Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8196 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (205 journals)
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    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (334 journals)
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    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (227 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (266 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (162 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (121 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)
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    - SURGERY (388 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (151 journals)

ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 134 of 134 Journals sorted alphabetically
AACE Clinical Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Dermato-Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diabesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Diabetes & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Discover Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dubai Diabetes and Endocrinology Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Endocrine and Metabolic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endocrine Disruptors     Open Access  
Endocrine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Endocrine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Endocrine Regulations     Open Access  
Endocrine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Endocrine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine-Related Cancer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Obesity and Metabolic Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Endokrynologia Polska     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
European Thyroid Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare     Open Access  
Frontiers in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
General and Comparative Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Growth Hormone & IGF Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Gynakologische Endokrinologie     Hybrid Journal  
Gynecological Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hormone and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hormone Research in Paediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hormones and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International journal of endocrine oncology     Open Access  
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel : Austrian Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Assocation of Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pineal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Restorative Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Social Health and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies     Open Access  
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
L'Endocrinologo     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Brain Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Molecular Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Reviews Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuroendocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Nigerian Endocrine Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Endocrinología     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access  
The Endocrinologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thyroid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Thyroid Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Vitamins & Hormones     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Endocrine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.101
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1355-008X - ISSN (Online) 1559-0100
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Antitumour effects of apatinib in progressive, metastatic differentiated
           thyroid cancer (DTC)

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      Abstract: Purpose Management of progressive, metastatic radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAIR-DTC) has been a great challenge due to its poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, apatinib, an orally anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is reported to be useful for treatment of progressive RAIR-DIC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumour effect of apatinib and the combination therapy with radioactive iodine (RAI) in patients with progressive metastatic DTC. Methods Five patients (all female, mean age 62 ± 8 years, ranged from 51 to 69 years) with distant metastatic DTC (dmDTC) after total thyroidectomy (TTE) and neck lymph node dissection were treated with apatinib at a dose 500 mg per day after 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT. The effects of apatinib on DTC were evaluated at 4 ± 1 months after treatment with apatinib. RAI therapy was then initiated. The response to apatinib and the combination therapy with RAI treatment was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST, version 1.1) and metabolic activity using serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Results Positive 18F-FDG PET/CT results were found in all patients before apatinib therapy. The immunohistochemical analysis of primary tumour tissues showed high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Four patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) showed partial response (PR) with significant decrease in tumour size and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) after 4 ± 1 month’s treatment with apatinib. Further significant reduction of tumour size and SUVmax were observed in three patients after combination therapy with apatinib and RAI. Only one patient with both FTC and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) demonstrated progressive disease (PD) after treatment with apatinib alone, however, a decrease in tumour size and SUVmax as well as serum Tg levels was achieved after the combination with RAI therapy and apatinib. Conclusions Apatinib had significant antitumour effects on progressive distant metastatic DTC. Moreover, beneficial synergistic and complementary effects were shown when apatinib combined with RAI therapy. Clinical Trial Registration NCT 04180007, Registered November 26, 2019.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
       
  • Endocrine manifestations of paediatric intracranial germ cell tumours:
           from diagnosis to long-term follow-up

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      Abstract: Purpose We examined endocrine manifestations in a cohort of paediatric patients with IC-GCTs at diagnosis and during follow-up, integrating clinical, radiological, histopathological and laboratory data. Methods Diabetes insipidus (DI), growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, precocious puberty (PP)/hypogonadism were diagnosed clinically and biochemically. The prevalence of endocrine manifestations was compared to survival rates. Results Our population included 55 children (37 males, 18 females) diagnosed with IC-GCT with a median follow-up of 78.9 months from diagnosis (range 0.5–249.9). At tumour diagnosis, 50.9% patients displayed endocrinopathies: among them, 85.7% were affected by DI, 57.1% central adrenal insufficiency, 50% central hypothyroidism, 28.5% GHD, 10.7% hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, 10.7% PP. These patients presented predominantly with suprasellar germinoma. If not diagnosed previously, endocrine disorders arose 15.15 months (1.3–404.2) after end of treatment (EOT) in 16.4% patients. At least one endocrinopathy was identified in 67.3% of subjects at last follow-up visit, especially GHD and adrenal insufficiency. DI, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency occurred earlier than other abnormalities and frequently preceded tumour diagnosis. Subjects with and without endocrine manifestations who survived beyond 12 months after EOT did not show significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival (p = 0.28 and p = 0.88, respectively). Conclusion Endocrinopathies were common presenting symptoms in our population. If present at diagnosis, they often persisted hence after. The spectrum of endocrinopathies expanded during follow-up up to 33.7 years after EOT. Although they did not seem to affect survival rate in our cohort, close lifelong surveillance is mandatory to provide the best care for these patients.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
       
