Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8196 journals)
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ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 134 of 134 Journals sorted alphabetically
AACE Clinical Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Dermato-Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Diabetes & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Discover Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dubai Diabetes and Endocrinology Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Endocrine and Metabolic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endocrine Disruptors     Open Access  
Endocrine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Endocrine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Endocrine Regulations     Open Access  
Endocrine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Endocrine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine-Related Cancer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Obesity and Metabolic Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Endokrynologia Polska     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
European Thyroid Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare     Open Access  
Frontiers in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
General and Comparative Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Growth Hormone & IGF Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Gynakologische Endokrinologie     Hybrid Journal  
Gynecological Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hormone and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hormone Research in Paediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hormones and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International journal of endocrine oncology     Open Access  
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel : Austrian Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Assocation of Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pineal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Restorative Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Social Health and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies     Open Access  
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
L'Endocrinologo     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Brain Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Molecular Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Reviews Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuroendocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Nigerian Endocrine Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Endocrinología     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access  
The Endocrinologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thyroid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Thyroid Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Vitamins & Hormones     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.695
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 24  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0947-7349 - ISSN (Online) 1439-3646
Published by Thieme Publishing Group Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Comorbidities in Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion – A Clinical Review
           of Literature

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      Authors: Czapla-Iskrzycka; Aleksandra, Świątkowska-Stodulska, Renata, Sworczak, Krzysztof
      Abstract: Mild autonomous cortisol secretion (mACS) is a state of cortisol excess usually associated with existence of adrenal incidentaloma. Because of the lack of symptoms of the disease, the biochemical evaluation is the most important to determine a diagnosis. However, scientific societies have different diagnostic criteria for mACS, which makes the treatment of this disease and using results of original papers in daily practice more difficult. Chronic hypercortisolemic state, even if mild, may lead to diseases that are mostly connected with overt Cushing’s syndrome. Some of them can cause a higher mortality of patients with mACS and those problems need to be addressed. In this review we describe the comorbidities associated with mACS: cardiovascular disorders, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, vertebral fractures and osteoporosis. The point of this paper is to characterise them and determine if and how these conditions should be managed. Two databases – PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Even though the evidence are scarce, this is an attempt to lead clinicians through the problems associated with this enigmatic condition.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T07:27:30+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1827-4113
       
  • HDAC1 Promotes Myocardial Fibrosis in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by
           Inhibiting BMP-7 Transcription Through Histone Deacetylation

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      Authors: Ouyang; Chun, Huang, Lei, Ye, Xiaoqiang, Ren, Mingming, Han, Zhen
      Abstract: Objective Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) constitutes a primary cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition can alleviate diabetes-associated myocardial injury. This study investigated the mechanism of HDAC1 on myocardial fibrosis (MF) in DCM. Methods A murine model of DCM was established by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection. The bodyweight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and cardiac function of mice were analyzed. Lentivirus-packaged sh-HDAC1 was injected into DCM mice and high glucose (HG)-induced cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). The pathological structure of the myocardium and the level of myocardial fibrosis were observed by histological staining. HDAC1 expression in mouse myocardial tissues and CFs was determined. Collagen I, collagen III, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and vimentin levels in CFs were detected, and CF proliferation was tested. HDAC activity and histone acetylation levels in tissues and cells were measured. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) expression in myocardial tissues and CFs was determined. Functional rescue experiments were conducted to confirm the effects of histone acetylation and BMP-7 on myocardial fibrosis. Results DCM mice showed decreased bodyweight, elevated blood glucose and serum insulin, and cardiac dysfunction. Elevated HDAC1 and reduced BMP-7 expressions were detected in DCM mice and HG-induced CFs. HDAC1 repressed BMP-7 transcription through deacetylation. HDAC1 silencing alleviated MF, reduced CF proliferation and decreased collagen I, -III, α-SMA, and vimentin levels. However, reducing histone acetylation level or BMP-7 downregulation reversed the effects of HDAC1 silencing on CF fibrosis. Conclusion HDAC1 repressed BMP-7 transcription by enhancing histone deacetylation, thereby promoting MF and aggravating DCM.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T07:12:10+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1780-8768
       
