Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8819 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (225 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (122 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (352 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (233 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (293 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (167 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (127 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (152 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (44 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (192 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (142 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (160 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (184 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (98 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2451 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (364 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (211 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (395 journals)
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    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (172 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (84 journals)
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    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (846 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (79 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (84 journals)
    - SURGERY (412 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (159 journals)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (352 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 352 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
AORTA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review     Open Access  
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cardiac Failure Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CASE : Cardiovascular Imaging Case Reports     Open Access  
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 114)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
CJC Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Hybrid Journal  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Medicine Reviews in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Cardiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Heart Rhythm O2     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hearts     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Clinical Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Heart Failure Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.887
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-7322 - ISSN (Online) 1382-4147
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Functional tricuspid regurgitation, related right heart remodeling, and
           available treatment options: good news for patients with heart
           failure'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Significant functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) represents a poor prognostic factor independent of right ventricular (RV) function. It is usually the consequence of left-sided cardiac diseases that induce RV dilatation and dysfunction, but it can also resulted from right atrial (RA) enlargement and consequent tricuspid annular dilatation. FTR is very frequent among patients with heart failure, particularly in those with reduced LVEF and concomitant functional mitral regurgitation. The development of three-dimensional echocardiography enabled detailed assessment of tricuspid valve anatomy, subvavlular apparatus, and RA and RV changes, as well as accurate evaluation of FTR etiology. Due to high in-hospital mortality risk in patients who were operatively treated for isolated FTR, it has been treated only medically for a long time. Percutaneous approach considers mainly transcatheter tricuspid valve repair (edge-to-edge and annuloplasty) and represents a very attractive option for the high-risk patients. Studies that investigated the effects of different devices showed excellent feasibility and safety, followed by significant reduction in FTR grade, improvement in functional capacity and NYHA class, quality of life, and reduction in hospitalization due to heart failure. Some investigations also reported a decreased mortality in FTR patients. Nevertheless, the results of these investigations should be interpreted with cautious due to the small number of participants and relatively short follow-up. The aim of this review was to summarize the existing data about the clinical importance of FTR and FTR-induced right heart remodeling and currently existing therapeutic approaches for treatment of FTR.
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
       
  • Risk stratification in cardiogenic shock: a focus on the available
           evidence

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      Abstract: Cardiogenic shock is a clinical syndrome which is defined as the presence of primary cardiac disorder that results in hypotension together with signs of organ hypoperfusion in the state of normovolaemia or hypervolaemia. It represents a complex life-threatening condition, characterized by a high mortality rate, that requires urgent diagnostic assessment as well as treatment; therefore, it is of paramount important to advocate for a thorough risk stratification. In fact, the early identification of patients that could benefit the most from more aggressive and invasive approaches could facilitate a more efficient resource allocation. This review attempts to critically analyse the current evidence on prognosis in cardiogenic shock, focusing in particular on clinical, laboratoristic and echocardiographic prognostic parameters. Furthermore, it focuses also on the available prognostic scores, highlighting the strengths and the possible pitfalls. Finally, it provides insights into future direction that could be followed in order to ameliorate risk stratification in this delicate subset of patients.
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
       
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy in the era of precision medicine: latest concepts
           and developments

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      Abstract: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an umbrella term entailing a wide variety of genetic and non-genetic etiologies, leading to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and dilatation, not explained by abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease. The clinical presentation can vary from asymptomatic to heart failure symptoms or sudden cardiac death (SCD) even in previously asymptomatic individuals. In the last 2 decades, there has been striking progress in the understanding of the complex genetic basis of DCM, with the discovery of additional genes and genotype–phenotype correlation studies. Rigorous clinical work-up of DCM patients, meticulous family screening, and the implementation of advanced imaging techniques pave the way for a more efficient and earlier diagnosis as well as more precise indications for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and prevention of SCD. In the era of precision medicine, genotype-directed therapies have started to emerge. In this review, we focus on updates of the genetic background of DCM, characteristic phenotypes caused by recently described pathogenic variants, specific indications for prevention of SCD in those individuals and genotype-directed treatments under development. Finally, the latest developments in distinguishing athletic heart syndrome from subclinical DCM are described.
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
       