  • Autoimmune and inflammatory thyroid diseases following vaccination with
           SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: from etiopathogenesis to clinical management

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      Abstract: Abstract Since the Covid-19 pandemic emerged in 2019, several adenoviral-vectored, mRNA-based and inactivated whole-virus vaccines have been developed. A massive vaccination campaign has been undertaken around the world, and an increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thyroid diseases have been described in the literature. Subacute thyroiditis has been reported in 52 patients, mean age 45.5 ± 1.8 years, mainly in women (n = 39). Graves’ disease is more frequent in women (n = 22) than in men (n = 10), mean age 46.2 ± 2.6 years, reported as new onset, recurrent or exacerbation of well-controlled hyperthyroidism. The mean time to symptoms onset is 9.0 ± 0.8 days in subacute thyroiditis, and 15.1 ± 2.6 days in Graves’ patients. Rare patients (n = 6) present silent or painless autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmune tests, inflammatory markers, thyroid echography with colour flow Doppler, radio-activity uptake on thyroid scan, medical treatment and follow-up are described and compared in patients with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thyroid diseases. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of vaccine-induced thyroid diseases, molecular mimicry (various SARS-CoV-2 proteins sharing a genetic homology with a large heptapeptide human protein) or autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) are discussed in the context of predisposition or genetic susceptibility. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination far outweigh the potential vaccine-induced adverse effects, but clinicians should be aware of possible autoimmune and inflammatory thyroid diseases, and can advise patients to seek medical assistance when experiencing anterior neck pain, fever or palpitations following SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Further studies are warranted to investigate the etiopathogenesis and to clarify the factors which predispose patients to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thyroid diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • An update on adrenocortical cell lines of human origin

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      Abstract: Abstract Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, heterogenous and highly malignant disease. Management of ACC is dependent on disease stage with complete surgical resection as the only potentially curative option. However, advanced, un-resectable, metastatic stages and also recurrences often require systemic treatments, which are unfortunately nowadays still unsatisfactory. The scarcity of preclinical models reflecting patient heterogeneities and furthermore drug-resistant phenotypes, has hampered the progress and development of new therapies in recent years. In this review, we provide an overview on the classical models and substantial progress which has been made over the last years in context of this aggressive disease.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • ACLY inhibitors induce apoptosis and potentiate cytotoxic effects of
           sorafenib in thyroid cancer cells

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      Abstract: Purpose ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is a critical enzyme at the intersection of glucose and lipid metabolism. ACLY is often upregulated or activated in cancer cells to accelerate lipid synthesis and promote tumor progression. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of utilizing ACLY inhibition as a new strategy in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Methods Bioinformatics analysis of the public datasets was performed. Thyroid cancer cells were treated with two different ACLY inhibitors, SB-204990 and NDI-091143. Results Bioinformatics analysis revealed that ACLY expression was increased in anaplastic thyroid cancer. In thyroid cancer cell lines FTC-133 and 8505C, ACLY inhibitors suppressed monolayer cell growth and clonogenic ability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ACLY inhibitors increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells in the cell cycle and the number of annexin V-positive cells. Immunoblotting confirmed caspase-3 activation and PARP1 cleavage following treatment with ACLY inhibitors. Compromised cell viability could be partially rescued by co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Additionally, we showed that ACLY inhibitors impeded three-dimensional growth and cell invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Isobolograms and combination index analysis indicated that ACLY inhibitors synergistically potentiated the cytotoxicity rendered by sorafenib. Conclusions Targeting ACLY holds the potential for being a novel therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • Levothyroxine-induced serum free thyroxine response following radioactive
           iodine administration in patients thyroidectomized for differentiated
           thyroid cancer: A randomized controlled trial

