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ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 134 of 134 Journals sorted alphabetically
AACE Clinical Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Dermato-Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Diabetes & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Discover Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dubai Diabetes and Endocrinology Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Endocrine and Metabolic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endocrine Disruptors     Open Access  
Endocrine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Endocrine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Endocrine Regulations     Open Access  
Endocrine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Endocrine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine-Related Cancer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Obesity and Metabolic Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Endokrynologia Polska     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
European Thyroid Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare     Open Access  
Frontiers in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
General and Comparative Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Growth Hormone & IGF Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Gynakologische Endokrinologie     Hybrid Journal  
Gynecological Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hormone and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hormone Research in Paediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hormones and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International journal of endocrine oncology     Open Access  
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel : Austrian Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Assocation of Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pineal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Restorative Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Social Health and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies     Open Access  
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
L'Endocrinologo     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Brain Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Molecular Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Reviews Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuroendocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Nigerian Endocrine Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Endocrinología     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access  
The Endocrinologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thyroid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Thyroid Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Vitamins & Hormones     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Endocrine Pathology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.734
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1559-0097 - ISSN (Online) 1046-3976
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Diagnostic Impact of Epigenomics in Pituicyte-derived Tumors: Report
           

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      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Metastatic Risk Stratification of 2526 Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
           Patients: A Study Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
           Database

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      Abstract: Abstract The risk of distant metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has not been well studied. Additional evaluation of MTC metastatic risk can be helpful for improving the quality of medical management. Therefore, we conducted a large population study to develop a method to stratify the risk of metastasis at the initial presentation of MTC patients. We collected 3612 MTC patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, and included 2526 MTC patients in the study after applying exclusion criteria. We selected the most informative variables from a learning cohort of 2019 patients to obtain 1000 models by repetitive random data splicing into training and regularization cohorts. We selected the optimal model and developed a risk table from that model. Our risk table variables consist of age, gender, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. The final model showed good calibration when metastatic risk was < 25% and good performance with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.81, 0.84, and 0.84 in the training, regularization, and test cohorts, respectively. We performed K-means clustering analysis on the model’s metastatic estimation and determined three risk groups of patients with significant survival differences (p < 0.001). Low-risk patients had 0.88%, 1.3%, and 0.5% while high-risk patients had 19.7%, 15.8%, and 17.8% risk of metastasis in the three cohorts, respectively. The incorporation of our table into the International MTC Grading System (IMTCGS) requires more comprehensive clinicopathological studies.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
       
  • Multifocal Fibrosing Thyroiditis: an Under-recognized Mimicker of
           Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis (MFT) is an enigmatic entity, characterized by multiple fibrotic scar-like lesions with a paucicellular fibrotic center surrounded by a cellular peripheral area with reactive-appearing follicular cell atypia and variable chronic inflammation. Although poorly recognized and likely underreported in surgical pathology, the entity is considered rare with only 65 cases to date–including the current one reported to expand on the preoperative findings of this under-recognized entity. The average age of the patients is 46.8 years (range 15–71 years), 94% are female, with female to male ratio of 15:1. Individual MFT lesions typically have a superficial location. The average number of fibrotic lesions is 15.4 (range 2–51 per MFT case). Their average size is 3.1 mm (range 0.4–15.1). MFT is a disorder of diseased thyroids, typically found postoperatively in glands removed for other reasons, such as chronic lymphocytic/Hashimoto thyroiditis (32.3%), follicular nodular disease (nodular hyperplasia) (30.1%), hyperthyroidism/diffuse hyperplasia (Graves disease) (9.2%). Intriguing is the association with papillary thyroid carcinoma–present in 38.5% of MFT cases, and particularly with sub-centimetric and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, with which MFT can be confused. Cases where MFT is the only thyroid pathology (7.7%) can be preoperatively mistaken for papillary thyroid carcinoma, due to worrisome ultrasound (US) and cytologic features, both of which are here documented for the first time as a component of this article. Wider recognition of MFT and of its cytologic and ultrasound features at preoperative evaluation may reduce unnecessary thyroidectomies.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
       
