Subjects -> PALEONTOLOGY (Total: 46 journals)
Showing 1 - 21 of 21 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ameghiniana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de Paléontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Carnegie Museum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comptes Rendus Palevol     Full-text available via subscription  
European Journal of Protistology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fossil Record     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geobios     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ichnos: An International Journal for Plant and Animal Traces     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Paleolimnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Paleontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Marine Micropaleontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Micropaleontology     Full-text available via subscription  
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Novitates Paleoentomologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Quaternary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Palaeoworld     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PALAIOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Paläontologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Paleobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PaleoBios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Paleontological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Paleontological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Papers in Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia (Research In Paleontology and Stratigraphy)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spanish Journal of Palaeontology     Open Access  
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Vertebrate Anatomy Morphology Palaeontology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zitteliana     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Paläontologische Zeitschrift
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.658
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-6812 - ISSN (Online) 0031-0220
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Middle Cambrian Bradoriida (Arthropoda) from the Franconian Forest,
           Germany, with a review of the bradoriids described from West Gondwana and
           a revision of material from Baltica
    • Abstract: Bradoriid arthropods (class Bradoriida) are described for the first time from the lower–middle Cambrian boundary interval (regional Agdzian Stage) of the Franconian Forest in eastern Bavaria, Germany. The specimens originate from the Tannenknock and Triebenreuth formations, which are part of a shallow marine succession deposited at the margin of West Gondwana. Five different forms have been distinguished, Indiana aff. dermatoides (Walcott), Indiana sp., Indota' sp., Pseudobeyrichona monile sp. nov., and an undetermined svealutid, all of which belong to families that have previously been reported from and are typical of West Gondwana. However, at the generic level, all taxa are new for the region. Indiana is typical of shallow marine environments. So far it has been reported from Laurentia, Avalonia, and Baltica, and is considered to characterize the paleogeographic vicinity of Cambrian continents. Pseudobeyrichona has previously only been recorded from South China, and its new occurrence corroborates previous documentation of taxa from South China in northern West Gondwana. The presence of Indiana as a typical “western” taxon and Pseudobeyrichona among other typical “eastern taxa” confirms the unique biogeographical position of West Gondwana. The poorly known Indiana anderssoni (Wiman) and Indiana minima Wiman from the late early Cambrian of Scandinavia have been restudied in order to re-evaluate the two species and to refine the definition of Indiana. Indiana anderssoni represents a distinct species of Indiana, whereas I. minima is a pseudo-fossil.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-019-00448-z
  • The coprolite Lumbricaria Münster in the Early Tithonian of the Neuquén
           Basin, Argentina: new evidence for a holothurian producer
    • Abstract: Lumbricaria Münster is described for the first time outside the Tethys domain from distal facies of the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation, Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The studied material consists of elongate, convolute, cylindrical coprolites, showing an overlapping pattern, and commonly exhibiting constrictions. Internally, coprolites show a densely packed fabric, where the particles show the distinctive morphology of saccocomid ossicles. These specimens are assigned to Lumbricaria intestinum Münster and three morphotypes are defined: (a) morphotype 1 shows a disordered convolute structure; (b) morphotype 2 is shorter and has a non-convolute arrangement; and (c) morphotype 3 has a spiral arrangement. Coprolites are preserved within microbial laminites, as well as concretions in calcareous mudstones. In this paper we discuss the possible producers of these coprolites, where evidence from the studied material would support a holothurian producer.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-019-00447-0