  • Metabolic status modulates choroidal thickness – a possible early
           indicator for diabetic eye complications'

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      Authors: Meyhoefer; Svenja, Wilms, Britta, Chamorro, Rodrigo, Knaak, Armin, Pappa, Eleni, Schulz, Agnetha S., Pagels, Anna-Josephin, Schröder, Maria, Kaluzny, Neele, Grein, Hans-Jürgen, Meyhöfer, Sebastian M.
      Abstract: Objective To investigate the impact of metabolic status on choroidal thickness in healthy subjects, patients with obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Design and Methods Fasting blood glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and choroidal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography were assessed in healthy normal-weight (n=17), obese participants (n=20), and in obese participants with T2D (n=16). Results Choroidal thickness was increased in obese participants and obese participants with T2D as compared to healthy normal-weight participants (P
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T07:12:07+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1831-0265
       
  • Is the size of insulinoma predictive for its endocrine behavior' An
           endoscopic ultrasound study

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      Authors: Adelmeyer; Jan, Göbel, Franziska, Kann, P. H.
      Abstract: AbstractObjective: The insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas, that can lead to spontaneous hypoglycemia due to an excessive insulin secretion. The 72-hour fast is the gold standard for finding the correct diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an established examination method to identify the suspicious lesion. Previous studies correlate the measured size of insulinoma and their endocrine behavior. This study was designed to find a relation between these variables. Methods: We took the data of patients which had a histological confirmed insulinoma after receiving an endoscopic ultrasound in our department. Size and echogenicity were correlated with the endpoint of the 72-hour fast and hormone levels. Results: A total of 45 patients were identified. Most insulinoma were small with a volume of < 2cm3 (median 1.15cm3). There was no correlation between the duration of fasting, hormone levels and the size of the insulinoma. In addition, in a subgroup analysis, no connection could be established between the size of the insulinoma and the amount of insulin that was released after oral glucose exposure. We found out that homogeneous tumors were significantly smaller and had a lower Ki-67 index. Furthermore, there was a tendency towards a shorter period of duration for the 72-hour fast for the small tumors. Discussion: This data suggests that the measured size of insulinoma by EUS is not related to the time until termination of the 72-hour fast and measured hormone levels. The echogenicity seems more important, showing that homogenous tumors are an indicator for a higher differentiation, which can result in a shorter duration of fasting period. The differences in the secretion behavior of the insulinomas could complicate the correlation of size and duration of the 72-hour fast.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T07:23:22+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1840-7492
       
  • Gray Matter Brain Alterations in Type 1 Diabetes – Findings Based on
           Detailed Phenotyping of Neuropathy Status

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      Authors: Croosu; Suganthiya S., Hansen, Tine M., Røikjer, Johan, Mørch, Carsten D., Ejskjaer, Niels, Frøkjær, Jens B.
      Abstract: Aims This study investigated brain structure in patients of type 1 diabetes with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and type 1 diabetes with neuropathic pain and the associations to clinical, peripheral, and cognitive measurements. Methods Sixty individuals with type 1 diabetes and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Nineteen individuals with type 1 diabetes and neuropathic pain, 19 with type 1 diabetes and DPN, 18 with type 1 diabetes without DPN, and 20 healthy controls were included in the brain analyses. We utilized structural brain magnetic resonance imaging to investigate total and regional gray matter volume. Results Significant lower gray matter volume was found in type 1 diabetes with neuropathic pain and in type 1 diabetes without DPN compared to healthy controls (p=0.024 and p=0.019, respectively). Lower insula volume was observed in all three diabetes groups (all p≤0.050). Thalamus and hippocampus volume was lower in type 1 diabetes with neuropathic pain, cerebellum volume was lower in type 1 diabetes with DPN, and somatosensory cortex volume was lower in type 1 diabetes without DPN (all p≤0.018). Attenuated memory was associated with lower gray matter volume in type 1 diabetes with DPN. No associations were found between gray matter volume and clinical/peripheral measurements. Conclusion We demonstrated lower gray matter volume in individuals with type 1 diabetes regardless of the presence of DPN and neuropathic pain. Hence, central gray matter alteration was not associated with peripheral alterations.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T09:35:11+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1835-1877
       
