Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8196 journals)
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ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 134 of 134 Journals sorted alphabetically
AACE Clinical Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Dermato-Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Diabetes & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Discover Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dubai Diabetes and Endocrinology Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Endocrine and Metabolic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endocrine Disruptors     Open Access  
Endocrine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Endocrine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Endocrine Regulations     Open Access  
Endocrine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Endocrine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine-Related Cancer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Obesity and Metabolic Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Endokrynologia Polska     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
European Thyroid Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare     Open Access  
Frontiers in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
General and Comparative Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Growth Hormone & IGF Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Gynakologische Endokrinologie     Hybrid Journal  
Gynecological Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hormone and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hormone Research in Paediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hormones and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International journal of endocrine oncology     Open Access  
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel : Austrian Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Assocation of Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pineal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Restorative Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Social Health and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies     Open Access  
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
L'Endocrinologo     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Brain Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Molecular Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Reviews Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuroendocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Nigerian Endocrine Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Endocrinología     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access  
The Endocrinologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thyroid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Thyroid Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Vitamins & Hormones     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

           

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Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1664-2392
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Prenatal androgen treatment impairs the suprachiasmatic nucleus
           arginine-vasopressin to kisspeptin neuron circuit in female mice

    • Authors: Bradley B. Jamieson, Aleisha M. Moore, Dayanara B. Lohr, Simone X. Thomas, Lique M. Coolen, Michael N. Lehman, Rebecca E. Campbell, Richard Piet
      Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated androgen and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and with oligo/anovulation. Evidence indicates that elevated androgens impair sex steroid hormone feedback regulation of pulsatile LH secretion. Hyperandrogenemia in PCOS may also disrupt the preovulatory LH surge. The mechanisms through which this might occur, however, are not fully understood. Kisspeptin (KISS1) neurons of the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) convey hormonal cues to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In rodents, the preovulatory surge is triggered by these hormonal cues and coincident timing signals from the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Timing signals are relayed to GnRH neurons, in part, via projections from SCN arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons to RP3VKISS1 neurons. Because rodent SCN cells express androgen receptors (AR), we hypothesized that these circuits are impaired by elevated androgens in a mouse model of PCOS. In prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female mice, SCN Ar expression was significantly increased compared to that found in prenatally vehicle-treated mice. A similar trend was seen in the number of Avp-positive SCN cells expressing Ar. In the RP3V, the number of kisspeptin neurons was preserved. Anterograde tract-tracing, however, revealed reduced SCNAVP neuron projections to the RP3V and a significantly lower proportion of RP3VKISS1 neurons with close appositions from SCNAVP fibers. Functional assessments showed, on the other hand, that RP3VKISS1 neuron responses to AVP were maintained in PNA mice. These findings indicate that PNA changes some of the neural circuits that regulate the preovulatory surge. These impairments might contribute to ovulatory dysfunction in PNA mice modeling PCOS.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Female fertility does not require Bmal1 in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons
           expressing arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or
           neuromedin-S

    • Authors: Karen J. Tonsfeldt, Laura J. Cui, Jinkwon Lee, Thijs J. Walbeek, Liza E. Brusman, Ye Jin, Michihiro Mieda, Michael R. Gorman, Pamela L. Mellon
      Abstract: Disruptions to the circadian system alter reproductive capacity, particularly in females. Mice lacking the core circadian clock gene, Bmal1, are infertile and have evidence of neuroendocrine disruption including the absence of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and enhanced responsiveness to exogenous kisspeptin. Here, we explore the role of Bmal1 in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neuron populations known to project to the neuroendocrine axis. We generated four mouse lines using Cre/Lox technology to create conditional deletion of Bmal1 in arginine vasopressin (Bmal1fl/fl:Avpcre), vasoactive intestinal peptide (Bmal1fl/fl:Vipcre), both (Bmal1fl/fl:Avpcre+Vipcre), and neuromedin-s (Bmal1fl/fl:Nmscre) neurons. We demonstrate that the loss of Bmal1 in these populations has substantial effects on home-cage circadian activity and temperature rhythms. Despite this, we found that female mice from these lines demonstrated normal estrus cycles, fecundity, kisspeptin responsiveness, and inducible LH surge. We found no evidence of reproductive disruption in constant darkness. Overall, our results indicate that while conditional Bmal1 knockout in AVP, VIP, or NMS neurons is sufficient to disrupted locomotor activity, this disruption is insufficient to recapitulate the neuroendocrine reproductive effects of the whole-body Bmal1 knockout.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Hyperglycemia aggravates ischemic brain damage via ERK1/2 activated cell
           