  • Taphonomic variation within a Middle Triassic fossil lagerstätte (Cassina
           beds, Meride Limestone) at Monte San Giorgio
    • Abstract: Middle Triassic sediments at Monte San Giorgio, a UNESCO heritage site on the Switzerland-Italy border, have famously sourced well-preserved vertebrate fossils. Taphonomic studies of reptiles in the Besano Formation and in the Cava inferiore, Cava superiore and Cassina beds of the Meride Limestone, and fish in the Besano Formation have already elucidated changes in palaeoenvironment through time in sediments that predominantly comprise black shale and carbonate lithologies. Saurichthys skeletons from the Ladinian Cassina beds were scored for articulation and completeness, with the resulting data sorted to test for variation among layers and lithologies in the 2.7-m thick section. The greatest abundance of skeletons was found in finely laminated sediments, a reduced number in event bed sediments and an absence in volcanic ash deposits. No particular bed showed better or worse preservation. The final state of a skeleton entering the fossil record was the result of the mode of deposition and rate of sedimentation with the additional influence of features at the sediment surface, notably microbial mat growth and its ability to stick carcasses to substrate.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0415-7
  • A new species of tumbling flower beetle (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) from
           Baltic amber
    • Abstract: A new species of tumbling flower beetle (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) Tomoxia succinea sp. nov. is described based on two Baltic amber specimens. The new species differs from the only extant European species of this genus, Tomoxia bucephala Costa, 1854, mainly in the shape of the scutellum and the length ratio of particular body parts. The fossil records of Mordellidae found in Baltic amber are summarized; their paleoecology in the Paleocene–Eocene of the Baltic region and the composition and distribution of the family Mordellidae are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0434-4
  • New Tithonian and Lower Berriasian aptychi of Štramberk Limestone from
           the Kotouč Quarry (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)
    • Abstract: A new collection of aptychi from the Štramberk Limestone in the Kotouč Quarry near Štramberk is presented in this paper as seven species (parataxonomic system) of ribbed calcareous valves. Their stratigraphic position is mostly supported by the occurrence of time-diagnostic ammonites. Four species are new: Beyrichilamellaptychus companyi sp. nov., B. hoedemaekeri sp. nov., B. jansseni sp. nov. and Thorolamellaptychus kleini sp. nov. The mentioned new species as well as B. studeri occur in the Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian interval, whereas Punctaptychus punctatus and Beyrichilamellaptychus beyrichi are well known by their wider stratigraphic range: Tithonian-Berriasian.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0418-4
  • Pakkokuhyus and Progenitohyus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Eocene of
           Southeast Asia are not Helohyidae: paleobiogeographical implications
    • Abstract: Pakkokuhyus and Progenitohyus are two genera of primitive artiodactyls from the Eocene of Southeast Asia that have been referred to the family Helohyidae. However, recent advances in the phylogeny and systematics of basal artiodactyls suggest that the status of several Asian forms should be reassessed. In that frame, reexamination of the few dental remains known for Pakkokuhyus and Progenitohyus indicates that they very probably do not belong to the Helohyidae but to the Dichobunidae. The dental structure of the alleged helohyid Gobiohyus from Asia also suggests that the attribution of this genus to the Helohyidae is questionable. In that context, the representatives of the family Helohyidae probably originated in North America during the Middle Eocene and were never involved in dispersals between Eurasia and North America, contrary to the diacodexeids and homacodontids. This further suggests that the systematics of basal artiodactyls from Southeast Asia should be carefully reassessed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0425-5
  • Late Miocene proboscideans from Samos Island (Greece) revisited: new
           specimens from old collections
    • Abstract: In this article, we present new proboscidean remains from the late Miocene (Turolian) of Samos Island (Greece), which are stored in the old Samos collections of Darmstadt, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany), Lausanne (Switzerland), and Vienna (Austria), and originate from the excavations or fossil collections that took place on the island at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The specimens belong to juvenile individuals of deinotheres, choerolophodonts and amebelodonts. The deinothere material is attributed to the last European huge-sized deinothere, Deinotherium proavum. The described skull from Samos is currently the most complete specimen of all known Miocene juvenile deinotheres from Eurasia and Africa. The majority of the Samos choerolophodont