  • A Questionnaire Survey of German Thyroidologists on the Use of Thyroid
           Hormones in Hypothyroid and Euthyroid Patients: The THESIS (Treatment of
           Hypothyroidism in Europe by Specialists: An International Survey)
           Collaborative

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      Authors: Vardarli; Irfan, Brandenburg, Tim, Hegedüs, Laszlo, Attanasio, Roberto, Nagy, EndreV., Papini, Enrico, Perros, Petros, Weidemann, Frank, Herrmann, Ken, Führer, Dagmar
      Abstract: Objective To identify the attitudes of German thyroid specialists towards the clinical treatment of hypothyroidism using thyroid hormones (TH). Methods All members of the thyroid section of the German Endocrine Society (DGE) were e-mailed an invitation to participate in a web-based survey about substitution with TH. Results Out of 206 members of the DGE’s thyroid section, 163 (79.1%) responses were received and included in the analysis. Of responding members, 98.6% used levothyroxine (LT4) as the treatment of choice, and 45.4% also prescribed combination therapy with liothyronine (LT4+LT3) in their clinical practice (p
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T20:34:07+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1832-0644
       
  • Gender Difference in Liver Enzymes in Newly Defined Subgroups of Diabetes
           Revealed by a Data-Driven Cluster Analysis

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      Authors: Zhang; Ye, Huang, Jiaojiao, Xia, Sanshan, Yang, Yan, Dong, Kun
      Abstract: Background Recently, a newly proposed data-driven approach for classifying diabetes has challenged the status quo of the classification of adult-onset patients with diabetes. This study investigated the association between liver injury and diabetes, classified by data-driven cluster analysis, as liver injury is a significant risk factor for diabetes. Methods We enrolled 822 adult patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using six parameters, including age at diagnosis, body mass index, hemoglobin A1C, homoeostatic assessment model 2 estimates about insulin resistance (HOAM2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B), and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) positivity. Patients were allocated into five clusters. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were compared as indicators of liver injury among clusters. Results Serum ALT and AST activities were significantly different among clusters (P=0.002), even among those without GADA positivity (P=0.004). Patients with severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) and mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD) had a more severe liver injury. Gender dimorphism was also found for serum ALT and AST activities among subgroups. Female patients had better liver function than males with SIRD and MOD. Conclusions We verified the feasibility of a newly proposed diabetes classification system and found robust and significant relationship and gender differences between serum ALT and AST activities and diabetes in some specific subgroups. Our findings indicate that more attention should be paid to diabetes subgroups when studying risk factors, indicators, or treatment in diabetic research.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1799-8173
       
  • Hyperuricemia Associated with Low Skeletal Muscle in the Middle-Aged and
           Elderly Population in China

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      Authors: Chen; Lingyan, Wu, Li, Li, Qian, Hu, Yu, Ma, Hui, Lin, Huandong, Gao, Xin
      Abstract: Background Previous studies have presented inconsistent results on the relationship between serum uric acid and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We aimed to explore whether a higher serum uric acid level was associated with low SMM in the Chinese population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 6595 subjects aged 45 years or older. They were tested for fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. SMM was accessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry using two approaches: weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)% and ASM/BMI (body mass index (kg/m2)). Low SMM was defined as a cut-off point of ASM/BMI
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1785-3729
       
