurobiological,
           Neurobehavioral and Immune–Microbiome Interplays and Clinical
           Management Implications

    • Authors: Francesco D’Ambrosio, Mario Caggiano, Luigi Schiavo, Giulia Savarese, Luna Carpinelli, Alessandra Amato, Alfredo Iandolo
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Besides the well-known systemic factors for periodontal and peri-implant diseases, additional co-factors, such as chronic stress and depression, may also affect disease onset and progression as well as treatment responsiveness. Neurobiological and neurobehavioral pathogenic links between chronic stress and depression, on the one side, and periodontitis and peri-implantitis, on the other side, which have been little investigated and principally related to necrotizing periodontal disease, have been reviewed, along with their putative interconnections with periodontal immune–microbiome balance. Rising evidence suggest that dysregulated neurobiological and neurobehavioral factors, as well as periodontal immune–microbiome unbalance, all related to chronic stress and depression, may crucially interact and thus represent contributing factors in the genesis and worsening not only of necrotizing periodontal lesions, but also of chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis. Such potential interconnections may be even more relevant in recurrent and aggressive cases of periodontal and peri-implant disease, which are frequently refractory to therapy, and may, if corroborated, coherently pave the way for personalized prevention and treatment strategies, possibly targeting immune–microbiome unbalance and neurobehavioral factors and focusing on neurobiological ones, especially in chronically stressed and depressed subjects with periodontitis and peri-implantitis.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10030049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 16: Oral Health and Liver Disease:
           Bidirectional Associations—A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Fredrik Åberg, Jaana Helenius-Hietala
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Several links between chronic liver disease and oral health have been described and are discussed in this narrative review. Oral manifestations such as lichen planus, ulcers, xerostomia, erosion and tongue abnormalities seem to be particularly prevalent among patients with chronic liver disease. These may be causal, coincidental, secondary to therapeutic interventions, or attributable to other factors commonly observed in liver disease patients. In addition, findings from both experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that periodontitis can induce liver injury and contribute to the progression of chronic liver disease through periodontitis-induced systemic inflammation, endotoxemia, and gut dysbiosis with increased intestinal translocation. This has brought forward the hypothesis of an oral-gut-liver axis. Preliminary clinical intervention studies indicate that local periodontal treatments may lead to beneficial liver effects, but more human studies are needed to clarify if treatment of periodontitis truly can halt or reverse progression of liver disease and improve liver-related outcomes.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Solitary Angiokeratoma of the Labial
           Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case and Literature Review

    • Authors: Rahaf M. Alhazmi, Najla Dar-Odeh, Hamzah Babkair
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Oral angiokeratoma is a rare vascular lesion that has various clinical presentations. It usually occurs as part of generalized angiokeratoma and rarely appears as a solitary lesion with no underlying systemic diseases. Only 33 cases were reported so far worldwide. In this case report, we present a rare case of isolated solitary oral angiokeratoma in a 22-year-old female patient, which is the first case to be reported in the labial mucosa that has been treated successfully by surgical excision.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 18: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Dentistry Journal in 2021

    • Authors: Dentistry Journal Editorial Office Dentistry Journal Editorial Office
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 19: Lip Reconstruction by Double Layer
           and Double Flap New Combination Technique: A Case Series

    • Authors: Antonio Cortese, Salvatore Catalano, Antonio Alberto Maria Giunta, Antonio Borri, Daniele Panetta, Pier Paolo Claudio
      First page: 19
      Abstract: In the past, lip reconstruction after ablative surgery has been performed by primary closure and more recently by free flap transfer technique. Cheek’s skin flap has been used to reconstruct the lower lip cutaneous portion. This study presents a reconstructive method for the vermillion and the lip’s cutaneous portion using the Goldstein–Robotti techniques (for the vermillion) and the buccinator flap to reconstruct the cutaneous lip portion and the perioral muscles. This procedure allows a complete reconstruction with a double layer technique for defects of more than one-third of both lips, together or alone, including modiolus, showing satisfactory functionality and aesthetics. The procedure was carried out by splitting the buccinator muscle and elongating the upper and lower buccinator bundles, together or alone. Soft tissue blunt dissection prevented most facial nerves and vessels injuries, ensuring blood supply and an amount of lip sensitivity. Even in the case of facial vessel ligatures after neck dissection, the technique was possible basing the flap pedicle on the internal maxillary artery branches (buccinator) and contralateral facial vessels (orbicularis). We present a case series of six reconstructions of various defects of the upper and lower lips, including the commissure after ablative surgery for squamous cell carcinoma and polymorphous adenocarcinoma. The results showed satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes, with similar tissue texture, static and dynamic symmetry achieved for all the patients.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Laser Treatment of Peri-Implantitis:
           A Systematic Review of Radiographic Outcomes