specimens belong to the advanced morph of Choerolophodon pentelici, whereas one shows more archaic features and belongs to the primitive evolutionary stage of this species. This more primitive morph could originate from the lower fossiliferous horizons of Samos, which are dated to the early Turolian. The third proboscidean is attributed to the tetralophodont shovel-tusker Konobelodon atticus, a rare taxon in the Samos fauna. Together with the previously described zygodont Mammut from Samos, these four proboscideans are typical of the Turolian proboscidean fauna of southeastern Europe. We discuss the biostratigraphy of the Samos proboscideans with the aim of unraveling some aspects of the chronological range of the late Miocene proboscideans, focusing in particular on the Southern Balkans and Turkey.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0432-6
  • Sauropod remains from the Middle Jurassic Itat Formation of West Siberia,
    • Abstract: Isolated sauropod teeth and caudal vertebrae from the Middle Jurassic Itat Formation of the Berezovsk coal mine, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Russia, are attributed to the endemic Asiatic eusauropod family Mamenchisauridae based mostly on phenetic similarity. The few large anterior teeth lack marginal denticles. In small, possible juvenile posterior teeth there are denticles on both mesial and distal crown margins. The anterior caudal vertebrae are deeply procoelous, while the posterior caudal vertebrae are amphicoelous, which is characteristic for the Mamenchisauridae. The Berezovsk sauropod remains represent the northernmost and westernmost record for the Mamenchisauridae and the first Middle Jurassic Asiatic eusauropod outside China.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-00445-8
  • Palaeoecology of Late Ladinian (Middle Triassic) benthic faunas from the
           Schlern/Sciliar and Seiser Alm/Alpe di Siusi area (South Tyrol, Italy)
    • Abstract: The Schlern and Seiser Alm area (South Tyrol, Italy) is a classical locality for studies of Middle Triassic platform to basin transitions, yet details of the palaeoecology of the rich benthic faunas of this area have been insufficiently known. We present herein a detailed palaeoecological study of the fauna from the Schlernplateau beds (Late Ladinian to Early Carnian) and the more or less time-equivalent Pachycardientuffe (Late Ladinian), which is based on quantitative faunal data. Both the palaeoecology and sedimentary features suggest that the fauna of the Schlernplateau beds represents a lagoonal soft-bottom fauna. The high species richness of the fauna and the locally restricted occurrences of fossils indicate an open-lagoon setting palaeogeographically close to an ocean inlet. The high evenness of the fauna is probably a result of time-averaging. In contrast, the fauna of the Pachycardientuffe shows clear indications of transportation. Ecological features of this fauna and palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source areas: (1) the lagoon represented by the Schlernplateau beds, (2) the reef fringing this lagoon and (3) a shallow clastic coast of a nearby volcanic island and/or submarine high. A comparison between diversities of selected Early and Middle Triassic lithological units revealed the increasing species richness of all major benthic taxa during the Middle Triassic and a shift from bivalve-dominated Early Triassic faunas to gastropod-dominated faunas.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0423-7
  • Problematic archaic whale Phococetus (Cetacea: Odontoceti) from the Lee
           Creek Mine, North Carolina, USA, with comments on geochronology of the
           Pungo River Formation
    • Abstract: Heterodont cetaceans are abundant in Eocene, Oligocene, and early to middle Miocene deposits worldwide. Taxonomic practice in the 19th and early 20th centuries led to the establishment of a multitude of names based on isolated teeth. Some of these taxa, such as Phococetus vasconum from the lower Miocene (Burdigalian) of France, have been alternatively interpreted as archaeocetes, odontocetes, and mysticetes. Isolated teeth resembling Phococetus vasconum from the Pungo River Formation in the Lee Creek Mine (Beaufort County, North Carolina, USA) also share features with the enigmatic early Miocene odontocete Inticetus vertizi, suggesting that Phococetus may represent a large heterodont odontocete.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0419-3
  • Ferns of the Lower Jurassic from the Mecsek Mountains (Hungary): taxonomy
           and palaeoecology
