Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3541 journals)
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CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)

Showing 1 - 19 of 19 Journals sorted alphabetically
Customer Needs and Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gesunde Pflanzen     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
International Journal of Consumer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Consumer Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Consumer Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Consumer Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences :Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marketing Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Major Gifts Report The     Hybrid Journal  
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Rose Sheet     Full-text available via subscription  
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IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.53
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 45  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0098-3063
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Consumer Technology Society

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Consumer Technology Society Board of Governors

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Consumer Technology Society Officers and Committee Chairs

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Editorial Real-Time Implementation of VVC Standard for Consumer Electronic
           Devices

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      Authors: Wassim Hamidouche;Fernando Pescador;Thibaud Biatek;Edouard François;
      Pages: 93 - 95
      Abstract: We are pleased to present this Special Issue on this timely and important topic. The next generation ISO/IEC MPEG and ITU-T VCEG video coding standard called versatile video coding (VVC) was released in July 2020 [1], [2]. Gls vvc includes some coding tools enabling an important coding gains estimated to 35% of bit-rate reductions for the same quality in terms of peak signal to noise ration (PSNR) compared with high efficiency video coding (HEVC) in random access (RA) coding configurations. For all intra (AI) configuration the improvement is a bit lower and estimated in a 25%. Moreover, subjective comparison recently conducted between HEVC and the VVC reference software, has shown that this gain is even higher reaching up to 50% of bit-rate reduction for the same perceived quality [3] - [4]. Unfortunately the coding gain is associated to an increase in the algorithm complexity at both encoder and decoder sides. The VVC encoder is estimated to be $8times $ more complex than HEVC in RA configuration and $25times $ . The complexity of the VVC decoder is doubled compared to HEVC. Therefore, complexity reduction and optimization of VVC is critical to design of software and hardware real time VVC codecs for successful deployment on video consumer devices including among others TVs, mobile phones and tablets.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Hardware-Friendly Multiple Transform Selection Module for the VVC Standard

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      Authors: Wassim Hamidouche;Pierrick Philippe;Sid Ahmed Fezza;Mounir Haddou;Fernando Pescador;Daniel Menard;
      Pages: 96 - 106
      Abstract: The H.266/versatile video coding (VVC) standard is the most recent ITU/ISO video coding standard finalized in July 2020. VVC includes several new coding tools at different levels of the coding scheme. These coding tools enable a significant bitrate saving of up to 50% for the same subjective video quality than its predecessor H.265/high efficiency video coding (HEVC). Among these tools, we can cite the multiple transform selection (MTS) which selects at the encoder horizontal and vertical transforms among three trigonometrical transforms, including discrete cosine transform (DCT) type II, discrete sine transform (DST) type VII and DCT type VIII. Unlike the DCT-II, the DST-VII does not have efficient fast algorithmic implementation. Moreover, the MTS increases the memory usage required to store the coefficients of the three transforms. Consequently, this paper targets an efficient approximation of the DST-VII kernel based on the DCT-II and adjustment stage. The approximation of the DST-VII is modeled as an integer optimization problem jointly minimizing the error and the orthogonality of the approximate DST-VII under sparsity constraint of the adjustment stage. The sparse nonlinear optimizer (SNOPT) solver with an additional relaxation constraint is used to solve the problem and find the best sparse adjustment band matrices for different transform sizes. The DCT-VIII is then computed from the approximate DST-VII with pre/post processing operations involving only sign changes and input/output reordering. The proposed approximation provides a significant reduction in both arithmetic operations and memory usage. Moreover, it preserves the coding gain brought by the MTS under the VVC reference software. These advantages make our solution suitable for energy-efficient hardware H.266//VVC encoders and decoders deployed on consumer electronic devices.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Loop Filter Hardware Design for 4K ASIC VVC Decoders

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      Authors: Ibrahim Farhat;Wassim Hamidouche;Adrien Grill;Daniel Ménard;Olivier Déforges;
      Pages: 107 - 118
      Abstract: Versatile video coding (VVC) is the next generation video coding standard released in July 2020. VVC introduces new coding tools enhancing the coding efficiency compared to its predecessor high efficiency video coding (HEVC). These new tools have a significant impact on the VVC software decoder with a complexity estimated to two times HEVC decoder complexity. In particular, the adaptive loop filter (ALF) introduced in VVC as an in-loop filter increases both the decoding complexity and memory usage. These concerns need to be carefully addressed regarding the design of an efficient hardware implementation of a VVC decoder. In this paper, we present an efficient hardware implementation of the ALF tool for VVC decoder. The proposed solution establishes a novel scanning order between Luma and Chroma components that reduces significantly the ALF memory. The design takes advantage of all ALF features and establishes an unified hardware module for all ALF filters. The design uses 26 regular multipliers in a pipelined architecture with a fixed throughput of 2 pixels/cycle and fixed system latency regardless of the selected filter. This design operates at 600 MHz frequency enabling to decode on ASIC platform a 4K video at 30 frames per second in 4:2:2 chroma sub-sampling format.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Low-Complexity Intra Coding in Versatile Video Coding

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      Authors: Kiho Choi;The Van Le;Yongho Choi;Jin Young Lee;
      Pages: 119 - 126
      Abstract: Versatile Video Coding (VVC) was finalized in 2020 and offered promising coding efficiency with a bitrate reduction of about 50% for same video quality as High Efficiency Video Coding. However, its high encoding complexity is a heavy burden on real-time applications. In particular, the very high complexity in intra coding can be a big barrier into market entry. This paper presents an efficient low-complexity intra coding scheme, which employs downsampling and upsampling processes. The downsampling is simply performed by reducing the resolution of an original video in both horizontal and vertical directions. In the upsampling, convolutional neural network based super-resolution is used to increase the resolution of the reconstructed video. In addition, this paper thoroughly analyzes the performance and complexity of all intra coding tools in VVC. Experimental results demonstrate that the significantly high reduction of the encoding complexity can be achieved with acceptable video quality.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • VVC Search Space Analysis Including an Open, Optimized Implementation