  • Prevalence of Impairment of Visual Acuity and Severity of Retinopathy in
           Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

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      Authors: Cleemen; Constantin, Müller, Nicolle, Lehmann, Thomas, Voigt, Ulrich A., Meller, Daniel, Kloos, Christof, Wolf, Gunter, Müller, Ulrich A, Voigt, Margarete
      Abstract: Aims No information exists on the frequency of visual impairment in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Germany. In this study, the prevalence of vision impairment in those individuals was investigated. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 295 people (14221 consultations) at a university outpatient clinic with any type of DM and an available ETDRS-Score and visual acuity. The primary outcome was the prevalence of visual impairment, the secondary outcome was the correlation of the ETDRS-Score and limitations of visual acuity and the prevalence of higher ETDRS-Score with a visual impairment defined as a decimal-visus
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T08:38:59+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1752-0024
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Diagnosis, Therapy and Follow-Up of Diabetes Mellitus in Children and
           Adolescents

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3388



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-07-29T16:16:16+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy Outcomes:
           Results from a Multicentric Study in Tajikistan

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      Authors: Pirmatova; Dilnoza, Dodkhoeva, Munavvara, Hasbargen, Uwe, Flemmer, Andreas W., Abdusamatzoda, Zulfiya, Saburova, Khursheda, Salieva, Nasiba, Radzhabova, Surayyo, Parhofer, Klaus G.
      Abstract: The prevalence of gestational diabetes parallels the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, these data are not available for many parts of the world. We assessed the prevalence of gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes in Tajikistan. This cohort study included 2438 consecutively recruited representative pregnant women from 8 locations in two cities in Tajikistan, in whom an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g, fasting, 1 h, 2 h) was performed during gestational weeks 24–28. Women with known diabetes and twin pregnancies were excluded. Associations between glucose tolerance test results and pregnancy outcomes were examined. According to the WHO 2013 thresholds, 32.4% of women qualified as having gestational diabetes, the vast majority (29.7%) based on an elevated fasting glucose level (5.1–5.6 mmol/L), while only 2.8% had elevated 1- or 2-hour values or met more than one threshold. Women with only elevated fasting glucose (impaired gestational fasting glycemia) had no evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, while those with elevated 1- and/or 2-hour values (impaired gestational glucose tolerance) had more pregnancy complications (infection of urinary tract 1.8 vs. 8.8% p
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T10:20:28+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1869-4159
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3449



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-07-15T09:39:29+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Fundamentals of Diabetes Management

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-5080



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-04-29T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Position Paper on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial
           Disease (PAD) in People with Diabetes Mellitus

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3631



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-04-22T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Diabetes and Road Traffic

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3655



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-04-22T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Valproic Acid Initiates Transdifferentiation of the Human Ductal
           Adenocarcinoma Cell-line Panc-1 Into α-Like Cells

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      Authors: Petry; Sebastian Friedrich, Kandula, Naga Deepa, Günther, Stefan, Helker, Christian, Schagdarsurengin, Undraga, Linn, Thomas
      Abstract: Non-mesenchymal pancreatic cells are a potential source for cell replacement. Their transdifferentiation can be achieved by triggering epigenetic remodeling through e. g. post-translational modification of histones. Valproic acid, a branched-chain saturated fatty acid with histone deacetylase inhibitor activity, was linked to the expression of key transcription factors of pancreatic lineage in epithelial cells and insulin transcription. However, the potential of valproic acid to cause cellular reprogramming is not fully understood. To shed further light on it we employed next-generation RNA sequencing, real-time PCR, and protein analyses by ELISA and western blot, to assess the impact of valproic acid on transcriptome and function of Panc-1-cells. Our results indicate that valproic acid has a significant impact on the cell cycle, cell adhesion, histone H3 acetylation, and metabolic pathways as well as the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition through acetylation of histone H3 resulting in α-cell-like characteristics. We conclude that human epithelial pancreatic cells can be transdifferentiated into cells with endocrine properties through epigenetic regulation by valproic acid favoring an α-cell-like phenotype.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1750-9190
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-2897