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      Abstract: Purpose Patients undergoing thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) may require 131-radioactive iodine (RAI) administration for remnant ablation or disease treatment. After ingestion, RAI resides within the gastrointestinal tract potentially leading to mucosal damage and abnormalities in the absorption of levothyroxine (LT4). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum FT4 peak, induced by a LT4 challenge, changes according to the LT4 formulation (solid or liquid) in both RAI and non-RAI-treated DTC patients. Methods This was a monocentric controlled clinical trial, with a parallel two-groups (1:1) randomization of sequence of LT4 formulation. Patients received 200 mcg LT4 orally administered at 08:00 h, in both solid and liquid formulation, at one-week interval, at baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 months from RAI administration. At each time-point, circulating FT4 was evaluated both before LT4 assumption as well as after 1 and 3 h. FT4 increments were evaluated as area under the curve response (AUC). Analogous protocol with the same time-intervals was followed for non-RAI patients. Results The trial included 29 consecutive DTC patients, nineteen of whom were submitted to RAI. In RAI subjects, we observed an overall significant reduction in serum FT4 increments with the most relevant decrease at the 1-month time-point, (FT4 AUC: 4.46 ± 0.72 (M ± SD) vs 4.07 ± 0.63 in baseline vs 1-month, P = 0.001) without any difference between the two LT4 formulations. No difference in serum FT4 AUC was found in non-RAI subjects. Conclusion LT4-induced serum FT4 responses are reduced following RAI administration in thyroidectomized DTC patients.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Adrenal venous sampling in primary aldosteronism: Experience of a Spanish
           multicentric study (Results from the SPAIN-ALDO Register)

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      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) performance in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), the main reasons for its non-performance, and the success and complications rate of this procedure in Spain. Moreover, the concordance between CT/MRI and AVS for PA subtyping was evaluated. Methods A retrospective multicenter study of PA patient follow-up in 20 Spanish tertiary hospitals between 2018–2021 was performed (SPAIN-ALDO Register). Results Of the 440 patients with PA included in the study, 153 underwent AVS (34.8%). The main reasons for not performing AVS were: patient rejection to the procedure, low catheterization rate in the center and unilateral disease based on CT/MRI. The overall success rate was 44.4% (the left adrenal vein was properly canulated in 77.8% and the right adrenal vein in 48.4%). Only 3 patients experienced minor complications. In the 45 patients with unilateral disease according to AVS, CT/MRI indicated bilateral disease or normal adrenal glands in 17. In the 23 patients with bilateral disease, CT/MRI indicated unilateral disease in 14. However, no significant differences were observed in biochemical response (P = 0.051) and hypertension resolution (P = 0.150) between patients who underwent surgery based on CT/MRI results and those who underwent surgery based on AVS results. Conclusion In our setting, AVS is still an underused technique in patients with PA. The low experience and success rate in AVS partially justify these results. More training for providers and patients needs to be done to include appropriate well performed AVS in the diagnosis algorithm of PA.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Adrenalectomy improves blood pressure control in nonfunctioning adrenal
           incidentalomas and glycemic and lipid control in patients with autonomous
           cortisol secretion

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      Abstract: Purpose To compare the evolution of the cardiometabolic parameters in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas (NFAI) and autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) who underwent adrenalectomy and those who were conservatively managed. Methods A retrospective study of all patients with NFAI and ACS submitted to surgery or in follow-up in our center between January 2011-October 2020. NFAI was defined as an adrenal incidentaloma with cortisol post-dexamethasone suppression test (DST) ≤ 50 nmol/L and ACS as values >50 nmol/L without specific clinical signs of overt Cushing´s syndrome. Results A total of 486 patients with NFAI (16 in the surgical group and 470 in the control group) and 259 with ACS (42 in the surgical group and 217 in the control group) were included. At baseline, patients with ACS were older than those with NFAI (P = 0.010). After adjusting by age, patients with ACS had a higher prevalence of hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.9 [1.36–2.60]) and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c (adjusted β = 6.9 [2.05–11.83] and adjusted β = 0.4 [0.12–0.63]) than NFAI. During follow-up, ACS patients who underwent adrenalectomy had a greater decrease in glucose levels (−16.6 ± 45.07 vs. −1.0 ± 26.92 mg/dL, P = 0.035) and in triglycerides (−20.21 ± 55.97 vs. 1.3 ± 59.23 mg/dL, P = 0.029) than ACS patients conservatively managed. NFAI patients who underwent surgery experienced an improvement in systolic blood pressure compared to NFAI of the conservative group (−11.1 ± 15.94 vs 1.0 ± 17.54 mmHg, P = 0.009). Conclusion The benefits of adrenalectomy in the cardiometabolic profile in adrenal incidentalomas are not limited only to the group of patients with ACS, an improvement in blood pressure control is also observed in NFAI patients after surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Adipokines and coronary artery calcification in incident dialysis
           participants