  • Exosomes in atrial fibrillation: therapeutic potential and role as
           clinical biomarkers

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      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a global epidemic. AF can cause heart failure and myocardial infarction and increase the risk of stroke, disability, and thromboembolic events. AF is becoming increasingly ubiquitous and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at higher ages, resulting in an increasing threat to human health as well as substantial medical and social costs. Currently, treatment strategies for AF focus on controlling heart rate and rhythm with medications to restore and maintain sinus rhythm, but this approach has limitations. Catheter ablation is not entirely satisfactory and does not address the issues underlying AF. Research exploring the mechanisms causing AF is urgently needed for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AF. Exosomes are small vesicles (30–150 nm) released by cells that transmit information between cells. MicroRNAs in exosomes play an important role in the pathogenesis of AF and are established as a biomarker for AF. In this review, a summary of the role of exosomes in AF is presented. The role of exosomes and microRNAs in AF occurrence, their therapeutic potential, and their potential role as clinical biomarkers is considered. A better understanding of exosomes has the potential to improve the prognosis of AF patients worldwide, reducing the global medical burden of this disease.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
       
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy: a new insight into the rare but common cause of
           heart failure

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      Abstract: Heart failure is a global health burden responsible for high morbidity and mortality with a prevalence of greater than 60 million individuals worldwide. One of the major causes of heart failure is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by associated systolic dysfunction. During the last few decades, there have been remarkable advances in our understanding about the genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy. The genetic causes were initially thought to be associated with mutations in genes encoding proteins that are localized to cytoskeleton and sarcomere only; however, with the advancement in mechanistic understanding, the roles of ion channels, Z-disc, mitochondria, nuclear proteins, cardiac transcription factors (e.g., NKX-2.5, TBX20, GATA4), and the factors involved in calcium homeostasis have also been identified and found to be implicated in both familial and sporadic DCM cases. During past few years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been established as a diagnostic tool for genetic analysis and it has added significantly to the existing candidate gene list for DCM. The animal models have also provided novel insights to develop a better treatment strategy based on phenotype–genotype correlation, epigenetic and phenomic profiling. Most of the DCM biomarkers that are used in routine genetic and clinical testing are structural proteins, but during the last few years, the role of mi-RNA has also emerged as a biomarker due to their accessibility through noninvasive methods. Our increasing genetic knowledge can improve the clinical management of DCM by bringing clinicians and geneticists on one platform, thereby influencing the individualized clinical decision making and leading to precision medicine.
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
       
  • Unveiling the role of exercise training in targeting the inflammatory
           paradigm of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a narrative
           review

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      Abstract: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is currently lacking an effective pharmacological treatment with impact on major outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. Exercise training (EXT) is recognized as an important nonpharmacological tool, capable of improving exercise capacity and quality of life, and has even been associated with a reduction in hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, this positive impact largely lacks a physiological explanation. The aim of this narrative review was to provide an overview of the available data supporting the hypothesis that the beneficial role of EXT in HFpEF might be due to its effects on targeting the inflammatory paradigm described for this disease. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed-NCBI database. We reviewed the effects of EXT throughout each step of the pathophysiological pathway leading to HFpEF and found clinical and/or preclinical evidence supporting the reduction of systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, microvascular rarefaction, and myocardial stiffness. We also highlighted some gaps in the knowledge or topics that deserve further clarification in future studies. In conclusion, despite the scarcity of clinical studies in this population, there is compelling evidence suggesting that EXT modulates crucial aspects of the inflammatory pathway described for HFpEF and future investigation on cellular and molecular mechanisms are encouraged.
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
       
  • Ventricular non-compaction review

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      Abstract: Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is a rare and unclassified cardiomyopathy that carries the potential to cause heart failure, arrhythmias, and embolic events within adults. The diagnosis of this cardiomyopathy can be based off a variety of echocardiographic, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and computed tomography (CT) imaging criteria; none of which have been standardized to establish a firm diagnosis. This is further complicated by the observation from prior studies that LVNC may present as different forms of cardiomyopathy, each with its own subset of nuances that may change treatment strategies. Management of such cardiomyopathy has been debated in terms of anticoagulation, electrophysiologic studies to prevent arrhythmia, as well as heart failure prevention. Not enough data exists in regard to establishing firm guidelines for management. The following article aims to provide a comprehensive review in regard to the etiologies, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, management, and treatment of LVNC.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
       