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-04-21T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3340



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-04-01T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Diabetes and Fatty Liver

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3541



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-04-01T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Family Structure is Associated with Mental Health and Attention Deficit
           (Hyperactivity) Disorders in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

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      Authors: Baechle; Christina, Stahl-Pehe, Anna, Castillo, Katty, Holl, Reinhard W., Rosenbauer, Joachim
      Abstract: Objective To analyze the cross-sectional associations of family structure with mental health and attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorders (AD(H)D) in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with early-onset type 1 diabetes participating in one of three baseline surveys as part of an ongoing cohort study. Methods Parents (n=1,631) completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to screen for their child’s mental health and answered questions about their child’s diagnosis of AD(H)D. Associations between mental health or AD(H)D and family structure were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for various personal and diabetes-related variables. Results Compared to adolescents living with both parents, adolescents living with one parent and his/her partner had 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.32; 4.21) higher odds of abnormal screening result and 2.08 (1.09; 3.95) higher odds of a borderline screening result while adolescents living with a single parent had 1.84 (1.07; 3.17)/1.08 (0.53; 2.21) higher odds of abnormal/borderline screening results. The odds ratios for diagnosed attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder were 2.17 (0.98; 4.84) for adolescents living with one parent and his/her partner and 1.27 (0.54; 3.01) for those living with a single parent vs. both parents. Conclusions Our results indicate higher odds of mental health problems and AD(H)D in adolescents with type 1 diabetes who do not live with both parents; this finding was most pronounced in individuals living with one parent and his/her partner vs. both parents. Longitudinal studies are needed to verify our results and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1729-7972
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Adjustment of Anti-Hyperglycaemic Agents During Bowel Preparation for
           Colonoscopy in Patients with Diabetes

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      Authors: Müssig; Karsten, Adamek, Henning E.
      Abstract: Objective Due to the growing diabetes pandemic, the number of colonoscopies performed in patients with diabetes is steadily rising. However, recommendations on adjustments of anti-hyperglycaemic agents (AHG) during bowel preparation for colonoscopy are limited. Methods A total of nine articles were revealed on a PubMed search using the search terms “diabetes” and “colonoscopy”, “sigmoidoscopy”, “endoscopy”, “endoscopic intervention”, “endoscopic invasive diagnostics”, “endoscopic surgery”, or “diabetes care in the hospital” and manual screening of the references of the articles reporting on AHG adjustment during bowel preparation. Results Regular glucose measurements and the opportunity to contact the diabetes team were commonly advised. Recommendations also agreed that all oral AHG and short-acting insulin should be omitted when patients are on clear fluids. Recent studies suggest discontinuation of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors even three days before the colonoscopy. In contrast, recommendations differed regarding adjustment of basal insulin depending on diabetes type and time point in relation to the intervention. Conclusions While discontinuation of oral AHG and short-acting insulin during bowel preparation for colonoscopy is generally accepted, recommendations on the adaptation of basal insulin follow different approaches.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1782-9389
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Glucose Measurement and Control in Patients with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes
           

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3282



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Position Paper on Lipid Therapy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3572



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Diabetes Mellitus and the Heart

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-3593



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Dietary recommendations for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1624-5095



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Statin Therapy Among Bariatric Patients: The Impact on Metabolic Outcomes
           and Diabetes Status