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      Abstract: Purpose Adipokines have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to determine if adipokine levels are associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) as well as all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. Methods In patients new to dialysis, we prospectively investigated the association of adiponectin, leptin and resistin with coronary artery calcification measured by ECG-gated computer tomography. Participants were recruited a median of two months after starting dialysis. Results The mean age was 50.0 (12.6) years and 31.1% were women. About 42% percent had BMI > 30. Higher adiponectin levels were inversely associated with CAC progression as change in Agatston score [−155.1 (−267.9, −42.2), p = 0.008] or change in CAC volumes between scans [−2.8 (−4.9, −0.6), p = 0.01]. Higher leptin levels were associated with CAC progression [110.4 (34.3–186.6), p = 0.005]. Decreased leptin [HR 0.5 (0.3–0.9), p = 0.05] was associated with all-cause mortality in adjusted models. There was no significant association between all-cause mortality and adiponectin [1.4 (0.6–3.4), p = 0.4] or resistin [HR 1.7 (0.5–5.0), p = 0.4]. Conclusion High adiponectin protects against CAC progression, but is not associated with increased all-cause mortality. Higher leptin, as well as higher leptin to adiponectin ratio, is associated with CAC progression. Lower leptin levels were associated with all-cause mortality. The association of adipokines and cardiovascular disease in individuals on dialysis is complex and requires further study.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Somatostatin receptor-directed molecular imaging for therapeutic
           decision-making in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

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      Abstract: Background Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly deployed in the diagnostic algorithm of patients affected with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to assess the role of SSTR-PET/CT for therapeutic decision making upon restaging. Methods 23 pretreated MTC patients underwent SSTR-PET/CT and were discussed in our interdisciplinary tumor board. Treatment plans were initiated based on scan results. By comparing the therapeutic regimen before and after the scan, we assessed the impact of molecular imaging on therapy decision. SSTR-PET was also compared to CT portion of the SSTR-PET/CT (as part of hybrid imaging). Results SSTR-PET/CT was superior in 9/23 (39.1%) subjects when compared to conventional CT and equivalent in 14/23 (60.9%). Those findings were further corroborated on a lesion-based level with 27/73 (37%) metastases identified only by functional imaging (equivalent to CT in the remaining 46/73 (63%)). Investigating therapeutic decision making, no change in treatment was initiated after PET/CT in 7/23 (30.4%) patients (tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), 4/7 (57.2%); surveillance, 3/7 (42.8%)). Imaging altered therapy in the remaining 16/23 (69.6%). Treatment prior to PET/CT included surgery in 6/16 (37.5%) cases, followed by TKI in 4/16 (25%), active surveillance in 4/16 (25%), and radiation therapy (RTx) in 2/16 (12.5%) subjects. After SSTR-PET/CT, the therapeutic regimen was changed as follows: In the surgery group, 4/6 (66.7%) patients underwent additional surgery, and 1/6 (16.7%) underwent surveillance and TKI, respectively. In the TKI group, 3/4 (75%) individuals received another TKI and the remaining subject (1/4, 25%) underwent peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. In the surveillance group, 3/4 (75%) underwent surgery (1/4, (25%), RTx). In the RTx group, one patient was switched to TKI and another individual was actively monitored (1/2, 50%, respectively). Moreover, in the 16 patients in whom treatment was changed by molecular imaging, control disease rate was achieved in 12/16 (75%) during follow-up. Conclusions In patients with MTC, SSTR-PET/CT was superior to CT alone and provided relevant support in therapeutic decision-making in more than two thirds of cases, with most patients being switched to surgical interventions or systemic treatment with TKI. As such, SSTR-PET/CT can guide the referring treating physician towards disease-directed treatment in various clinical scenarios.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Increased levels of insulin-degrading enzyme in patients with type 2
           diabetes mellitus