    • Authors: Miriam Ting, Leela Subhashini C. Alluri, John G. Sulewski, Jon B. Suzuki, Andre Paes Batista da Silva
      First page: 20
      Abstract: (1) Background: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of laser therapy on radiographic bone level (RBL) changes in peri-implantitis defects. (2) Methods: A literature search with defined inclusion criteria was performed. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched through September 2020. The evaluated primary outcomes were RBL changes. In studies that reported RBL data, corresponding secondary clinical outcomes were probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL). (3) Results: Thirteen articles were selected for data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Eight studies showed evidence of RBL gain in the laser groups compared to baseline, but did not report the statistical significance. Eight of these 13 studies reported comparisons to control. Five of the eight studies did not show RBL gain in the laser groups compared to control. In the laser groups compared to baseline, 11 of 13 reported reduced PD, and 6 of 13 reported significantly reduced BOP. Compared to the control, eight of the eight reported reduction of PD, and three of six reported significantly reduced BOP. Statistical significance was not consistently reported. (4) Conclusions: Within the limits of this systematic review, laser treatment may promote bone gain in peri-implantitis defects, may reduce BOP and PDs, and may be comparable to mechanical therapy. However, definitive conclusions can only be made with statistically significant data, which were found lacking in the currently available studies. This systematic review was registered with the National Institute for Health Research, international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42020207972.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 21: Are Physics Forceps Less Traumatic
           than Conventional Forceps for Tooth Extraction' A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Nikita Khanal, Nisha Acharya, Dinesh Rokaya, Md Riasat Hasan, Takashi Saito
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This systematic review and meta-analysis studied the clinical outcomes with physics forceps compared to those with conventional forceps for closed dental extraction. A systematic literature search was performed to identify all the published randomized clinical trials that compared the relevant clinical outcomes with physics forceps to those with conventional forceps for closed dental extraction. A total of 11 studies were included. The adverse events were significantly lower with physics forceps (n = 48) compared to with conventional forceps (n = 120), with an odds ratio of 0.42 [0.25, 0.70], Z = 3.78 (p = 0.0002), and I2 = 21%. There were statistically significant differences in the incidence of GL (p = 0.04), and tooth or root fracture (p = 0.0009). Operating time was significantly lower in physics forceps than that of conventional forceps, mean difference (−20.13 (−30.11, −10.15)), Z = 3.78 (p = 0.0001), I2 = 79%. The available evidence is limited by a high risk of bias and low evidence certainty. Based on the current evidence, physics forceps might be better than the conventional extraction forceps in terms of the extraction duration, pain after extraction, trauma to both hard and soft tissue, and complications. Physics forceps are newer instruments that have not yet been introduced in the teaching of dental graduates. The introduction of physics forceps can be time saving, less invasive and reduce post-extraction complications.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Mechanical Factors Implicated in
           Zirconia Implant Fracture Placed within the Anterior Region—A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Lauryn Attard, Victoria Lee, Jennifer Le, Chloe Lowe, Vipra Singh, Jacky Zhao, Dileep Sharma
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Background: To analyze the fracture resistance of zirconia implants within the anterior region and evaluate whether zirconia–zirconia implants can be a viable alternative to titanium implants. Methods: Four online databases (Cochrane Library, Ovid, PubMed, and Scopus) were searched for the period of January 2011 to July 2021. All studies that analyzed the in vivo clinical outcome of two-piece implants in the anterior region in English language were included. Results: The search strategy identified 242 studies. Of these studies, three studies were included for qualitative synthesis based on the pre-determined eligibility criteria. The results showed that there is significant difference in biological results, fractal behavior and other complications between one-piece and two-piece zirconia implants. Two-piece zirconia implants demonstrated favorable longevity and success rates within anterior maxillary in short-term trials. Conclusions: Although factors involved in fractures have been identified—sandblasting, implant diameter, occlusal load, age and implant coating—there is limited quantitative assessment to gauge the fracture resistance of two-piece zirconia implants. Hence, further research with long-term clinical evidence is required.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 23: Testing the Accuracy of Pont’s
           Index in Diagnosing Maxillary Transverse Discrepancy as Compared to the
           University of Pennsylvania CBCT Analysis

