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DENTISTRY (266 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 256 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ação Odonto     Open Access  
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Odontologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Stomatologica Marisiensis Journal     Open Access  
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access  
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access  
AJO-DO Clinical Companion : An International Journal Dedicated to Excellence in Clinical Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuel Nordisk Odontologi     Full-text available via subscription  
Al-Rafidain Dental Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Orthodontic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access  
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avicenna Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BDJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Caries Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Caspian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
CES Odontología     Open Access  
Chiang Mai Dental Journal     Open Access  
Ciencia Odontológica     Open Access  
City Dental College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Advances in Periodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Laboratorial Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Dentistry Reviewed     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Oral Implants Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Oral Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cumhuriyet Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Oral Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dental Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dental Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dental Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Journal of Advance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dental Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dental Update     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry 3000     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Dentistry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dentistry Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Der Freie Zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
der junge zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
Die Quintessenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disease-a-Month     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ENDO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Endodontic Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
Endodontology     Open Access  
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Dental Research and Biomaterials Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Oral Implantology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Oral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access  
Evidence-Based Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Faculty Dental Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Giornale Italiano di Endodonzia     Open Access  
Implantologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal  
Insisiva Dental Journal     Open Access  
International Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Contemporary Dental and Medical Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forensic Odontology     Open Access  
International Journal of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Implant Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Odontostomatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Oral Care and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Prosthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Stomatological Research     Open Access  
International Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Japanese Dental Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JDR Clinical & Translational Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Academy of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesive Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Oral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Oral Science     Open Access  
Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Periodontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Craniomandibular Function     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dental Problems and Solutions     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Dental Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Dentistry Defense Section     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dentistry for Children     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Endodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Academy of Dental Specialist Researchers     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Of International Dental And Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of International Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nepalese Prosthodontic Society (JNPS)     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalese Society of Periodontology and Oral Implantology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oral Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Oral Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oral Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral Research and Review     Open Access  
Journal of Orthodontic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Primary Care Dentistry and Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public Health Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Restorative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Of Syiah Kuala Dentistry Society     Open Access  
Journal of the American Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Canadian Dental Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Clinical Dental Research Organization     Open Access  
Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Kesehatan Gigi     Open Access  
Kieferorthopädie     Full-text available via subscription  
Kiru : Revista de la Facultad de Odontología - Universidad de San Martín de Porres     Open Access  
Lasers in Dental Science     Hybrid Journal  
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia     Open Access  
Médecine Buccale Chirurgie Buccale     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medicina Oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Orthodontic Science
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2278-1897 - ISSN (Online) 2278-0203
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [448 journals]
  • The World Wide Web of orthodontics- A comprehensive narrative on
           teledentistry pertaining to the orthodontics of the 21st century

    • Authors: Adith Venugopal, S Jay Bowman, Anand Marya, Aravind K Subramanian, Nikhilesh R Vaid, Björn Ludwig
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Adith Venugopal, S Jay Bowman, Anand Marya, Aravind K Subramanian, Nikhilesh R Vaid, Björn Ludwig
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):1-1
      Teledentistry has proven effective in practically all dental fields. It also allows access to inaccessible and underdeveloped locations. Better treatment outcomes were documented in patients treated by an orthodontist supervised by teledentistry than by a general dentist with minimal orthodontic experience alone. It may also help to focus referrals to specialists and weed out those who do not need them. But, on a critical note, a doctor-patient relationship is much more than a business transaction. A face-to-face initial consultation instills trust that a remote session cannot. Teledentistry includes professional networking of doctors. This contact includes digital information exchange, CPD programs, case discussions, and analysis that bring dentists from all around the world together to improve patient care. Teledentistry has not only spanned the distance between dentists worldwide, but has also served as a conduit between customer (patient) and manufacturer. This spawned Direct to Consumer (DTC) dentistry, sparking substantial debate among dentists worldwide. In DTC dentistry, inadequately trained customers conduct complex procedures on themselves with minimal guidance of a dentist. One of the major issues today is the general availability of clear aligners to patients without the requirement for an intermediary skilled orthodontist. The American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) has publicly questioned the validity of Smile Direct Club, a private firm that dominates the DTC industry. European Federation of Orthodontic Specialists Association, on the other hand, has sponsored a joint declaration with the representative orthodontic associations in Europe to highlight and alert patients about the potential risks of DTC products. Unfortunately, public shaming hasn't slowed commercialization of DTC firms. Teledentistry has been a boon for healthcare, but a nightmare for our profession, raising fundamental questions like what is the difference between a customer and a patient? Is dentistry a just another discipline of cosmetics? Is teledentistry making us less connected with our patients?
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):1-1
      PubDate: Fri,28 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_147_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A correlative study of sella turcica bridging and dental anomalies related
           to size, shape, structure, number and eruption of teeth

    • Authors: Priyanka C Saokar, MR Dinesh, Akshai Shetty
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Priyanka C Saokar, MR Dinesh, Akshai Shetty
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):2-2
      OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to get a wider and clearer idea about the relationship between sella turcica bridging and the type of dental anomalies related to size, shape, number, structure and eruption of teeth.MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the present study, 50 pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs showing complete sella turcica bridging were retrieved from the 500 existing case records of patients. The control group consisted of 50 pretreatment lateral cephalograms without sella turcica bridging retrieved from the same case records by using simple random sampling. After collection of the samples, retrospective study was performed with the analysis of patient records to assess any associated dental anomaly in patients with sella turcica bridging and patients without sella turcica bridging. Shafer's classification of morphological variations in size, shape, structure, number and eruption of teeth was used to analyze and group the dental anomalies.RESULTS: The incidence of dental anomalies related to number and size of teeth was found to be higher in cases with sella turcica bridging.CONCLUSION: Lateral cephalogram is used by orthodontist routinely for diagnosis and treatment planning; it can be used as a prediction tool for dental anomalies as well. Early detection of skeletal anomalies can be used to forecast the presence of dental anomalies later in life, which will help the clinician to adopt preventive measures.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):2-2
      PubDate: Fri,28 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_81_20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of fluoride-releasing orthodontic adhesives on the shear bond
           strength of orthodontic brackets to eroded enamel following different
           surface treatment protocols

    • Authors: Nebras Mohammed Althagafi
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Nebras Mohammed Althagafi
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):3-3
      PURPOSE: To assess the impact of enamel surface treatment protocols and the types of adhesive materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets to eroded enamel substrate.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty extracted premolars were randomly assigned to four main groups in which group C (no treatment) was the control group. The remaining groups were exposed to an erosion challenge through short-term acidic exposure to HCl solution (0.01 M, pH 2.3) for 30 s, with an agitation speed of 50 rpm at an environmental temperature of 25°C. The eroded enamel surface within each group was treated as follows: group N received no treatment; in group P, the eroded enamel was treated with 35% phosphoric acid (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT, USA) for 15 s, followed by a rinse for 10 s; and in group F, the eroded enamel was treated with fluoride gel (Bifluorid 12; Voco-GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) for 4 min. The brackets were bonded with either a resin composite adhesive (Transbond XT; light-cure adhesive, 3M Unitek, CA, USA) or resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC-GC Corporation, Japan). The specimens were tested for SBS, and the bond failure was assessed according to the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc tests (P < 0.05) were used to compare the SBS of the groups. The ARI values between the groups were recorded.RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found among the tested variables (P < 0.05). Group P showed the highest mean SBS values regardless of the type of adhesive used, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The application of the fluoride gel showed no statistically significant improvement in SBS values. The failure mode distribution among the test groups indicated that failures at the adhesive–bracket interface were predominant in group C compared with the other study groups.CONCLUSIONS: Fluoride pretreatment, which was used to remineralize the eroded enamel surfaces before bonding, resulted in a decrease in the SBS of the orthodontic brackets in vitro compared with the other treated groups. The use of fluoride-releasing adhesive also enhances bonding to the eroded enamel surfaces.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):3-3
      PubDate: Fri,28 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_139_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Anthropometric measurements of peri-oral region in a sample of Iraqi
           thalassemic patients

    • Authors: Riad Al-Taee, Aqeel Ibrahim Lazim Al-Saedi, Mohammed Nahidh
      Pages: 4 - 4
      Abstract: Riad Al-Taee, Aqeel Ibrahim Lazim Al-Saedi, Mohammed Nahidh
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):4-4
      OBJECTIVES: Thalassemia, one of the most widespread autosomal recessive disorders, is characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of hemoglobin beta chains and is frequently coupled with variable craniofacial characteristics. Thalassemic patients suffer from severe anemia, which triggers several defense mechanisms in the body, such as bone marrow expansion, which forces the bones to expand, resulting in craniofacial bone deformities. This study aims to assess and compare the orofacial dimensions of β-thalassemia patients with those of a control group across similar ages and gender.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred Iraqi individuals agreed to participate in this study (150 non-thalassemic and 150 thalassemic patients with an equal distribution of genders). A well-trained researcher carried out five anthropometric measurements by using an electronic digital caliper. Gender and group differences were tested using an independent sample t test.RESULTS: Mouth width showed clinical and statistically significant group differences among all measurements in the study group.CONCLUSIONS: All measurements except mouth width showed nonsignificant clinical group differences.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):4-4
      PubDate: Fri,28 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_148_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cytotoxicity effect of orthodontic miniscrew-implant in different types of
           mouthwash: An in-vitro study

    • Authors: Wulan S Utami, Haru S Anggani, Maria Purbiati
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Wulan S Utami, Haru S Anggani, Maria Purbiati
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):5-5
      CONTEXT: Orthodontic miniscrew implants (OMIs) are widely used as anchorage alternatives, but recent studies revealed the corrosion behavior of OMIs when they come in contact with mouthwashes. The corrosion materials that are released can cause toxicity, allergy, and mutagenicity.AIMS: This study aims to analyze the cytotoxicity effects of OMIs exposed to different types of mouthwash using human gingival fibroblast (HGFs).SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Experimental laboratory research.METHODS AND MATERIAL: Twenty-eight samples of Ti alloy OMIs immersed separately in four groups of different types of mouthwash (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% mouthwash (CHX), fluoridated (sodium fluoride 0.2%) mouthwash, chitosan mouthwash 1.5%, and aquadest) for 28 d. Elution of each group and the mouthwash itself were added to the cell culture and incubated for 24 h. Changes in cell viability were performed by MTT Assay.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were tested for normality with Shapiro–Wilk, homogeneity with Levene test, and analyzed using an independent T-test (P < 0.05).RESULTS: The differences between the cytotoxicity of the elution of MIO and the mouthwash solution itself in the group of CHX and Fluoride were statistically significant (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the group of chitosan and aquadest (P > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The 1.5% chitosan mouthwash can be offered to patients with Ti alloy-based OMIs rather than the 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwashes.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):5-5
      PubDate: Fri,28 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_158_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Er, Cr:YSGG laser enamel etching with varying power output and
           irradiation time on the shear bond strength