  • Amphicrine Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma — a Case-Based Review Expanding
           on Its MUC Expression Profile

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      Abstract: Abstract Amphicrine phenotype in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare phenomenon characterized by tumor cells that show both endocrine differentiation (calcitonin secretion) and exocrine differentiation (mucin production and secretion). Not much is known about the pathobiology of amphicrine MTCs. This report undertook a case-based review approach by discussing the cytological, histopathological, and ultrastructural features of this rare enigmatic entity, expanding on the radiological and novel MUC immunohistochemistry findings from a 28-year-old MEN2B syndrome patient with C cell hyperplasia and multifocal MTC with amphicrine features. The patient had widespread hematogenous metastases at presentation. MUC immunoexpression analysis revealed evidence of micro-lumina formation, and unique to-date unreported expression patterns of MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6 in an amphicrine subtype of MTC. Review of the literature identified five other MTC cases with well-documented amphicrine features. Of these six cases, two were associated with MEN2B syndrome, and four had metastatic disease. Follow-up was available in three patients, and two died of disease. Recognition of this rare subtype of MTC may be of clinical interest given their frequent link to MEN2B syndrome and biological aggressiveness.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Immature PIT1-Lineage Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumor: a 17-Year-Old Male
           with Pathogenic AIP Mutation

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      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Correction to: Two Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors (PitNETs) with Very
           High Proliferation and TP53 Mutation – High‑Grade PitNET or
           PitNEC'

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-021-09699-6
       
  • TERT Copy Number Alterations, Promoter Mutations and Rearrangements in
           Adrenocortical Carcinomas

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      Abstract: Abstract Molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has highlighted a high prevalence of TERT alterations, which are associated with disease progression. Herein, 78 ACC were profiled using a combination of next generation sequencing (n = 76) and FISH (n = 9) to assess for TERT alterations. This data was combined with TCGA dataset (n = 91). A subset of borderline adrenocortical tumors (n = 5) and adrenocortical adenomas (n = 7) were also evaluated. The most common alteration involving the TERT gene involved gains/amplifications, seen in 22.2% (37/167) of cases. In contrast, “hotspot” promoter mutations (C > T promoter mutation at position -124, 7/167 cases, 4.2%) and promoter rearrangements (2/165, 1.2%) were rare. Recurrent co-alterations included 22q copy number losses seen in 24% (9/38) of cases. Although no significant differences were identified in cases with and without TERT alterations pertaining to age at presentation, tumor size, weight, laterality, mitotic index and Ki67 labeling, cases with TERT alterations showed worse outcomes. Metastatic behavior was seen in 70% (28/40) of cases with TERT alterations compared to 51.2% (65/127, p = 0.04) of cases that lacked these alterations. Two (of 5) borderline tumors showed amplifications and no TERT alterations were identified in 7 adenomas. In the borderline group, 0 (of 4) patients with available follow up had adverse outcomes. We found that TERT alterations in ACC predominantly involve gene amplifications, with a smaller subset harboring “hotspot” promoter mutations and rearrangements, and 70% of TERT-altered tumors are associated with metastases. Prospective studies are needed to validate the prognostic impact of these findings.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-021-09691-0
       
  • Two Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors (PitNETs) with Very High Proliferation
           and TP53 Mutation — High-Grade PitNET or PitNEC'

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      Abstract: Abstract We report two pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) with very high Ki67 labeling indices, many mitoses and TP53 mutation (nearly all tumor cell nuclei were positive for p53). One of the tumors had bone and liver metastases. One was a corticotroph cell tumor; the other was a lactotroph tumor. The classification of these tumors is the subject of this discussion. Traditionally, pituitary carcinomas are only diagnosed by demonstration of metastases according to the 2017 WHO classification. In contrast, neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are classified as either well differentiated NETs that are graded as G1, G2, and G3 based on proliferation as determined by Ki67 indices of ≤ 3, 3–20 and > 20%, and/or < 2, 2–20, and > 20 mitoses per 10 high-power field respectively, or as neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) that are poorly differentiated neoplasms with mitoses > 20/HPF and/or a Ki67 index > 20%. With the reclassificiation of PitNETs, in our opinion, the adequate term for the well-differentiated corticotroph tumor that we report is a PitNET G3, whereas the undifferentiated prolactin tumor should be classified as PitNEC. This report expands the spectrum of pituitary neuroendocrine neoplasms.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-021-09693-y
       