    • Authors: Dana Feştilă, Aurelia Magdalena Enache, Evelyn Beatrix Nagy, Mihaela Hedeşiu, Mircea Ghergie
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Introduction: Assessment of maxillary transverse discrepancy requires an accurate tool in order to implement the appropriate treatment plan. Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of Pont’s Index in confirming a transverse maxillary deficiency by comparing its results with the corresponding results yielded by the University of Pennsylvania CBCT analysis. Material and methods: The study was performed on dental casts and CBCT’s of 60 randomly selected patients by adopting a cluster sampling method. The results of Pont’s Index and University of Pennsylvania CBCT analysis were analyzed through McNemar’s test using Excel Data Analysis, and the accuracy indicators for Pont’s Index were computed using MedCalc Ltd. Results: Mc Nemar’s test revealed a p-value of 0.85. The accuracy indicators of Pont’s Index were: sensitivity: 69%; specificity: 16.6%; positive predictive value: 65%; negative predictive value: 18.75%; positive likelihood ratio: 0.83; negative likelihood ratio: 1.86; and accuracy: 53.28%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that CBCT is not used on a daily basis and Pont’s Index has a relatively high sensitivity (69%) making it suitable to detect patients with a narrow maxilla, assessment of the maxillary deficiency on CBCT can be recommended for cases were the midpalatal suture maturation should be evaluated.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 24: Digital Dental Models: Is
           Photogrammetry an Alternative to Dental Extraoral and Intraoral

    • Authors: Francesca Zotti, Luca Rosolin, Massimo Bersani, Andrea Poscolere, Davide Pappalardo, Nicoletta Zerman
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Background: 3D models are nowadays part of daily clinical practice. Photogrammetry is a brand-new method for transforming small objects into 3D models while keeping their original shape and size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, in terms of precision and trueness, of a digital dental model acquired with photogrammetry compared with those obtained using extraoral scanners and intraoral scanners, starting from the same plaster model. Methods: A plaster model was converted into a digital model using photogrammetry, an extraoral scanner and an intraoral scanner. Different references were measured twice at a distance of 30 min for each model, on the digital models using the software Blender and on the plaster model using a calibre. The Interclass Correlation Coefficient was calculated for each pair of measurements. A volumetric analysis was performed by superimposing the digital models. The coefficient of variation was calculated. A two-way ANOVA test was conducted. Results: For each reference, the coefficient of variation was less than 3%, and the two ANOVA tests resulted in a non-significant value in both cases (p > 0.05). The volumetric analysis demonstrated good agreement between the models derived from the different acquisition methods. Conclusions: Photogrammetry seems to be a good method for acquiring digital models starting from a plaster model, all the methods tested seem to be good for obtaining an accurate three-dimensional digital model. Other studies are needed to evaluate clinical efficacy.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Relationship between Dynamics of
           TNF-α and Its Soluble Receptors in Saliva and Periodontal Health

    • Authors: Ryota Kibune, Kosuke Muraoka, Masaki Morishita, Wataru Ariyoshi, Shuji Awano
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2) are reported to protect against excessive TNF-α, a primary mediator of systemic responses to infection. This study aimed to investigate the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 in saliva and to verify whether their dynamics are associated with periodontal health. The study population comprised 28 adult patients. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing were assessed, and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) was calculated. Stimulated saliva was collected before the oral examinations. The levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, and total protein (TP) in saliva samples were determined. There were significant positive correlations between TNF-α, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 to TP (/TP) in stimulated saliva. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between PISA and sTNF-R2/TP. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that PISA was significantly associated with sTNF-R2/TP in saliva; however, TNF-α/TP was not significantly associated with PISA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that significant relationships exist between the salivary levels of TNF-α and sTNF-R1, and that salivary sTNF-R2 is associated with the expansion of inflamed periodontal tissue.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 26: Factors Affecting Dental
           Students’ Comfort with Online Synchronous Learning