    • Abstract: Ferns are the most diverse group in the Early Jurassic plant assemblage of the Mecsek Mountains in southern Hungary and, considering their abundance and diversity, are an important element of the flora. Five families were recognized so far from the locality; these are, in order of abundance, the Dipteridaceae (48% of collected fern remains), Matoniaceae (25%), Osmundaceae (21%), Marattiaceae (6%) and Dicksoniaceae (three specimens). Ferns are represented by 14 taxa belonging to nine genera: Marattiopsis hoerensis, Todites princeps, Todites goeppertianus, Phlebopteris angustiloba, Phlebopteris kirchneri Barbacka and Kustatscher sp. nov., Matonia braunii, Thaumatopteris brauniana, Clathropteris meniscoides, Dictyophyllum nilssoni, Dictyophyllum rugosum, Cladophlebis denticulata, Cladophlebis haiburnensis, Cladophlebis roessertii, and Coniopteris sp. Ferns from the Mecsek Mts. are rarely found in association with other plants. They co-occur mostly with leaves of Nilssonia, leaflets of Sagenopteris, and rarely with other plants. The most commonly co-occurring fern species is P. kirchneri Barbacka and Kustatscher sp. nov. According to our statistical approach (PCA, Ward cluster analysis), the fern taxa cluster in four groups corresponding to their environmental preferences, determined by moisture and disturbance. Most taxa grew in monospecific thickets in disturbed areas; a few probably formed bushes in mixed assemblages, whereas one taxon, P. kirchneri, probably was a component of the understorey in a stable, developed succession of humid environments.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0430-8
  • The uniquely diverse taphonomy of the marine reptile skeletons
           (Sauropterygia) from the Lower Muschelkalk (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The
    • Abstract: Having provided dozens of articulated, and even more disarticulated skeletons of marine reptiles with varying degrees of completeness, the Middle Triassic fossil deposit of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, might be considered the richest within the entire Germanic Basin concerning associated and partially articulated remains. Aside from these remains, a high number of isolated bones are also found. Among the various marine reptile taxa, the pachypleurosaur Anarosaurus and the nothosaur Nothosaurus are the most common. The skeletons and remains show diverse disarticulation patterns. These patterns range from mostly complete articulated skeletons to clustered and isolated bones. Interestingly, a large number of isolated articulated limbs is found, a pattern which is not known from other marine localities. Although numerous reports have been made on the taxa from Winterswijk, the taphonomy of the locality still remains poorly understood. Here, a series of methods are used to describe the taphonomy of 327 marine reptile specimens from the locality of Winterswijk in a qualitative manner. Furthermore, it is tested whether biofilms such as microbial mats could have had an influence on the preferential preservation of several body regions. Upon investigation, it is concluded that the taphonomy of Winterswijk is very complex and indeed depends on various factors such as: current activity, microbial activity, and anatomical differences between taxa. Finally, a total of 12 recurring patterns were identified within the dataset, which could largely be explained by the aforementioned factors.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0438-0
  • Fungal intruders of enigmatic propagule clusters occurring in microbial
           mats from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert
    • Abstract: Microbial mats in the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert represent diverse communities of organisms, which probably not only co-occurred in these structures, but also variously interacted with one another. However, little is known about these interactions. Three different types of fungi interact with clusters of small propagules that frequently occur within the Rhynie microbial mats. One of the fungi occurs in the form of small mycelia and single reproductive units within individual propagules, while the second is characterized by apophysate, epibiotic sporangia and multibranched rhizoidal systems that extend through the clusters and penetrate individual propagules. The third fungus consists of what is interpreted as a distal sporangium or spore from which a long, tubular stalk reaches into the propagule cluster. One specimen of the latter fungus occurs inside a specimen of the second fungus and, moreover, shows evidence suggestive of hyperparasitism in the form of conical callosities. This discovery supports the suggestion that microbial mats in the Rhynie paleoecosystem were complex structures based on the presence of numerous interactions between different organisms within the mats.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0427-3
  • The oldest known tetrapod (Temnospondyli) from Germany (Early
           Carboniferous, Viséan)
    • Abstract: A unique skull roof fragment of a relatively large-sized tetrapod of Viséan age from Chemnitz-Glösa, Saxony, is described. The specimen consists of three bones, an elongated supratemporal with a radially arranged dermal sculpture and the sulcus of the otical part of the infraorbital line, the medial portion of the squamosal which is sutured with the anterolateral supratemporal, and a small, strip-like tabular bone. A deep “otic notch” is indicated. This new tetrapod was predominantly aquatic, as indicated by the deep and relatively broad lateral line sulcus. The type of dermal sculpture and the configuration of the bones indicate that the specimen is probably an adult temnospondyl, with the course of the lateral lines resembling those of dvinosaurians. Together with Balanerpeton from Scotland, this is the geologically oldest temnospondyl and the oldest known tetrapod record in Germany up to now.