    • Authors: Saravana Kumar Subramanian, Prema Anbarasu, RS Joushua, Yamini Jeyaraj, Sushmitha R Iyer, Nivethitha Bhaskar
      Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Saravana Kumar Subramanian, Prema Anbarasu, RS Joushua, Yamini Jeyaraj, Sushmitha R Iyer, Nivethitha Bhaskar
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):6-6
      BACKGROUND: Laser etching addresses the disadvantages of conventional acid etching technique, such as enamel decalcification and formation of white spot lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength (SBS), adhesive remnant index (ARI), and the surface characteristics of the samples treated with conventional acid etching and Er, Cr: YSGG laser etching with variable output power and time durations.METHODOLOGY: The study sample included 78 extracted teeth divided into six groups of 13 teeth each, and 3 samples from each group were utilized for analyzing etch patterns, and the remaining 10 teeth from each group were used for evaluating the shear bond strength. In Group I phosphoric acid etching was done, whereas in Group II– VI Laser etching 1.5 W/10 s, 1.5 W/15 s, 3 W/5 s, 3 W/10 s, 3 W/15 s. Statistical analysis for shear bond strength testing was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Post HOC tests.RESULTS: The mean shear bond strength of Group I was 7.16 Mpa and Group III of 5.43 Mpa. Group II, IV, V, and VI had mean shear bond strength of 4.93 Mpa, 3.88 Mpa, 4.05 Mpa, and 4.88 Mpa, respectively. The ARI scores Group I had a significant number of samples with scores 2 other groups showed increased Score 0. The etch pattern of groups I, II, III showed the combined dissolution of both prism cores, and peripheries were seen. In group IV, the etching pattern was irregular with the pitted type of surface. In groups V and VI, relatively flat and smooth enamel surface was seen.CONCLUSION: The bond strength attained by laser etching (1.5 W/10 s and 1.5 W/15 s) was comparable to that obtained by the acid etching technique.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):6-6
      PubDate: Fri,28 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_129_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The effect of various nanoparticle coating on the frictional resistance at
           orthodontic wire and bracket interface: A systematic review

    • Authors: P Indumathi, Deepak Singh, Vipul K Sharma, Neeteesh K Shukla, TP Chaturvedi
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: P Indumathi, Deepak Singh, Vipul K Sharma, Neeteesh K Shukla, TP Chaturvedi
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):7-7
      This systematic review was aimed to test the null hypothesis that coating of orthodontic wires with nanoparticles does not affect the frictional properties at bracket--wire interface. Electronic database searches were performed up to September 2020. In vitro studies were considered for reviewing process. Study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment was performed during reviewing process. Only qualitative analyses of included literature were done due to the presence of heterogeneity among the studies. Out of 1,068 retrieved records, nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and included in this review. Studies were assessed at low risk to high risk of bias according to certain parameters. Wide variety of nanoparticles were used for surface coating of orthodontic wires of variable sizes, shapes, and materials like stainless steel, NiTi, and TMA and placed into the slots of different types of orthodontic brackets to evaluate the alteration in frictional and other mechanical properties. Most of the studies clearly indicate that coating with nanoparticles decreases the friction between wire and bracket interface under specified in vitro conditions. Furthermore, among the nine included studies, only two considered evaluation of effect of coated brackets on frictional and other mechanical properties and results were heterogeneous. The null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that the wires coated with nanoparticles might offer a novel opportunity to substantially reduce frictional resistance at bracket--wire interface during tooth movement. Further studies are necessary to strengthen the evidence regarding effect of coated brackets on frictional properties.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):7-7
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_152_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP): A review

    • Authors: Apoorva Kamath, Shetty Suhani Sudhakar, Greeshma Kannan, Kripal Rai, SB Athul
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Apoorva Kamath, Shetty Suhani Sudhakar, Greeshma Kannan, Kripal Rai, SB Athul
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):8-8
      INTRODUCTION: Protraction therapy for maxillary deficiency in the treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion involves the use of facemask. Conventionally facemask has been anchored to the maxillary dentition, which is responsible for some of the counter-productive effects of facemask therapy including backward and downward rotation of the chin, increase in the lower anterior facial height, proclination of maxillary incisors, retroclination of mandibular incisors apart from mesialization of maxillary molars with extrusion and decreased overbite.AIM: The aim of this article is to highlight the nuances of Bone-Anchored Maxillary Protraction (BAMP) including a literature review, which is comprehensive and narrative and comparing the different techniques involved such as type 1 BAMP versus type 2 BAMP and BAMP versus facemask.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computerized search was performed in electronic databases such as PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane, Embase, DOAJ, and Google scholar using key words such as “bone-anchored maxillary protraction” and “BAMP.” The search was confined to articles in English published till March 2021. Forty-seven case-controlled, cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective studies, as well as systematic reviews and meta-analysis were included in this article, which were limited to human subjects. A hand search of the reference lists of the included articles was also carried out to include missed out articles.CONCLUSION: To overcome these drawbacks, BAMP was introduced, which causes both maxillary protraction, restraint of mandibular growth with minimal dentoalveolar changes. BAMP is used widely nowadays in the treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):8-8
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_153_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • White spot lesions during orthodontic clear aligner therapy: A scoping
           review

    • Authors: Shrestha Bisht, Amit Kumar Khera, Pradeep Raghav
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Shrestha Bisht, Amit Kumar Khera, Pradeep Raghav
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):9-9
      BACKGROUND: White spot lesions (WSL) are an unsightly and a rather frequent drawback of orthodontic treatment. The complex design of fixed orthodontic appliances (FAs) makes it difficult to perform proper oral hygiene, which amounts to white spot lesions being three times more prevalent in patients wearing orthodontic appliances. As clear thermoplastic aligners (CAs) are removable appliances, it has been speculated that they allow better oral hygiene maintenance and thus less incidence of WSLs.OBJECTIVES: This evidence-based scoping review aims to identify the scope and nature of the evidence on white spot lesions during orthodontic clear aligner therapy.TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: Strategic and thorough search of the literature for randomized Controlled Trials, Case-Control, Cohort studies, Case reports, full research articles, and review papers on humans published in English in five major databases was undertaken till July 2021 using free text and Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms, followed by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to identify five studies for data extraction.RESULTS: Evidence was summarized for study characteristics, diagnostic methods for the detection of white spot lesions, and incidence of white spot lesions during clear aligner therapy. The literature supports that orthodontic treatment with CAs was associated with a low incidence of WSLs when compared with fixed mechanotherapy, with a major role of patient education, motivation, and compliance in maintaining oral hygiene.PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The general perception is that clear aligners are more hygienic and show no incidence of white spot lesions. However, our scoping review supports that WSLs can occur with this form of orthodontic treatment also. WSLs in clear aligners could be attributed to the practice of having composite attachments that cover a significant portion of the tooth surface. Thus, regardless of the type of appliance used, a periodic reinforcement by the orthodontist to maintain oral hygiene is necessary for patient motivation, allowing for better oral hygiene practice, and as a result, leads to prevention of WSLs.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):9-9
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_170_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Injectable platelet rich fibrin (i-PRF) on reduction of relapse
           after orthodontic tooth movement: Rabbits model study

    • Authors: Hakam H Al-Fakhry, Nada M Al-Sayagh
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Hakam H Al-Fakhry, Nada M Al-Sayagh
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):10-10
      OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine whether submucosal local injection of i-PRF may affect orthodontic relapse by increasing bone density, which further leads to reducing orthodontic relapse.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five adult male albino rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: group I (control) with 15 rabbits injected with 200 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), group II with 15 rabbits injected with 200 μl of i-PRF, and group III of 15 rabbits inject with 400 μl of i-PRF. The lower incisors of rabbits moved distally by a modified orthodontic appliance for 2 weeks; then, the appliance was maintained in position to retain the gaining space for 2 weeks. During the retention period, each group was injected with the specific drug every 7 days. After the retention period, teeth were allowed to relapse by removal of the orthodontic appliance. The results were evaluated by measuring the amount of orthodontic relapse and bone density. The statistical analysis performed by ANOVA and Duncan (P < 0.05 was considered significant).RESULTS: I-PRF groups showed a significant reduction in the amount of relapse at 10, 13, 17, and 20 days compared to the control group, indicated by the highest percentage of relapse for the control group at the end of the study (20 days); it was (90.4%) in compared to lowest percentage of relapse for i-PRF groups—they were 61.2% and 59.9%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Results indicated that i-PRF has the potential to enhance the stability of teeth after orthodontic tooth movement and could have the ability to reduce relapse, probably by increasing the alveolar bone density.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):10-10
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_165_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Ion release and surface roughness of silver soldered bands with two
           different polishing methods: An in-vitro study

    • Authors: Ramiro Estacia da Silveira, Tatiana Siqueira Gon&#231;alves, Helena Reis de Souza Schacher, Luciane Macedo de Menezes
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Ramiro Estacia da Silveira, Tatiana Siqueira Gonçalves, Helena Reis de Souza Schacher, Luciane Macedo de Menezes
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):11-11
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surface roughness and ion release of silver-soldered joints by using two polishing methods.METHODS: 174 orthodontic bands with and without silver-soldered joints were evaluated and divided into three groups: two experimental, with different polishing methods (SP1 and SP2), and one control (SS) composed of bands without silver solder. For ionic release, 50 bands of each group were immersed in saline solution and submitted to atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the amount of Fe, Ni, Cr (in all the three groups), Ag, Cu, Cd, and Zn (in the two experimental groups). A rugosimeter was employed to verify the surface roughness.RESULTS: Ni and Cr were released in higher amounts after soldering. Cd, Ag, Zn, and Cu may be released from silver-soldered bands independently of the polishing method employed. Ag was released in higher amounts from the soldered bands that presented higher surface roughness.CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in relation to the surface roughness of silver-soldered bands when distinct polishing methods are used. Toxic ions may be released from silver soldered joints and higher surface roughness may cause higher ionic release.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):11-11
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_157_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of the efficacy of Icon resin infiltration and Clinpro XT
           varnish on remineralization of white spot lesions: An in-vitro study

    • Authors: Ratnavally Edunoori, Arun K Dasari, Manjunatha R Chagam, Deepti R Velpula, Jeevan S Kakuloor, Gajji Renuka
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Ratnavally Edunoori, Arun K Dasari, Manjunatha R Chagam, Deepti R Velpula, Jeevan S Kakuloor, Gajji Renuka
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):12-12
      OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of Icon resin infiltration and Clinpro XT varnish on remineralization of white spot lesions using a polarized light microscope (PLM).MATERIALS & METHODS: Artificial white spot lesions were created on a sample of 40 extracted human premolar teeth by immersing in a demineralizing solution. All samples were randomly allocated to two groups of 20 each; Group A: Icon resin infiltration and Group B: Clinpro XT varnish. Teeth were sectioned along the buccolingual plane using a diamond disc. Specimens were observed under the PLM (4× magnification) at three deepest measurements and their averages were calculated to obtain the mean penetration depth. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software (version 22.0). Independent samples t-test and group statistics were used to compare the two groups. In all statistical tests, the significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05).RESULTS: Both Icon resin infiltration and Clinpro XT groups showed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.00) in the penetration depth. Icon resin infiltration group showed a significantly higher penetration depth (24.46 μm) compared to the Clinpro XT group (12.34 μm). Group A showed a greater mean penetration depth (17.07 ± 4.35 μm) when compared to group B (7.68 ± 1.81 μm).CONCLUSION: Icon resin infiltration showed a significantly higher penetration depth and is more effective on remineralization of white spot lesions when compared to Clinpro XT varnish.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):12-12
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_141_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cranio-cervical posture and rapid palatal expansion therapy