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      Abstract: Purpose Decreasing levels of serum insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) have been associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer´s disease (AD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Research on serum IDE levels in patients with T2DM is sparse and the aim of this study was to explore serum levels of IDE in patients with T2DM. Method Blood serum samples were obtained from a biobank. Samples from subjects with T2DM and without metabolic disease were divided into subgroups; lifestyle treatment (n = 10), oral antidiabetic treatment (n = 17), insulin treatment (n = 20) and metabolically healthy controls (n = 18). Serum levels of IDE were analysed using specific ELISA assays. Results Serum levels of IDE were elevated in subjects with T2DM compared to metabolically healthy individuals (p = 0.033). No significant differences were detected between treatment subgroups. Conclusion The present study indicates that patients with T2DM have increased serum IDE levels, compared to metabolically healthy individuals. However, for IDE to be clinically useful as a biomarker, its full function and possible use needs to be further elucidated in larger studies showing reproducible outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Influence of COVID-19 vaccines on endocrine system

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant health threat globally. Timely and appropriate vaccination is a key step to reduce the morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. The clinical course of COVID-19 infection and the effects of COVID-19 vaccination are influenced by patients’ health situations and involve a systemic physiological reaction. Just like an “endocrine phenotype” of COVID-19 infection, endocrine dysfunction after COVID-19 vaccination also acquired clinical concerns. In the present review, we briefly introduce the commonly available vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, summarize the influence of COVID-19 vaccines on the endocrine system, and explore the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Successful dose escalation of lenvatinib for thyroid cancer after disease
           progression

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      Abstract: Purpose Lenvatinib is started at a standard dose, continuing with dose reduction and interruption, balancing between efficacy and adverse events (AEs). Because few drugs are available for thyroid cancer, efforts for continuing treatment with one agent, such as “dose escalation (DE)”, are made. The dose is increased, aiming to regain the anti-tumor effect after dose reduction. The effects of lenvatinib DE in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients are reported. Patients and methods The efficacy of lenvatinib DE in DTC patients using the serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level and management of AEs was investigated. Results A total of 70 DE episodes in 33 patients were investigated. The median increased dose was 2.0 (1.0–14.0) mg, increased from 8.6 (2–16) mg to 10.1 (6–24) mg. The serum Tg level decreased in 53 DE episodes. Though the serum Tg level in 17 DE episodes was not decreased, the Tg rate of increase was decreased in 7 of these DE episodes using the Tg-doubling rate. Overall, clinical benefit was seen in 60 (86%) DE episodes. AEs that could not be controlled after DEs were seen in only 16% of cases. No intolerable AEs were observed in patients who received more drug holidays at the time of DEs compared to two times before the DEs. Conclusion DE may become one of the standard treatment strategies after disease progression if AEs are well managed. Drug holidays may be a key for successfully controlling AEs with DE. DE can be useful for controlling progressive disease with increasing Tg levels.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Continuous glucose monitoring and 1-h plasma glucose identifies glycemic
           variability and dysglycemia in high-risk individuals with
           HbA1c < 5.7%: a pilot study

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      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Iodine as a potential endocrine disruptor—a role of oxidative stress

