Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8185 journals)
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HEMATOLOGY (160 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 151 of 151 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Haematologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Open Access  
Adipocyte     Open Access  
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Africa Sanguine     Full-text available via subscription  
American Journal of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archives of Hematology Case Reports and Reviews     Open Access  
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Blood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 296)
Blood Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Blood and Lymphatic Cancer : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Blood Cancer Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Blood Pressure     Open Access  
Blood Pressure Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Blood Purification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Blood Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bone Marrow Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Haematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Primary Care Nursing - Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes and Kidney Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Clinical Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Lymphoma & Myeloma     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conquest : The Official Journal of Diabetes Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Current Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Current Diabetes Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cytotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Der Diabetologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Diabetes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 411)
Diabetes aktuell     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Diabetes Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 469)
Diabetes Case Reports     Open Access  
Diabetes Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Diabetes Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Diabetes Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Diabetes Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Diabetic Foot & Ankle     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Diabetic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147)
Diabetologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Diabetologia Kliniczna     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Haematology     Open Access  
eJHaem     Open Access  
European Journal of Haematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Experimental Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Haematologica - the Hematology journal     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Haemophilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Hematologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hematología     Open Access  
Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Hematology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hemodialysis International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hepatitis Monthly     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Immunohematology : Journal of Blood Group Serology and Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Info Diabetologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
InFo Hämatologie + Onkologie : Interdisziplinäre Fortbildung von Ärzten für Ärzte     Full-text available via subscription  
Integrated Blood Pressure Control     Open Access  
International Blood Research & Reviews     Open Access  
International Journal of Clinical Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hematologic Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Hematology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Iraqi Journal of Hematology     Open Access  
JMIR Diabetes     Open Access  
Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Blood Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Diabetes Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hematological Malignancies     Open Access  
Journal of Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hypo & Hyperglycemia     Partially Free  
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Social Health and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Transfusion Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Leukemia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Leukemia and Lymphoma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Leukemia Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Leukemia Research Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leukemia Supplements     Full-text available via subscription  
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases     Open Access  
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Diabetologie     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Oncohematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Diabetes Journal     Open Access  
Open Hematology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Hypertension Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Blood Diseases     Open Access  
Pediatric Blood & Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pediatric Hematology Oncology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Peritoneal Dialysis International     Hybrid Journal  
Platelets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practical Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Oncology and Hematology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Hematología, Inmunología y Hemoterapia     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Thalassemia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Lancet Haematology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Therapeutic Advances in Hematology     Hybrid Journal  
Thrombosis & Haemostasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145)
Thrombosis Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Transfusionsmedizin - Immunhämatologie, Hämotherapie, Immungenetik, Zelltherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Transplantation and Cellular Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veins and Lymphatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.072
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1558-822X - ISSN (Online) 1558-8211
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Pediatric Germline Predisposition to Myeloid Neoplasms

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Advances in the understanding of germline predisposition to pediatric cancers, particularly myeloid neoplasms, have increased rapidly over the last 20 years. Here, we highlight the most up-to-date knowledge regarding known pathogenic germline variants that contribute to the development of myeloid neoplasms in children. Recent Findings This discussion enumerates the most notable myeloid neoplasm-causing germline mutations. These mutations may be organized based on their molecular underpinnings—transcriptional control, splicing and signal transduction control, and a group of heterogeneous bone marrow failure syndromes. We review recent findings related to the biochemical mechanisms that predispose to malignant transformation in each condition. Key genetic discoveries such as novel mutations, degrees of penetrance, principles of the two-hit hypothesis, and co-occurrence of multiple mutations are shared. Clinical pearls, such as information regarding epidemiology, natural history, or prognosis, are also discussed. Summary Germline mutations predisposing to pediatric myeloid neoplasms are frequent, but underrecognized. They hold major clinical implications regarding prognosis, treatment strategies, and screening for other malignancies. Further research is warranted to better characterize each of these conditions, as well as identify additional novel germline pathogenic variants of interest.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
  • Progress and Challenges in Survivorship After Acute Myeloid Leukemia in
           Adults

