Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8196 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (205 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (105 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (334 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (19 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (227 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (266 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (162 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (121 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (43 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (178 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (125 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (160 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (177 journals)
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    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (331 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (199 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (153 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (800 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (76 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (77 journals)
    - SURGERY (388 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (151 journals)

ENDOCRINOLOGY (149 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 134 of 134 Journals sorted alphabetically
AACE Clinical Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Dermato-Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Diabetes & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Discover Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dubai Diabetes and Endocrinology Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Endocrine and Metabolic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endocrine Disruptors     Open Access  
Endocrine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Endocrine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Endocrine Regulations     Open Access  
Endocrine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Endocrine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine-Related Cancer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports     Open Access  
Endocrinology, Obesity and Metabolic Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Endokrynologia Polska     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
European Thyroid Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare     Open Access  
Frontiers in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
General and Comparative Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Growth Hormone & IGF Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Gynakologische Endokrinologie     Hybrid Journal  
Gynecological Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hormone and Metabolic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hormone Research in Paediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hormones and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International journal of endocrine oncology     Open Access  
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
JIMD Reports     Open Access  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel : Austrian Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Assocation of Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Neuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pineal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Restorative Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Social Health and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies     Open Access  
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
L'Endocrinologo     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Brain Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Molecular Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Reviews Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuroendocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Nigerian Endocrine Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Endocrinología     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access  
The Endocrinologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thyroid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Thyroid Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Vitamins & Hormones     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.089
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1389-9155 - ISSN (Online) 1573-2606
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Effect of resistance training on bioelectrical phase angle in older
           adults: a systematic review with Meta-analysis of randomized controlled
           trials

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      Abstract: Abstract Resistance training has been proposed as a valid practice to counteract the aging effect on body mass and its components, which can be easily evaluated though the bioelectrical impedance analysis. This study aimed to achieve a systematic review with meta-analysis on the impact of resistance training on bioelectrical proprieties in older adults. A literature review was done in four electronic databases up to 1 January 2022. The inclusion criteria were: (i) participants aged ≥ 60 years; (ii) resistance training lasted ≥ 8 weeks; (iii) measurement of raw bioelectrical parameters in randomized controlled study designs. The outcomes of the trial had to be bioelectrical phase angle (PhA), resistance (R), and reactance (Xc). The methodological quality was assessed using the Rosendal scale. Overall, seven studies with a total of 344 participants were eligible for the analysis. The quality assessment yielded a score of 71.3%. Bioelectrical PhA (0.52 degree [95%CI 0.32, 0.71], p < 0.001) and Xc (3.58 ohms [95%CI 1.97, 5.19], p < 0.001) increased, whereas R decreased (-28.50 ohms [95%CI -41.39, -15.60], p < 0.001) after the resistance training programs. In this meta-analysis, resistance training promoted increases of PhA, which result from an increase in Xc concomitant with a reduction in R. According to the bioimpedance vector analysis, resistance-trained people experienced a beneficial leftward vector displacement, whilst inactivity induced a rightward vector displacement within the R-Xc graph. In future, more sophisticated and rigorous studies that address specific criteria, methods and targeted designs are required to identify which equipment and protocols allow for an optimization of the resistance training effects. Registration code in PROSPERO: CRD42020168057.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Gut-brain mechanisms underlying changes in disordered eating behaviour
           after bariatric surgery: a review

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      Abstract: Abstract Bariatric surgery results in long-term weight loss and an improved metabolic phenotype due to changes in the gut-brain axis regulating appetite and glycaemia. Neuroendocrine alterations associated with bariatric surgery may also influence hedonic aspects of eating by inducing changes in taste preferences and central reward reactivity towards palatable food. However, the impact of bariatric surgery on disordered eating behaviours (e.g.: binge eating, loss-of-control eating, emotional eating and ‘addictive eating’), which are commonly present in people with obesity are not well understood. Increasing evidence suggests gut-derived signals, such as appetitive hormones, bile acid profiles, microbiota concentrations and associated neuromodulatory metabolites, can influence pathways in the brain implicated in food intake, including brain areas involved in sensorimotor, reward-motivational, emotional-arousal and executive control components of food intake. As disordered eating prevalence is a key mediator of weight-loss success and patient well-being after bariatric surgery, understanding how changes in the gut-brain axis contribute to disordered eating incidence and severity after bariatric surgery is crucial to better improve treatment outcomes in people with obesity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • The influence of the subcortex and brain stem on overeating: How advances
           in functional neuroimaging can be applied to expand neurobiological models
           to beyond the cortex