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      Abstract: Purpose Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. However, overtreatment with iodine can unfavorably affect thyroid physiology. The aim of this review is to present the evidence that iodine—when in excess—can interfere with thyroid hormone synthesis and, therefore, can act as a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), and that this action, as well as other abnormalities in the thyroid, occurs—at least partially—via oxidative stress. Methods We reviewed published studies on iodine as a potential EDC, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of oxidative stress. Results This paper summarizes current knowledge on iodine excess in the context of its properties as an EDC and its effects on oxidative processes. Conclusion Iodine does fulfill the criteria of an EDC because it is an exogenous chemical that interferes—when in excess—with thyroid hormone synthesis. However, this statement cannot change general rules regarding iodine supply, which means that iodine deficiency should be still eliminated worldwide and, at the same time, iodine excess should be avoided. Universal awareness that iodine is a potential EDC would make consumers more careful regarding their diet and what they supplement in tablets, and—what is of great importance—it would make caregivers choose iodine-containing medications (or other chemicals) more prudently. It should be stressed that compared to iodine deficiency, iodine in excess (acting either as a potential EDC or via other mechanisms) is much less harmful in such a sense that it affects only a small percentage of sensitive individuals, whereas the former affects whole populations; therefore, it causes endemic consequences.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
       
  • Estrogen promotes fetal skeletal muscle myofiber development important for
           insulin sensitivity in offspring

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      Abstract: Abstract Using our nonhuman primate baboon model, we showed that offspring born to mothers deprived of estrogen during the second half of gestation exhibited insulin resistance and a deficit in first phase insulin release. Although insulin resistance was not due to an impairment of fetal or offspring growth, nor to an alteration in adipose or hepatic sensitivity to insulin, skeletal muscle microvacularization critical for delivery of nutrients/insulin was significantly reduced in fetuses and offspring deprived of estrogen in utero. Skeletal muscle myofiber maturation occurs in utero and estrogen modulates myofiber growth in adults. Therefore, the current study determined whether fetal skeletal muscle development was altered in baboons in which estradiol levels were suppressed/restored during the second half of gestation by maternal treatment with letrozole ± estradiol benzoate. In estrogen-suppressed animals, fetal skeletal muscle fascicles were structurally less organized, smaller, and comprised of slow type I and fast type II fibers, the size, but not the number of which were smaller than in untreated baboons. Moreover, the proportion of non-muscle fiber tissue was greater and that of muscle fibers lower in estrogen-deprived fetuses. Thus, the maintenance of fetal body weight in estrogen-deprived animals was maintained at the expense of muscle fibers and likely reflected increased deposition of non-muscle proteins. Importantly, fetal skeletal muscle development, including fascicle organization, myofiber size and composition was normal in baboons treated with letrozole and estradiol benzoate. Collectively, these and our previous findings support our proposal that exposure of the fetus to estrogen is important for fetal skeletal muscle development and glucose homeostasis in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • A systematic review of molecular alterations in invasive non-functioning
           pituitary adenoma

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      Abstract: Purpose Invasive non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) constitute 35% of NFPAs. Despite a relatively large body of molecular investigations on the invasiveness of NFPA, the underlying molecular mechanisms of invasiveness are yet to be determined. Herein, we aimed to provide an overview of gene/microRNA(miRNAs) expression alterations in invasive NFPA. Methods This article describes a systematic literature review of articles published up to March 23, 2021, on the transcriptional alterations of invasive NFPA. Five digital libraries were searched, and 42 articles in total fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Pathway enrichment was conducted, and protein interactions among the identified deregulated genes were inferred. Results In total 133 gene/protein transcriptional alterations, comprising 87 increased and 46 decreased expressions, were detected in a collective number of 1001 invasive compared with 1007 non-invasive patients with NFPA. Deregulation of CDH1, PTTG1, CCNB1, SNAI1, SLUG, EZR, and PRKACB, which are associated with epidermal-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was identified. Moreover, six members of the angiogenesis pathway, i.e., VEGFA, FLT1, CCND1, CTNNB1, MYC(c-MYC), and PTTG1, were detected. SLC2A1, FLT1, and VEGFA were also recognized in the hypoxia pathway. Physical interactions of CTNNB1 with FLT1, CCND1, and EZR as well as its indirect interactions with VEGFA, MYC, CCNB1, and PCNA indicate the tight interplay between EMT, angiogenesis, and hypoxia pathways in invasive NFPAs. In addition, Hippo, JAK-STAT, MAPK, Wnt, PI3K-Akt, Ras, TGF-b, VEGF, and ErbB were identified as interwoven signaling pathways. Conclusion In conclusion, invasive NFPA shares very common deregulated signaling pathways with invasive cancers. A large amount of heterogeneity in the reported deregulations in different studies necessitates the validation of the expressional changes of the suggested biomarkers in a large number of patients with invasive NFPA.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Expression and methylation status of MMR and MGMT in well-differentiated
           pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and potential clinical applications