    • Authors: Emanuela Serritella, Alessandra Impellizzeri, Ludovica Musone, Adriana Assunta De Stefano, Galluccio Gabriella
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Emanuela Serritella, Alessandra Impellizzeri, Ludovica Musone, Adriana Assunta De Stefano, Galluccio Gabriella
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):13-13
      Objective: Connections between craniocervical posture (CCP) and changes in teeth position have already been demonstrated; however, the defined pathway of relationship is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate CCP modifications after rapid maxillary expansion therapy using rapid palatal expansion therapy (REP)/McNamara appliances.Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 35 subjects, aged between 6 and 14 years, with no prior history of orthodontic treatment, and requiring skeletal expansion of the upper arch, were selected and analyzed. All patients were treated with REP or Mcnamara appliance: the active phase of 15 days and retaining phase of 6 months. Cephalometric analysis was carried out before (T0) and after (T1) orthodontic therapy evaluating changes in the craniofacial area and those related to CCP. The obtained data were statistically analyzed for the pre-post changes.Results: No statistically significant difference emerged indicating a modification in the CCP measured at T0 and T1 (P > 0.05). Patients treated with the McNamara appliance, compared to those treated with REP, showed a higher value of the angle OPT ^ Ver (P = 0.021), and a lower measure of the angles CVT^EVT (P = 0.035) and EVT^Ver (P = 0.023). Furthermore, patients treated with REP showed a higher hyoid angle value than those treated with McNamara (P = 0.047).Conclusion: This study did not reveal any relationship between the application of palatal expansion therapy and changes in CCP.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):13-13
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_128_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • MHM bracket design on the path of Dr Andrews of true straight wire
           technique, prototype study design

    • Authors: Mohamed Abdelaal Elkolaly, Hasan S Hasan, Manal Y Foda
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Mohamed Abdelaal Elkolaly, Hasan S Hasan, Manal Y Foda
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):14-14
      OBJECTIVE: The authors invented an innovation in the bracket design; that targeted to fulfill the aim of Dr. Andrews for a true straight wire technique.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The use of the ball and socket design together with the ability to relocate the position of the slot in three dimensions enhances the control and precision of individual teeth.RESULTS: The revolutionary bracket eliminated any wire bending in the initial, intermediate or finishing stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. This was achieved together with complete 3D control on individual teeth positions to achieve the finest occlusion for individual patients.CONCLUSIONS: That system allowed for a true straight wire mechanics with no wire bending. The design could be used labially or lingually without the need of indirect bonding techniques. Additionally, any adjustments could be performed intraorally with simple pressure.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):14-14
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_177_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Frequency and pattern of impacted Canines in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia: A
           cross-sectional radiographic study

    • Authors: Asim Abdulrahman Almarhoumi, Yazan A Okashah, Mohammed A Alrehaili, Khalid N Alrehaili
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: Asim Abdulrahman Almarhoumi, Yazan A Okashah, Mohammed A Alrehaili, Khalid N Alrehaili
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):15-15
      OBJECTIVES: Impacted canine (IC) is a dental anomaly that varies in its frequency according to the population of interest. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and distribution pattern of maxillary ICs (MxIC) and mandibular ICs (MnIC) in the population of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study of all patients attended Taibah University Dental Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria were individuals aged 15 years and older and no history of orthodontic treatment or craniofacial syndromes. Patients with incomplete dental records or missing/distorted Orthopantomograph (OPG) were excluded. All OPGs were taken using standardized equipment. Data were explored for frequency and pattern of canine impaction both in the maxilla and the mandible and statistically tested to detect significant differences.RESULTS: A total of 7466 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria with mean age of 37.43 ± 14.5 years. Of the total sample, 173 individuals had at least one IC. MxIC alone occurred in 86.71% of the cases, while MnIC occurred in 8.67%. The remaining 4.62% had at least one IC in each jaw. Unilateral IC occurred in 89.2% of the cases with left-side predominance in the maxilla.CONCLUSION: In this sample, the frequency of MxIC was 2.1% and MnIC was 0.3%. Almost equal distribution of IC occurred between females and males (IC Odds ratio F:M 1:1.08). Further studies are required to investigate the potential association of IC incidence with other predictor variables.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):15-15
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_188_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Optical coherence tomography assessment of the enamel surface after
           debonding the ceramic brackets using three different techniques

    • Authors: Maimoona Abdul Khader, Soorya Dileep, A Abdul Gafoor, MJ Jijin, Manisha Sunil, Parthiban Krishnaraj
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: Maimoona Abdul Khader, Soorya Dileep, A Abdul Gafoor, MJ Jijin, Manisha Sunil, Parthiban Krishnaraj
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):16-16
      OBJECTIVE: To assess the enamel surface damage and residual adhesive remnant [adhesive remnant index (ARI)] on extracted premolars after debonding the ceramic brackets using three different debonding techniques, with optical coherence tomography (OCT).METHODS: Ninety extracted premolars were bonded with ceramic brackets and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each based on debonding techniques used. Twenty-four hours later, they were debonded using three different debonding techniques: debonding pliers, ultrasonic scalers, and Er-YAG laser. A baseline scan was obtained prior to bonding using OCT. The teeth were evaluated for the adhesive remnant on the tooth surface using ARI score, and the amount of enamel surface damage was evaluated using OCT.RESULTS: We observed that the use of ultrasonic scalers as a debonding technique led to greater incidence of enamel surface damage as measured in OCT. The ARI scores with debonding pliers and laser were significantly greater than that of scaler debonding.CONCLUSIONS: Results of this in vitro study confirmed that use of ultrasonic scalers as a debonding technique led to significantly greater incidence of enamel surface damage when compared to the other two debonding techniques. The ARI scores on the tooth surface using debonding pliers and laser were significantly greater than that of the scaler debonding technique.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):16-16
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_192_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The relationship of maxillary arch dimension with vertical facial
           morphology in proto-malay race

    • Authors: Hilda Fitria Lubis, Mimi Marina Lubis, Christinawaty Sutan
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Abstract: Hilda Fitria Lubis, Mimi Marina Lubis, Christinawaty Sutan
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):17-17
      OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the dimensions of the maxillary arch and vertical facial morphology within the Proto-Malay race.DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.SETTING: Orthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.PARTICIPANTS: Proto-Malay individuals aged ≥18 years without orthodontic treatment history (n = 104).METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs and maxillary study model were obtained from 104 subjects who had never received orthodontic treatment (45 males and 59 females), aged 18 years, belonging to the Proto-Malay race, with skeletal class I malocclusion, normal overjet and overbite, and complete dentition (except the third molar). The vertical facial morphology was obtained by measuring the Jarabak's ratio on lateral cephalometric radiographs by using CorelDRAW. The study model was used to measure the dimensions of the maxillary arch, which are intercanine width, intermolar width, arch length, and palatal height, by using the Korkhaus modification device.RESULTS: The results showed a significant positive correlation between intercanine and intermolar width and a negative correlation between arch length and palate height with vertical facial morphology in the male and female groups within the Proto-Malay race.CONCLUSION: There is a relationship between the maxillary arch dimension with vertical facial morphology in the male and female groups in the Proto-Malay race.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):17-17
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_173_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of customized vibratory device on orthodontic tooth movement: A
           prospective randomized control trial

    • Authors: Amit K Khera, Pradeep Raghav, Varun Mehra, Ashutosh Wadhawan, Navna Gupta, Tarun S Phull
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Abstract: Amit K Khera, Pradeep Raghav, Varun Mehra, Ashutosh Wadhawan, Navna Gupta, Tarun S Phull
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):18-18
      AIMS: The primary purpose of the present trial was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency (30Hz) vibrations on the rate of canine retraction.SETTING AND DESIGN: Single-center, split mouth prospective randomized controlled clinical trialMETHODS AND MATERIAL: 100 screened subjects (aged18–25 years) were selected; out of which 30 subjects having Class I bimaxillary protrusion or Class II div 1 malocclusion, requiring upper 1st premolar therapeutic extractions, were selected for the study. A split-mouth study design was prepared for the maxillary arch of each selected individual and was randomly allocated into vibration and nonvibration side (control) groups. A customized vibratory device was fabricated for each subject to deliver low-frequency vibrations (30 Hz). Scanned 3D models were prepared sequentially to assess the amount of tooth movement from baseline (T0),(T1), (T2), (T3), and (T4)-4th month of canine retraction.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Independent “t” test.RESULTS: There was no statistically significant differencein the rate of individual canine retraction among the experimental and control groups when the intergroup comparison was done using independent “t” test at T1-T0, (P = 0.954), T2-T1 (P = 0.244), T3-T2 (P = 0.357), and T4-T3 (P = 0.189).CONCLUSION: The low-frequency vibratory stimulation of 30 Hz using a customized vibratory device did not significantly accelerate the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at ctri.nic.in (CTRI/2019/05/019043).
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):18-18
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_127_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Three dimensional changes of maxillary arch in Unilateral cleft lip and
           palate patients following comprehensive orthodontic treatment on digital
           study models

    • Authors: Sanjeev Verma, Sombir Singh, Raj K Verma, Satinder P Singh, Vinay Kumar, Shagun Sharma, Parveen Kalra
      Pages: 19 - 19
      Abstract: Sanjeev Verma, Sombir Singh, Raj K Verma, Satinder P Singh, Vinay Kumar, Shagun Sharma, Parveen Kalra
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):19-19
      OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of comprehensive orthodontic treatment on palatal area, volume, inter-canine and inter-molar width in patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) using scanned models of the maxillary arch.DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.SETTING: Tertiary setting.PATIENTS: Two hundred and ten plaster study models of 70 patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (Study group SG) and Control Group (n = 70) were scanned using Maestro 3D Dental scanner. The study groupwas further divided into subgroups; Subgroup I: treated with orthodontic treatment only (non-surgical), Subgroup II: patientsmanaged with combined orthodontics and orthognathic surgery (either maxillary advancement or maxillary distraction), Subgroup A: age >14 years and Subgroup B: age <14 years.INTERVENTIONS: Comprehensive orthodontic and Orthosurgical treatmentMAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pre- and post-treatment scanned maxillary models of the study group were compared for palatal area and volumeand intercanine and intermolar width. The palatal dimensions of post-treatment scanned models were also compared to that of the control group.RESULTS: The Palatal area and volume, intercanine and intermolar width were significantly higher in the post-treatment as compared to pre-treatment study models (P < 0.01). The measurements ofthe maxillary arch were significantly higher in the control group compared to the post-treatment measurements of the study group. The increase in palatal area and volume was greater in Subgroup I and A compared to Subgroup II and B patients, respectively.CONCLUSION: The 3-Dimensional palatal dimensions in UCLP group improved after orthodontic treatment but were still not comparable to the normal subjects. The patients with age >14 years showed more improvement in the maxillary arch.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):19-19
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_191_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Ingestion of orthodontic appliances: A literature review