    • Authors: Ping Liu, Xiao Yang, Jianguo Niu, Changchun Hei
      Abstract: BackgroundHyperglycemia is one of the major risk factors for stroke and stroke recurrence, leading to aggravated neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). ERK1/2 signaling pathway plays a vital role in cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of the ERK1/2 pathway in hyperglycemia-aggravated ischemic brain damage is not clear.MethodsStreptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg)-induced diabetes (blood glucose ≥12 mmol/L) or control groups in adult Sprague-Dawley rats were further subdivided into I/R (carotid artery/vein clamping), I/R + PD98059 (I/R plus ERK1/2 inhibitor), and Sham-operated groups (n = 10 each). Neurobehavioral status (Neurological behavior scores) and the volume of the cerebral infarction (TTC staining); brain mitochondrial potential (JCI ratio test) and cell apoptosis (TUNEL assay); RAS protein expression, phosphorylated/total ERK1/2 and Drp-1 (Dynamic-related protein 1) protein levels (Western blotting); mitochondrial fusion-related proteins mitofusin-1/2 (Mfn1/2), optic atrophy (OPA-1) and mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1), and autophagy-associated proteins Beclin-1, LC3-I/II and P62 (Western blotting and immunohistochemistry) were analyzed.ResultsThe I/R + PD98059 group demonstrated better neurobehavior on the 1st (p < 0.05) and the 3rd day (p < 0.01) than the I/R group. Compared to the Sham group, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion brought about neuronal damage in the I/R group (p
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Copper deposition in Wilson’s disease causes male fertility decline by
           impairing reproductive hormone release through inducing apoptosis and
           inhibiting ERK signal in hypothalamic-pituitary of mice

    • Authors: Tingting Wang, Limin Wu, Qiuying Chen, Kuiyu Chen, Fang Tan, Jiabo Liu, Xiang Liu, Hui Han
      Abstract: Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism characterized by liver and central nervous system dysfunction. Considerable evidence suggests that infertility is also very common in male patients with WD, but the exact molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. In order to further investigate the pathological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis and its mechanisms, mice were divided into the normal control group (NC), WD model TX mice group (WD), dimercaptosuccinic acid–treated TX mice group (DMSA), and pregnant horse serum gonadotropin–treated TX mice group (PMSG). The copper content and morphology of hypothalamus and pituitary tissues, the ultrastructure and apoptosis of hypothalamus neurons and pituitary gonadotropin cells, the serum levels of reproductive hormones, and the pregnancy rate and litter size of the female mice were studied. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and the phosphorylation of extracellular regulatory protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 in the hypothalamus and pituitary were detected. The results showed that the copper content was significantly increased in the WD group, and the histopathological morphology and ultrastructure of the hypothalamus and pituitary were damaged. The levels of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone, the follicle-stimulating hormone, the luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly decreased. The apoptosis rate in the hypothalamus and pituitary was significantly increased. The expressions of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly increased, the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly decreased, and the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 was significantly decreased. Fertility is significantly reduced. After DMSA intervention, the hypothalamus tissue copper content decreased, the hypothalamus and pituitary tissue morphology and ultrastructure were improved, cell apoptosis was alleviated, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 was significantly decreased, the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly increased, and the reproductive hormone level, phosphorylation level, and fertility were increased. Fertility was preserved after treatment with PMSG in male TX mice. These results suggest that copper deposition in WD causes male fertility decline by impairing reproductive neuroendocrine hormone release through inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the ERK signal in the hypothalamic–pituitary region. This study can also provide reference for the damage of copper pollution to the male reproductive system.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Regulation of the kiss2 promoter in yellowtail clownfish (Amphiprion
           clarkii) by cortisol via GRE-dependent GR pathway