  • Thyroid Carcinoma with NSD3::NUTM1 Fusion: a Case with Thyrocyte
           Differentiation and Colloid Production

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      Abstract: Abstract In this report, we present a high-grade thyroid carcinoma with an NSD3::NUTM1 fusion detected on expanded next-generation sequencing testing. Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinomas comprise high-grade, aggressive tumors characterized by rearrangements of the NUTM1 gene with various partner genes, most commonly the bromodomain protein genes BRD4 and BRD3. Approximately 10% of NUT carcinomas contain an NSD3::NUTM1 fusion. NUT carcinomas manifest as poorly differentiated or undifferentiated squamous carcinomas, and 33% show areas of mature squamous differentiation. Only exceptionally have NUT carcinomas shown histology discordant from poorly differentiated/undifferentiated squamous carcinoma, and a thyroid NUT carcinoma with histologic thyrocyte differentiation has not been described to date. Our patient’s tumor exhibited mixed cytologic features suggestive of squamoid cells or papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. Overt squamous differentiation was absent, and the tumor produced colloid in poorly formed follicles. Immunophenotypically, the carcinoma was consistent with thyrocyte differentiation with expression of monoclonal PAX8, TTF1, and thyroglobulin (the last predominantly in extracellular colloid). There was zero to < 2% reactivity for proteins typically diffusely expressed in NUT carcinoma: p40, p63, and cytokeratins 5/6. NUT protein expression was equivocal, but fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a NUTM1 rearrangement. This exceptional case suggests that NUTM1 fusions may occur in an unknown number of aggressive thyroid carcinomas, possibly with distinctive histologic features but with thyrocyte differentiation. Recognition of this entity potentially has significant prognostic implications. Moreover, thyroid carcinomas with NUTM1 fusions may be amenable to treatment with NUT carcinoma-targeted therapy such as a bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein small molecular inhibitor (BETi).
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-021-09700-2
       
  • Molecular Subtypes of Extra-pulmonary Neuroendocrine Carcinomas Identified
           by the Expression of Neuroendocrine Lineage-Specific Transcription Factors
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (EPNEC) represent a group of rare and heterogenous neoplasms with adverse clinical outcome. Their molecular profile is largely unexplored. Our aim was to investigate if the major transcriptional drivers recently described in high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas characterize distinct molecular and clinical subgroups of EPNEC. Gene expression of ASCL1, NEUROD1, DLL3, NOTCH1, INSM1, MYCL1, POU2F3, and YAP1 was investigated in a series of 54 EPNEC (including 10 cases with mixed components analyzed separately) and in a group of 48 pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (P-LCNEC). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis classified the whole series into four major clusters. P-LCNEC were classified into two major clusters, the first ASCL1/DLL3/INSM1-high and the second (including four EPNEC) ASCL1/DLL3-low but INSM1-high. The remaining EPNEC cases were sub-classified into two other clusters. The first showed INSM1-high and alternative ASCL1/DLL3 or NEUROD1 high expression. The second was characterized mainly by MYCL1 and YAP1 overexpression. In the ten cases with mixed histology, ASCL1, DLL3, INSM1, and NEUROD1 genes were significantly upregulated in the neuroendocrine component. Higher gene-expression levels of NOTCH1 and INSM1 were associated with lower pT stage and negative nodal status. Low INSM1 gene expression was associated with shorter overall survival in the entire case series (p = 0.0017) and with a trend towards significance in EPNEC, only (p = 0.06). In conclusion, our results show that EPNEC possess distinct neuroendocrine-lineage-specific transcriptional profiles; moreover, low INSM1 gene expression represents a novel potential unfavorable prognostic marker in high-grade NECs including those in extra-pulmonary location.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09722-4
       
  • Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Identify the Immunocytochemical
           Markers Effective in Delineating Benign from Malignant Thyroid Lesions in
           FNAC Samples

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      Abstract: Abstract Conventional cytology-based diagnosis for thyroid cancer is limited with more than 30–45% of nodules categorized as indeterminate, necessitating surgery for confirming or refuting the diagnosis. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed at identifying immunocytochemical markers effective in delineating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples, thereby improving the accuracy of cytology diagnosis. A systematic review of relevant articles (2000–2021) from online databases was carried out and the search protocol registered in PROSPERO database (CRD42021229121). The quality of studies was assessed using QUADAS-2. Review Manager 5.4.1 from Cochrane collaboration and MetaDisc Version 1.4 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Bias in the studies were visually analyzed using funnel plots, and statistical significance was evaluated by Egger’s test. Systematic review identified 64 original articles, while meta-analysis in eligible articles (n = 41) identified a panel of 5 markers, Galectin-3, HBME-1, CK-19, CD-56, and TPO. Assessment of the diagnostic performance revealed that Gal-3 (sensitivity: 0.81; CI: 0.79–0.83; specificity: 0.84; CI: 0.82–0.85) and HBME-1 (sensitivity: 0.83; Cl: 0.81–0.86; specificity: 0.85; CI: 0.83–0.86) showed high accuracy in delineating benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Efficacy analysis in indeterminate nodules showed Gal-3 and HBME-1 have high specificity of 0.86 (CI 0.84–0.89) and 0.82 (CI 0.78–0.86), respectively, and low sensitivity of 0.76 (CI 0.72–0.80) and 0.75 (CI 0.70–0.80), respectively. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of Galectin-3 and HBME-1 were 39.18 (CI 23.38–65.65) and 24.44 (CI 11.16–53.54), respectively. Significant publication bias was observed for the markers Galectin-3 and CK-19 (p < 0.05). The panel of 5 markers identified from this meta-analysis are high-confidence candidates that need to be validated in thyroid cytology to establish their efficacy and enable clinical applicability.
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09721-5
       
  • External Validation of Three Available Grading Systems for Medullary
           Thyroid Carcinoma in a Single Institution Cohort

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      Abstract: Abstract Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare thyroid carcinoma with a variable clinical behavior. Potential clinical and pathological prognostic markers have been investigated, but studies are limited and controversial. In neuroendocrine neoplasms of various other sites, necrosis and proliferation (mitotic activity and/or Ki67 index) are integrated to provide a histological grade. Recently, an International Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Grading System (IMTCGS) has been designed to define high- or low-grade MTC by combining proliferative activity and necrosis. This proposal integrates two previously published grading schemes by American (2-tiered grading, low- and high-grade MTC) and Australian authors (3-tiered grading, low-, intermediate-, and high-grade MTC). To validate the clinical role of these systems, their prognostic impact was evaluated in an independent cohort of 111 MTCs. Necrosis, which was the only parameter integrated into the 3 grading systems, proved to be individually correlate with tumor relapse, while no association was found with the proliferation (mitotic count and Ki67 index); however, by combining the different parameters according to all three grading systems, “high-grade” MTCs turned out to be significantly associated with the disease recurrence (p < 0.005) in all systems. In disease-free survival analysis, the IMTCGS stratification was the only one that demonstrated a significant impact at Cox regression analysis (p = 0.004), further confirmed by the Kaplan–Meier curves (p = 0.002). Similar findings were also reproduced when analysis was restricted to sporadic MTCs (68 cases). In conclusion, our results confirm the prognostic role of IMTCGS, supporting the importance of incorporating this information into the pathology report. However, none of the systems proved to predict the overall survival in this validation cohort.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09719-z
       