    • Authors: Ioanna I Karamani, Miltiadis A Makrygiannakis, Ilias Bitsanis, Apostolos I Tsolakis
      Pages: 20 - 20
      Abstract: Ioanna I Karamani, Miltiadis A Makrygiannakis, Ilias Bitsanis, Apostolos I Tsolakis
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):20-20
      Ingestion is the entry of a substance into the human organism, which occurs by taking it through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract. One of the adverse events that may happen during the course of an orthodontic treatment is the ingestion of orthodontic appliances. The present review aims to investigate the literature regarding the ingestion of orthodontic appliances. An electronic search was carried out in order to identify case reports of ingestion of foreign objects related to orthodontic treatment in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science until July 2019.Nineteen articles were retrieved. In these articles, ingestion had occurred inadvertently, due to patients' or orthodontists' errors. Some of the most commonly ingested appliances were molar bands, segments of wire, and expansion keys. It is likely that patients with a specific medical background are more prone to ingestion of orthodontic appliances. Special precautions need be taken in order to avoid such incidents. These precautions are analyzed in three categories: general, those related to fixed appliances, and those related to removable appliances.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):20-20
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_94_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Perception of facial esthetics in young North Indian population

    • Authors: Rachit Thakral, Sudhir Kapoor, Priti Shukla, Vipul Kumar Sharma, Jitendra Bhagchandani, Sonahita Agarwal, Raj K Jaiswal
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: Rachit Thakral, Sudhir Kapoor, Priti Shukla, Vipul Kumar Sharma, Jitendra Bhagchandani, Sonahita Agarwal, Raj K Jaiswal
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):21-21
      INTRODUCTION: A person's ability to recognize a beautiful face is innate, but translating this into defined treatment goals is a challenge for clinicians.AIM: To determine if faces considered esthetic and pleasing in the young North Indian population (both males and females) exhibit similar cephalometric measurements as used for ideal treatment and successful results.MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of five judges evaluated a set of one frontal, one frontal during smiling, and one profile extra-oral photograph of 160 students (80 females and 80 males) on a five-point attractiveness scale. For each photographic set, the mean and final scores were calculated. Once the sample was assessed, 60 subjects (30 females and 30 males) with the highest final facial aesthetic score were selected and cephalometric analysis was performed. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 20 software.RESULTS: Both males and females with class I skeletal jaw bases were found to be attractive. The females with short faces; mild facial convexity and lower lip closer to the esthetic line were found to be attractive. The males with a prominent chin, straight profile, prominent nose, increased upper lip thickness, upper lip length, and lower lip length were found to be attractive.CONCLUSION: The faces considered attractive in this study fulfilled most of the cephalometric norms commonly used for the diagnosis and treatment planning except for a few inconsistencies which may be attributed to the gender and demographic origin.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):21-21
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_197_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative assessment of various cephalometric facial planes with
           intercanine width in orthodontic patients

    • Authors: Erum Behroz Khan, Sunia Soomar, Mairah Shah, Samar Fatima, Sohail Khan, Zuhair Ahmed, Sarvaich Kumar
      Pages: 22 - 22
      Abstract: Erum Behroz Khan, Sunia Soomar, Mairah Shah, Samar Fatima, Sohail Khan, Zuhair Ahmed, Sarvaich Kumar
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):22-22
      OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of various cephalometric skeletal patterns in the vertical and anteroposterior planes with intercanine width in untreated orthodontic patients.METHOD AND MATERIAL: This study included dental cast and cephalometric radiographs of 100 patients (69 females and 31 males) of the age range 13 to 33 years. Skeletal parameters including SNA, SNB, SNMP angles were found from lateral cephalometric radiographs. Intercanine widths including upper intercanine widths (UICW) and lower intercanine widths (LICW) were measured by a digital caliper.RESULTS: The correlation of intercanine width with SNA, SNB, and SNMP angles was analyzed by applying Pearson correlation coefficient. According to statistical analysis, the only insignificant correlation was analyzed between UICW with SNB and LICW with SN-MP.CONCLUSIONS: The overall result showed statistically significant relationship of various cephalometric skeletal patterns in the sagittal and vertical planes with intercanine width.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):22-22
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_149_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • “Effect of grape seed and green tea on shear bond strength of
           brackets bonded to bleached enamel with and without Lase Peroxide
           Lite” – An in vitro study

    • Authors: Jaya P Mallepally, Kaladhar R Aileni, Gayathri D Sugavasi, K Siva Kumar, Naveen Pittala, Shree S Nukala
      Pages: 23 - 23
      Abstract: Jaya P Mallepally, Kaladhar R Aileni, Gayathri D Sugavasi, K Siva Kumar, Naveen Pittala, Shree S Nukala
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):23-23
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of antioxidants on shear bond strength of brackets bonded to bleached enamel with and without titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Lase Peroxide Lite).MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and five human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 15). Group I served as control, in group II-A bleaching was performed with Opalescent Boost. In group II-B and C, bleaching was performed with Opalescent Boost followed by application of 5% grape seed and 10% green tea extracts, respectively. Group III-A bleaching was performed with Lase Peroxide Lite. Group III-B and III-C bleaching was performed with Lase Peroxide Lite followed by application of 5% grape seed and 10% green tea extracts, respectively. Brackets were bonded with composite resin and cured with light emitting diode (LED) light. Shear bond strength of brackets was tested with a Universal testing machine.RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference in the shear bond strength among the seven groups included in the study. There is a statistically significant decrease in shear bond strength in group II-A (8.2 ± 1.6 Mpa), group III-A (8.6 ± 2.1 Mpa) when compared with group I-A (15.9 ± 1.4 Mpa). Among all experimental groups, group II-A showed the lowest mean shear bond-strength values (8.2 ± 1.6 Mpa) (P < 0.005). Group III-C (14.9 ± 2.2 Mpa) has significantly higher shear bond strength.CONCLUSION: Bleaching reduced the shear bond strength of brackets below acceptable level while application of grape seed and green tea extracts has recovered the shear bond strength.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):23-23
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_164_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A geometric morphometric evaluation of facial hard tissue patterns

    • Authors: Tamana Sazgar, Nagham M Al-Jaf, Noraina Hafizan Norman, Aspalilah Alias
      Pages: 24 - 24
      Abstract: Tamana Sazgar, Nagham M Al-Jaf, Noraina Hafizan Norman, Aspalilah Alias
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):24-24
      OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the size and shape variations of hard tissue patterns in different skeletal relations in Malaysian Malay subjects using the two-dimensional geometric morphometrics method.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 188 lateral cephalograms of adult Malay subjects (aged between 18 and 40 years) with Class I, II, and III skeletal relations were collected. Ten two-dimensional hard tissue landmarks were applied on lateral cephalograms which underwent landmark application and shape analyses as Procrustes ANOVA analysis, principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Statistical analyses were performed to find the mean and variance of each landmark using one-way ANOVA. The raw data from shape analysis were used to calculate the link between landmarks.RESULTS: Skeletal relations showed 16 Principal Components which indicated that variances existed in 16 different dimensions. In Procrustes ANOVA, the Centroid size was significantly different in genders and skeletal relations (P < 0.01). Canonical variate analysis showed the highest Mahalanobis distances and Procrustes distances between Class II and III among skeletal relations and between gender groups (P < 0.0001). Discriminant function analysis showed the classification was mostly accurate, especially for Class II and Class III with success rates of 90.6% and 83.3%, respectively, after cross-validation. The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in hard tissue landmarks.CONCLUSION: There were different ANB angles in different skeletal relations. The GMM could be used as an alternative tool for diagnosis and treatment planning for craniofacial shape evaluations for future orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):24-24
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_199_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Factors influencing the desire for orthodontic treatment among patients
           and parents in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Osama M Felemban, Naif T Alharabi, Roaa A A. Alamoudi, Ghassan A Alturki, Narmin M Helal
      Pages: 25 - 25
      Abstract: Osama M Felemban, Naif T Alharabi, Roaa A A. Alamoudi, Ghassan A Alturki, Narmin M Helal
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):25-25
      OBJECTIVES: The decision to pursue orthodontic treatment is influenced by a variety of cosmetic, functional, and social reasons. This study compared the factors that influence adults' decisions before orthodontic treatment versus parents' decisions prior to their children's orthodontic treatment in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the patients of orthodontic clinics of King Abdulaziz University in addition to a private orthodontic clinic in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of two versions of a questionnaire: one for adults and one for children's parents. The survey inquired about the participants' demographics, factors that led to the necessity of treatment, and considerations before opting for orthodontic treatment. The factors influencing the decision-making process of adults were compared to that of parents using the Chi-square test.RESULTS: A total of 417 subjects participated, 331 adults and 86 parents. The majority of the respondents in both groups were females. When compared to children, adults were more aware of the necessity for orthodontic treatment (78.5% of adults vs. 41.9% of children). The primary motivation for adults and parents to begin orthodontic treatment was to improve their esthetic appearance (58.6% and 87.2%), whereas functional concerns were less frequently reported (12.1% and 15.1%). Adults relied on less trustworthy sources of information about orthodontic treatment options, whereas parents relied on more dependable sources.CONCLUSIONS: The main reason for opting for orthodontic treatment in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia was esthetic for both adults and children.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):25-25
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_181_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A CBCT assessment of bone density changes after accelerated orthodontic
           retraction of canine by microosteoperforations