    • Authors: Shao-Yang Bu, Yan-Yu Zhang, Xian Zhang, Tian-Xiu Li, De-Cai Zheng, Ze-Xiang Huang, Qian Wang
      Abstract: Kisspeptin plays a vital role in mediating the stress-induced reproductive regulation. Cortisol, known as a stress-related hormone, is involved in gonadal development and sexual differentiation by binding with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to regulate the expression of kiss gene. In the present study, cortisol treatment in yellowtail clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) showed that the expression of kiss (kiss1 and kiss2) and gr (gr1 and gr2) genes were increased significantly. We demonstrated that the yellowtail clownfish Kiss neurons co-express the glucocorticoid receptors in the telencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. We further cloned the promoter of kiss2 gene in yellowtail clownfish and identified the presence of putative binding sites for glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, progesterone receptors, AP1, and C/EBP. Applying transient transfection in HEK293T cells of the yellowtail clownfish kiss2 promoter, cortisol (dexamethasone) treatment was shown to enhance the promoter activities of the yellowtail clownfish kiss2 gene in the presence of GRs. Deletion analysis of kiss2 promoter indicated that cortisol-induced promoter activities were located between position −660 and −433 with GR1, and −912 and −775 with GR2, respectively. Finally, point mutation studies on the kiss2 promoter showed that cortisol-stimulated promoter activity was mediated by one GRE site located at position −573 in the presence of GR1 and by each GRE site located at position −883, −860, −851, and −843 in the presence of GR2. Results of the present study provide novel evidence that cortisol could regulate the transcription of kiss2 gene in the yellowtail clownfish via GRE-dependent GR pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Hydroxychloroquine overcomes cabergoline resistance in a patient with
           Lactotroph Pituitary neuroendocrine tumor: a case
           report|Objective|Method|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Shaojian Lin, Changxi Han, Xiaohui Lou, Zhe Bao Wu
      Abstract: ObjectiveA 22-year-old man complaining erectile dysfunction underwent transsphenoidal surgery for a 2.7 cm sellar mass with total resection and was confirmed at pathology to have a lactotroph pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PiNET). Postoperatively, the patient’s PRL remained at high level and therefore accepted high-dose dopamine receptor agonist (DA) therapy. After over 3 months of bromocriptine (BRC) (15mg/day) and over 3 years of cabergoline (CAB) (3mg/week) therapy, the patient’s prolactin (PRL) never achieved long-term normalization. He was diagnosed with DA-resistant lactotroph PitNET.MethodIn this study, the patient was given hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (200 mg/d) and CAB (3 mg/w) in combination for four months. His PRL level was tested by blood test every month.ResultsTaking the combination therapy of HCQ and CAB, the patient’s uncontrolled PRL level was normalized within one month and was maintained at the normal level thereafter. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images with enhancement showed no recurrence. The patient also regained normal sexual function.DiscussionThis is the first report on the combination of HCQ with CAB for the effective treatment of DA-resistant lactotroph pituitary neuroendocrine tumor in a patient, which might provide a novel treatment strategy for clinical management.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Recent Progress and Perspectives in Neurosteroid Research

    • Authors: Hubert Vaudry, Takayoshi Ubuka, Kiran K. Soma, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Properties and Functions of Glial Cell Types of the Hypothalamic
           Median Eminence