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survivors face unique challenges affecting long-term outcomes and quality of life. There is scant literature on the long-term impact of AML treatment in physical and mental health, disease recurrence, and financial burden in survivors. Recent Findings Fatigue, mental health concerns, infections, sexual dysfunction, and increase cancer recurrence occur after AML treatment. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infections are common concerns in AML after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Survivorship guidelines encompass symptoms and complications but fail to provide an individualized care plan for AML survivors. Studies in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are sparse. Summary Here we discuss the most common aspects pertaining to AML survivorship, late complications, care delivery, prevention of disease recurrence, and potential areas for implementation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
  • Towards a Personalized Definition of Prognosis in Philadelphia-Negative
           Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), prefibrotic (pre-), and overt-primary myelofibrosis (primary MF, PMF). PV and ET could evolve into secondary MF (SMF), whose early diagnosis relies on monitoring signs of possible progression. All MPNs have a risk of blast phase (BP), that is associated with a very dismal outcome. Overall survival (OS) is different among MPNs, and disease-specific prognostic scores should be applied for a correct clinical management. In this review, an overview of current prognostic scores in MPNs will be provided. Recent Findings The biological complexity of MPNs and its role on the trajectory of disease outcome have led to the design of integrated prognostic models that are nowadays of common use in PMF patients. As for PV and ET, splicing gene mutations could have a detrimental role, but with the limit of the not routinary recommended application of extensive molecular analysis in these diseases. SMF is recognized as a distinct entity compared to PMF, and OS estimates should be calculated by the MYSEC-PM (Myelofibrosis SECondary-prognostic model). Both in PMF and SMF, decisions as selection of patients potentially candidates to allogenic stem cell transplant or that could benefit from an early shift from standard treatment are based not only on conventional prognostic scores, but also on multivariable algorithms. Summary The expanding landscape of risk prediction for OS, evolution to BP, and SMF progression from PV/ET informs personalized approach to the management of patients affected by MPNs.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Value in Myeloma Care: Myth or Reality

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Despite tremendous advances in multiple myeloma (MM) care, the disease maintains considerable morbidity and requires long-term treatment associated with significant financial toxicity to patients and high costs to society. In this review, we explore why — despite treatment advances — value in MM treatment is largely a myth, then explain some ways the myth might become a reality. Recent Findings We discuss how value-based care in MM should include patient-centered outcomes such as financial toxicity and quality of life, which are heavily impacted by cost of drugs and the indefinite duration of therapy that is standard in MM treatment. We propose multiple paths to work toward reducing cost and augmenting value of care for patients with MM, including improving access to generic drugs, increasing federal funding for clinical trials, designing more patient-centric clinical trials, and exploring the utilization of minimal residual disease (MRD)-driven treatment de-escalation, among others. Summary We remain optimistic that despite the challenges, we can work toward making progress in the realm of value-based care for patients with MM and make it a reality.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
       
  • Bispecific Antibodies for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Advances in multiple myeloma therapies have greatly improved outcomes for patients living with the disease, although to date there is yet to be a cure. Cellular and immunotherapies, approved or in development, offer the promise of significantly advancing toward that possibility. The aim of this review is to provide a synopsis and commentary on the current and future states of bispecific agents aimed at harnessing the antineoplastic potential of T-cells in treating and eradicating myeloma. Recent Findings Numerous bispecific agents are in clinical development with some on the precipice of regulatory approval. While BCMA remains the principal target, some agents are directed at novel targets such as GPRC5D and FcRH5. The constructs vary in design and pharmacokinetics which has dosing and administration implications. The toxicity profiles of these agents generally reflect that of other immune therapies, including cytokine release syndrome and rarely neurotoxicity, although immunosuppression has also led to elevated infection risks. However, the toxicities are generally manageable and offset by unprecedented efficacy seen in such heavily pretreated cohorts. Summary Bispecific agents are poised to significantly alter the treatment paradigms for myeloma. They provide a convenient “off-the-shelf” platform with often deep and durable responses. Toxicities are often limited in duration and severity. In the early-phase trials, many patients have been able to remain on treatment for extended periods, even among those with high-risk features. Upcoming trials are likely to explore earlier implementation of these agents in order to offer this therapeutic opportunity to broader cohorts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
       
