Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8677 journals)
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiac Failure Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 104)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Cardiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Open Access  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Basic Research in Cardiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1435-1803 - ISSN (Online) 0300-8428
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Fibroblast growth factor 23 decreases PDE4 expression in heart increasing
           the risk of cardiac arrhythmia; Klotho opposes these effects
    • Abstract: Abstract The concentration of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) rises progressively in renal failure (RF). High FGF23 concentrations have been consistently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes or death, in chronic kidney disease (CKD), heart failure or liver cirrhosis. We identified the mechanisms whereby high concentrations of FGF23 can increase the risk of death of cardiovascular origin. We studied the effects of FGF23 and Klotho in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (ARVMs) and on the heart of mice with CKD. We show that FGF23 increases the frequency of spontaneous calcium waves (SCWs), a marker of cardiomyocyte arrhythmogenicity, in ARVMs. FGF23 increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leakage, basal phosphorylation of Ca2+-cycling proteins including phospholamban and ryanodine receptor type 2. These effects are secondary to a decrease in phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) in ARVMs and in heart of mice with RF. Soluble Klotho, a circulating form of the FGF23 receptor, prevents FGF23 effects on ARVMs by increasing PDE3A and PDE3B expression. Our results suggest that the combination of high FGF23 and low sKlotho concentrations decreases PDE activity in ARVMs, which favors the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias and may participate in the high death rate observed in patients with CKD.
      PubDate: 2020-07-22
  • Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces myocardial ischemia–reperfusion
           injury through unacylated ghrelin-induced activation of the JAK/STAT
    • Abstract: Abstract Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) offers cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury. The humoral factors involved in RIPC that are released from parasympathetically innervated organs have not been identified. Previous studies showed that ghrelin, a hormone released from the stomach, is associated with cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether or not ghrelin is involved in the mechanism of RIPC. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin serves as one of the humoral factors in RIPC. RIPC group rats were subjected to three cycles of ischemia and reperfusion for 5 min in two limbs before left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Unacylated ghrelin (UAG) group rats were given 0.5 mcg/kg UAG intravenously 30 min before LAD ligation. Plasma levels of UAG in all groups were measured before and after RIPC procedures and UAG administration. Additionally, JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibitor (AG490) was injected in RIPC and UAG groups to investigate abolishment of the cardioprotection of RIPC and UAG. Plasma levels of UAG, infarct size and phosphorylation of STAT3 were compared in all groups. Infarct size was significantly reduced in RIPC and UAG groups, compared to the other groups. Plasma levels of UAG in RIPC and UAG groups were significantly increased after RIPC and UAG administration, respectively. The cardioprotective effects of RIPC and UAG were accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of STAT3 and abolished by AG490. This study indicated that RIPC reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury through UAG-induced activation of JAK/STAT pathway. UAG may be one of the humoral factors involved in the cardioprotective effects of RIPC.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
  • Secreted frizzled-related protein 2, a novel mechanism to induce
           myocardial ischemic protection through angiogenesis
    • Abstract: Abstract Our hypothesis is that Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 2 (sFPR2) is an important mechanism mediating ischemic cardioprotection, since it is the most upregulated gene in the third window of ischemic preconditioning. One week after permanent coronary artery occlusion (CAO), sFRP2 TG mice exhibited a 49% higher LV ejection fraction and a 36% reduction in infarct size, p < 0.05, and reduced fibrosis in both adjacent and remote zones, along with an increase in collagen type III and a decrease in the collagen type I/III ratio compared with WTL. The ischemic cardioprotection was associated with increased angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, reflected by increased capillary and arteriolar proliferation in the ischemic zone, thereby preserving blood flow after CAO. The angiogenesis and arteriogenesis were mediated by cross talk between myocytes and endothelial cells. The mechanism for cardioprotection and angiogenesis/arteriogenesis did not involve a traditional vascular growth hormone, e.g., VEGF or FGF, but rather cTGF, and ATF6 through the stress signaling pathway. The ATF6 inhibitor, AEBSF, blocked the upregulation of cTGF and both the angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, resulting in abolition of the reduced infarct size and protection of cardiac function in the sFRP2 TG mouse following permanent CAO. sFRP2 is a novel mechanism to induce angiogenesis/arteriogenesis, mediated through the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway, ATF6 and cTGF, which protects the heart from myocardial ischemia.