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      Abstract: Purpose Recent studies claim that immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective in defective mismatch repair (dMMR) cancers. This raises the question of whether similar therapies are effective in PanNETs (pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors); however, in general, assessment of MMR status in PanNETs has been inconsistent in previous studies. MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) is potentially important for guiding temozolomide (TMZ) therapy in glioblastoma. The number of reports on MGMT expression and promoter methylation in PanNETs are limited. Methods In this study we assessed the expression of MGMT and MMR proteins MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2 in a series of PanNETs by IHC. The methylation status of MGMT and MMR genes in a subset of PanNETs was further assessed by MS-MLPA analysis. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences were assessed using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the prognostic value of the variables. Results According to evaluation criteria for mismatch repair defects, none of PanNETs shown nuclear staining loss for MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2. MGMT low-intensity PanNETs were more commonly found in higher grade, higher Ki67 index and non-functional tumors (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, stage III–IV and low-intensity MGMT were shown to be independent risk factors for progression of PanNETs in the entire cohort, non-functioning subgroup and G2 subgroup (P < 0.05 for all). MGMT promoter methylation tended to be higher in the group with low expression of MGMT, However, methylation of MGMT did not statistically correlate with low expression of MGMT (P = 0.153). Conclusions In conclusion, our study suggests that decreased expression of MGMT but not MMR is associated with a higher risk of progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • The relationship between estimated glucose disposal rate and bone turnover
           markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the relationship between estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) and bone turnover markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and methods This is a cross-sectional study, which recruited 549 patients with T2DM. The eGDRs of patients were calculated based on the presence of hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, and body mass index. All patients were divided into high-eGDR group and low-eGDR group using the median of eGDR as the boundary. The patients were further divided into two subgroups: males and postmenopausal females. Results The lower the eGDR, the more severe was insulin resistance. The levels of osteocalcin (OC), type I collagen carboxyl-terminal peptide (β-CTX), and type I procollagen amino-terminal peptide (PINP) were significantly lower in the low-eGDR group than those in the high-eGDR group. The eGDR was positively correlated with OC, β-CTX, and PINP in all patients, and in the male subgroups. In the postmenopausal female subgroup, there was no correlation between eGDR and OC, β-CTX, or PINP. In addition, this positive correlation remained after adjusting for other factors in multilinear regression analysis. Conclusion Our study was the first to demonstrate that eGDR is positively correlated with bone turnover markers in patients with T2DM. This correlation was observed among the male patients with T2DM but not among postmenopausal female patients with T2DM.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Thymic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia
           type 1

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      Abstract: Objective MEN1 is associated with an increased risk of developing tumors in different endocrine organs. Neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (TNETs) are very rare but often have an aggressive nature. We evaluated patients with MEN1 and TNET in three university hospitals in Finland. Design/Methods We evaluated patient records of 183 MEN1-patients from three university hospitals between the years 1985–2019 with TNETs. Thymus tumor specimens were classified according to the new WHO 2021 classification of TNET. We collected data on treatments and outcomes of these patients. Results There were six patients (3.3%) with MEN1 and TNET. Five of them had the same common gene mutation occurring in Finland. They originated from common ancestors encompassing two pairs of brothers from sequential generations. The mean age at presentation of TNET was 44.7 ± 11.9 years. TNET was classified as atypical carcinoid (AC) in five out of six patients. One patient had a largely necrotic main tumor with very few mitoses and another nodule with 25 mitoses per 2 mm2, qualifying for the 2021 WHO diagnosis of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). In our patients, the 5-year survival of the TNET patients was 62.5% and 10-year survival 31.3%. Conclusion In this study, TNETs were observed in one large MEN1 founder pedigree, where an anticipation-like earlier disease onset was observed in the most recent generation. TNET in MEN1 patients is an aggressive disease. The prognosis can be better by systematic screening. We also show that LCNEC can be associated with TNET in MEN1 patients.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
 
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