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      Abstract: Abstract Functional neuroimaging has become a widely used tool in obesity and eating disorder research to explore the alterations in neurobiology that underlie overeating and binge eating behaviors. Current and traditional neurobiological models underscore the importance of impairments in brain systems supporting reward, cognitive control, attention, and emotion regulation as primary drivers for overeating. Due to the technical limitations of standard field strength functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanners, human neuroimaging research to date has focused largely on cortical and basal ganglia effects on appetitive behaviors. The present review draws on animal and human research to highlight how neural signaling encoding energy regulation, reward-learning, and habit formation converge on hypothalamic, brainstem, thalamic, and striatal regions to contribute to overeating in humans. We also consider the role of regions such as the mediodorsal thalamus, ventral striatum, lateral hypothalamus and locus coeruleus in supporting habit formation, inhibitory control of food craving, and attentional biases. Through these discussions, we present proposals on how the neurobiology underlying these processes could be examined using functional neuroimaging and highlight how ultra-high field 7-Tesla (7 T) fMRI may be leveraged to elucidate the potential functional alterations in subcortical networks. Focus is given to how interactions of these regions with peripheral endocannabinoids and neuropeptides, such as orexin, could be explored. Technical and methodological aspects regarding the use of ultra-high field 7 T fMRI to study eating behaviors are also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Dissecting ultra-processed foods and drinks: Do they have a potential to
           impact the brain'

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPF) are formulation of ingredients, mostly of exclusive industrial use, that result from a series of industrial processes. They usually have a low nutrient but high energy density, with a high content of saturated and trans fats, and added sugars. In addition, they have characteristic organoleptic properties, and usually contain sophisticated additives, including artificial sweeteners, to intensify their sensory qualities and imitate the appearance of minimally processed foods. In addition, recent research has warned about the presence of chemicals (e.g., bisphenol) and neo-formed contaminants in these products. UPF production and consumption growth have been spectacular in the last decades, being specially consumed in children and adolescents. UPF features have been associated with a range of adverse health effects such as overeating, the promotion of inflammatory and oxidative stress processes, gut dysbiosis, and metabolic dysfunction including problems in glucose regulation. The evidence that these UPF-related adverse health effects may have on the neural network implicated in eating behavior are discussed, including the potential impact on serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, brain integrity and function. We end this review by placing UPF in the context of current food environments, by suggesting that an increased exposure to these products through different channels, such as marketing, may contribute to the automatic recruitment of the brain regions associated with food consumption and choice, with a detrimental effect on inhibitory-related prefrontal cortices. While further research is essential, preliminary evidence point to UPF consumption as a potential detrimental factor for brain health and eating behavior.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Computational approaches to predicting treatment response to obesity using
           neuroimaging

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      Abstract: Abstract Obesity is a worldwide disease associated with multiple severe adverse consequences and comorbid conditions. While an increased body weight is the defining feature in obesity, etiologies, clinical phenotypes and treatment responses vary between patients. These variations can be observed within individual treatment options which comprise lifestyle interventions, pharmacological treatment, and bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery can be regarded as the most effective treatment method. However, long-term weight regain is comparably frequent even for this treatment and its application is not without risk. A prognostic tool that would help predict the effectivity of the individual treatment methods in the long term would be essential in a personalized medicine approach. In line with this objective, an increasing number of studies have combined neuroimaging and computational modeling to predict treatment outcome in obesity. In our review, we begin by outlining the central nervous mechanisms measured with neuroimaging in these studies. The mechanisms are primarily related to reward-processing and include “incentive salience” and psychobehavioral control. We then present the diverse neuroimaging methods and computational prediction techniques applied. The studies included in this review provide consistent support for the importance of incentive salience and psychobehavioral control for treatment outcome in obesity. Nevertheless, further studies comprising larger sample sizes and rigorous validation processes are necessary to answer the question of whether or not the approach is sufficiently accurate for clinical real-world application.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Mechanisms linking obesity and its metabolic comorbidities with cerebral
           grey and white matter changes