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
  • Nuclear localization of a novel calpain-2 mediated junctophilin-2
           C-terminal cleavage peptide promotes cardiomyocyte remodeling
    • Abstract: Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with HF exhibit a loss of junctophilin-2 (JPH2), a structural protein critical in forming junctional membrane complexes in which excitation–contraction takes place. Several mechanisms have been proposed to mediate the loss of JPH2, one being cleavage by the calcium-dependent protease calpain. The downstream mechanisms underlying HF progression after JPH2 cleavage are presently poorly understood. In this study, we used Labcas to bioinformatically predict putative calpain cleavage sites on JPH2. We identified a cleavage site that produces a novel C-terminal JPH2 peptide (JPH2-CTP) using several domain-specific antibodies. Western blotting revealed elevated JPH2-CTP levels in hearts of patients and mice with HF, corresponding to increased levels of calpain-2. Moreover, immunocytochemistry demonstrated nuclear localization of JPH2-CTP within ventricular myocytes isolated from a murine model of pressure overload-induced HF as well as rat ventricular myocytes treated with isoproterenol. Nuclear localization of JPH2-CTP and cellular remodeling were abrogated by a genetic mutation of the nuclear localization sequence within JPH2-CTP. Taken together, our studies identified a novel C-terminal fragment of JPH2 (JPH2-CTP) generated by calpain-2 mediated cleavage which localizes within the cardiomyocyte nucleus during HF. Blocking nuclear localization of JPH2-CTP protects cardiomyocytes from isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy in vitro. Future in vivo studies of the nuclear role of JPH2-CTP may reveal a causal association with adverse remodeling during HF and establish CTP as a therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
  • Deficiency of Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing
           proteins (NOD) 1 and 2 reduces atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Abstract Atherosclerosis is crucially fueled by inflammatory pathways including pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-related signaling of the innate immune system. Currently, the impact of the cytoplasmic PRRs nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD) 1 and 2 is incompletely characterized. We, therefore, generated Nod1/Nod2 double knockout mice on a low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)-deficient background (= Ldlr−/−Nod1/2−/−) which were subsequently analyzed regarding experimental atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gut microbiota composition. Compared to Ldlr−/− mice, Ldlr−/−Nod1/2−/− mice showed reduced plasma lipids and increased hepatic expression of the scavenger receptor LDL receptor-related protein 1 after feeding a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Furthermore, intestinal cholesterol and its bacterial degradation product coprostanol were elevated in Ldlr−/−Nod1/2−/− mice, correlating with the increased abundance of Eubacterium coprostanoligenes as assessed by 3rd generation sequencing of the gut microbiota. Atherosclerotic plaques of Ldlr−/−Nod1/2−/− mice exhibited less lipid deposition and macrophage accumulation. Moreover, macrophages from Ldlr−/−Nod1/2−/− mice showed higher expression of the cholesterol efflux transporters Abca1 and Abcg1 and accordingly reduced foam cell formation. Deficiency of Nod1 and Nod2 led to reduced plaque lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. This might be explained by diminished plasma lipid levels and foam cell formation due to altered expression of key regulators of the hepatic cholesterol pathway as well as differential intestinal cholesterol metabolism and microbiota composition.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
  • The inotropic agent digitoxin strengthens desmosomal adhesion in cardiac
           myocytes in an ERK1/2-dependent manner
    • Abstract: Abstract Desmosomal proteins are components of the intercalated disc and mediate cardiac myocyte adhesion. Enhancement of cardiac myocyte cohesion, referred to as “positive adhesiotropy”, was demonstrated to be a function of sympathetic signaling and to be relevant for a sufficient inotropic response. We used the inotropic agent digitoxin to investigate the link between inotropy and adhesiotropy. In contrast to wild-type hearts, digitoxin failed to enhance pulse pressure in perfused mice hearts lacking the desmosomal protein plakoglobin which was paralleled with abrogation of plaque thickening indicating that positive inotropic response requires intact desmosomal adhesion. Atomic force microscopy revealed that digitoxin increased the binding force of the adhesion molecule desmoglein-2 at cell–cell contact areas. This was paralleled by enhanced cardiac myocyte cohesion in both HL-1 cardiac myocytes and murine cardiac slices as determined by dissociation assays as well as by accumulation of desmosomal proteins at cell–cell contact areas. However, total protein levels or cytoskeletal anchorage were not affected. siRNA-mediated depletion of desmosomal proteins abrogated increase of cell cohesion demonstrating that intact desmosomal adhesion is required for positive adhesiotropy. Mechanistically, digitoxin caused activation of ERK1/2. In line with this, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling abrogated the effects of digitoxin on cell–cell adhesion and desmosomal reorganization. These results show that the positive inotropic agent digitoxin enhances cardiac myocyte cohesion with reorganization of desmosomal proteins in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Desmosomal adhesion seems to be important for a sufficient positive inotropic response of digitoxin treatment, which can be of medical relevance for the treatment of heart failure.