  • Prognostic value of natriuretic peptides in heart failure: systematic
           review and meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Risk models, informing optimal long-term medical management, seldom use natriuretic peptides (NP) in ascertaining the absolute risk of outcomes for HF patients. Individual studies evaluating the prognostic value of NPs in HF patients have reported varying effects, arriving at best estimates requires a systematic review. We systematically summarized the best evidence regarding the prognostic value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP in predicting mortality and hospitalizations in ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients. We searched bibliographic databases from 2005 to 2018 and included studies evaluating the association of BNP or NT-proBNP with mortality or hospitalization using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. We pooled hazard ratios using random-effect models, explored heterogeneity using pre-specified subgroup analyses, and evaluated the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations and Development Evaluation framework. We identified 67 eligible studies reporting on 76,178 ambulatory HF patients with a median BNP of 407 pg/mL (261–574 pg/mL). Moderate to high-quality evidence showed that a 100-pg/mL increase in BNP was associated with a 14% increased hazard of mortality (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06–1.22); a 1-log-unit increase was associated with a 51% increased hazard of mortality (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.41–1.61) and 48% increased hazard of mortality or hospitalization (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.29–1.69). With moderate to high certainty, we observed a 14% independent relative increase in mortality, translating to a clinically meaningful increase in absolute risk even for low-risk patients. The observed associations may help in developing more accurate risk models that incorporate NPs and accurately prognosticate HF patients.
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
       
  • Heart failure and atrial fibrillation: new concepts in pathophysiology,
           management, and future directions

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      Abstract: A bidirectional pathophysiological link connects heart failure and atrial fibrillation, creating a frequent and challenging comorbidity, which includes neurohormonal hyperactivation, fibrosis development, and electrophysiologic remodeling, while they share mutual risk factors. Management for these devastating comorbidities includes most of the established treatment measures for heart failure as well as rhythm or rate control and anticoagulation mostly for atrial fibrillation, which can be achieved with either pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical approaches. The current manuscript aims to review the existing literature regarding the underlying pathophysiology, to present the novel trends of treatment, and to predict the future perspective of these two linked diseases with the numerous unanswered questions.
      PubDate: 2021-07-04
       
  • Clinical variants of myocardial involvement in COVID-19-positive patients:
           a cumulative experience of 2020

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      Abstract: Myocardial injury, diagnosed by troponin elevation, is common in COVID-19 patients, but cardiac involvement with clinical manifestations occurs less frequently. We analyzed the literature on COVID-19 (2020) and systematically reviewed the cases where individual patient data were presented. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for “COVID,” “COVID-19,” and “coronavirus” in combination with “myocarditis,” “heart failure,” “takotsubo,” “cardiomyopathy,” and “cardiogenic shock.” We identified 90 cases of COVID-19 with myocardial involvement, mean age 52.9 ± 18.3 years, 54.5% males. Of them, 55 survived (61.1%), 20 died (22.2%), and in 15 (16.7%) the outcome was unknown at the time of publication. Among patients with known outcome, mortality was 26%. The nadir LVEF was 31.7 ± 13.1% and recovered to 50.1 ± 16.0%. Pericardial effusion was a common finding, reported in 21 (23.3%) of patients, including moderate size effusion in 8.9% and large in 7.8%. The effusion caused tamponade in 11 (12.2%) of patients. Out of 83 patients who experienced a decrease in LVEF, 30 could be classified as takotsubo syndrome. The takotsubo patients were older than those with myocarditis, and with relatively high proportion of males. About one third of the cases was complicated by cardiogenic shock. Myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients most often presents as a new, rapid decrease in LVEF, although normal LVEF or takotsubo-like wall motion pattern does not rule out myocarditis. Moderate and large pericardial effusion is common, and cardiac tamponade occurs in 12.2% of patients. Cardiogenic shock develops in one third of the patients. Mortality appears to be high at 26%.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
       
  • Polypharmacy definition and prevalence in heart failure: a systematic
           review