    • Authors: Richard W. Clayton, Robin Lovell-Badge, Christophe Galichet
      Abstract: The median eminence (ME) is part of the neuroendocrine system (NES) that functions as a crucial interface between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The ME contains many non-neuronal cell types, including oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), tanycytes, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia and other immune cells, which may be involved in the regulation of NES function. For example, in mice, ablation of tanycytes (a special class of ependymal glia with stem cell-like functions) results in weight gain, feeding, insulin insensitivity and increased visceral adipose, consistent with the demonstrated ability of these cells to sense and transport both glucose and leptin, and to differentiate into neurons that control feeding and metabolism in the hypothalamus. To give a further example, OPCs in the ME of mice have been shown to rapidly respond to dietary signals, in turn controlling composition of the extracellular matrix in the ME, derived from oligodendrocyte-lineage cells, which may contribute to the previously described role of these cells in actively maintaining leptin-receptor-expressing dendrites in the ME. In this review, we explore and discuss recent advances such as these, that have developed our understanding of how the various cell types of the ME contribute to its function in the NES as the interface between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. We also highlight avenues of future research which promise to uncover additional functions of the ME and the glia, stem and progenitor cells it contains.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying estrogen positive feedback and the LH
           surge

    • Authors: Alexander S. Kauffman
      Abstract: A fundamental principle in reproductive neuroendocrinology is sex steroid feedback: steroid hormones secreted by the gonads circulate back to the brain to regulate the neural circuits governing the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. These regulatory feedback loops ultimately act to modulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, thereby affecting gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary. In females, rising estradiol (E2) during the middle of the menstrual (or estrous) cycle paradoxically “switch” from being inhibitory on GnRH secretion (“negative feedback”) to stimulating GnRH release (“positive feedback”), resulting in a surge in GnRH secretion and a downstream LH surge that triggers ovulation. While upstream neural afferents of GnRH neurons, including kisspeptin neurons in the rostral hypothalamus, are proposed as critical loci of E2 feedback action, the underlying mechanisms governing the shift between E2 negative and positive feedback are still poorly understood. Indeed, the precise cell targets, neural signaling factors and receptors, hormonal pathways, and molecular mechanisms by which ovarian-derived E2 indirectly stimulates GnRH surge secretion remain incompletely known. In many species, there is also a circadian component to the LH surge, restricting its occurrence to specific times of day, but how the circadian clock interacts with endocrine signals to ultimately time LH surge generation also remains a major gap in knowledge. Here, we focus on classic and recent data from rodent models and discuss the consensus knowledge of the neural players, including kisspeptin, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and glia, as well as endocrine players, including estradiol and progesterone, in the complex regulation and generation of E2-induced LH surges in females.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Potential Association Between Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse and
           Pituitary Apoplexy: A Case Report|Introduction|Case Report|Conclusion

    • Authors: Agne Andriuskeviciute, Giulia Cossu, Adelina Ameti, Georgios Papadakis, Roy Thomas Daniel, Vincent Dunet, Mahmoud Messerer
      Abstract: IntroductionPituitary apoplexy (PA) is a rare, and potentially life-threatening condition, caused by hemorrhage or infarction into the pituitary gland with a rapid expansion of the contents of the sella turcica, associated with sudden intense headache, neurological and endocrinological deterioration. The identification of risk factors is crucial for prevention and optimal management. Herein we report a case of PA occurring 1 month after the initiation of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse for bodybuilding.Case ReportA 40-year-old male patient presents with abrupt onset headache associated with left partial third cranial nerve palsy. The MRI shows a sellar lesion involving left cavernous sinus with a heterogenous anterior aspect of the lesion with hemorrhagic zones in favor of PA. Endocrine work-up shows high testosterone level in patient who was using exogenous testosterone without a medical prescription for a month.ConclusionWe report a case of PA of a pituitary neuroendocrine tumor occurring shortly after AAS. The association between PA and AAS should be considered as a potential risk.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Intrauterine Device Use: A New Frontier for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology

    • Authors: Adriene M. Beltz, Michael I. Demidenko, Natasha Chaku, Kelly L. Klump, Jane E. Joseph
      Abstract: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are the most-used reversible contraceptive method for women in the world, but little is known about their potential modulation of brain function, cognition, and behavior. This is disconcerting because research on other hormonal contraceptives, especially oral contraceptives (OCs), increasingly shows that exogenous sex hormones have behavioral neuroendocrine consequences, especially for gendered cognition, including spatial skills. Effects are small and nuanced, however, partially reflecting heterogeneity. The goal of this paper is to introduce IUD use as a new frontier for basic and applied research, and to offer key considerations for studying it, emphasizing the importance of multimodal investigations and person-specific analyses. The feasibility and utility of studying IUD users is illustrated by: scanning women who completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging mental rotations task; taking an individualized approach to mapping functional connectivity during the task using network analyses containing connections common across participants and unique to individual women, focusing on brain regions in putative mental rotations and default mode networks; and linking metrics of brain connectivity from the individualized networks to both mental rotations task performance and circulating hormone levels. IUD users provide a promising natural experiment for the interplay between exogenous and endogenous sex hormones, and they are likely qualitatively different from OC users with whom they are often grouped in hormonal contraceptive research. This paper underscores how future research on IUD users can advance basic neuroendocrinological knowledge and women’s health.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Multi-System Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Mimic of IgG4-Related
           Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review

    • Authors: Xiaohui Feng, Lu Zhang, Fuqiong Chen, Gang Yuan
      Abstract: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the clonal accumulation and/or proliferation of specific dendritic cells resembling normal epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). Clinical manifestations are variable, depending on the affected tissues or organs, however, LCH with elevated serum IgG4 has not been reported. Herein, we reported a 26-year-old Chinese female multi-system LCH (MS-LCH) who first presented with central diabetes insipidus (CDI), accompanied by panhypopituitarism and hepatic dysfunction. Diagnostic investigations were strongly suspicious of IgG4-RD because of elevated serum IgG4 levels during the process. Furtherly, thyroid and lymph node involvement and biopsy led to the diagnosis of MS-LCH; the strongly positive staining of CD1a, S100, CD207 (langerin), and Ki67 was found. Moreover, after systemic treatment with five cycles of chemotherapy, many lesions were greatly improved. Since both LCH and IgG4-RD are orphan diseases that can affect any organ, the differential diagnosis is challenging, especially when LCH is associated with unexplained serum IgG4 elevation. In this article, the case of a young woman suffering from MS-LCH that affected organs including the pituitary, thyroid, lymph node, and liver was summarized, and relevant literature was reviewed to better equip the diagnosis and treatment in its early stages.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • New Insights Into the Evolution of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Family
           With a Special Focus on Teleosts

    • Authors: Gersende Maugars, Xavier Mauvois, Patrick Martin, Salima Aroua, Karine Rousseau, Sylvie Dufour
      Abstract: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was discovered for its role as a brain neurohormone controlling the corticotropic axis in vertebrates. An additional crh gene, crh2, paralog of crh (crh1), and likely resulting from the second round (2R) of vertebrate whole genome duplication (WGD), was identified in a holocephalan chondrichthyan, in basal mammals, various sauropsids and a non-teleost actinopterygian holostean. It was suggested that crh2 has been recurrently lost in some vertebrate groups including teleosts. We further investigated the fate of crh1 and crh2 in vertebrates with a special focus on teleosts. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses showed the presence of duplicated crh1 paralogs, crh1a and crh1b, in most teleosts, resulting from the teleost-specific WGD (3R). Crh1b is conserved in all teleosts studied, while crh1a has been lost independently in some species. Additional crh1 paralogs are present in carps and salmonids, resulting from specific WGD in these lineages. We identified crh2 gene in additional vertebrate groups such as chondrichthyan elasmobranchs, sarcopterygians including dipnoans and amphibians, and basal actinoperygians, Polypteridae and Chondrostei. We also revealed the presence of crh2 in teleosts, including elopomorphs, osteoglossomorphs, clupeiforms, and ostariophysians, while it would have been lost in Euteleostei along with some other groups. To get some insights on the functional evolution of the crh paralogs, we compared their primary and 3D structure, and by qPCR their tissue distribution, in two representative species, the European eel, which possesses three crh paralogs (crh1a, crh1b, crh2), and the Atlantic salmon, which possesses four crh paralogs of the crh1-type. All peptides conserved the structural characteristics of human CRH. Eel crh1b and both salmon crh1b genes were mainly expressed in the brain, supporting the major role of crh1b paralogs in controlling the corticotropic axis in teleosts. In contrast, crh1a paralogs were mainly expressed in peripheral tissues such as muscle and heart, in eel and salmon, reflecting a striking subfunctionalization between crh1a and b paralogs. Eel crh2 was weakly expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. These results revisit the repertoire of crh in teleosts and highlight functional divergences that may have contributed to the differential conservation of various crh paralogs in teleosts.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Inter-Network Brain Functional Connectivity in Adolescents Assigned Female
           at Birth Who Experience Gender Dysphoria