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-00442-x
  • Characterizing the branching architecture of drepanophycalean lycophytes
           (Lycopsida): an exceptional specimen from the Early Devonian Hunsrück
           Slate, southwest Germany, and its paleobiological implications
    • Abstract: An exceptionally large and well-preserved drepanophycalean lycophyte specimen from the Early Emsian Hunsrück Slate exhibits branching morphology and architecture that suggest previously unrecognized diversity of drepanophycalean lycophytes in the German Early Devonian. The specimen shows long prostrate axes giving rise to both rooting axes and erect leafy, unbranched axes via K-branching. Rhizomatous growth along the substrate promoted rapid vegetative expansion of the plant forming monoclonal patches, potential adaptations to colonizing an unstable deltaic environment. K-branches including dormant buds may have allowed resurrection of the shoot system following burial by sediment or damage to growing shoot apices. Cutbank erosion may have uprooted parts of the plants, which were then transported into the open marine areas and eventually buried in the Hunsrück Slate depositional environment. We hypothesize that remains of Late Silurian/Early Devonian plants (and possibly Prototaxites) may have drifted for many kilometers and were large enough to raft small organisms over considerable distances. Thus, the Late Silurian/Early Devonian may have witnessed the earliest passive oceanic dispersal by rafting of terrestrial invertebrates and therefore marks a crucial time in Earth’s history with respect to this important paleobiogeographical factor.
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-00443-w
  • Three-dimensionally preserved stem-group hexactinellid sponge fossils from
           lower Cambrian (Stage 2) phosphorites of China
    • Abstract: Three-dimensionally, in situ preserved sponge fossils were collected from the phosphorites at the basal Niutitang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) in Hunan Province, China. These fossils are preserved as nodular bodies in authigenic carbonaceous cherty Ca-phosphorites. Spicules are either completely embedded in cryptocrystalline phosphate or immediately overgrown by early isopachous phosphate cements, leaving the remaining interspace filled by other deposits. Two specimens are described in detail as examples. One is composed of hexactins of at least three size-hierarchies, the small spicules in which may be interpreted as microscleres. The other, investigated using grinding tomography, shows a skeletal frame composed of pentactins, hexactins, and diactins. These spicules exhibit a weak pattern of perpendicular orientation in 3D space and a possible differentiation of hypodermalia and parenchymalia. These skeletal architectures belong to new taxonomic groups and seem to represent very basic forms of hexactinellids. Disarticulated spicules scattered in other parts of the investigated phosphorites indicate a still unexplored diversity of the fossil community, and some show combined features, which were regarded characteristic and mutually exclusive in living hexactinellids and demosponges. This work suggests that the lower Cambrian phosphorite Lagerstätten have a great potential to preserve details of the early evolutionary history of sponges.
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-00441-y
  • A new mesenosaurine from the lower Permian of Germany and the postcrania
           of Mesenosaurus : implications for early amniote comparative osteology
    • Abstract: Based on an exceptionally well-preserved articulated postcranial skeleton, the early amniote Cabarzia trostheidei gen. et sp. nov. is described. As the lack of the skull hampers its taxonomic assignment, a large sample of basal amniotes is included as part of an exhaustive comparison. Considering the slender, long-limbed proportions of the skeleton, several potential determinations are suggested in order to test for bolosaur, millerettid, araeoscelid, basal neodiapsid, or synapsid affinities. Numerous character conditions are re-evaluated regarding their distributions among early amniote subclades. The closest match to Cabarzia is found to be the middle Permian Mesenosaurus from Russia. The documentation for both genera provides the most complete postcranial descriptions of non-varanodontine varanopids. One of the main differences from Mesenosaurus is the curved ungual phalanx, indicating a use related to predatory behavior. An investigation of limb proportions, such as slender trunks, elongated hindlimbs, and relatively short forelimbs, may suggest the occurrence of facultative bipedalism in Mesenosaurus and Cabarzia. The oldest known mesenosaurine, C. trostheidei from the Asselian/Sakmarian, also pushes back the oldest evidence of bipedal locomotion by more than 15 Ma.