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      Authors: Mendonça; Fernando M, Silva, Maria M, Borges-Canha, Marta, Neves, João S, Costa, Cláudia, Cabral, Pedro M., Guerreiro, Vanessa, Lourenço, Rita, Meira, Patrícia, Ferreira, Maria J, Salazar, Daniela, Pedro, Jorge, Varela, Ana, Souto, Selma, Lau, Eva, Freitas, Paula, Carvalho, Davide, group, CRIO
      Abstract: Introduction Statin therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. Among bariatric patients, the influence of this therapy on various metabolic outcomes, such as diabetes status and its remission, is largely unknown. Methods This was a retrospective study of 1710 patients who underwent bariatric surgery at our hospital between January/2010 and June/2017. We compared patients with and without statin therapy at baseline, 12 and 24 months after surgery regarding statin use and its impact on several clinical and analytical parameters. Multiple linear regression was performed, adjusting differences for age, sex, surgery type, antidiabetic drugs at baseline, hypertension at baseline, LDL cholesterol ˃ 130 mg/dL, weight variation one year after surgery, and age of obesity onset. Results The overall prevalence of statin use was 20.2% before, 13.6% 12 months after surgery, and 15.0% 24 months after surgery. There was a larger reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c at 12 and 24 months after surgery among statin-treated patients, with the opposite trend for weight reduction and BMI. Statin-treated patients with diabetes had lower diabetes remission rates (45.3 vs 68.5%) 12 months after surgery, with the highest reduction in HbA1c (1.3±1.3 vs −1.1±1.2%; p=0.042), fasting glucose (−40.8±48.8 vs −30.9±41.6 mg/dL; p=0.028), and insulin (−21.7±28.2 vs −13.4±14.2 mIU/L; p=0.039). The proportion of new-onset cases of diabetes was equal between statin-treated vs non-treated individuals at 12 months (1.9%) and 24 months (1.0%) after surgery. Conclusion Bariatric surgery seems to lead to diabetes remission more frequently in patients not treated with statins. A larger reduction was observed in fasting glucose and HbA1c among statin-treated patients. Statin did not contribute to an increased proportion of new-onset diabetes after surgery.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1743-2335
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Maprotiline Ameliorates High Glucose-Induced Dysfunction in Renal
           Glomerular Endothelial Cells

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      Authors: Zhou; Zhihong, Liu, Shangjun
      Abstract: Maprotiline is an antidepressant that has been found to cause hypoglycemia. However, the effect of maprotiline on diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been investigated. Here, we explored the effect of maprotiline on human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) in response to high glucose (HG) stimulation. We found that maprotiline attenuated HG-induced oxidative stress in HRGECs with decreased reactive oxygen species production and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Maprotiline repressed the HG-induced expression of cyclooxygenases 2 at both mRNA and protein levels in HRGECs. The increased thromboxane B2 level and decreased 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α level induced by HG were significantly attenuated by maprotiline treatment. Maprotiline also prevented the HG-induced increase in the permeability of HRGECs and the decrease in the zonula occludens-1 expression and downregulated HG-induced increase in the expression of protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) in HRGECs. This protective effect of maprotiline on HG-induced HRGECs dysfunction was abolished by overexpression of PKC-α. In conclusion, maprotiline displayed a protective effect on HG-challenged HRGECs, which was mediated by the regulation of PKC-α. These findings provide further evidence for the potential use of maprotiline for the treatment of DN.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1713-7719
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • The ISAQ Score Does Not Predict Adrenal Crisis in Patients with Primary
           Adrenal Insufficiency

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      Authors: Quinkler; Marcus, Kienitz, Tina
      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to investigate the ability of the immune system assessment questionnaire (ISAQ) to predict adrenal crisis (AC) and infectious events in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Design This was a prospective single-centre study over three years. Methods Patients answered the ISAQ at baseline and were seen every 4–6 months in the endocrine outpatient clinic. At each visit previous infectious periods which required an increase in daily glucocorticoid dosage and AC were reported and documented. Seventy-five patients with PAI (53 women; 43 patients with autoimmune PAI, 20 patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 12 patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy) were analysed. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and consecutive lockdown measures, the data were analysed separately for March 2018 to March 2020 (period 1), and March 2020 to March 2021 (period 2). Results During period 1 the ISAQ score significantly correlated with the number of reported infectious events (r=0.351; p
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1734-2466
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Leveraging Potential of Nanotherapeutics in Management of Diabetic Foot
           Ulcer