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      Abstract: Abstract Obesity is a preventable risk factor for cerebrovascular disorders and it is associated with cerebral grey and white matter changes. Specifically, individuals with obesity show diminished grey matter volume and thickness, which seems to be more prominent among fronto-temporal regions in the brain. At the same time, obesity is associated with lower microstructural white matter integrity, and it has been found to precede increases in white matter hyperintensity load. To date, however, it is unclear whether these findings can be attributed solely to obesity or whether they are a consequence of cardiometabolic complications that often co-exist with obesity, such as low-grade systemic inflammation, hypertension, insulin resistance, or dyslipidemia. In this narrative review we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the potential impact of obesity and a number of its cardiometabolic consequences on brain integrity, both separately and in synergy with each other. We also identify current gaps in knowledge and outline recommendations for future research.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Neurobiological regulation of eating behavior: Evidence based on
           non-invasive brain stimulation

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      Abstract: Abstract The prefrontal cortex is appreciated as a key neurobiological player in human eating behavior. A special focus is herein dedicated to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is critically involved in executive function such as cognitive control over eating. Persons with obesity display hypoactivity in this brain area, which is linked to overconsumption and food craving. Contrary to that, higher activity in the DLPFC is associated with successful weight-loss and weight-maintenance. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neurostimulation tool used to enhance self-control and inhibitory control. The number of studies using tDCS to influence eating behavior rapidly increased in the last years. However, the effectiveness of tDCS is still unclear, as studies show mixed results and individual differences were shown to be an important factor in the effectiveness of non-invasive brain stimulation. Here, we describe the current state of research of human studies using tDCS to influence food intake, food craving, subjective feeling of hunger and body weight. Excitatory stimulation of the right DLPFC seems most promising to reduce food cravings to highly palatable food, while other studies provide evidence that stimulating the left DLPFC shows promising effects on weight loss and weight maintenance, especially in multisession approaches. Overall, the reported findings are heterogeneous pointing to large interindividual differences in tDCS responsiveness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Food cue reactivity: Neurobiological and behavioral underpinnings

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      Abstract: Abstract The modern obesogenic environment contains an abundance of food cues (e.g., sight, smell of food) as well cues that are associated with food through learning and memory processes. Food cue exposure can lead to food seeking and excessive consumption in otherwise food-sated individuals, and a high level of food cue responsivity is a risk factor for overweight and obesity. Similar food cue responses are observed in experimental rodent models, and these models are therefore useful for mechanistically identifying the neural circuits mediating food cue responsivity. This review draws from both experimental rodent models and human data to characterize the behavioral and biological processes through which food-associated stimuli contribute to overeating and weight gain. Two rodent models are emphasized – cue-potentiated feeding and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer – that provide insight in the neural circuits and peptide systems underlying food cue responsivity. Data from humans are highlighted that reveal physiological, psychological, and neural mechanisms that connect food cue responsivity with overeating and weight gain. The collective literature identifies connections between heightened food cue responsivity and obesity in both rodents and humans, and identifies underlying brain regions (nucleus accumbens, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus) and endocrine systems (ghrelin) that regulate food cue responsivity in both species. These species similarities are encouraging for the possibility of mechanistic rodent model research and further human research leading to novel treatments for excessive food cue responsivity in humans.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Appetitive interoception, the hippocampus and western-style diet

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      Abstract: Abstract Obesity, Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders continue to pose serious challenges to human health and well-being. An important source of these challenges is the overconsumption of saturated fats and sugar, main staples of what has been called the Western-style diet (WD). The current paper describes a theoretical model and supporting evidence that links intake of a WD to interference with a specific brain substrate that underlies processing of interoceptive signals of hunger and satiety. We review findings from rats and humans that the capacity of these signals to modulate the strength of appetitive and eating behavior depends on the functional integrity of the hippocampus and the learning memory operations it performs. Important among these operations is the use of contextual information to retrieve memories that are associated with other events. Within our framework, satiety provides an interoceptive context that informs animals that food cues and appetitive behavior will not be followed by rewarding postingestive outcomes. This serves to prevent those cues and responses from retrieving those reward memories. The findings reviewed provide evidence that consuming a WD and the high amounts of saturated fat and sugar it contains (a) is associated with the emergence of pathophysiologies to which the hippocampus appears selectively vulnerable (b) impairs hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (HDLM) and (c) weakens behavioral control by interoceptive hunger and satiety contextual stimuli. It is hypothesized that these consequences of WD intake may establish the conditions for a vicious cycle of further WD intake, obesity, and potentially cognitive decline.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • A systematic review of resting-state functional connectivity in obesity:
           Refining current neurobiological frameworks and methodological
           considerations moving forward