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      Abstract: Polypharmacy and heart failure are becoming increasingly common due to an ageing population and the rise of multimorbidity. Treating heart failure necessitates prescribing of multiple medications, in-line with national and international guidelines predisposing patients to polypharmacy. This review aims to identify how polypharmacy has been defined among heart failure patients in the literature, whether a standard definition in relation to heart failure could be identified and to describe the prevalence. The Healthcare Database Advanced Search (HDAS) was used to search EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cinahl and PsychInfo from inception until March 2021. Articles were included of any design, in patients ≥ 18 years old, with a diagnosis of heart failure; that explicitly define and measure polypharmacy. Data were thereafter extracted and described using a narrative synthesis approach. A total of 7522 articles were identified with 22 meeting the inclusion criteria. No standard definition of polypharmacy was identified. The most common definition was that of “ ≥ 5 medications.” Polypharmacy prevalence was high in heart failure populations, ranging from 17.2 to 99%. Missing or heterogeneous methods for defining heart failure and poor patient cohort characterisation limited the impact of most studies. Polypharmacy, most commonly defined as ≥ 5 medications, is highly prevalent in the heart failure population. There is a need for an internationally agreed definition of polypharmacy, allowing accurate review of polypharmacy issues. Whether an arbitrary numerical cut-off is a suitable definition, rather than medication appropriateness, remains unclear. Further studies are necessary to understand the relationship between polypharmacy with specific types of heart failure and related comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
       
  • Wearable cardioverter defibrillator: bridging for implantable
           defibrillators in left ventricular assist device patients

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      Abstract: There is currently conflicting data available regarding the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients. While the benefit of an ICD in heart failure patients is well demonstrated, such benefit has failed to reach the LVAD population. In lack of randomized control trial data on the topic of ICD use in LVAD recipients, major societal guidelines are in disagreement when comes to the topic of routine implantation of a permanent defibrillator in prospective ventricular assist device patients. Alternative permanent defibrillator strategies have been suggested for the LVAD population such as subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICDs) but eligibility of patients for such practice remains disappointing. Although most of the heart failure patients undergoing LVAD implantation already bear an ICD, clinicians are left with the decision of de novo implanting an ICD in an important number of patients. Wearable cardioverter defibrillators could prove beneficial in LVAD recipients by utilizing them as a bridge to decision towards the implantation of a permanent defibrillator.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-10064-8
       
  • The role of mechanotransduction in heart failure pathobiology—a
           concise review

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      Abstract: This review evaluates the role of mechanotransduction (MT) in heart failure (HF) pathobiology. Cardiac functional and structural modifications are regulated by biomechanical forces. Exposing cardiomyocytes and the myocardial tissue to altered biomechanical stress precipitates changes in the end-diastolic wall stress (EDWS). Thereby various interconnected biomolecular pathways, essentially mediated and orchestrated by MT, are launched and jointly contribute to adapt and remodel the myocardium. This cardiac MT-mediated feedback decisively determines the primary cardiac cellular and tissue response, the sort (concentric or eccentric) of hypertrophy/remodeling, to mechanical and/or hemodynamic alterations. Moreover, the altered EDWS affects the diastolic myocardial properties independent of the systolic function, and elevated EDWS causes diastolic dysfunction. The close interconnection between MT pathways and the cell nucleus, the genetic endowment, principally allows for the wide variety of phenotypic appearances. However, demographic, environmental features, comorbidities, and also the genetic make-up may modulate the phenotypic result. Cardiac MT takes a fundamental and superordinate position in the myocardial adaptation and remodeling processes in all HF categories and phenotypes. Therefore, the effects of MT should be integrated in all our scientific, clinical, and therapeutic considerations.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-09915-1
       