    • Authors: Malvina N. Skorska, Nancy J. Lobaugh, Michael V. Lombardo, Nina van Bruggen, Sofia Chavez, Lindsey T. Thurston, Madison Aitken, Kenneth J. Zucker, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Meng-Chuan Lai, Doug P. VanderLaan
      Abstract: Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by distress due to an incongruence between experienced gender and sex assigned at birth. Brain functional connectivity in adolescents who experience GD may be associated with experienced gender (vs. assigned sex) and/or brain networks implicated in own-body perception. Furthermore, sexual orientation may be related to brain functional organization given commonalities in developmental mechanisms proposed to underpin GD and same-sex attractions. Here, we applied group independent component analysis to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) BOLD timeseries data to estimate inter-network (i.e., between independent components) timeseries correlations, representing functional connectivity, in 17 GD adolescents assigned female at birth (AFAB) not receiving gender-affirming hormone therapy, 17 cisgender girls, and 15 cisgender boys (ages 12-17 years). Sexual orientation was represented by degree of androphilia-gynephilia and sexual attractions strength. Multivariate partial least squares analyses found that functional connectivity differed among cisgender boys, cisgender girls, and GD AFAB, with the largest difference between cisgender boys and GD AFAB. Regarding sexual orientation and age, the brain’s intrinsic functional organization of GD AFAB was both similar to and different from cisgender girls, and both differed from cisgender boys. The pattern of group differences and the networks involved aligned with the hypothesis that brain functional organization is different among GD AFAB (vs. cisgender) adolescents, and certain aspects of this organization relate to brain areas implicated in own-body perception and self-referential thinking. Overall, brain functional organization of GD AFAB was generally more similar to that of cisgender girls than cisgender boys.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • TAC3/TACR3 System Function in the Catadromous Migration Teleost, Anguilla
           japonica

    • Authors: Chenpeng Zuo, Likang Lyu, Wenhui Zou, Haishen Wen, Yun Li, Xin Qi
      Abstract: Neurokinin B (NKB), a member of the tachykinin (TAC) family, plays important roles in mammalian neuropeptide secretion in related to reproduction. However, its potential role in spawning migration teleost is less clear. In the present study, Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was employed to study the performance of NKB in regulating reproduction. Results showed that two tac3 and one tacr3 genes were identified in Japanese eel. Sequence analysis showed that two tac3 transcripts, tac3a and tac3b, encode four NKBs: NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13, and NKBb-10. However, compared with other species, a mutation caused early termination of TACR3 protein was confirmed, leading to the loss of the 35 amino acid (aa) C-terminal of the receptor. Expression analysis in different tissues showed that both tac3a and tac3b mRNAs were highly expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization localized both tac3a and tac3b mRNAs to several brain regions, mainly in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. Because of the mutation in TACR3 of Japanese eel, we further analyzed whether it could activate the downstream signaling pathway. Luciferase assay results showed the negative regulation of cAMP Response Element (CRE) and Sterol Response Element (SRE) signal pathways by Japanese eel NKBs. Intraperitoneal injection of four different NKB mature peptides at 100 ng/g had negative effect on either gnrh or gth gene expression. However, the high concentration of NKBa-10 and NKBb-13 (1,000 ng/g) upregulated mgnrh and fshb or lhb expression level significantly, which may be mediated by other receptors. In general, the NKBs/NK3Rs system has important functions in regulating eel puberty onset.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • EpCAM Is a Surface Marker for Enriching Anterior Pituitary Cells From
           Human Hypothalamic-Pituitary Organoids