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
  • Deletion of newly described pro-survival molecule Pellino-1 increases
           oxidative stress, downregulates cIAP2/NF-κB cell survival pathway,
           reduces angiogenic response, and thereby aggravates tissue function in
           mouse ischemic models
    • Abstract: Introduction In the present study, we aimed to explore the functional role of Pellino-1 (Peli1) in inducing neovascularization after myocardial infarction (MI) and hindlimb ischemia (HLI) using Peli1 global knockout mice (Peli1−/−). Recently we have shown that Peli1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, induce angiogenesis and improve survivability, with decreased necrosis of ischemic skin flaps. Methods Peli1fl/fl and Peli1−/− mice were subjected to either permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) or sham surgery (S). Tissues from the left ventricular risk area were collected at different time points post-MI. In addition, Peli1fl/fl and Peli1−/− mice were also subjected to permanent ligation of the right femoral artery followed by motor function scores, Doppler analysis for blood perfusion and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Global Peli1 knockout exacerbated myocardial dysfunction, 30 and 60 days after MI compared to wild type (WT) mice as measured by echocardiogram. In addition, Peli1−/− mice also showed decreased motor function scores and perfusion ratios compared with Peli1fl/fl mice 28 days after the induction of HLI. The use of Peli1 in adenoviral gene therapy following HLI in CD1 mice improved the perfusion ratio at 28 days compared to Ad.LacZ-injected mice. Conclusion These results suggest new insights into the protective role of Peli1 on ischemic tissues and its influence on survival signaling.
      PubDate: 2020-06-14
  • Interplay of the red blood cell and vascular endothelial nitric oxide
           synthase system to combat cardiac complications of anemia
    • PubDate: 2020-06-12
  • Inflammation shapes pathogenesis of murine arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy
    • Abstract: Abstract Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an incurable genetic disease, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. AC is characterized by arrhythmia, fibrosis, and cardiodilation that may lead to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. To elucidate AC pathogenesis and to design possible treatment strategies of AC, multiple murine models have been established. Among them, mice carrying desmoglein 2 mutations are particularly valuable given the identification of desmoglein 2 mutations in human AC and the detection of desmoglein 2 auto-antibodies in AC patients. Using two mouse strains producing either a mutant desmoglein 2 or lacking desmoglein 2 in cardiomyocytes, we test the hypothesis that inflammation is a major component of disease pathogenesis. We show that multifocal cardiomyocyte necrosis initiates a neutrophil-dominated inflammatory response, which also involves macrophages and T cells. Increased expression of Ccl2/Ccr2, Ccl3/Ccr5, and Cxcl5/Cxcr2 mRNA reflects the observed immune cell recruitment. During the ensuing acute disease phase, Mmp12+ and Spp1+ macrophages and T cells accumulate in scars, which mature from cell- to collagen-rich. The expression of Cx3cl1/Cx3cr1, Ccl2/Ccr2, and Cxcl10/Cxcr3 dominates this disease phase. We furthermore find that during chronic disease progression macrophages and T cells persist within mature scars and are present in expanding interstitial fibrosis. Ccl12 and Cx3cl1 are predominant chemokines in this disease phase. Together, our observations provide strong evidence that specific immune cell populations and chemokine expression profiles modulate inflammatory and repair processes throughout AC progression.