  • A meta-analysis of microRNA expression profiling studies in heart failure

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      Abstract: Heart failure (HF) is a major consequence of many cardiovascular diseases with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prevention are hampered by the lack of informative biomarkers. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the miRNA expression profiling studies in HF to identify novel candidate biomarkers or/and therapeutic targets. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed for miRNA expression studies related to HF was carried out. The vote counting and robust rank aggregation meta-analysis methods were used to identify significant meta-signatures of HF-miRs. The targets of HF-miRs were identified, and network construction and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were performed to identify the genes and cognitive pathways most affected by the dysregulation of the miRNAs. The literature search identified forty-five miRNA expression studies related to CHF. Shared meta-signature was identified for 3 up-regulated (miR-21, miR-214, and miR-27b) and 13 down-regulated (miR-133a, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-451, miR-185, miR-133b, miR-30e, miR-30b, miR-1, miR-150, miR-486, miR-149, and miR-16-5p) miRNAs. Network properties showed miR-29a, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-1, miR-16, miR-133a, and miR-133b have the most degree centrality. GESA identified functionally related sets of genes in signaling and community pathways in HF that are the targets of HF-miRs. The miRNA expression meta-analysis identified sixteen highly significant HF-miRs that are differentially expressed in HF. Further validation in large patient cohorts is required to confirm the significance of these miRs as HF biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-10071-9
       
  • Practical recommendations for the diagnosis and management of
           transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis

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      Abstract: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an infiltrative restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by accumulation in the heart interstitium of amyloid fibrils formed by misfolded proteins. Most common CA types are light chain amyloidosis (AL) caused by monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains and transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) caused by either mutated or wild-type transthyretin aggregates. Previously considered a rare disease, CA is increasingly recognized among patients who may be misdiagnosed as undifferentiated heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), paradoxical low-flow/low-gradient aortic stenosis, or otherwise unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. Progress in diagnosis has been due to the refinement of cardiac echocardiographic techniques (speckle tracking imaging) and magnetic resonance (T1 mapping) and mostly due to the advent of bone scintigraphy that has enabled noninvasive diagnosis of ATTR, limiting the need for endomyocardial biopsy. Importantly, proper management of CA starts from early recognition of suspected cases among high prevalence populations, followed by advanced diagnostic evaluation to confirm diagnosis and typing, preferentially in experienced amyloidosis centers. Differentiating ATTR from other types of amyloidosis, especially AL, is critical. Emerging targeted ATTR therapies offer the potential to improve outcomes of these patients previously treated only palliatively.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-10062-w
       
  • Device-based treatment options for heart failure with preserved ejection
           fraction

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      Abstract: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a syndrome with an unfavorable prognosis, and the number of the patients continues to grow. Because there is no effective therapy established as a standard, including pharmacological treatments, a movement to develop and evaluate device-based therapies is an important emerging area in the treatment of HFpEF patients. Many devices have set their target to reduce the left atrial pressure or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure because they are strongly related to the symptoms and prognosis of HFpEF, but the methodology to achieve it varies based on the devices. In this review, we summarize and categorize these devices into the following: (1) interatrial shunt devices, (2) left ventricle expander, (3) electrical therapy, (4) left ventricular assist devices, and (5) mechanical circulatory support devices under development. Here, we describe the features and specifications of device-based therapies currently under development and those at more advanced stages of preclinical testing. Advantages and limitations of these technologies, with insights on their safety and feasibility for HFpEF patients, are described.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-10067-5
       
  • The utility of growth differentiation factor-15, galectin-3, and sST2 as
           biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection
           fraction and compared to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a
           systematic review

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      Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) using the biomarkers, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), galectin-3 (Gal-3), and soluble ST2 (sST2), and to determine whether they can differentiate HFpEF from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Medline and Embase databases were searched with the terms diastolic heart failure or HFpEF, biomarkers, and diagnosis, limited to years 2000 to 2019. There were significantly and consistently higher levels of GDF-15, Gal-3, and sST2 in HFpEF compared to no heart failure. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in GDF-15 or Gal-3 and possibly sST2,correlated with a greater degree of diastolic dysfunction. There were no significant differences between GDF-15, Gal-3, and sST2 in patients with HFpEF vs HFrEF. In the studies assessing these three biomarkers, BNP was significantly greater in heart failure than controls. Furthermore, BNP was significantly higher in HFrEF compared to HFpEF. The diagnostic utility of GDF-15, Gal-3, and sST2 compared to BNP was evaluated by comparing ROC curves. The data supports the contention that to distinguish HFpEF from HFrEF, an index is needed that incorporates GDF-15, Gal-3, or sST2 as well as BNP. The three biomarkers GDF-15, Gal-3, or sST2 can identify patients with HFpEF compared to individuals without heart failure but cannot differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF. BNP is higher in and is better at differentiating HFrEF from HFpEF. Indices that incorporate GDF-15, Gal-3, or sST2 as well as BNP show promise in differentiating HFpEF from HFrEF.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-09913-3
       