    • Authors: Ahmed Ali Alfawazan, Abhigyan Manas, Yohan Verghese, Anuraj Singh Kochhar, Abdul Majeed AlMogbel, Smita Patil
      Pages: 26 - 26
      Abstract: Ahmed Ali Alfawazan, Abhigyan Manas, Yohan Verghese, Anuraj Singh Kochhar, Abdul Majeed AlMogbel, Smita Patil
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):26-26
      AIM: The study was conducted to assess the changes in bone density before and after performing accelerated orthodontic maxillary canine retraction by microosteoperforations (MOPs).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients (120 cone-beam computed tomography [CBCT] images) within the age group of 15 to 25 years undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment with bilateral maxillary first premolar extraction were enrolled in this study. The right and left sides of the maxillary jaw in the same patients were selected as experimental and control sites. To accelerate the tooth movement, MOPs were performed distal to the canine root in the extraction space under local anesthesia with a miniscrew. Thereafter, the maxillary canine retraction was initiated using a NiTi closed coil spring. The CBCT images were taken and evaluated at the following time intervals: 1 week before MOPs(T0);1 week after MOPs(T1);3 weeks after MOPs(T2).RESULTS: A statistically significant reduction in bone density was observed at the center of resistance of canine on the experimental site (after MOPs) at 1 week and 3 weeks (T0-T1 = 0.000,0.115; T1-T2 = 0.0025,0.0117), whereas a statistically non-significant difference was found 1 week before and 3 weeks later in the control group.CONCLUSION: Accelerated orthodontics by MOPscan result in a substantial reduction in bone density during canine retraction, leading to an increase in the tooth movement rate, hence lowering the overall orthodontic treatment time.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):26-26
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_123_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Multimedia Reminders on Oral Hygiene Status During Removable
           Orthodontic Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Tahereh Baherimoghadam, Navid Naseri, Shahram Hamedani, Shahryar Nikmehr, Maliheh Mokhtar
      Pages: 27 - 27
      Abstract: Tahereh Baherimoghadam, Navid Naseri, Shahram Hamedani, Shahryar Nikmehr, Maliheh Mokhtar
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):27-27
      Introduction: Orthodontic appliances complicate daily oral hygiene maintenance and enhance the formation of microbial biofilm on tooth surfaces and orthodontic appliances.Objective: This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reminders on oral hygiene of patients during removable orthodontic treatment.Methods: In this 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial, 66 orthodontic patients with removable maxillary appliance were randomly allocated with 1:1 ratio to message reminders and the control group. The patients in the messaging group received one or two message reminders and educational videos weekly during the course of treatment. A single blinded examiner measured the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and dental caries index of patients in both groups at baseline (T0) and one (T1), three (T2), and six (T3) months after the first day of treatment to assess their oral hygiene status during treatment.Results: A total of 30 patients in control group and 28 in reminder group completed the study. The PI and GI scores were increased neither in control group nor in message reminder group during T0 and T1, significantly. The PI and GI scores in message reminder group were significantly lower than those in the control group at T2 (PI: P = 0.001, GI: P = 0.003) and T3 (PI: P = 0.024, GI: P = 0.022). Slight significant increasing in the PI and GI score were found during T2 and T3 in message reminder group. Caries index showed no significant difference between two groups during study.Conclusion: It seems that reminders can efficiently promote oral hygiene of patients undergoing removable orthodontic treatment.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):27-27
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_193_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after adding silver
           nanoparticles to a nano-bond adhesive at different thermal cycles and
           cyclic loading- An in vitro study

    • Authors: Yousef Al-Thomali
      Pages: 28 - 28
      Abstract: Yousef Al-Thomali
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):28-28
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of silver nano particles (AgNPs) added on Nano-Bond adhesive system (NBA) and its effect on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets attached to enamel at different thermal cycles and cyclic loading.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty extracted premolar teeth for orthodontic reasons were divided randomly into two main groups (20 teeth in each group). Group A: the brackets were bonded by NBA without additives. Group B: the brackets were bonded by NBA containing AgNPs with concentration 0.05%. Every group was further subdivided into 4 subgroups according to teeth subjected or not subjected to thermocycling and cyclic loading. SBS was tested using Lloyd universal testing machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the significance between the means of tested groups.RESULTS: Shear bond strength of Nano-Bond adhesive system with AgNPs showed significantly highest mean SBS (20.25 MPa) than Nano-Bond adhesive system without additives (15.64 MPa, P = 0.001). The SBS increased in Group B with AgNPs compared to Group A in all the conditions tested. Group A1 and B1 with zero thermal cycling and cyclic loading exhibited highest mean SBS.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate addition of AgNPs significantly increased the shear bond strength of Nano-Bond adhesive system.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):28-28
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_183_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Successful 2 phase treatment of growing skeletal Class III malocclusion
           based upon cephalometric prognostic factor: A case report

    • Authors: Tabassum Qureshi, Prabhat K Chaudhari
      Pages: 29 - 29
      Abstract: Tabassum Qureshi, Prabhat K Chaudhari
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):29-29
      Early treatment of Class III malocclusion provides an improvement in facial appearance and corrects the reverse bite. Orthopedic protraction of maxilla is considered best approach in growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency. Present case report describes the management of a growing 10-year-old boy with skeletal Class III malocclusion using facemask therapy (Phase 1) followed by fixed orthodontic treatment (Phase 2) based upon cephalometric prognostic findings of growth treatment response vector (GTRV). With the successful orthopedic phase of maxillary protraction with facemask therapy for 7 months of period, a significant improvement in profile had been achieved along with the correction in reverse overjet. This was followed by retention with chin cup therapy for a period of 20 months. After a period of 20 months retention, a fixed orthodontic treatment was started with the objective to achieve stable functional occlusion. After 11 months of treatment with fixed appliance therapy a stable functional occlusion was achieved. The patient was placed on Hawleys retainer in maxillary arch and bonded fixed spiral wire (FSW) retainer in mandibular arch. Successful management of growing Class III patient was done using facemask and fixed orthodontic therapy based upon cephalometric prognostic findings of growth treatment response vector (GTRV).
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):29-29
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_160_21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Orthodontic management of anterior disc displacement without reduction

    • Authors: Fahad F Alsulaimani, Wafa A Alswajy
      Pages: 30 - 30
      Abstract: Fahad F Alsulaimani, Wafa A Alswajy
      journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):30-30
      This article presents a novel idea for managing patients with anterior disc displacement without reduction that often develops in susceptible patients during routine orthodontic treatment. The patient was a 24-year-old male who presented with class I right molar and canine relationship and class III left molar and canine relationship on a class I skeletal base, complaining of bimaxillary crowding. The case was treated with fixed orthodontic appliance with maxillary expansion and unilateral mandibular extraction to eliminate the mandibular crowding. Due to a life crisis, the patient developed anterior disc displacement on the right joint. A maxillary occlusal splint was fabricated to reduce the symptoms and attempt to recapture the disc; however, this attempt failed. An attempt was then made to recapture the disc using occlusal pivots and elastics. The disc was eventually recaptured, and the patient resumed normal jaw function and mouth opening. This case report aims to demonstrate a new way to achieve stable occlusion in a patient who sustained disc displacement.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2022 11(1):30-30
      PubDate: Wed,4 May 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_24_22
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Does the flatting of the curve of spee affect the chewing force
           distribution in the mandible? (3D finite element study)

    • Authors: Lamiaa A Hasan, Sarmad S. Salih Al Qassar, Mohammad N Alrawi, Emad H Alhajar
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Lamiaa A Hasan, Sarmad S. Salih Al Qassar, Mohammad N Alrawi, Emad H Alhajar
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):1-1
      OBJECTIVE: To search the effects of Curve of Spee (COS) flatting on the stresses and displacement on the different mandible landmarks and lower teeth during posterior teeth loading using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional hemi mandibular model was created from real selected mandible. The lower teeth was aligned originally in a curved form with 2.4 mm depth at the cusp tip of the second premolar. Another replica with flat aligned teeth was formed to confirm the analysis by up righting premolars and molars. A load was applied at mesio-buccal cusp of the lower first molar on both models, and the resultant stresses and displacements on the mandibular landmarks and the lower teeth were tested.RESULTS: Von mises over the mandible was higher in flat than in curve model. The highest stress levels were detected at the Mesio-buccal cusp tip of first molar for flat and curved simulation (5053, 3304) Mpa respectively. Mesio-distally, the teeth displacement was higher in curve model than in flat one. The maximum distal displacement, in flat model, was seen in central and lateral incisors. While, in curve model, the maximum distal displacement was grasped within first and second premolars.CONCLUSIONS: Flatting the COS magnify the stresses over whole mandible and reduce lower teeth displacement mesio-distally. We speculated that the readjustment of the COS after orthodontic treatment could reduce the stress and displacements on the lower anterior teeth and decrease the lower anterior teeth crowding relapse.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):1-1
      PubDate: Fri,19 Feb 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_39_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of surface topography of low-friction and conventional TMA
           orthodontic arch wires using atomic force microscopy

    • Authors: Nouf I Alsabti, Christoph P Bourauel, Nabeel F Talic
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Nouf I Alsabti, Christoph P Bourauel, Nabeel F Talic
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):2-2
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surface topography and roughness of orthodontic arch wire materials, including low-friction titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), conventional TMA, and stainless-steel arch wires.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surface topography was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A total of 24 wire specimens were used for the AFM scans {8 low-friction TMA (TMA-Low), 8 conventional TMA (TMA-C), and 8 stainless steel (SS)} (Ormco, Orange, CA, USA), measuring 0.016 × 0.022 inches. The conventional and low-friction TMA arch wires served as the test groups, while the stainless-steel arch wire served as the control group.RESULTS: Surface roughness evaluation using AFM revealed that the highest mean of all three roughness parameters was found in the TMA-C group followed by the TMA-Low and SS arch wires in descending order. Pairwise comparison of the mean values showed that the mean value of the SS arch wire material is statistically significantly lower than the mean values of the other two arch wire materials (TMA-C and TMA-Low). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean values of TMA-C and TMA-Low arch wires.CONCLUSION: The SS arch wire showed the smoothest surface topography among the alloys and had statistically significantly lower roughness values than the TMA-C and TMA-Low groups. Low-friction TMA arch wire is still considered to be inferior to stainless steel arch wire.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):2-2
      PubDate: Fri,19 Feb 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_27_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A new guide using CBCT to identify the severity of maxillary canine
           impaction and predict the best method of intervention

    • Authors: Fadia M Alhummayani, Zeinab A Mustafa
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Fadia M Alhummayani, Zeinab A Mustafa
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):3-3
      OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the intra and inter-rater reliability, reproducibility, and validity of a new guide called the “Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Maxillary Canine Impaction (CBCT-MCI),” designed to assess the position, severity, and predictability of the maxillary canine impaction (MCI) treatment intervention using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective radiographic review of 44 patients with unilateral or bilateral MCI. A total of 56 maxillary impacted canines' CBCT radiographs were analyzed using the new CBCT-MCI guide, with each of its 10 items scored. The total scores of the 10 items were then compared to a scale to predict the best treatment intervention of MCI: normal spontaneous eruption, surgical-orthodontic traction, or surgical extraction. Radiologists and orthodontists have developed, tested, and retested the CBCT-MCI guide on the same 56 maxillary impacted canines using CBCT radiographs to check its reliability and reproducibility using the Kappa coefficient. Furthermore, the validity of this guide was tested by comparing the predicted best treatment intervention with the actual treatment administered to the assessed impacted maxillary canine using the Kappa coefficient and percentage of agreement using cross-tabulation.RESULTS: The result of this study showed significantly strong Kappa values of intra-rater agreement (k = 0.91, (P < 0.0001) and inter-rater agreement (k = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, testing the relationship between the two MCI treatment interventions using cross-tabulation, the agreement percentages between the predicated and actual treatment plans of the assessed MCI ranged between 70% and 95.5% with a significantly strong Kappa value (k = 0.82, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the CBCT-MCI guide is capable of producing accurate, reliable, and reproducible results in assessing and predicting the type of orthodontic treatment intervention of MCI in a simple, quick, and efficient way.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):3-3
      PubDate: Fri,19 Feb 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_41_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The use of innovative cost-saving audience response system in orthodontic
           case-based learning: A potential approach in distance learning