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
  • Anaemia is associated with severe RBC dysfunction and a reduced
           circulating NO pool: vascular and cardiac eNOS are crucial for the
           adaptation to anaemia
    • Abstract: Abstract Anaemia is frequently present in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and contributes to an adverse prognosis. We hypothesised that, besides reduced oxygen carrying capacity, anaemia is associated with (1) red blood cell (RBC) dysfunction and a reduced circulating nitric oxide (NO) pool, (2) compensatory enhancement of vascular and cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, and (3) contribution of both, RBC dysfunction and reduced circulatory NO pool to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and fatal outcome in AMI. In mouse models of subacute and chronic anaemia from repeated mild blood loss the circulating NO pool, RBC, cardiac and vascular function were analysed at baseline and in reperfused AMI. In anaemia, RBC function resulted in profound changes in membrane properties, enhanced turnover, haemolysis, dysregulation of intra-erythrocytotic redox state, and RBC-eNOS. RBC from anaemic mice and from anaemic patients with acute coronary syndrome impaired the recovery of contractile function of isolated mouse hearts following ischaemia/reperfusion. In anaemia, the circulating NO pool was reduced. The cardiac and vascular adaptation to anaemia was characterised by increased arterial eNOS expression and activity and an eNOS-dependent increase of end-diastolic left ventricular volume. Endothelial dysfunction induced through genetic or pharmacologic reduction of eNOS-activity abrogated the anaemia-induced cardio-circulatory compensation. Superimposed AMI was associated with decreased survival. In summary, moderate blood loss anaemia is associated with severe RBC dysfunction and reduced circulating NO pool. Vascular and cardiac eNOS are crucial for the cardio-circulatory adaptation to anaemia. RBC dysfunction together with eNOS dysfunction may contribute to adverse outcomes in AMI.
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
  • Vascular autophagy in health and disease
    • Abstract: Abstract Homeostasis is maintained within organisms through the physiological recycling process of autophagy, a catabolic process that is intricately involved in the mobilization of nutrients during starvation, recycling of cellular cargo, as well as initiation of cellular death pathways. Specific to the cardiovascular system, autophagy responds to both chemical (e.g. free radicals) and mechanical stressors (e.g. shear stress). It is imperative to note that autophagy is not a static process, and measurement of autophagic flux provides a more comprehensive investigation into the role of autophagy. The overarching themes emerging from decades of autophagy research are that basal levels of autophagic flux are critical, physiological stressors may increase or decrease autophagic flux, and more importantly, aberrant deviations from basal autophagy may elicit detrimental effects. Autophagy has predominantly been examined within cardiac or vascular smooth muscle tissue within the context of disease development and progression. Autophagic flux within the endothelium holds an important role in maintaining vascular function, demonstrated by the necessary role for intact autophagic flux for shear-induced release of nitric oxide however the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Within this review, we theorize that autophagy itself does not solely control vascular homeostasis, rather, it works in concert with mitochondria, telomerase, and lipids to maintain physiological function. The primary emphasis of this review is on the role of autophagy within the human vasculature, and the integrative effects with physiological processes and diseases as they relate to the vascular structure and function.
      PubDate: 2020-06-06
  • Intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells prevent microvascular
           obstruction formation after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury
    • Abstract: Abstract Microvascular obstruction (MVO) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is identified as an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The inflammatory response induced by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is considered one of the main mechanisms of MVO. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a unique stromal cell type that confers an immunomodulatory effect in cardiac disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether immediate intravenous delivery of MSCs could be used as a potential therapeutic method to attenuate MVO formation. A cardiac catheterization-induced porcine model of myocardial I/R injury was established, and allograft MSCs were immediately delivered intravenously. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed on days 2 and 7 after the operation to determine the infarct area, MVO, and cardiac function. The pigs with allograft MSCs showed decreased MVO and infarct size, as well as an improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Histological analysis revealed decreased myocyte area, fibrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the peri-infarct zone of pigs with allograft MSCs. Moreover, the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum were reduced in the allograft MSC group compared to the control group. Flow cytometry indicated decreased natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood and ischemic heart tissue in the pigs with allograft MSCs. In summary, allograft MSCs delivered intravenously and immediately after myocardial I/R injury can attenuate MVO formation in a porcine model through a decline in the number of NK cells in the myocardium.