  • Role of Germline Predisposition to Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) are aggressive leukemias that develop following exposure to DNA-damaging agents. A subset of patients developing t-MN may have an inherited susceptibility to develop myeloid neoplasia. Herein, we review studies reporting t-MN and their association with a germline or inherited predisposition. Recent Findings Emerging evidence suggests that development of t-MN is the result of complex interactions including generation of somatic variants in hematopoietic stem cells and/or clonal selection pressure exerted by the DNA-damaging agents, and immune evasion on top of any inherited genetic susceptibility. Conventionally, alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors, and radiation have been associated with t-MN. Recently, newer modalities including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) and peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy (PRRT) are associated with t-MN. At the same time, the role of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) in genes such as BRCA1/2, BARD1, or TP53 on the risk of t-MN is being explored. Moreover, studies have shown that while cytotoxic therapy increases the risk of developing myeloid neoplasia, it may be exposing the vulnerability of an underlying germline predisposition. Summary t-MN remains a disease with poor prognosis. Studies are needed to better define an individual’s inherited neoplastic susceptibility which will help predict the risk of myeloid neoplasia in the future. Understanding the genes driving the inherited neoplastic susceptibility will lead to better patient- and cancer-specific management including choice of therapeutic regimen to prevent, or at least delay, development of myeloid neoplasia after treatment of a prior malignancy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
       
  • Novel Therapies in Myelofibrosis: Beyond JAK Inhibitors

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review To discuss the current treatment paradigm, review novel targets, and summarize completed and ongoing clinical trials that may lead to a paradigm shifts in the management of myelofibrosis (MF). Recent Findings In addition to the recent approval and ongoing late-stage development of multiple novel JAK inhibitors, recent clinical studies demonstrate therapeutic potential of targeting multiple alternate proteins and pathways including BET, MDM2, telomerase, BCL2, LSD1, PI3K, SMAC, and PTX2 in patients with MF. Summary MF is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by clonal proliferation of myeloid cells and bone marrow fibrosis often causing cytopenias, extramedullary hematopoiesis resulting in hepatosplenomegaly, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production driving systemic symptoms. A significant proportion of morbidity and mortality is related to the propensity to transform to acute leukemia. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative therapy; however, due to the high associated mortality, this treatment is not an option for the majority of patients with MF. Currently, there are three targeted Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved therapies for MF which include ruxolitinib, fedratinib, and pacritinib, all part of the JAK inhibitor class. Many patients are unable to tolerate, do not respond, or develop resistance to existing therapies, leaving a large unmet medical need. In this review, we discuss the current treatment paradigm and novel therapies in development for the treatment of MF. We review the scientific rationale of each targeted pathway. We summarize updated clinical data and ongoing trials that may lead to FDA approval of these agents.
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
       
  • Precision Medicine in Myeloid Malignancies: Hype or Hope'

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      Abstract:   Purpose of Review We review how understanding the fitness and comorbidity burden of patients, and molecular landscape of underlying acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at the time of diagnosis is now integral to treatment. Recent Findings The upfront identification of patients’ fitness and molecular profile facilitates selection of targeted and novel agents, enables risk stratification, allows consideration of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in high-risk patients, and provides treatment selection for older (age ≥ 75) or otherwise unfit patients who may not tolerate conventional treatment. The use of measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment improves outcome prediction and can also guide therapeutic strategies such as chemotherapy maintenance and transplant. In recent years, several novel drugs have received FDA approval for treating patients with AML with or without specific mutations. A doublet and triplet combination of molecular targeted and other novel treatments have resulted in high response rates in early trials. Following the initial success in AML, novel drugs are undergoing clinical trials in MDS. Summary Unprecedented advances have been made in precision medicine approaches in AML and MDS. However, lack of durable responses and long-term disease control in many patients still present significant challenges, which can only be met, to some extent, with innovative combination strategies throughout the course of treatment from induction to consolidation and maintenance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
       