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      Authors: Pandey; Supriya, Shaif, Mohammad, Ansari, Tarique M, Shamim, Arshiya, Kushwaha, Poonam
      Abstract: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the most common complications associated with diabetes mellitus. DFUs are displayed as open sores or wounds located on the bottom of the foot as a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). DFUs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can subsequently lead to hospitalization and lower limb amputation if not recognized and treated on time. An immense challenge to conventional treatments is caused by the chronic nature of diabetic foot syndrome and it has led to the emergence of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. The greatest advantages of these nanotherapeutics are their unique biological, chemical, and physical properties. The present review highlights the augmentation of bacterial infections relating to delayed healing of DFUs and the potential of nanotherapeutics such as polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, siRNA-based nanoparticles, lipid nanoparticles, and nanofibers in accelerating wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1749-4909
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Measurement of gastric emptying using a 13C-octanoic acid breath test with
           Wagner-Nelson analysis and scintigraphy in type 2 diabetes.

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      Authors: Jones; Karen L, Trahair, Laurence G, Nauck, Michael A., Wu, Tongzhi, Stevens, Julie E, Buttfield, Madeline D, Hatzinikolas, Seva, Pham, Hung, Meier, Juris J., Rayner, Christopher K., Horowitz, Michael
      Abstract: Introduction: Breath tests utilising 13C-labelled substrates for the assessment of gastric emptying have been applied widely. Wagner-Nelson analysis is a pharmacokinetic model that can be utilised to generate a gastric emptying curve from the % 13CO2 measured in breath samples. We compared Wagner-Nelson analysis with (i) scintigraphy and (ii) conventional breath test modelling to quantify gastric emptying in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirteen patients (age 68.1 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 31.0 ± 0.9kg/m2, HbA1c 6.3 ± 0.2%) consumed a mashed potato meal comprising 65g powdered potato, 20g glucose, 250ml water, an egg yolk labelled with 100μL 13C-octanoic acid and 20MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Scintigraphic data were acquired and breath samples collected for 4 hours after the meal. Gastric emptying curves were derived based on each technique; the 50% emptying time and intragastric retention at 60 min were also calculated. Results: With Wagner-Nelson analysis, a Kel=0.60 (the elimination constant) best approximated the scintigraphic gastric emptying curve. There was a relationship between the T50 calculated with scintigraphy and by both Wagner-Nelson Kel=0.60 (r2=0.45, P
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1784-6185
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • COVID-19 Lockdown Periods in 2020: Good Maintenance of Metabolic Control
           in Adults with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

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      Authors: Hartmann; B, Tittel, S R, Femerling, M, Pfeifer, M., Meyhöfer, S., Lange, K, Milek, S, Stemler, L, Best, F, Holl, R W
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were increased concerns about glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to assess changes in diabetes management during the COVID-19 lockdown for patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) in Germany. We included data from 24,623 patients (age>18 years) with T1DM (N=6,975) or T2DM (N=17,648) with documented data in 2019 and 2020 from the multicenter Diabetes-Prospective Follow-up registry (DPV). We conducted a groupwise comparison of identical patients in 2019 and 2020 for different time periods of pandemia. Pairwise differences of continuous parameters of treatment modalities and metabolic outcome between 2019 and 2020 were adjusted for seasonality, age, and diabetes duration. We presented these outcomes as adjusted medians with 95% confidence intervals. Rates were compared using negative-binomial models, dichotomous outcomes were compared using logistic models. Models were additionally adjusted for age and diabetes duration. These outcomes were presented as least-square means with 95% confidence intervals, p-values of
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1743-2537
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Erratum: Effectiveness of High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Therapy
           of Solid and Complex Benign Thyroid Nodules – A Long-term Follow up
           Two-center Study