    • Authors: Yu Kodani, Miho Kawata, Hidetaka Suga, Takatoshi Kasai, Chikafumi Ozone, Mayu Sakakibara, Atsushi Kuwahara, Shiori Taga, Hiroshi Arima, Toshiki Kameyama, Kanako Saito, Akira Nakashima, Hiroshi Nagasaki
      Abstract: Human stem cell-derived organoid culture enables the in vitro analysis of the cellular function in three-dimensional aggregates mimicking native organs, and also provides a valuable source of specific cell types in the human body. We previously established organoid models of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) complex using human pluripotent stem cells. Although the models are suitable for investigating developmental and functional HP interactions, we consider that isolated pituitary cells are also useful for basic and translational research on the pituitary gland, such as stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. To develop a method for the purification of pituitary cells in HP organoids, we performed surface marker profiling of organoid cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Screening of 332 human cell surface markers and a subsequent immunohistochemical analysis identified epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as a surface marker of anterior pituitary cells, as well as their ectodermal precursors. EpCAM was not expressed on hypothalamic lineages; thus, anterior pituitary cells were successfully enriched by magnetic separation of EpCAM+ cells from iPSC-derived HP organoids. The enriched pituitary population contained functional corticotrophs and their progenitors; the former responded normally to a corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulus. Our findings would extend the applicability of organoid culture as a novel source of human anterior pituitary cells, including stem/progenitor cells and their endocrine descendants.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Diabetic Striatopathy Complicated With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Case
           Report

    • Authors: Xiao Huang, Junli Qi, Yiding Li, Jianhui Li, Meng-Ge Yang
      Abstract: Diabetic striatopathy (DS) is a rare complication secondary to hyperglycemia, featured by the choreiform movements and reversible striatal abnormalities on neuroimaging. Several studies have described the clinical characteristics of DS, however, the simultaneous occurrence of DS and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the striatum has not been reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who experienced the progressive involuntary movement of the right upper and lower limbs for 10 days. We initially considered this patient as an AIS with hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia and adjacent area because his brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) images, as well as slight T1-hyperintensity around T1-hypointensity. However, his symptoms worsen persistently, which was inconsistent with neuroimaging findings. Further computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an extensive hyper-density and focal low-density in the left striatum, suggesting the diagnosis of DS and AIS. His symptoms were in complete remission after 2 months of glucose control. However, striatal hyperintensity on T1 images was significantly increased compared to the initial images, which disappeared 18 months later. Additionally, DWI hyperintensity on infarction lesions disappeared, while softening lesions and gliosis were observed on the follow-up MRI images. Therefore, we finally diagnosed the patient as DS complicated with AIS. This report highlights that DS and AIS could occur simultaneously in the striatum after hyperglycemia, which is easily misdiagnosed as AIS with hemorrhage and requires clinicians to pay more attention to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Pituitary-Adrenal Response to Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Is Similar
           to a Psychological Stressor, Whereas the Hypothalamic Response Is Unique

    • Authors: Danilo A. Moraes, Ricardo B. Machado, Michael Koban, Gloria E. Hoffman, Deborah Suchecki
      Abstract: Stressors of different natures induce activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at different magnitudes. Moreover, the HPA axis response to repeated exposure is usually distinct from that elicited by a single session. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) augments ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) levels, but the nature of this stimulus is not yet defined. The purpose of the present study was to qualitatively compare the stress response of animals submitted to PSD to that of rats exposed once or four times to cold, as a physiological stress, movement restraint (RST) as a mixed stressor and predator odour (PRED) as the psychological stressor, whilst animals were submitted for 1 or 4 days to PSD and respective control groups. None of the stressors altered corticotropin releasing factor immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), median eminence (ME) or central amygdala, compared to control groups, whereas vasopressin immunoreactivity in PSD animals was decreased in the PVN and increased in the ME, indicating augmented activity of this system. ACTH levels were higher after repeated stress or prolonged PSD than after single- or 1 day-exposure and control groups, whereas the CORT response was habituated by repeated stress, but not by 4-days PSD. This dissociation resulted in changes in the CORT : ACTH ratio, with repeated cold and RST decreasing the ratio compared to single exposure, but no change was seen in PRED and PSD groups. Comparing the magnitude and pattern of pituitary-adrenal response to the different stressors, PSD-induced responses were closer to that shown by PRED-exposed rats. In contrast, the hypothalamic response of PSD-exposed rats was unique, inasmuch as this was the only stressor which increased the activity of the vasopressin system. In conclusion, we propose that the pituitary-adrenal response to PSD is similar to that induced by a psychological stressor.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Oxytocin Dynamics in the Body and Brain Regulated by the Receptor for
           Advanced Glycation End-Products, CD38, CD157, and Nicotinamide Riboside