  • Echocardiographic tissue imaging evaluation of myocardial characteristics
           and function in cardiomyopathies

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      Abstract: Current echocardiography techniques have allowed more precise assessment of cardiac structure and function of the several types of cardiomyopathies. Parameters derived from echocardiographic tissue imaging (ETI)—tissue Doppler, strain, strain rate, and others—are extensively used to provide a framework in the evaluation and management of cardiomyopathies. Generally, myocardial function assessed by ETI is depressed in all types of cardiomyopathies, non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in particular. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), ETI is useful to identify subclinical disease in family members of HCM, to differentiate HCM from other conditions causing cardiac hypertrophy and to predict cardiac events. ETI also for HCM allows addressing the mechanism behind left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and its improvement after therapeutic options. ETI provides cardiac amyloidosis with unique and specific findings such as “apical sparing.” Nevertheless, ETI does not seem to provide as much information amenable to histological findings as recently emerging techniques of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This review introduces usefulness of ETI and some other ultrasound techniques for detecting clinical and subclinical characteristics of cardiomyopathies, focusing on DCM, HCM, and cardiac amyloidosis.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-09918-y
       
  • Etiologies and predictors of readmission among obese and morbidly obese
           patients admitted with heart failure

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      Abstract: The relationship between severity of obesity and outcomes in heart failure (HF) has long been under debate. We studied index HF admissions from the 2013–14 National Readmission Database. Admissions were separated into three weight-based categories: non-obese (Non-Ob), obese (Ob), and morbidly obese (Morbid-Ob) to analyze hospital mortality and readmission at 30 days and 6 months. We investigated etiologies and predictors of 30-day readmission among these weight categories. We studied a total of 578,213 patients of whom 3.0% died during index hospitalization (Non-Ob 3.3% vs. Ob 1.9% vs. Morbid-Ob 1.9%; p < 0.01). Non-Ob comprised 79.5%, Ob 9.9%, and Morbid-Ob 10.6% of patients. Morbid-Ob patients were the youngest among age categories and more likely to be female. In-hospital mortality during readmission at 30 days and 6 months was significantly lower among Morbid-Ob and Ob compared with Non-Ob patients (all p < 0.01). Thirty-day readmission among Morbid-Ob was lower than Non-Ob and higher than Ob patients (19.6% vs. 20.5% vs. 18.6%, respectively; p < 0.01). Morbid-Ob patients were less likely to be readmitted for cardiovascular etiologies compared with both Ob and Non-Ob (45.0% vs. 50.3% vs. 50.6%; p < 0.01). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that Ob (adjusted odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence intervals 0.82–0.86) and Morbid-Ob (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.81–0.85) were independently associated with lower 30-day readmission. Readmission at 6 months was highest among Morbid-Ob followed by Non-Ob and Ob (51.1% vs. 50.2% vs. 49.1%, p < 0.01). Morbid-Ob and Ob patients experience lower in-hospital mortality during index HF admission and during readmission with 30 days or 6 months compared with Non-Ob. Morbid-Ob patients experience greater readmission at 6 months despite the lower rate at 30 days post discharge. Morbid-Ob patients are most likely to be readmitted for non-cardiovascular causes.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-09920-4
       
  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and heart failure—the
           present and the future

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      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of heart failure. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is on an upward trend. Heart failure represents one of the major causes for hospitalisation and mortality despite advances in management. Recent cardiovascular outcome trials have demonstrated that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, which were introduced to the market in 2013, can incur a clinically significant risk reduction in heart failure outcomes in such patients. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of heart failure in diabetes and explore the landmark trials, the potential mechanisms of benefit of SGLT-2 inhibitors in heart failure, how the trials have led to major changes in treatment guidelines, and future potential directions for use of these drugs, including in those without diabetes.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10741-020-09925-z
       
 
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