  • Defining Higher-Risk Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Risk Scores, Genomic
           Landscape, and Prognostication

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment success story is incomplete as some patients still fail therapy, leading to end-stage disease and death. Here we discuss recent research into CML incidence, the role of comorbidities on survival and detecting patients at risk of failing therapy. Recent Findings The incidence of CML has fallen markedly in high social-demographic index (SDI) regions of the world but there is disturbing evidence that this is not the case in low and low-middle SDI countries. Now that CML patients more frequently die from their co-morbid conditions than from CML the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 score can assist in risk assessment at diagnosis. Non-adherence to therapy contributes greatly to treatment failure. A good doctor-patient relationship and social support promote good adherence, but patient age, gender, and financial burden have negative effects, suggesting avenues for intervention. Mutations in cancer-associated genes adversely affect outcome and their detection at diagnosis may guide therapeutic choice and offer non-BCR::ABL1 targeted therapies. A differential gene expression signature to assist risk detection is a highly sought-after diagnostic tool being actively researched on several fronts. Summary Detecting patients at risk of failing therapy is being assisted by recent technological advances enabling highly sensitive genomic and expression analysis of insensitive cells. However, patient lifestyle, adherence to therapy, and comorbidities are critical risk factors that need to be addressed by interventions such as social and financial support.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Advances in Risk Stratification and Treatment of Polycythemia Vera and
           Essential Thrombocythemia

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Estimating and modifying thrombotic risk is currently the mainstay of care for patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). In recent years, however, increased attention has shifted towards quality of life and disease modification. In this review, we discuss recent advances in risk stratification, present updated results for ruxolitinib and interferon randomized clinical trials, discuss new approaches in antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment, and summarize early phase trials of novel agents and emerging therapeutic concepts for the treatment of PV and ET. Recent Findings International collaborations and novel technologies, i.e., next-generation sequencing and machine learning techniques, have demonstrated excellent abilities to improve thrombotic risk stratification in PV and ET. Updated results from ruxolitinib and interferon randomized clinical trials have confirmed excellent efficacy and safety of these agents, both as first- and second-line treatments. Early trials of novel agents (histone deacetylase inhibitors, telomerase inhibitors, lysine-specific demethylase-1 inhibitors, human double-minute 2 inhibitors, and hepcidin mimetics) have shown encouraging efficacy and safety in blood count control, reduction of splenomegaly, and alleviation of disease-related symptoms. Finally, accumulating evidence suggested that direct oral anticoagulants may be a valid therapeutic alternative to warfarin for prolonged thromboprophylaxis. Summary International collaborations (“big data”) with the help of new technologies represent an exciting new approach to analyze rare outcomes in rare diseases, especially for identifying novel prognostic biomarkers in PV and ET. Randomized clinical trials are also needed to fully elucidate whether novel agents may establish new standards of care.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Management of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children and Young Adults

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Due to lack of pediatric-specific data, the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in pediatric, adolescents, and young adults is guided by adult CML evidence-based recommendations. Pediatric CML presents differently than adult CML and is often a more aggressive disease with different biological and host factors, yet there is sparse literature on how to address those differences. Recent Findings Over the past two decades, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the way CML is treated. There are currently three FDA-approved TKIs (imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib) for pediatric patients. When choosing which TKI to begin treatment with, there are many factors that should be considered on a case-to-case basis to obtain optimal outcomes. The safety profiles for long-term TKI use in pediatrics require further study. Unlike adults, children are still actively growing during TKI use, and the effect on development can be detrimental. TKI therapy is not recommended during pregnancy with variable but significant risk of fetal abnormalities and miscarriage, warranting counseling for young female patients prior to beginning TKIs. Attempts for treatment-free remission (TFR) by planned TKI cessation in eligible adult patients in deep and sustained molecular remission are now done as a standard of practice. However, data is sparse in the pediatric population. There is currently an ongoing Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study to determine the feasibility of TFR as a treatment goal. Summary Further research and additional pediatric trials are needed to characterize the unique aspects of CML in children and adolescents and optimize outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Germline and Somatic Defects in DDX41 and its Impact on Myeloid Neoplasms