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      Abstract: Abstract Obesity is the second most common cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used extensively to characterise altered communication between brain regions in individuals with obesity, though findings from this research have not yet been systematically evaluated within the context of prominent neurobiological frameworks. This systematic review aggregated resting-state fMRI findings in individuals with obesity and evaluated the contribution of these findings to current neurobiological models. Findings were considered in relation to a triadic model of problematic eating, outlining disrupted communication between reward, inhibitory, and homeostatic systems. We identified a pattern of consistently increased orbitofrontal and decreased insula cortex resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with obesity in comparison to healthy weight controls. BOLD signal amplitude was also increased in people with obesity across studies, predominantly confined to subcortical regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and putamen. We posit that altered orbitofrontal cortex connectivity may be indicative of a shift in the valuation of food-based rewards and that dysfunctional insula connectivity likely contributes to altered homeostatic signal processing. Homeostatic violation signals in obesity may be maintained despite satiety, thereby ‘hijacking’ the executive system and promoting further food intake. Moving forward, we provide a roadmap for more reliable resting-state and task-based functional connectivity experiments, which must be reconciled within a common framework if we are to uncover the interplay between psychological and biological factors within current theoretical frameworks.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Interactions between emotions and eating behaviors: Main issues,
           neuroimaging contributions, and innovative preventive or corrective
           strategies

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      Abstract: Abstract Emotional eating is commonly defined as the tendency to (over)eat in response to emotion. Insofar as it involves the (over)consumption of high-calorie palatable foods, emotional eating is a maladaptive behavior that can lead to eating disorders, and ultimately to metabolic disorders and obesity. Emotional eating is associated with eating disorder subtypes and with abnormalities in emotion processing at a behavioral level. However, not enough is known about the neural pathways involved in both emotion processing and food intake. In this review, we provide an overview of recent neuroimaging studies, highlighting the brain correlates between emotions and eating behavior that may be involved in emotional eating. Interaction between neural and neuro-endocrine pathways (HPA axis) may be involved. In addition to behavioral interventions, there is a need for a holistic approach encompassing both neural and physiological levels to prevent emotional eating. Based on recent imaging, this review indicates that more attention should be paid to prefrontal areas, the insular and orbitofrontal cortices, and reward pathways, in addition to regions that play a major role in both the cognitive control of emotions and eating behavior. Identifying these brain regions could allow for neuromodulation interventions, including neurofeedback training, which deserves further investigation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Bone health in ageing men

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      Abstract: Abstract Osteoporosis does not only affect postmenopausal women, but also ageing men. The burden of disease is projected to increase with higher life expectancy both in females and males. Importantly, osteoporotic men remain more often undiagnosed and untreated compared to women. Sex steroid deficiency is associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk, and circulating sex steroid levels have been shown to be associated both with bone mineral density and fracture risk in elderly men. However, in contrast to postmenopausal osteoporosis, the contribution of relatively small decrease of circulating sex steroid concentrations in the ageing male to the development of osteoporosis and related fractures, is probably only minor. In this review we provide several clinical and preclinical arguments in favor of a ‘bone threshold’ for occurrence of hypogonadal osteoporosis, corresponding to a grade of sex steroid deficiency that in general will not occur in many elderly men. Testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to increase bone mineral density in men, however data in osteoporotic ageing males are scarce, and evidence on fracture risk reduction is lacking. We conclude that testosterone replacement therapy should not be used as a sole bone-specific treatment in osteoporotic elderly men.
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
       
  • A new era for oral peptides: SNAC and the development of oral semaglutide
           for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