    • Authors: David G. McMillan, Olivia R. Kalloo, Roberto A. Lara, Mariana Pavlova, Donna Kritz-Silverstein
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused many universities to expand their use of videoconferencing technology to continue academic coursework. This study examines dental students’ experience, comfort levels, and preferences with videoconferencing. Methods: Of 100 s-year US dental students enrolled in a local anesthesia course, 54 completed a survey following an online synchronous lecture given in August 2020. Survey questions asked about prior experience with videoconferencing, comfort levels with online and traditional classes, and reasons for not turning on their video (showing their face). Results: Overall, 48.2% had little or no experience with videoconferencing prior to March 2020. Students were more comfortable with in-classroom parameters (listening, asking questions, answering questions, and interacting in small groups (breakouts)) than with online synchronous learning, although differences were not significant (p’s > 0.10). Regression analyses showed there were significant positive associations between videoconferencing experience and comfort with both answering questions and interacting in breakouts (B = 0.55, p = 0.04 and B = 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively). Students reported being more comfortable during in-classroom breakouts than in breakouts using videoconferencing (p = 0.003). Main reasons for students not turning on their cameras were that they did not want to dress up (48.1%), other students were not using their video features (46.3%), and they felt they did not look good (35.5%). Conclusions: Dental students were somewhat more comfortable with traditional in-person vs. online classroom parameters. Prior experience with videoconferencing was associated with increased comfort with synchronous learning, suggesting that after the pandemic, it may be beneficial to structure dental school curricula as a hybrid learning experience with both in-person and online synchronous courses.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Leaching of Different Clear Aligner
           Systems: An In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Aseel Alhendi, Rita Khounganian, Abdullazez Almudhi, Syed Rizwan Ahamad
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the leaching of four different clear aligner systems (Invisalign®, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity®). Three sets of aligners as obtained from the four manufacturers were cut and immersed in glass vials containing ethanol with different solutions. The first was 100% ethanol, the second was 75% ethanol to 25% water, the third was 50% ethanol to water, the fourth was 25% ethanol to 75% water, and the last was 100% water. The samples were incubated for two weeks at 37 °C. Leached substances were detected by the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eleven different chemical compounds were detected and confirmed. Benzene1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) was the only compound detected in all four systems at levels of 100% and 75% ethanol. Statistically, insignificant differences were detected among the different systems where leaching was confirmed. Eon® system was the only material to show statistically significant differences when comparing the number of leached substances among the immersion solution concentrations. The four included systems showed variable degrees of leaching. The lowest amount of leached chemicals was observed in relation to the Invisalign® system, while the highest number was found in the Eon® system. None of the included clear aligner systems leached detectable amounts of bisphenol-A (BPA).
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Analysis of the Osseointegration
           Process of Dental Implants by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance: An In Vivo

    • Authors: Elena Kalinnikova, Margarita Sadovnikova, Alexander Rodionov, Fadis Murzakhanov, Peter Grishin
      First page: 28
      Abstract: This research work presents an analysis of the process of an implant’s osseointegration to the jawbone tissue. The purpose of this work was to describe the processes of assimilation and the biochemical dynamics which occur during dental implantation using implants with different macro-microstructure surfaces at the level of stable free radicals using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. The experimental investigation was conducted on seven Vietnamese minipigs over twelve months old and weighing up to 30 kg using implants with various macro-microstructure surfaces (SLA, RBM, and HSTTM) and implantation systems, namely the Adin, Sunran, Biomed, and Osstem systems. The integration of the implant into the bone triggered biochemical processes with the formation of stable free radicals. The EPR method was used to identify the formed paramagnetic species and to study the dynamics of the interaction between the surface of the implant and the bone after one and two months. The concentration of carbonate surface centers increased with the time that the implant was connected to the hard tissue. The “Sunran” and “HSTTM” were established as the most suitable implantation system and surface type, respectively, thanks to the highest rate of osseointegration (assimilation) with the bone (hard) tissue. Thus, the EPR method provides the opportunity to study implantation processes.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Tooth-Derived Granules in
           Combination with Platelet-Rich Fibrin (“Sticky Tooth”) in
           Socket Preservation: A Histological Evaluation