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review While DDX41 mutation (m) is one of the most prevalent predisposition genes in adult myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most patients do not always present with a family history of MDS/AML. In this review, we will be highlighting epidemiological data on DDX41m, roles of DDX41 in oncogenesis, mechanisms of clonal evolution with somatic DDX41m, and clinical phenotypes and management of MDS/AML in patients harboring DDX41m. Recent Findings DDX41 encodes a DEAD-box helicase protein that is considered essential for cell growth and viability. High incidence of myeloid malignancies and other cancers in patients bearing DDX41m suggests that defects in DDX41 lead to loss of a tumor suppressor function, likely related to activities in RNA splicing and processing pathways. Seventy percent of cancer cases with DDX41m are associated with MDS/AML alone. More than 65% of familial cases harbor heterozygous germline frameshift mutations, of which p.D140Gfs*2 is the most common. A somatic DDX41m of the second allele is acquired in 70% of cases, leading to hematological malignancy. Myeloid neoplasms with DDX41m are typically characterized by long latency, high-risk disease at presentation with normal cytogenetics and without any additional molecular markers. Recent reports suggests that a subgroup of these patients have an indolent clinical course and have a better long-term survival compared to favorable or intermediate risk AML. Summary Distinct clinical/pathologic features and favorable outcomes in MDS/AML highlight the need for standardized classification and gene specific guidelines that could assist in management decisions in patients with DDX41m.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00667-3
       
  • ANKRD26-Related Thrombocytopenia and Predisposition to Myeloid Neoplasms

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      Abstract: Purpose of review This review describes ANKRD26-related thrombocytopenia (RT) from a molecular, clinical, and laboratory perspective, with a focus on the clinical decision-making that takes place in the diagnosis and management of families with ANKRD26-RT. Recent findings ANKRD26-related thrombocytopenia (ANKRD26-RT) is a non-syndromic autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia with predisposition to hematologic neoplasm. The clinical presentation is variable with moderate thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size and absent to mild bleeding being the hallmark which makes it difficult to distinguish from other inherited thrombocytopenias. The pathophysiology involves overexpression of ANKRD26 through loss of inhibitory control by transcription factors RUNX1 and FLI1. The great majority of disease-causing variants are in the 5′ untranslated region. Acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia have been reported to occur in the context of germline variants in ANKRD26, with the development of somatic driver mutations in hematopoietic regulators playing an important role in malignant transformation. In the absence of clear risk estimates of development of malignancy, optimal surveillance strategies and interventions to reduce risk of evolution to a myeloid disorder, multidisciplinary evaluation, with a strong genetic counseling framework is essential in the approach to these patients and their families. Summary Gene-specific expertise and a multidisciplinary approach are important in the diagnosis and treatment of patients and families with ANKRD26-RT. These strategies help overcome the challenges faced by clinicians in the evaluation of individuals with a rare, non-syndromic, inherited disorder with predisposition to hematologic malignancy for which large data to guide decision-making is not available.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00666-4
       
  • Germline CHEK2 and ATM Variants in Myeloid and Other Hematopoietic
           Malignancies