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1751-1953



      Georg Thieme Verlag KG Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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      Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -2022-02-14T00:00:00+0100
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • Direct Costs of Healthcare for Children with Type 1 Diabetes Using a CGM
           System: A Health Economic Analysis of the VIDIKI Telemedicine Study in a
           German Setting

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      Authors: Frielitz; Fabian Simon, Eisemann, Nora, Werner, Kristin, Hiort, Olaf, Katalinic, Alexander, Lange, Karin, von Sengbusch, Simone
      Abstract: Aims The Virtual Diabetes Outpatient Clinic for Children and Adolescents (VIDIKI) study was a 6-month quasi-randomized, multicentre study followed by an extension phase to evaluate the effects of monthly video consultations in addition to regular care. A health economic analysis was conducted to assess the direct costs. Methods The cost data of 240 study participants (1–16 years of age) with type 1 diabetes who were already using a continuous glucose monitoring system were collected in the first 6 months of the study. The intervention group (IG) received monthly video consultations plus regular care, and the waiting control group (WG) received only regular care. Cost data were collected for a comparable anonymized group of children from the participating health insurance companies during the 6-month period before the study started (aggregated data group [AG]). Results Cost data were analysed for the AG (N=840) 6 months before study initiation and those for the study participants (N=225/240). Hospital treatment was the highest cost category in the AG. There was a cost shift and cost increase in the IG and WG, whereby diabetes supplies were the highest cost category. The mean direct diabetes-associated 6-month costs were € 4,702 (IG) and € 4,936 (WG). Conclusion The cost development within the cost collection period over two years possibly reflects the switch to higher-priced medical supplies. Video consultation as an add-on service resulted in a small but nonsignificant reduction in the overall costs.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; : -
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1708-3134
      Issue No: Vol. eFirst
       
  • ‘That Time of the Month’ – Investigating the Influence of the
           Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on the Brain Using Magnetic
           Resonance Imaging

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      Authors: Schuster; Verena, Jansen, Andreas
      Abstract: The stereotypic and oversimplified relationship between female sex hormones and undesirable behavior dates to the earliest days of human society, as already the ancient Greek word for the uterus, “hystera” indicated an aversive connection. Remaining and evolving throughout the centuries, transcending across cultures and various aspects of everyday life, its perception was only recently reframed. Contemporarily, the complex interaction of hormonal phases (i. e., the menstrual cycle), hormonal medication (i. e., oral contraceptives), women’s psychological well-being, and behavior is the subject of multifaceted and more reflected discussions. A driving force of this ongoing paradigm shift was the introduction of this highly interesting and important topic into the realm of scientific research. This refers to neuroscientific research as it enables a multimodal approach combining aspects of physiology, medicine, and psychology. Here a growing body of literature points towards significant alterations of both brain function, such as lateralization of cognitive functions, and structure, such as gray matter concentrations, due to fluctuations and changes in hormonal levels. This especially concerns female sex hormones. However, the more research is conducted within this field, the less reliable these observations and derived insights appear. This may be due to two particular factors: measurement inconsistencies and diverse hormonal phases accompanied by interindividual differences. The first factor refers to the prominent unreliability of one of the primarily utilized neuroscientific research instruments: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This unreliability is seemingly present in paradigms and analyses, and their interplay, and is additionally affected by the second factor. In more detail, hormonal phases and levels further influence neuroscientific results obtained through fMRI as outcomes vary drastically across different cycle phases and medication. This resulting vast uncertainty thus tremendously hinders the further advancement of our understanding of how female sex hormones might alter brain structure and function and, ultimately, behavior.This review summarizes parts of the current state of research and outlines the essential requirements to further investigate and understand the female brain’s underlying physiological and anatomical features.
      Citation: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2022; :
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/a-1816-8203
      Issue No: Vol. ECED Wome, No. ECED Women (2022)
       
 
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