  • Grading of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: an Interobserver Reproducibility
           Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Grade, based on proliferative activity and tumor necrosis, has recently been shown to be prognostic in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in multivariate analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of assessed grade in MTC. Three groups (each group included one resident/fellow and one attending pathologist) independently evaluated a cohort of 44 sporadic MTC. For each case, all available tumor slides were reviewed, and mitotic count and the presence of tumor necrosis were recorded. Ki-67 was performed, and the Ki-67 proliferative index was determined in the area of highest proliferative activity. Tumors were graded according to the recently published International Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Grading System (IMTCGS). Kappa statistics were calculated for each individual criterion (mitotic count, Ki-67 proliferative index, and necrosis) and for assigned IMTCGS grade. For our cohort of 44 MTCs, the kappa statistic for mitotic count, Ki-67 proliferative index, and necrosis was 0.68, 0.86, and 0.89, respectively. The kappa statistic for assigned IMTCGS grade was 0.87. Our findings indicate that there was a strong level of agreement for assessment of grade in our cohort of MTC, indicating that grade as assessed by the IMTCGS is not only prognostic but also reproducible.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09718-0
       
  • Ampullary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Identification of Prognostic Factors
           in a Multicentric Series of 119 Cases

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      Abstract: Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the major and minor ampulla are rare diseases with clinico-pathologic features distinct from non-ampullary-duodenal NENs. However, they have been often combined and the knowledge on prognostic factors specific to ampullary NENs (Amp-NENs) is limited. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with metastatic potential and patient prognosis in Amp-NENs. We clinically and histologically investigated an international series of 119 Amp-NENs, comprising 93 ampullary neuroendocrine tumors (Amp-NETs) and 26 neuroendocrine carcinomas (Amp-NECs). Somatostatin-producing tubulo-acinar NET represented the predominant Amp-NET histologic subtype (58 cases, 62%, 12 associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis). Compared to Amp-NETs, Amp-NECs arose in significantly older patients and showed a larger tumor size, a more frequent small vessel invasion, a deeper level of invasion and a higher rate of distant metastasis, and, importantly, a tremendously worse disease-specific patient survival. In Amp-NETs, the WHO grade proved to be a strong predictor of disease-specific survival (hazard ratio: 12.61, p < 0.001 for G2 vs G1), as well as patient age at diagnosis > 60 years, small vessel invasion, pancreatic invasion, and distant metastasis at diagnosis. Although nodal metastatic disease was not associated with survival by itself, patients with > 3 metastatic lymph nodes showed a worse outcome in comparison with the remaining Amp-NET cases with lymphadenectomy. Tumor epicenter in the major ampulla, small vessel invasion, and tumor size > 16 mm were independent predictors of nodal metastases in Amp-NETs. In conclusion, we identified prognostic factors, which may eventually help guide treatment decisions in Amp-NENs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09720-6
       
  • Clinical-Pathological Evaluation and Prognostic Analysis of 228 Merkel
           Cell Carcinomas Focusing on Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes, MCPYV
           Infection and ALK Expression

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      Abstract: Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, whose pathogenesis can be traced back to UV radiation damage or Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infection. Despite some improvements on the characterization of the disease partly due to its increased incidence, crucial pathogenetic and prognostic factors still need to be refined. A consecutive series of 228 MCC from three hospitals in Turin was collected with the aim of both analyzing the apparent increase in MCC incidence in our area and investigating the distribution and prognostic role of clinical-pathological parameters, with a focus on MCPyV status, ALK tumor expression and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Review of morphology and conventional immunohistochemical staining was possible in 191 cases. In 50 cases, the expression of the novel neuroendocrine marker INSM1 was additionally assessed. Fourteen cases of MCC of unknown primary skin lesion were identified and separately analyzed. While confirming an exponential trend in MCC incidence in the last decades and providing a description of histological and cytological features of a large series of MCC, the present study concludes that 1) INSM1 is a highly sensitive marker in both skin and lymph node primary MCC; 2) positive MCPyV status, brisk TILs and lower tumor size and thickness are independent positive prognostic parameters, and the combination of the former two may provide a novel tool for prognostic stratification; 3) ALK is expressed 87% of MCC and associated with positive viral status, and could represent a prognostic biomarker, if validated in larger series.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09716-2
       