    • Authors: Khadijah A Turkistani
      Pages: 4 - 4
      Abstract: Khadijah A Turkistani
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):4-4
      OBJECTIVE: To provide a cost-saving innovative audience response system (ARS) that permits typing texts and compare its efficiency to the paper-based method in case-based learning (CBL).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orthodontic clinical cases were presented to 149 undergraduate dental students for discussion among teammates. Responses were collected using ARS-based and paper-based. ARS was constructed from an online survey platform (Google forms) then QR code was created for easy and fast access. Students used their cellphones to scan code, view questions, discuss, type, and submit answers within 10 minutes. Feedbacks were collected using a feedback survey. Outcome measures included the number of words, spelling mistakes, time required by the instructor to read submissions, and activity time compliance.RESULTS: The average number of words submitted by females in ARS-based 47 ± 8 was significantly higher than 35 ± 16 paper-based, and male ARS-based 36 ± 18 (P < 0.05). ARS-based submissions required significantly less time to read compared to paper-based among whole group, females, males (P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.001), respectively. Spelling mistakes were lower 1 ± 1 in ARS-based compared to paper-based 2 ± 2. The ARS-based first submission was (-4.28) minutes before the deadline, while paper-based last submission was (+2.19) minutes after (P < 0.05). ARS-based submissions were 12.5 seconds faster to read than paper-based (P < 0.001). Out of 56.4% of respondents, 63.1% preferred using ARS-based and 80% agreed that it provided immediate feedback, with high overall satisfaction.CONCLUSIONS: This innovated ARS was found to facilitate CBL. It is superior in time and cost-saving to paper-based and other ARSs. It could be useful in distance learning especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):4-4
      PubDate: Fri,19 Feb 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_44_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The COVID-19 pandemic and orthodontic practice in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ikenna Gerald Isiekwe, Emmanuel Tope Adeyemi, Elfleda Angelina Aikins, Onyinye Dorothy Umeh
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Ikenna Gerald Isiekwe, Emmanuel Tope Adeyemi, Elfleda Angelina Aikins, Onyinye Dorothy Umeh
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):5-5
      OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge and awareness of orthodontists and orthodontic residents in Nigeria about the COVID-19 pandemic and the appropriate infection control measures required to mitigate its spread in orthodontic practice.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study of orthodontists and orthodontic residents. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board. Data collection was via an online questionnaire designed using Google forms and these were sent to the phone numbers of study participants. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.RESULTS : A total of 73 respondents with a mean age of 43.41 ± 9.21 years participated in the study. About 90% of the respondents had a very good knowledge of COVID-19, including its etiology, modes of transmission, signs, and symptoms. However, very few respondents were aware of the less common symptoms such as skin rash (16.4%) and red eyes (26%). Over 80% of the respondents knew the appropriate measures to take to prevent the spread of the virus in the dental clinic, in addition to the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to use.CONCLUSION: The respondents had a very good knowledge of the basic epidemiology of COVID-19 and the means of prevention of its transmission in the dental clinic. However, there was limited knowledge of the less common symptoms of the infection. In addition, majority of the respondents had a very good idea of the appropriate PPE to be used.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):5-5
      PubDate: Fri,19 Feb 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_40_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Do orthodontists aim to decrease the duration of fixed appliance
           treatment?

    • Authors: Mushriq F Abid, Akram F Alhuwaizi, Ali M Al-Attar
      Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Mushriq F Abid, Akram F Alhuwaizi, Ali M Al-Attar
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):6-6
      OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in the use of fixed appliance and accelerated orthodontics to decrease the treatment duration. Further, this study aimed to assess the effect of demographic factors on the participant's choice of treatment modality.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in the form of questionnaire-based online survey especially designed and distributed to 265 orthodontists via email. The questions aimed to collect basic information about the participants and respondents' choices for decreasing the treatment duration. The data were analyzed according to gender, level of academic education and years of clinical experience using Chi-square test.RESULTS: A response rate of 85.2% was reported. Most of the orthodontists aimed to reduce the treatment duration by the biomechanical (66.8%) and surgical approaches (27.4%). The use of sliding mechanics (69.4%) and one-step retraction was more common (66.3%). MBT bracket prescription was more prevalent (51.7%), followed by Roth (41.1%). Conventional brackets were used more than self-ligating brackets, and aesthetic brackets were avoided by one third of the respondents. NiTi wires were the most commonly used wires during the alignment stage (44.2%). However, the effect of gender, years of clinical experience and specialty level of education showed some effects on the use of certain techniques and clinical practice of the respondents.CONCLUSIONS: Most of the orthodontists aimed to decrease orthodontic treatment duration by using biomechanical and surgical approaches. Gender and clinical experience to a certain extent affected the participants' choice during orthodontic treatment.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):6-6
      PubDate: Fri,19 Feb 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_36_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cross-cultural adaptation of oral health-related quality of life measures
           used to assess the impacts of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities in
           Saudi Arabia: A literature review

    • Authors: Shoroog Hassan Agou
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Shoroog Hassan Agou
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):7-7
      Since the World Health Organization broadened its definition of health, beyond biological boundaries, to include physical, emotional, and social wellbeing. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) became common outcome measure in clinical trials and epidemiological studies in Dentistry and Medicine. It is not surprising, therefore, to see quality of life as one of the programs of the Saudi 2030 vision. That said, it can be difficult to interpret the findings of OHRQoL research if the measures used were not appropriately adapted and validated in the population being studied. In this review article, the concept of cross-cultural adaptation of OHRQoL and its use in the Saudi context, as applied to orthodontic research, was discussed. An electronic search in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted. A second search was conducted to locate methodological papers discussing cross-cultural adaptation and translations. Appraisal of relevant research was conducted to provide a better understanding of the process of adapting OHRQoL measures to assess the impact of malocclusion and dentofacial abnormalities on quality of life. This review pointed out important methodological concerns that warrant considerations during the translation and adaptation of OHRQoL measures.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):7-7
      PubDate: Fri,9 Jul 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_43_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Mothers' knowledge and experience concerning presurgical orthopedic
           management for infants with cleft lip and palate

    • Authors: Mushriq Abid, Dheaa Al-Groosh, Arkadiusz Dziedzic, Hassan Abed
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Mushriq Abid, Dheaa Al-Groosh, Arkadiusz Dziedzic, Hassan Abed
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):8-8
      OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess the level of mothers' knowledge toward cleft lip and palate and their experience concerning presurgical orthopedic management.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study where the mothers were invited to complete a self-administered validated and reliable questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions that aimed to assess mother's knowledge related to the most prevalent aspects of cleft lip and palate anomaly itself and additionally, questions associated with presurgical orthopedic treatment as an adjunct therapy. Descriptive statistics were used to define the characteristics of the study variables. Chi-square test was utilized to assess relationships between categorical variables.RESULTS: Totally, 145 mothers completed the survey (response rate was 73%). Forty-six (46%) of the mothers provided an incomplete or improper definition of the anomaly and 35 (24%) claimed that they know the cause of the anomaly. The majority of mothers did not identify family history as a risk factor; consanguinity was identified in 29% (n = 42). Of the total, 58 mothers (40%) agreed that dental management of CLP requires teamwork and the majority (n = 126, 87%) recognized the plastic surgeon as the most important specialist. Mothers aged 20-30 years old (n = 42, 53%), and those who are university graduates (n = 38, 48%), as well as employed mothers (n = 52, 66%) have in general a higher degree of knowledge regarding cleft lip and palate (P < 0.001). More than half of the mothers (n = 70, 57%) reported that presurgical orthopedic treatment was useful and needed for their infants.CONCLUSIONS: Most of the mothers reported a high level of knowledge about cleft lip and palate and they experienced the usefulness of the orthopedic appliances for their infants. However, there was uncertainty in some parts such as definition, diagnosis, causes, and risk factors for cleft lip and palate. Therefore, understanding the causes of cleft lip and palate, as well as comprehensive education concerning the essential role of the orthopedic appliances to improve cleft lip and palate are crucial for mothers to improve their infants' quality of life.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):8-8
      PubDate: Fri,9 Jul 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_47_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of canine retraction by conventional and
           corticotomy-facilitated methods: A split mouth clinical study

    • Authors: Monis Raza, Payal Sharma, Piush Kumar, Shubhra Vaish, Bhavana Pathak
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Monis Raza, Payal Sharma, Piush Kumar, Shubhra Vaish, Bhavana Pathak
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):9-9
      OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this split-mouth single-centered, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficiency of corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics in rapid canine retraction.METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 patients (15–25 years old) requiring extraction of the maxillary first premolars with subsequent canine retraction. The patients' right sides were randomly assigned to either the corticotomy (experimental) or control groups. Corticotomy cuts and perforations were performed and canine retraction was initiated bilaterally with closed-coil nickel-titanium springs that applied 150 g of force. The following variables were examined till the end of canine retraction on both sides: Rate of canine retraction, canine root resorption, and patient perception of the procedure. The rate of canine retraction was assessed every month using study models while root resorption was evaluated using CBCT. Patient's perception was evaluated using a 100 mm VAS.RESULT: Mean time taken for full completion of canine retraction: 5.7 months (test) and 7.1 months (control). Mean root resorption: 0.53 ± 0.10 (control) and 0.24 mm ± 0.10 (test). Mean VAS scores: 16 ± 3.94 (24 hours) and 2 ± 2.58 (1 week) at control side and 46.50 ± 6.69 (24 hours) and 2 ± 2.58 (1 week) at test.CONCLUSION: There was an overall reduction in the time taken for canine retraction with corticotomy; however, an increase in the rate of canine retraction in the corticotomy-facilitated method was evident only for the first four months, compared to the conventional method. Less root resorption was observed in corticotomy-facilitated method than conventional method. Pain perception was more for corticotomy-facilitated method than conventional method at 24 hours, but similar after one week.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):9-9
      PubDate: Fri,9 Jul 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_12_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of stress changes in the maxilla with fixed functional
           appliances—A 3D FEM study

    • Authors: Balaji Kendre, Anil Kumar, K Nillian Shetty, Gautham Hedge, Vinay Umale, Rohit Kulshrestha
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Balaji Kendre, Anil Kumar, K Nillian Shetty, Gautham Hedge, Vinay Umale, Rohit Kulshrestha
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):10-10
      AIM: To evaluate the stress changes in the maxilla during fixed functional appliance use using three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) stress analysis.SETTINGS AND SAMPLE POPULATION: A three-dimensional finite element model of the maxilla was constructed using the images generated from the cone-beam computed tomography of a patient treated for Class II malocclusion with a fixed functional orthodontic appliance. The FEM was used to study the stress changes seen in the maxilla, which were evaluated in the form of highest von Mises stress and maximum principal stress before and after the application of fixed functional appliance.RESULTS: Higher areas of stress were seen in the model of the maxilla with the fixed functional appliance (140 MPa) compared to that in the resting stage (58.99 MPa).CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the maximum principal stress and von Mises stress in the posterior regions of the maxilla and maxillary teeth was seen. The stresses seen were double than that without the appliance. A high distalization force on the maxilla was seen with the fixed functional appliance.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):10-10
      PubDate: Fri,9 Jul 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_33_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of different bleaching treatment protocols on shear bond strength
           of bonded orthodontic brackets with no-primer adhesive resin