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review An intact DNA damage response is crucial to preventing cancer development, including in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Deficiencies in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway can lead to defective DNA damage responses, and this can occur through inherited germline mutations in HR pathway genes, such as CHEK2 and ATM. We now understand that germline mutations can be identified frequently (~ 5–10%) in patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, and among the most common of these are CHEK2 and ATM. We review the role that deleterious germline CHEK2 and ATM variants play in the development of hematopoietic malignancies, and how this influences clinical practice, including cancer screening, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and therapy choice. Recent Findings In recent large cohorts of patients diagnosed with myeloid or lymphoid malignancies, deleterious germline loss of function variants in CHEK2 and ATM are among the most common identified. Germline CHEK2 variants predispose to a range of myeloid malignancies, most prominently myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes (odds ratio range: 2.1–12.3), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (odds ratio 14.83). Deleterious germline ATM variants have been shown to predispose to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (odds ratio range: 1.7–10.1), although additional studies are needed to demonstrate the risk they confer for myeloid malignancies. Early studies suggest there may also be associations between deleterious germline CHEK2 and ATM variants and development of clonal hematopoiesis. Summary Identifying CHEK2 and ATM variants is crucial for the optimal management of patients and families affected by hematopoietic malignancies. Opening Clinical Case “A 45 year-old woman presents to your clinic with a history of triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed five years ago, treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. About six months ago, she developed cervical lymphadenopathy, and a biopsy demonstrated small lymphocytic leukemia. Peripheral blood shows a small population of lymphocytes with a chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunophenotype, and FISH demonstrates a complex karyotype: gain of one to two copies of IGH and FGFR3; gain of two copies of CDKN2C at 1p32.3; gain of two copies of CKS1B at 1q21; tetrasomy for chromosome 3; trisomy and tetrasomy for chromosome 7; tetrasomy for chromosome 9; tetrasomy for chromosome 12; gain of one to two copies of ATM at 11q22.3; deletion of chromosome 13 deletion positive; gain of one to two copies of TP53 at 17p13.1). Given her history of two cancers, you arrange for germline genetic testing using DNA from cultured skin fibroblasts, which demonstrates pathogenic variants in ATM [c.1898 + 2 T > G] and CHEK2 [p.T367Metfs]. Her family history is significant for multiple cancers. ( Fig.  1 ).” Fig. 1 Representative pedigree from a patient with germline pathogenic ATM and CHEK2 variants who was affected by early onset breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arrow indicates proband. Colors indicate cancer type/disease: purple, breast cancer; blue, lymphoma; brown, melanoma; yellow, colon cancer; and green, autoimmune disease
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00663-7
       
  • Germline Abnormalities in DNA Methylation and Histone Modification and
           Associated Cancer Risk

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Somatic mutations in DNA methyltransferases and other DNA methylation associated genes have been found in a wide variety of cancers. Germline mutations in these genes have been associated with several rare hereditary disorders. Among the described germline/congenital disorders, neurological dysfunction and/or growth abnormalities appear to be a common phenotype. Here, we outline known germline abnormalities and examine the cancer risks associated with these mutations. Recent Findings The increased use and availability of sequencing techniques in the clinical setting has expanded the identification of germline abnormalities involving DNA methylation machinery. This has provided additional cases to study these rare hereditary disorders and their predisposition to cancer. Summary Studying these syndromes may offer an opportunity to better understand the contribution of these genes in cancer development.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00665-5
       
  • MRD in ALL: Optimization and Innovations

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Measurable residual disease (MRD) is an important monitoring parameter that can help predict survival outcomes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Identifying patients with MRD has the potential to decrease the risk of relapse with the initiation of early salvage therapy and to help guide decision making regarding allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this review, we discuss MRD in ALL, focusing on advantages and limitations between MRD testing techniques and how to monitor MRD in specific patient populations. Recent Findings MRD has traditionally been measured through bone marrow samples, but more data for evaluation of MRD via peripheral blood is emerging. Current and developmental testing strategies for MRD include multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC), next-generation sequencing (NGS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and ClonoSeq. Novel therapies are incorporating MRD as an outcome measure to demonstrate efficacy, including blinatumomab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy. Summary Understanding how to incorporate MRD testing into the management of ALL could improve patient outcomes and predict efficacy of new therapy options.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00664-6
       
  • Targeting Apoptosis in ALL

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review While the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved significantly over the last 30 years, the majority of adult patients will have their disease relapse. The BCL-2 gene was initially discovered from follicular lymphoma research; however, the BH3 family of proteins has is emerging to be crucial in patients with ALL due to their reliance on the balance of these pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins in the BH3 family. We discuss apoptosis in ALL, the reliance mechanisms, drug development in this space, and areas for future research. Recent Findings The first drugs that were developed to inhibit the BCL-2 pathway include both venetoclax (BCL-2 specific inhibitor) and navitoclax (BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BCL-W). These drugs show promise and have obtained complete remissions, minimal residual disease negative status, and have been used as a bridge to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There are multiple ongoing clinical trials looking to assess the use of BCL-2 inhibition with chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and bi-specific T-cell engager therapies not only in both frontline and relapsed refractory ALL but also in consolidation and maintenance phases. Summary There is still a large need for improvement of ALL outcomes in adult patients. Research has shown that ALL depends on the BCL-2 family of proteins for cell survival and proliferation. Targeting this pathway with BCL-2 inhibition has led to encouraging results, and future research is aimed at incorporating this targeted therapy into current treatment paradigms.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00661-9
       