  • Correction to: Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Lung Typical Carcinoid
           Metastatic to Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09717-1
       
  • Transcription Factor Expression in Sinonasal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and
           Olfactory Neuroblastoma (ONB): Hyams’ Grades 1–3 ONBs Expand the
           Spectrum of SATB2 and GATA3-Positive Neoplasms

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      Abstract: Abstract Sinonasal neuroendocrine neoplasms (SN-NENs) are rare and mostly include neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), whereas neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is exceptional in this site. Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a malignant neuroectodermal neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity. Albeit crucial for correct patients’ management, the distinction of high grade ONB from NEC is challenging and requires additional diagnostic markers. The transcription factor SATB2 has been recently introduced in routine diagnostics as an immunohistochemical marker of distal intestine differentiation. No specific data are available about SATB2 and GATA3 expression in SN-NENs. GATA3, SATB2, and, for comparison, CDX2 expression were investigated in a series of epithelial and non-epithelial SN-NENs. We collected 26 cases of ONB and 7 cases of epithelial SN-NENs diagnosed and treated in our Institution. ONBs were graded according to Hyams’ system and epithelial NENs were reclassified into 5 NECs, 1 MiNEN, and 1 amphicrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed using standard automated protocols. Hyams’ grades 1–3 ONBs stained diffusely and intensely for SATB2, whereas grade 4 ONBs and NECs were globally negative. The non-neuroendocrine component of MiNEN and the amphicrine carcinoma were strongly positive. GATA3 was heterogeneously and unpredictably expressed in Hyams’ grades 1–3 ONBs, whereas grade 4 ONBs and NECs were completely negative. CDX2 was negative in all cases. Our study identifies, for the first time, SATB2 and GATA3 expression as features of Hyams’ grades 1–3 ONBs, expands the spectrum of SATB2 and GATA3-positive neoplasms, and suggests that Hyams’ grade 4 ONBs are not only clinically but also biologically different from low graded ONBs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09715-3
       
  • Prognostic Utility of the Ki-67 Labeling Index in Follicular Thyroid
           Tumors: a 20-Year Experience from a Tertiary Thyroid Center

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      Abstract: Abstract Follicular thyroid tumors pose a diagnostic challenge on the preoperative level, as the discrimination between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and adenoma (FTA) demands careful histopathological investigation. Moreover, prognostication of FTCs is mostly based on tumor size and extent of invasive properties, while immunohistochemical markers pinpointing high-risk cases are lacking. We have routinely established a Ki-67 labeling index for follicular thyroid tumors since 1999. To assess the potential value of Ki-67 as an adjunct tool to (1) correctly separate FTCs from FTAs and (2) help identify poor-prognosis FTCs, we collected histopathological and clinical data from 818 follicular thyroid tumors with a histological Ki-67 labeling index established in clinical routine practice (516 FTAs, 252 FTCs, and 50 follicular thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMPs)). The Ki-67 labeling index was higher in FTCs (mean 5.8%) than in FTAs (mean 2.6%) (P < 0.001), and a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a cut-off value of 4% to separate FTC from FTA with a sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 83%, respectively. Similarly, a Ki-67 labeling index above 4% was found to identify FTCs that later metastasized from clinically indolent FTCs with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 48%, respectively. Ki-67 constituted an independent predictor of future FTC metastases/recurrence and death of disease, and a value > 4% was a reliable prognostic marker within individual pT staging groups. We conclude that Ki-67 is a potentially valuable marker for the prognostication of FTCs, and future implementation in the histopathological assessments of follicular thyroid tumors could be beneficial if reproduced in international series.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09714-4
       
  • Diagnostic Pitfall: a Low-Grade EC-Cell Neuroendocrine Tumor Arising in a
           Rectal Duplication Cyst

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      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09713-5
       
  • Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Lung Typical Carcinoid Metastatic to Follicular
           Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12022-022-09706-4
       
 
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