    • Authors: Andreas van Orten, Werner Goetz, Hakan Bilhan
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Background: The maintenance of ridge volume following tooth extraction has gained more importance in the last few years. This clinical study aimed to assess the impact of autologous dentin particles mixed with injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) on a sticky tooth mixture for socket preservation in terms of consecutive need for horizontal guided bone regeneration and histological findings. Methods: Eight extraction sockets in seven patients were included in this study. Autologous dentin particles were mixed with PRF, filled in the sockets, and covered with a cross-linked collagen membrane exposed to the oral cavity and fixated by crisscross sutures. An orthopantomogram was taken before the first surgical procedure and a CBCT prior to static computer-aided implant surgery. At the time of implant placement, cores were harvested with the aid of a trephine for histological examinations for every preserved socket. Results: No further horizontal GBR intervention was required in any cases, and the histological findings were unremarkable. The new bone was mostly cancellous and in direct contact with the remaining dentin granules. Conclusions: Within the limits of this clinical study, it may be concluded that this method is valuable for socket preservation and obtaining vital and good quality bone structure. The sticky tooth technique seems to be very efficient despite the more complex equipment.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Multimethod Assessment of the Cyclic
           Fatigue Strength of ProGlider, Edge Glide Path and R-Pilot Endodontic

    • Authors: Jorge N. R. Martins, Duarte Marques, Isabel Vasconcelos, Sofia Arantes-Oliveira, João Caramês, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the cyclic fatigue strength of ProGlider, Edge Glide Path, and R-Pilot instruments. Methods: Sixty-three instruments were submitted to a multimethod evaluation. Their design was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, including the number of blades, helical angle means, cross-sectional design, surface finishing, and symmetry. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used determine the nickel/titanium elements ratio, and differential scanning calorimetry determined the instruments’ phase transformation temperatures. The cyclic fatigue tests were conducted in an artificial canal with a 6 mm radius and 86 degrees of curvature. The Mood’s median test and one-way ANOVA were used to determine differences, with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: The ProGlider presented the highest number of blades (n = 21), while R-Pilot had the highest helical angles (26.4°). Differences were noted in the instruments’ cross-sections and surface finishing. The ProGlider and R-Pilot showed some similarities regarding the phase transformation temperatures but differed from the Edge Glide Path. All alloys showed an almost equiatomic nickel/titanium ratio. The R-Pilot instruments showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05) time to fracture than both the other files. Conclusion: Reciprocating R-Pilot instruments showed a higher cyclic fatigue time to fracture than the ProGlider and Edge Glide Path rotary files.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dentistry Journal, Vol. 10, Pages 31: Success Rates and Complications
           Associated with Single Immediate Implants: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Charn Thanissorn, Jason Guo, Dianna Jing Ying Chan, Bryar Koyi, Omar Kujan, Nabil Khzam, Leticia Algarves Miranda
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This study examined the success rates of single immediate implants and their associated biological, hardware and aesthetic complications. Using a developed search strategy, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on single-unit immediate implants with at least six human participants, a minimum follow-up time of 12 months and published between January 1999 and January 2021 were identified. Data was extracted independently using pre-designed data extraction forms. Information on success rates and associated biological, hardware and aesthetic complications were obtained and assessed. Out of 191 potentially eligible studies, 26 RCTs assessing 1270 patients with a total of 1326 single implants were included and further evaluated. In this review, success rate was reported to be 96.7–100% over a total of 9 studies. However, there was a lack of consensus on a universal success criterion between authors emphasizing the need for agreement. The average follow up was 29 months and most reported complications were aesthetic (63 cases, 4.7%), whilst there were relatively fewer biological, (20 cases, 1.5%), and hardware complications (24 cases, 1.8%). Success rate is an uncommon clinical outcome with 9 out of 26 of the selected RCTs reporting it. In these studies, single immediate implants showed a high success rate with low numbers of biological and hardware complications, and high patient satisfaction with aesthetics were reported in the short-term follow-up of one year.
      Citation: Dentistry Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/dj10020031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
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