  • Clonal Hematopoiesis and Myeloid Neoplasms in the Context of Telomere
           Biology Disorders

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Telomere biology disorders (TBDs) are cancer-predisposing multisystemic diseases that portend a higher risk of transforming into myeloid neoplasms (MNs). Due to the rarity and high variability of clinical presentations, TBD-specific characteristics of MN and the mechanisms behind this predisposition are not well defined. Herein, we review recent studies on TBD patient cohorts describing myeloid transformation events and summarize efforts to develop screening and treatment guidelines for these patients. Recent Findings Preliminary studies have indicated that TBD patients have a higher prevalence of somatic genetic alterations in hematopoietic cells, an age-related phenomenon, also known as clonal hematopoiesis; increasing predisposition to MN. The CH mutational landscape in TBD differs from that observed in non-TBD patients and preliminary data suggest a higher frequency of somatic mutations in the DNA repair mechanism pathway. Although initial studies did not observe specific features of MN in TBD patients, certain events are common in TBD, such as hypocellular bone marrows. The mechanisms of MN development need further elucidation. Summary Current management options for MN-TBD patients need to be individualized and tailored as per the clinical context. Because of the high sensitivity to alkylator chemotherapy and radiation conferred by short telomeres, non-cytotoxic targeted therapies and immunotherapy are ideal therapeutic options, but these therapies are still being tested in clinical trials. Defining the mechanisms of CH evolution in TBD and identifying risk factors leading to MN evolution will allow for the development of screening and treatment guidelines for these patients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-022-00662-8
       
  • Management of Relapsed/Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small
           Lymphocytic Lymphoma in the Era of Targeted Therapies

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The treatment landscape for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) has changed substantially over the past decade and continues to evolve. Despite the emergence of targeted therapies that are well tolerated and prolong survival, the disease remains incurable and relapse is common particularly in individuals with high-risk features. Herein, we review the key literature about the current options for relapsed disease and explore the emerging role of cellular therapies. Recent Findings Clinical trials have established the role of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, selective BCL-2 inhibition, and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies as treatment options for CLL/SLL. The role of chimeric antigen receptor T cells has shown promise in individuals with CLL/SLL in early phase clinical trials. Summary Novel therapeutic approaches with targeted therapies have redefined the management of CLL/SLL in both the front-line and relapsed/refractory settings. Optimal management in terms of sequencing or combining therapies, especially in individuals with high-risk features, remains a challenge. The emerging role of cellular therapies has the potential to build upon and further improve the current treatment paradigm.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-021-00652-2
       
  • Meeting Challenges in the Long-Term Care of Children, Adolescents, and
           Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review To discuss the long-term view of treating and following pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) — with review of what can be done to prevent, monitor for, and treat complications of therapy. Recent Findings Pediatric, adolescent, and young adult oncology patients, including those with ALL, are living longer with higher overall survival rates as treatments and supportive care for these patients continue to improve. These patients are burdened by the risk of significant health and quality of life consequences as a result of their treatment.. For these patients, the late effects of treatment can be life-threatening, such as secondary cancers or cardiotoxicity, or life-altering with respect to quality of life. Summary The goal of this paper is to review the current literature, research, and surveillance guidelines regarding the late effects of ALL therapy, to outline what can be done to mitigate the toxic effects of oncology treatment, and to extend life expectancy and improve quality of life for our patients. We review risk factors and interventions available to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease, secondary malignancies, endocrine complications (obesity, osteoporosis, infertility, and premature menopause), cognitive effects, and effects on functioning and mortality.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11899-021-00657-x
       
 
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