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      Abstract: Abstract Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) were first introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 2005. Despite the high efficacy and other benefits of GLP-1RAs, their uptake was initially limited by the fact that they could only be administered by injection. Semaglutide is a human GLP-1 analog that has been shown to significantly improve glycemic control and reduce body weight, in addition to improving cardiovascular outcomes, in patients with T2D. First approved as a once-weekly subcutaneous injection, semaglutide was considered an ideal peptide candidate for oral delivery with a permeation enhancer on account of its low molecular weight, long half-life, and high potency. An oral formulation of semaglutide was therefore developed by co-formulating semaglutide with sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino)caprylate, a well-characterized transcellular permeation enhancer, to produce the first orally administered GLP-1RA. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that stable steady-state concentrations could be achieved with once-daily dosing owing to the long half-life of oral semaglutide. Upper gastrointestinal disease and renal and hepatic impairment did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile. In the phase III PIONEER clinical trial program, oral semaglutide was shown to reduce glycated hemoglobin and body weight compared with placebo and active comparators in patients with T2D, with no new safety signals reported. Cardiovascular efficacy and safety are currently being assessed in a dedicated outcomes trial. The development of an oral GLP-1RA represents a significant milestone in the management of T2D, providing an additional efficacious treatment option for patients.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
       
  • Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and testosterone in ageing men

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      Abstract: Abstract In the absence of obesity, adverse lifestyle behaviours, and use of medication such as opioids serum testosterone concentrations decrease by only a minimal amount at least until very advanced age in most men. Obesity is heterogeneous in its phenotype, and it is the accumulation of excess adipose tissue viscerally associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, hypothalamic leptin resistance and gliosis that underpins the functional hypogonadism of obesity. Both central (hypothalamic) and peripheral mechanisms are involved resulting in a low serum total testosterone concentration, while LH and FSH are typically in the normal range. Peripherally a decrease in serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentration only partially explains the decrease in testosterone and there is increasing evidence for direct effects in the testis. Men with obesity associated functional hypogonadism and serum testosterone concentrations below 16 nmol/L are at increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D); high testosterone concentrations are protective. The magnitude of weight loss is linearly associated with an increase in serum testosterone concentration and with the likelihood of preventing T2D or reverting newly diagnosed disease; treatment with testosterone for 2 years increases the probability of a positive outcome from a lifestyle intervention alone by approximately 40%. Whether the additional favourable benefits of testosterone treatment on muscle mass and strength and bone density and quality in the long-term remains to be determined.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
       
  • Adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy: Physiology, diagnosis, management and
           areas for future research

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      Abstract: Abstract Adrenal insufficiency requires prompt diagnosis in pregnancy, as untreated, it can lead to serious consequences such as adrenal crisis, intrauterine growth restriction and even foetal demise. Similarities between symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and those of normal pregnancy can complicate diagnosis. Previously diagnosed adrenal insufficiency needs monitoring and, often, adjustment of adrenal hormone replacement. Many physiological changes occur to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy, often making diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency challenging. Pregnancy is a state of sustained physiologic hypercortisolaemia; there are multiple contributing factors including high plasma concentrations of placental derived corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and increased adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Despite increased circulating concentrations of CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) and the major cortisol binding protein, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), free concentrations of both hormones are increased progressively in pregnancy. In addition, pregnancy leads to activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Most adrenocortical hormone diagnostic thresholds are not applicable or validated in pregnancy. The management of adrenal insufficiency also needs to reflect the physiologic changes of pregnancy, often requiring increased doses of glucocorticoid and at times mineralocorticoid replacement, especially in the last trimester. In this review, we describe pregnancy induced changes in adrenal function, the diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy and areas requiring further research.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
       
  • Patient-reported outcome measures for assessing health-related quality of
           life in people with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review