    • Authors: Haruhiro Higashida, Kazumi Furuhara, Olga Lopatina, Maria Gerasimenko, Osamu Hori, Tsuyoshi Hattori, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Stanislav M. Cherepanov, Anna A. Shabalova, Alla B. Salmina, Kana Minami, Teruko Yuhi, Chiharu Tsuji, PinYue Fu, Zhongyu Liu, Shuxin Luo, Anpei Zhang, Shigeru Yokoyama, Satoshi Shuto, Mizuki Watanabe, Koichi Fujiwara, Sei-ichi Munesue, Ai Harashima, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
      Abstract: Investigating the neurocircuit and synaptic sites of action of oxytocin (OT) in the brain is critical to the role of OT in social memory and behavior. To the same degree, it is important to understand how OT is transported to the brain from the peripheral circulation. To date, of these, many studies provide evidence that CD38, CD157, and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) act as regulators of OT concentrations in the brain and blood. It has been shown that RAGE facilitates the uptake of OT in mother’s milk from the digestive tract to the cell surface of intestinal epithelial cells to the body fluid and subsequently into circulation in male mice. RAGE has been shown to recruit circulatory OT into the brain from blood at the endothelial cell surface of neurovascular units. Therefore, it can be said that extracellular OT concentrations in the brain (hypothalamus) could be determined by the transport of OT by RAGE from the circulation and release of OT from oxytocinergic neurons by CD38 and CD157 in mice. In addition, it has recently been found that gavage application of a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide riboside, for 12 days can increase brain OT in mice. Here, we review the evaluation of the new concept that RAGE is involved in the regulation of OT dynamics at the interface between the brain, blood, and intestine in the living body, mainly by summarizing our recent results due to the limited number of publications on related topics. And we also review other possible routes of OT recruitment to the brain.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pan-phylum In Silico Analyses of Nematode Endocannabinoid Signalling
           Systems Highlight Novel Opportunities for Parasite Drug Target Discovery

    • Authors: Bethany A. Crooks, Darrin Mckenzie, Luke C. Cadd, Ciaran J. McCoy, Paul McVeigh, Nikki J. Marks, Aaron G. Maule, Angela Mousley, Louise E. Atkinson
      Abstract: The endocannabinoid signalling (ECS) system is a complex lipid signalling pathway that modulates diverse physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. In nematodes, knowledge of endocannabinoid (EC) biology is derived primarily from the free-living model species Caenorhabditis elegans, where ECS has been linked to key aspects of nematode biology. The conservation and complexity of nematode ECS beyond C. elegans is largely uncharacterised, undermining the understanding of ECS biology in nematodes including species with key importance to human, veterinary and plant health. In this study we exploited publicly available omics datasets, in silico bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses to examine the presence, conservation and life stage expression profiles of EC-effectors across phylum Nematoda. Our data demonstrate that: (i) ECS is broadly conserved across phylum Nematoda, including in therapeutically and agriculturally relevant species; (ii) EC-effectors appear to display clade and lifestyle-specific conservation patterns; (iii) filarial species possess a reduced EC-effector complement; (iv) there are key differences between nematode and vertebrate EC-effectors; (v) life stage-, tissue- and sex-specific EC-effector expression profiles suggest a role for ECS in therapeutically relevant parasitic nematodes. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive characterisation of ECS pathways in phylum Nematoda and inform our understanding of nematode ECS complexity. Fundamental knowledge of nematode ECS systems will seed follow-on functional studies in key nematode parasites to underpin novel drug target discovery efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T00:00:00Z
       
 
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