      PubDate: 2019-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0439-z
  • Early Jurassic “worm holothurians” (Echinodermata) as faecal traces of
           a worm-like holothurian-eater reflecting the consumed species
    • Abstract: “Worm holothurians” from a sequence of Early Liassic (Hettangian) shales at Göttingen (Germany) are string- and strip-shaped relics of faeces of a worm-like holothurian-eater. They consist of three typical associations of morphotypes of microscopic calcitic ossicles of the body wall skeletons of holothurians: (1) mostly buttons and a few larger hooks; (2) polyperforate spectacles and many tiny hooks; or, rarely, (3) sieve platelets only. The faeces were discarded by the predator partly as it rapidly advanced, leaving an elongated, irregularly curved string at the sediment surface, but mostly during its slow creeping and crawling at and below the sediment/water interface, when it left a narrowly meandering string in its moulded or tunnel-like trail. The elongated strings are generally well preserved, whereas the meandering ones are generally totally disintegrated, possibly due to ventilating activities of the predator. Upon the collapse of the trail wall, the biostratinomic state of disintegration was fixed as a strip of ossicles. Such a strip, therefore, represents the faecally documented part of a creeping or crawling trace in or just below the sediment surface. All holothurian calcareous ring segments found in some of the two kinds of strip-shaped ossicle associations with hooks belong to the same new type of ring form. According to a feasible scenario for the predator–prey relationship, this form should be defined as a new genus of chiridotid Apodida that contains the ossicle associations with hooks as two biological species. The strings of concentrated sieve platelets should also be interpreted as a biological species from a new genus within the Dendrochirotida.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0428-2
  • Mastication and enamel microstructure in Cambaytherium , a
           perissodactyl-like ungulate from the early Eocene of India
    • Abstract: The dentition of Cambaytherium was investigated in terms of dental wear, tooth replacement and enamel microstructure. The postcanine tooth row shows a significant wear gradient, with flattened premolars and anterior molars at a time when the last molars are only little worn. This wear gradient, which is more intensive in Cambaytherium thewissi than in Cambaytherium gracilis, and the resulting flattened occlusal surfaces, may indicate a preference for a durophagous diet. The tooth replacement (known only in C. thewissi) shows an early eruption of the permanent premolars. They are in function before the third molars are fully erupted. During the dominant phase I of the chewing cycle the jaw movement is very steep, almost orthal, with a slight mesiolingual direction and changes into a horizontal movement during phase II. The enamel microstructure shows Hunter-Schreger-bands (HSB) in the inner zone of the enamel. In some teeth the transverse orientation of the HSB is modified into a zig-zag pattern, possibly an additional indicator of a durophagous diet.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0422-8
  • A non-destructive technique for chemical mapping of insect inclusions in
    • Abstract: Synchrotron-based techniques offer a wealth of elemental, molecular, and structural insights in biological samples, but the application of these techniques to fossils is a relatively new development. Here we examine how synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR µXRF) may be used to investigate the chemical composition of insects trapped in amber, while leaving the inclusions unaltered. Elemental distribution data could provide important information on tissue preservation in insect inclusions, as well as information on the processes involved in fossilization. By analyzing a series of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) that range from modern material, to Eocene Baltic amber, and Late Cretaceous North Carolina amber, we investigate how variable preservation influences the results obtained through SR µXRF analyses, as well as the various merits and pitfalls associated with the application of this technique to amber inclusions. This work serves as an introduction to the underlying principles, strengths, and limitations associated with applying SR µXRF in a palaeontological context.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12542-018-0412-x
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