      PubDate: 2020-05-25
  • Microvascular and lymphatic dysfunction in HFpEF and its associated
    • Abstract: Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex heterogeneous disease for which our pathophysiological understanding is still limited and specific prevention and treatment strategies are lacking. HFpEF is characterised by diastolic dysfunction and cardiac remodelling (fibrosis, inflammation, and hypertrophy). Recently, microvascular dysfunction and chronic low-grade inflammation have been proposed to participate in HFpEF development. Furthermore, several recent studies demonstrated the occurrence of generalized lymphatic dysfunction in experimental models of risk factors for HFpEF, including obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and aging. Here, we review the evidence for a combined role of coronary (micro)vascular dysfunction and lymphatic vessel alterations in mediating key pathological steps in HFpEF, including reduced cardiac perfusion, chronic low-grade inflammation, and myocardial oedema, and their impact on cardiac metabolic alterations (oxygen and nutrient supply/demand imbalance), fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte stiffness. We focus primarily on HFpEF caused by metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, T2DM, hypertension, and aging.
      PubDate: 2020-05-25
  • Increased RyR2 activity is exacerbated by calcium leak-induced
           mitochondrial ROS
    • Abstract: Abstract Cardiac disease is associated with deleterious emission of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS), as well as enhanced oxidation and activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2). The transfer of Ca2+ from the SR via RyR2 to mitochondria is thought to play a key role in matching increased metabolic demand during stress. In this study, we investigated whether augmented RyR2 activity results in self-imposed exacerbation of SR Ca2+ leak, via altered SR-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer and elevated mito-ROS emission. Fluorescent indicators and spatially restricted genetic ROS probes revealed that both pharmacologically and genetically enhanced RyR2 activity, in ventricular myocytes from rats and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) mice, respectively, resulted in increased ROS emission under β-adrenergic stimulation. Expression of mitochondrial Ca2+ probe mtRCamp1h revealed diminished net mitochondrial [Ca2+] with enhanced SR Ca2+ leak, accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondrial matrix. While this may serve as a protective mechanism to prevent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, protection is not complete and enhanced mito-ROS emission resulted in oxidation of RyR2, further amplifying proarrhythmic SR Ca2+ release. Importantly, the effects of augmented RyR2 activity could be attenuated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging, and experiments with dominant-negative paralogs of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) supported the hypothesis that SR-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer is essential for the increase in mito-ROS. We conclude that in a process whereby leak begets leak, augmented RyR2 activity modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ handling, promoting mito-ROS emission and driving further channel activity in a proarrhythmic feedback cycle in the diseased heart.
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
  • Longitudinal metabolic profiling of cardiomyocytes derived from
           human-induced pluripotent stem cells
    • Abstract: Abstract Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (h-iPSCs) are a unique in vitro model for cardiovascular research. To realize the potential applications of h-iPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) for drug testing or regenerative medicine and disease modeling, characterization of the metabolic features is critical. Here, we show the transcriptional profile during stages of cardiomyogenesis of h-iPSCs-derived CMs. CM differentiation was not only characterized by the expression of mature structural components (MLC2v, MYH7) but also accompanied by a significant increase in mature metabolic gene expression and activity. Our data revealed a distinct substrate switch from glucose to fatty acids utilization for ATP production. Basal respiration and respiratory capacity in 9 days h-iPSCs-derived CMs were glycolysis-dependent with a shift towards a more oxidative metabolic phenotype at 14 and 28 day old CMs. Furthermore, mitochondrial analysis characterized the early and mature forms of mitochondria during cardiomyogenesis. These results suggest that changes in cellular metabolic phenotype are accompanied by increased O2 consumption and ATP synthesis to fulfill the metabolic needs of mature CMs activity. To further determine functionality, the physiological response of h-iPSCs-derived CMs to β-adrenergic stimulation was tested. These data provide a unique in vitro human heart model for the understanding of CM physiology and metabolic function which may provide useful insight into metabolic diseases as well as novel therapeutic options.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
  • Allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells (CAP-1002) in critically ill
           COVID-19 patients: compassionate-use case series