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      Abstract: Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are important tools to assess outcomes relevant to patients, with Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) as an important construct to be measured. Many different HRQOL PROMs are used in the type 2 diabetes field, however a complete overview of these PROMs is currently lacking. We therefore aimed to systematically describe and classify the content of all PROMs that have specifically been developed or validated to measure (aspects of) HRQOL in people with type 2 diabetes. A literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE until 31 December 2021. Studies on the development or validation of a PROM measuring HRQOL, or aspects of HRQOL, in people with type 2 diabetes were included. Title and abstract and full-text screening were conducted by two independent researchers and data extraction was performed independently by one of the researchers. Data were extracted on language in which the PROM was developed, target population, construct(s) being measured, names of (sub)scales and number of items per (sub)scale. In addition, all PROMs and subscales were classified according to specific aspects of HRQOL based on the Wilson & Cleary model (symptom status, functional status, general health perceptions) to aid researchers in PROM selection. In total 220 studies were identified that developed or validated PROMs that measure (aspects of) HRQOL in people with type 2 diabetes. Of the 116 unique HRQOL PROMs, 91 (of the subscales) measured symptom status, 60 measured functional status and 26 measured general health perceptions. In addition, 16 of the PROMs (subscales) measured global quality of life. 61 of the 116 PROMs (subscales) also include characteristics of the individual (e.g. aspects of personality, coping) or environment (e.g. social or financial support) and patient-reported experience measures (PREMs, e.g. measure of a patient's perception of their personal experience of the healthcare they have received, e.g. treatment satisfaction), which are not part of the HRQOL construct. Only 9 of the 116 PROMs measure all aspects of HRQOL based on the Wilson & Cleary model. Finally, 8 of the 116 PROMs stating to measure HRQOL, measured no HRQOL construct. In conclusion, a large number of PROMs are available for people with type 2 diabetes, which intend to measure (aspects of) HRQOL. These PROMs measure a large variety of (sub)constructs, which are not all HRQOL constructs, with a small amount of PROMs not measuring HRQOL at all. There is a need for consensus on which aspects of HRQOL should be measured in people with type 2 diabetes and which PROMs to use in research and daily practice. PROSPERO: CRD42017071012. COMET database: http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/956.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Correction to: Chemotherapy in NEN: still has a role'

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      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Surgical treatment of adrenal tumors during pregnancy

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      Abstract: Abstract While most adrenal tumors are identified incidentally and are non-functional, hormone-secreting tumors can cause morbidity and mortality. Hemodynamic lability and hypertension in pregnancy are associated with worse maternal and fetal outcomes. Achieving a diagnosis of hormone excess due to adrenal tumors can be clinically more difficult in the gravid patient due to normal physiologic alterations in hormones and symptoms related to pregnancy. This review focuses on some nuances of the diagnostic work-up, perioperative care, and surgical management of adrenally-mediated cortisol excess, primary aldosteronism, and pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in the pregnant patient.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Efficacy of radiofrequency and laser thermal ablation in solving thyroid
           nodule-related symptoms and cosmetic concerns. A systematic review and
           meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Several studies have showed good/excellent results of thermal-ablation (TA) to reduce volume of benign thyroid nodule (TN). Nevertheless, no systematic review has reported information about clinical achievements with TA. Being the latter of high interest, this systematic review was undertaken to achieve high evidence about the efficacy of TA in reducing TN-related symptoms and cosmetic concerns. Radiofrequency (RFA) and laser (LA) therapies were considered. A comprehensive literature search of online databases was performed on January 2022 looking for studies reporting clinical results obtained by RFA or LA in terms of VAS (namely, Visual Analogic Scale) and cosmetic concerns. Initially, 318 records were found and 14 were finally included in the meta-analysis. VAS data were available in all RFA studies and the pooled mean reduction was of 3.09 points with significant heterogeneity. Cosmetic score data were available in 11 RFA studies and the pooled mean reduction was of 1.45 with significant heterogeneity. Regarding LA studies, 4 series reported VAS data and the pooled mean reduction was of 2.61 points with significant heterogeneity. The analysis of LA data about cosmetic concerns was not performed due to data paucity. Importantly, heterogeneities were not explained by meta-regression analyses using several covariates (i.e., baseline TN volume, follow-up duration, volume reduction rate). This systematic review showed that clinical data about TN TA efficacy are sparse and affected by high unexplained inconsistency. International societies should give indication about how we should clinically select and evaluate patients undergoing TN TA.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
       
  • Foreword to the special issue on the neuroscience of obesity and related
           disorders

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      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
 
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