    • Authors: Saeid Sadeghian, Shirin Garavand, Amin Davoudi
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Saeid Sadeghian, Shirin Garavand, Amin Davoudi
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):11-11
      BACKGROUNDS: Bleaching procedure can be companied before, during, or after orthodontic treatments. However, the risk of compromised bond strength of brackets to bleached enamels is in debate. This study tried to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of bonded metal brackets to the previously bleached enamels.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, 60 extracted, sound, human premolars were mounted vertically in cylindrical molds. The samples were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15): Control (C); at-home bleached by 20% carbamide peroxide (HB); in-office bleached by 45% carbamide peroxide (OB); and in-office bleached by 40% hydrogen peroxide activated with diode laser (L-OB). Sixty stainless steel brackets were bonded by no-primer adhesive resin (OrthoCem). Then SBS of bonded brackets was measured after 5000 thermal cycles at 5°C and 55°C. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD tests by using SPPS software at a significant level of 0.05 (α = 0.05).RESULTS: Group C showed significantly higher SBS values (all P < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences in SBS compared to other tests' groups with each other (all P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: The SBS of bonded orthodontic brackets were compromised after bleaching with 20% and 40% of carbamide peroxide. Diode laser activation may not eliminate the negative effect of bleaching agents on SBS of bonded orthodontic brackets, neither.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):11-11
      PubDate: Fri,9 Jul 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_5_19
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of antimicrobial agents on the oral microflora in patients
           undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy–An ex vivo comparative analysis
           

    • Authors: Ankit Kumar Shahi, Piush Kumar, Divya Shetty, Anshi Jain, Payal Sharma, Monis Raza
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Ankit Kumar Shahi, Piush Kumar, Divya Shetty, Anshi Jain, Payal Sharma, Monis Raza
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):12-12
      Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of Ozonated Olive Oil Gel, Chlorhexidine gel, and Amflor (Fluoridated) mouthwash on reducing the count of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy evaluated at different time intervals.Methods: Sixty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) based on antimicrobial agents used (Group 1: Ozonated olive oil gel; Group 2: Chlorhexidine gel; Group 3: Fluoridated mouthwash). Elastomeric modules from brackets were collected at T0 (Fresh samples) and T1 (2nd week) and T2 (4th week) for assessment of the microbial growth. These collected modules were cultured and evaluated for the presence of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacilli and numbers of colonies were counted at each interval. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software (Version 20.0). Level of significance was kept at 5%. Intra-group and inter-group comparison between pretreatment, 2nd week and 4th week was done for each group using Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann–Whitney U test.Results: There was presence of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacilli during orthodontic treatment which progressively increased from To to T1 and then declined from T1 to T2. The colony counts were maximum for Fluoridated mouthwash and least for Chlorhexidine and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion: All three antimicrobial agents used were effective against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Chlorhexidine proved to be more efficacious whereas Fluoridated mouthwash proved to be least effective against both Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):12-12
      PubDate: Wed,4 Aug 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_46_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of two different initial archwires for tooth alignment during
           fixed orthodontic treatment–A randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Shubhangi Jain, Payal Sharma, Divya Shetty
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Shubhangi Jain, Payal Sharma, Divya Shetty
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):13-13
      OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to clinically evaluate and compare 0.016-inch superelastic nickel–titanium (NiTi) and 0.016-inch heat-activated nickel–titanium (NiTi) archwires in terms of alignment efficiency, root resorption, and pain intensity.METHOD: A total of 20 patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment, having Little's irregularity index of 5–8, and requiring first premolar extractions were recruited. They were randomly allocated to receive two different archwires (0.016-inch superelastic NiTi or 0.016-inch thermoelastic NiTi). Good-quality impressions were taken of the lower arch before archwire placement (T0) and at every month after that till the alignment was complete. The rate of tooth alignment was measured on casts by determining Little's irregularity index. The pain experienced by the patient was assessed 24 hours and 1 week after the placement of the archwire on a visual analogue scale. Cone beam computed tomographic radiographs of lower anterior teeth were taken before and after alignment to assess root resorption. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software (version 20.0). The level of significance was kept at 5%.RESULTS: The repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was no significant difference in the aligning efficiency of superelastic and heat-activated NiTi wires. (p = 0.45). The Mann Whitney U test showed that superelastic NiTi wires had statistically significant higher VAS scores than heat-activated NiTi at 24 hours and 1-week interval (p < 0.05). Student's t-test indicated greater root resorption with superelastic NiTi but the difference was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Both the wires showed similar aligning efficiency and resulting root resorption. Superelastic NiTi was observed to produce more pain compared to heat-activated NiTi in the aligning phase.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):13-13
      PubDate: Wed,4 Aug 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_17_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The effect of fluoride gel on tensile properties, surface morphology and
           chemical composition of two types of orthodontic wires (an in-vitro study)
           

    • Authors: Amer A Taqa, Nada Nashee Al-Hafidh, Mohammed T Sulaiman Al-Abbood
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Amer A Taqa, Nada Nashee Al-Hafidh, Mohammed T Sulaiman Al-Abbood
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):14-14
      OBJECTIVE: Stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires are commonly used in fixed orthodontic appliances. Orthodontists often prescribe fluoride gel to avoid demineralization of teeth. This study investigated the effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on the tensile properties, surface morphology and surface chemical composition of stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires.METHODS: Forty samples of stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires were examined, twenty for each type. Each wire type was divided into four subgroups. The first subgroup was not immersed in fluoride gel and considered as control, while the other three subgroups were immersed in 10 mL of fluoride gel for different periods of time. Then, the wires were removed from the gel, rinsed in a distilled water and left to dry. The ultimate tensile force of each wire was measured using a tensile testing machine. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to examine the control and 24 h immersed subgroups.RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in the ultimate tensile forces between control and fluoride-treated subgroups (P = 0.172 for SS wires and P = 0.672 for NiTi wires). However, changes in the surface morphology and elemental composition of wires were shown by the SEM and EDX.CONCLUSIONS: Although immersion of stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires in the fluoride gel did not affect their tensile properties, however, surface deterioration was evident. So, further investigations are recommended to study the effect of these changes on the oral health of patients.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):14-14
      PubDate: Wed,4 Aug 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_55_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Accuracy of three different customized lingual orthodontic appliance
           systems in achieving predicted results on maxillary anterior teeth: A
           Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Authors: Floyd Fernandes, Ravindranath V Krishnan, Vivek Patni, Nikhilesh Vaid
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: Floyd Fernandes, Ravindranath V Krishnan, Vivek Patni, Nikhilesh Vaid
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):15-15
      OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate the ability of three different customized lingual appliance systems in achieving predicted results with respect to the mesiodistal crown tip, labiolingual crown inclination, in–out position of Maxillary permanent anterior teeth, and Maxillary arch form.METHODS: Three commercial houses: Incognito, iLingual 3D, and Lingual matrix were analysed in this study. The final sample size consisted of 42 cases. Fourteen digital prediction and posttreatment models of the maxillary arch were provided by three orthodontic offices each using a different system. Discrepancies between the prediction and posttreatment model in mesiodistal tip, labiolingual inclination, in–out position of anterior teeth, and arch form were analyzed.RESULTS: Incognito displayed the highest accuracy in all parameters except for in–out positioning. Lingual Matrix showed greater precision in achieving planned mesiodistal positions than labiolingual inclination while it was just the opposite for iLingual 3D. All three systems proved to be clinically reliable in achieving the predicted in–out positions of permanent Maxillary anterior teeth.CONCLUSION: These systems were considerably accurate in achieving planned treatment goals with minute deviations from the predicted value.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):15-15
      PubDate: Wed,4 Aug 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_45_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Reliability of mobile application-based cephalometric analysis for chair
           side evaluation of orthodontic patient in clinical practice

    • Authors: Maruf H Barbhuiya, Piush Kumar, Rachit Thakral, R Krishnapriya, Madhurima Bawa
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: Maruf H Barbhuiya, Piush Kumar, Rachit Thakral, R Krishnapriya, Madhurima Bawa
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):16-16
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of Mobile Application-Based Software for chair side cephalometric analysis.MATERIALS AND METHOD: Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 20 patients (10 males and 10 females) were selected randomly and were traced manually and also using Application-based software (One Ceph). 20 angular and three linear parameters were measured both manually and with the software in all the patients. Inter and intra-operator reliability of one ceph was evaluated and the measured parameters were statistically compared with the manual method (Gold Standard).RESULT: The accuracy of angular and linear values was compared for all 23 parameters and our results showed no significant difference in the two methods used for most of the measurements. Three of the measurements [Angle of convexity (N-A; A-Pog); ANB angle; Upper Incisor to NA (Angular)] did show a statistically significant difference though these were clinically irrelevant.CONCLUSION: Application-based cephalometric analysis can be an effective clinical diagnostic tool for chair-side cephalometric evaluation of orthodontic patient.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):16-16
      PubDate: Wed,4 Aug 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_28_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of fluoridated tooth paste on medically erosive enamel in bonded
           primary teeth during maxillary arch expansion in cleft palate patient: An
           in vitro study

    • Authors: Aisha Akram Qasim, Baraa W Alani, Sarmad S Salih Al Qassar
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Abstract: Aisha Akram Qasim, Baraa W Alani, Sarmad S Salih Al Qassar
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):17-17
      AIMS: This study searched the effects of fluoridated toothpaste on the enamel surface of deciduous molars eroded by different pediatric liquid medicaments which were encircled by orthodontic bands by gravimetric analysis method.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A suitable orthodontic band was used to band each of the 110 non-carious exfoliated deciduous molars, and stored in artificial saliva. These teeth were divided randomly into fluoridated and non-fluoridated groups (50 teeth each), and 10 teeth were used as negative controls. The enamel surface of the fluoridated group was swabbed with fluoridated toothpaste for 5 minutes twice daily. Each group was subdivided into five clusters of 10 teeth each according to the type of medication used which included paracetamol, Adol, amoxicillin, Medazole (ME), and Viton (VI) according to a specific immersion cycle. The erosion induced in the enamel for all the teeth was evaluated by gravimetric analysis for different intervals.RESULTS: The results showed that the weight loss increased with increasing exposure to liquid medication for all groups, but this increase was smaller in the fluoridated group. The highest mean weight loss after 28 days was in VI, and the lowest was in ME (0.145 [0.005] mg; 0.08 [0.008] mg), respectively.CONCLUSION: The fluoridated toothpaste significantly reduced medically eroded enamel by oral medical syrups. The gravimetric method is valid for the detection of erosion on banded deciduous molars.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):17-17
      PubDate: Wed,4 Aug 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_67_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of smile characteristics of skeletal Class III compared to
           skeletal Class I female adults