    • Abstract: Abstract There are no definitive therapies for patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve clinical outcomes, particularly in patients with severe disease. This case series explores the safety and effectiveness of intravenous allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), formulated as CAP-1002, in critically ill patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adverse reactions to CAP-1002, clinical status on the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale, and changes in pro-inflammatory biomarkers and leukocyte counts were analyzed. All patients (n = 6; age range 19–75 years, 1 female) required ventilatory support (invasive mechanical ventilation, n = 5) with PaO2/FiO2 ranging from 69 to 198. No adverse events related to CAP-1002 administration were observed. Four patients (67%) were weaned from respiratory support and discharged from the hospital. One patient remains mechanically ventilated as of April 28th, 2020; all survive. A contemporaneous control group of critically ill COVID-19 patients (n = 34) at our institution showed 18% overall mortality at a similar stage of hospitalization. Ferritin was elevated in all patients at baseline (range of all patients 605.43–2991.52 ng/ml) and decreased in 5/6 patients (range of all patients 252.89–1029.90 ng/ml). Absolute lymphocyte counts were low in 5/6 patients at baseline (range 0.26–0.82 × 103/µl) but had increased in three of these five patients at last follow-up (range 0.23–1.02 × 103/µl). In this series of six critically ill COVID-19 patients, intravenous infusion of CAP-1002 was well tolerated and associated with resolution of critical illness in 4 patients. This series demonstrates the apparent safety of CAP-1002 in COVID-19. While this initial experience is promising, efficacy will need to be further assessed in a randomized controlled trial.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
  • A future for remote ischaemic conditioning in high-risk patients
    • PubDate: 2020-04-25
  • The endocannabinoid anandamide has an anti-inflammatory effect on CCL2
           expression in vascular smooth muscle cells
    • Abstract: Abstract Endocannabinoids are important lipid-signaling mediators. Both protective and deleterious effects of endocannabinoids in the cardiovascular system have been reported but the mechanistic basis for these contradicting observations is unclear. We set out to identify anti-inflammatory mechanisms of endocannabinoids in the murine aorta and in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC). In response to combined stimulation with cytokines, IL-1β and TNFα, the murine aorta released several endocannabinoids, with anandamide (AEA) levels being the most significantly increased. AEA pretreatment had profound effects on cytokine-induced gene expression in hVSMC and murine aorta. As revealed by RNA-Seq analysis, the induction of a subset of 21 inflammatory target genes, including the important cytokine CCL2 was blocked by AEA. This effect was not mediated through AEA-dependent interference of the AP-1 or NF-κB pathways but rather through an epigenetic mechanism. In the presence of AEA, ATAC-Seq analysis and chromatin-immunoprecipitations revealed that CCL2 induction was blocked due to increased levels of H3K27me3 and a decrease of H3K27ac leading to compacted chromatin structure in the CCL2 promoter. These effects were mediated by recruitment of HDAC4 and the nuclear corepressor NCoR1 to the CCL2 promoter. This study therefore establishes a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism for the endogenous endocannabinoid AEA in vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, this work provides a link between endogenous endocannabinoid signaling and epigenetic regulation.
      PubDate: 2020-04-22
  • Translational large animal model of hibernating myocardium:
           characterization by serial multimodal imaging
    • Abstract: Abstract Nonrevascularizable coronary artery disease is a frequent cause of hibernating myocardium leading to heart failure (HF). Currently, there is a paucity of therapeutic options for patients with this condition. There is a lack of animal models resembling clinical features of hibernating myocardium. Here we present a large animal model of hibernating myocardium characterized by serial multimodality imaging. Yucatan minipigs underwent a surgical casein ameroid implant around the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), resulting in a progressive obstruction of the vessel. Pigs underwent serial multimodality imaging including invasive coronary angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and hybrid 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). A total of 43 pigs were operated on and were followed for 120 ± 37 days with monthly multimodality imaging. 24 pigs (56%) died during the follow-up. Severe LAD luminal stenosis was documented in all survivors. In the group of 19 long-term survivors, 17 (90%) developed left ventricular systolic dysfunction [median LVEF of 35% (IQR 32.5–40.5%)]. In 17/17, at-risk territory was viable on CMR and 14 showed an increased glucose uptake in the at-risk myocardium on 18FDG-PET/CT. The present pig model resembles most of the human hibernated myocardium characteristics and associated heart failure (systolic dysfunction, viable myocardium, and metabolic switch to glucose). This human-like model might be used to test novel interventions for nonrevascularizable coronary artery disease and ischemia heart failure as a previous stage to clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2020-04-14
  • Perspective: cardiovascular disease and the Covid-19 pandemic
    • Abstract: Abstract We summarize the cardiovascular risks associated with Covid-19 pandemic, discussing the risks for both infected and non-infected patients.
      PubDate: 2020-04-10
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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