    • Authors: Abdallah S Nouh, HM Abdel Majeed, Essam Mohamed Nassef Selim
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Abstract: Abdallah S Nouh, HM Abdel Majeed, Essam Mohamed Nassef Selim
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):18-18
      OBJECTIVE: Esthetic enhancement plays an important role in orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted on females as most girls have their growth spurt at a younger age than boys do, so their demand to facial esthetics, especially those who have residual growth of mandible producing class III effect, requires full understanding to smile features helping in diagnosis and treatment planning for maximum patient satisfaction.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 30 skeletal Class III and Class I female adults (18–30 years old) who were divided equally into two groups comprising 15 each. Two frontal digital photographs were taken for each subject, one at rest and the other in the posed smile position. Photographs were taken for each subject in the natural head position by a Canon EOS 1200 D camera set on a tripod at a distance of 1.5 m. The incisogingival height of the right maxillary central incisor was clinically measured using a vernier caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm. Photographs were uploaded on Photoshop software for standardization and then uploaded on the Digital Smile Design software (DSD) where the actual incisogingival height of the central incisor was used for automatic calibration. Esthetic components at rest and on smiling were measured for both groups; all linear variables were measured to the nearest 0.1 mm.RESULTS: Class III females tended to have wider smile widths, less gingival display, longer chin heights, shorter lower vertical dimensions, and a higher percentage of nonconsonant and flat smile arcs than Class I subjects.CONCLUSIONS: The components of the smile should be considered as a guide to help in planning and designing the mechanics during comprehensive orthodontic treatment.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):18-18
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_79_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A study of dentofacial morphology in yemeni adults with normal occlusions
           a cross sectional prospective study

    • Authors: Amal A Al-Yousefi, Fuad Al-Motareb, Ammar Daer, Mohammed A Al-Labani
      Pages: 19 - 19
      Abstract: Amal A Al-Yousefi, Fuad Al-Motareb, Ammar Daer, Mohammed A Al-Labani
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):19-19
      OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the dentofacial morphology of Yemeni adults.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lateral cephalograms of 100 Yemeni adults (50 males, 50 females) were included in the study. All subjects were born to Yemeni parents and grandparents. They all had Class I occlusions with minor or no crowding, well-aligned upper and lower dental arches, good facial harmony, all teeth present except third molars, and no history of orthodontic therapy or maxillofacial surgery. Five angular and eighteen linear measurements were analyzed to determine the soft tissue, skeletal, and dental features. The differences for each measurement between Yemeni males and females were calculated using unpaired t–tests.RESULTS: Significant sexual and racial differences were found for three linear parameters in the skeletal analysis, one angle, and four linear dental measurements, and for all soft tissue linear parameters. Yemeni adults showed a tendency to a facial pattern of Class II, convex profile, reduced prominence of chin, increased lower facial height, and a clockwise rotation of the mandibular plane angle.CONCLUSION: Yemeni adults have different dentofacial parameters when compared to other racial standards, and these differences could aid in diagnosis and treatment planning.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):19-19
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_84_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Visual facial perception of postsurgical cleft lip scarring assessed by
           laypeople via eye-tracking

    • Authors: Lara Karolina Guimaraes, Gabriel Francisco Simioni Schirlo, Gil Guilherme Gasparello, Susiane Queiroz Bastos, Matheus Melo Pithon, Orlando Motohiro Tanaka
      Pages: 20 - 20
      Abstract: Lara Karolina Guimaraes, Gabriel Francisco Simioni Schirlo, Gil Guilherme Gasparello, Susiane Queiroz Bastos, Matheus Melo Pithon, Orlando Motohiro Tanaka
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):20-20
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the visual facial perception in response to scars associated with repaired cleft lip (CL) on a male adolescent model, as assessed by eye-tracking technology.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Unilateral and bilateral facial images of repaired CL on the upper lip and nasal asymmetry were added to an image of a male adolescent model, using Photoshop CS5 software. 40 laypeople eye movements were tracked by an infrared sensor of the Eye Tribe hardware in conjunction with OGAMA software. An analysis of variance was used to identify differences in total fixation time for the added areas of interest. A visual analog scale of attractiveness with a questionnaire were also incorporated into the study. Statistical analysis was performed using a significance level of P < 0.05.RESULTS: Significant differences were noted between the image with no scar and the image featuring a unilateral scar for total fixation time associated with the right eye (p = 0.002) and right nose area (p = 0.003), in addition to the numbers of fixations for the right eye (p = 0.005) and right nose area (p = 0.007). Comparing the image with no scar with the image featuring a bilateral scar showed a significant difference only for the number of fixations on the right eye (p = 0.005). The heatmaps and fixation point maps for both the unilateral and bilateral scar images indicated increased fixation for the scar areas. For the image with no scar, increased fixation was captured for the right eye area. Pearson's correlation coefficient test showed a moderate positive (p = 0.692) relationship when comparing to unilateral and bilateral cleft scars.CONCLUSIONS: The participating laypeople perceived the cleft-repaired faces and did not perceive any difference in attractiveness between the images featuring the unilateral and bilateral postsurgical clefts and lip scarring.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):20-20
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_76_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of prevalence and location of
           mandibular incisive canal in patients attending King Saud University
           Dental Hospital

    • Authors: Amal S Alshamrani, Razan A Tokhtah, Ahmad Al-Omar
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: Amal S Alshamrani, Razan A Tokhtah, Ahmad Al-Omar
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):21-21
      OBJECTIVE: This study aims to facilitate a surgeon's preoperative assessment by detecting the prevalence, location, and course of the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) in our population.METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 93 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of patients aged 18–50 years were taken. The images were reformatted from the sagittal sections to para-sagittal sections at premolars, canines, lateral incisors, and central incisors measured to the distance of MIC to the tooth apex, to the inferior border of the mandible, to the buccal cortex, and to the lingual cortex.RESULTS: MIC among the patients was found to be present in 96.8% of the total subjects. Prevalence between genders showed that it was present in 97.9% of the male patients and 95.5% of the female patients. The average distance from the buccal cortex is 4.88, the lingual cortex is 5.54, inferior border is 9.94, and root apices is 7.67. The age-wise and gender-wise comparison of a mean distance of MIC to the different surfaces in the different cross-sections showed that there is no correlation, and there is a significant correlation, respectively.CONCLUSION: The detection of the MIC presence and location using CBCT should be earnestly considered for surgical procedures that are intended to be done in the interforaminal region.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):21-21
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_108_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Orthodontic curriculum in Saudi Arabia: Faculty members' perception of
           clinical learning outcomes

    • Authors: Talat Hasan Al-Gunaid, Rawah Talal Eshky, Ahmed Abdulkarem Alnazzawi
      Pages: 22 - 22
      Abstract: Talat Hasan Al-Gunaid, Rawah Talal Eshky, Ahmed Abdulkarem Alnazzawi
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):22-22
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the perception of orthodontic staff members around clinical learning outcomes (LOs) of the undergraduate orthodontic curriculum with a focus on dental schools in Saudi Arabia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three LOs were formulated, all of which were associated with skills required in the undergraduate orthodontics course. Orthodontic staff members were invited to provide their opinion regarding the curriculum using a Likert scale, whereby participants could answer each question on a scale from “Strongly Agree” to “Strongly Disagree.”RESULTS: Sixty-one teaching staff members agreed to partake in this study. The highest level of agreement among the participants pertained to conducting systematic orthodontic intraoral and extraoral examinations (100%), followed by explaining causes for space loss (98.3%). The lowest level of agreement was regarding executing a treatment plan for non-skeletal cases (62.2%) followed by skills of fabrication and activation of removable appliances (77%). Around 67.1% of the academics refused to allow dental students to select and bond orthodontic brackets.CONCLUSION: It is time to amalgamate the objectives and create a unified national list of LOs for all orthodontic curriculums across the country without any distinction of knowledge or skills required at the undergraduate level.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):22-22
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_85_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Impact of online communication and type of media formats in enhancing
           orthodontic patients' knowledge

    • Authors: Talat H Al-Gunaid, Ahmed A Alkhaibari, Basim S Alrashidi, Mohammed A Alrehaili, Salamah A Alatawi
      Pages: 23 - 23
      Abstract: Talat H Al-Gunaid, Ahmed A Alkhaibari, Basim S Alrashidi, Mohammed A Alrehaili, Salamah A Alatawi
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):23-23
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the extent to which online communication can enhance patients' knowledge of orthodontic topics, as well as compare the effectiveness of images, video, and text messages as tools for delivering orthodontic information.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two WhatsApp groups were created comprising 30 males and 33 females. The Google form template was used to formulate a 25-item questionnaire containing information related to orthodontic topics. At the beginning of the first stage, a link to the questionnaire was sent to the groups and their answers were given scores, which were referred to as (T1). During the second stage, a piece of daily information relevant to the field of orthodontics was sent to the groups over a 14-day period. On Day 15, the link to the previous questionnaire was sent again and the participants were asked to complete it for a second time. These answers were corrected, given scores, and labeled as (T2). Scores from the first and second stages were compared.RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the average total score from the first questionnaire (T1 = 15.3) to the second questionnaire (T2 = 17.9). All types of media formats were greatly effective in improving the patients' knowledge. Images proved to be the best tool for delivering information and were considerably more effective than video and text messages.CONCLUSION: This study indicates that WhatsApp as an online communication tool could be used to effectively enhance the knowledge of orthodontic patients. Images are the best method for delivering information to orthodontic patients.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):23-23
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_115_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Bidimensional system for space closure treatment of missing lateral
           incisors: 10 years follow-up

    • Authors: Mario Greco, Marco Rosa, Andrea Rombol&#224;
      Pages: 24 - 24
      Abstract: Mario Greco, Marco Rosa, Andrea Rombolà
      journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):24-24
      INTRODUCTION: Missing lateral incisors represent a common condition that normally requires specific anchorage conditions to be treated with space closure mechanics to protract upper teeth creating a proper occlusal relationship.CASE PRESENTATION: Two cases showing Class II malocclusion with missing lateral incisors in developing age are presented, both treated with the same approach of maximum anterior anchorage applied using the Bidimensional Technique system. Long-term follow-up of 10 years is shown.MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME: Bidimensional technique is a modified edgewise technique that uses sliding mechanics for protraction of the posterior segments by placing vertically slotted brackets of different sizes on the anterior (.018” x 0.025”) and posterior teeth (.022” x 0.028”). When a .018” x .022” wire is inserted in the .018” x .025” brackets slot on the incisors, third-order control is created in the incisor segment while the wire is undersized in the rest of the arch. Lateral brackets have been positioned on the canines, while the canine brackets have been positioned on the first premolars respecting a differential bonding height able to produce canine extrusion and first premolars intrusion and proper torque expression. Full Class II molar relationship and Class I substituted canine relationship has been reached in both cases and kept stable in the long-term follow-up (10 years).DISCUSSION: The described approach provided anterior anchorage with more simple mechanics expressing the anterior torque with a full engagement concept and adding few auxiliaries (uprighting springs) which do not require compliance.
      Citation: journal of orthodontic science 2021 10(1):24-24
      PubDate: Fri,15 Oct 2021
      DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_78_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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