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      Authors: Adam Wieckowski;Jens Brandenburg;Benjamin Bross;Detlev Marpe;
      Pages: 127 - 138
      Abstract: Versatile Video Coding (VVC) is a new video coding standard finalized in July 2020. During the standard development much attention was paid to keeping the decoding complexity increase as small as possible, with more permissive approach being taken with regard to the encoding. The VVC reference software VTM in random access configuration requires around double the time to decode and $8times $ the time to encode a video, compared to High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) reference software HM. With this runtime increase, an objective bitrate reduction of around 40% is achieved. In this paper we analyze the encoding complexity increase of VVC over HEVC. We abstract the implementation-based aspects, including low-level software optimizations and introduce an empirical measure to quantify the extent of encoder search space given a specific search algorithm. Based on the measure, we compare the search space of HM and VTM, but also of the open and optimized VVC encoder implementation VVenC, showing the potential for search space reduction and its impact on compression performance. Overall, it can be seen that while VVC’s search space is quite large in VTM, it can be efficiently limited either by including early termination strategies or by disabling VVC coding tools.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • From HEVC to VVC: The First Development Steps of a Practical Intra Video
           Encoder

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      Authors: Marko Viitanen;Joose Sainio;Alexandre Mercat;Ari Lemmetti;Jarno Vanne;
      Pages: 139 - 148
      Abstract: Versatile Video Coding (VVC/H.266) is an emerging successor to the widespread High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC/H.265) and is shown to double the coding efficiency for the same subjective visual quality. Nevertheless, VVC still adopts the similar hybrid video coding scheme as HEVC and thereby sets the scene for reusing many HEVC coding tools and techniques as is or with minor modifications. This paper explores the feasibility of developing a practical software VVC intra encoder from our open-source Kvazaar HEVC encoder. The outcome of this work is called uvg266 VVC intra encoder that is distributed under the same permissive 3-clause BSD license as Kvazaar. uvg266 inherits the optimized coding flow of Kvazaar and all upgradable Kvazaar intra coding tools, but it also introduces basic VVC intra coding tools not available in HEVC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to describe the implementation details of upgrading an HEVC encoder to a VVC encoder. The rapid development time with promising coding performance make our proposal a viable approach over the encoder development from scratch.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • HDR10+ Adaptive Ambient Compensation Using Creative Intent Metadata

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      Authors: Dung Vo;Chenguang Liu;Mcclain Nelson;Bill Mandel;Suzie Hyun;
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: The proposes a high dynamic range (HDR) tone mastering system which dynamically corrects the picture quality based on creative intent metadata to preserve content providers’ creative intent in different ambient light levels/ranges. Luminance percentile information based creative intent metadata is used to compensate for imagery degradation caused by ambient light. Multiple sections of tone mapping curves with multiple adjustment points along explicit Bezier curve are modified for more flexible tone mapping curve control than simply single section tone mapping curves. Simulation results show that the proposed method can adapt to both ambient light level and the scene content to keep the creative intent in different ambient conditions.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Noise Aware L₂-LP Decomposition-Based Enhancement in Extremely Low Light
           Conditions With Web Application

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      Authors: Neha Singh;Ashish Kumar Bhandari;
      Pages: 161 - 169
      Abstract: In this article, an algorithm is introduced which not only focuses on enhancing low light images but also denoises images to produce more visually pleasing outputs. It is observed that various methods ignore noise during enhancement processes. This causes, enhancement of noise which leads to significant information lost. The paper projected a novel framework for low light images that performs enhancement and denoising jointly. The proposed paper uses $L_{2}$ - $L_{P}$ image decomposition to obtain reflectance and illumination concurrently. The illumination layer is corrected using the proposed weighting distribution and generates enhanced output. Further to this, noise suppressed bilateral filter is employed here for denoising process and gamma function is applied in subsequent step for additional contrast improvement. Experimental trials illustrate that the proposed method yields result with good contrast and brightness when it is compared to various enhancement techniques.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Optimized Volume Control Architecture for Cascaded Audio System

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      Authors: Desheng Wang;Yangjie Wei;Dong Ji;Ye Ma;Yi Wang;
      Pages: 170 - 180
      Abstract: Cascaded audio systems (CASs) widely exist in consumer electronics, within which volume control is one of the most basic functions. However, the current volume adjustment schemes cannot automatically achieve optimal control, leading to performance degradation of CASs. Meanwhile, there is a lack of mathematical models and quantitative analysis between CASs performance and volume control position. In this study, an optimal volume control architecture named local processing and amplification (LPA) is proposed to minimize the volume control’s adverse impact on CASs’ performance automatically. First, a general CAS model is established through effective analysis and reasonable equivalence of diverse complicated CASs. Second, the quantitative relationship between the volume control and the CAS performance is theoretically analyzed using the noise figure theory, hence, the LPA architecture is proposed. Finally, the proposed LPA’s performance improvement effect is analyzed and compared with the other volume controls in a wide volume range. Simulations and experiments using multiple indexes show that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) improvement of the proposed architecture are up to 5.2 dB and 4.8 dB, respectively, under a typical −9 dB volume.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Realization of a Real-Time Image Denoising System for Dashboard Camera
           Applications

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      Authors: Chu Yu;Li-Zhong Hou;
      Pages: 181 - 190
      Abstract: Noise interference during the acquisition of digital images can severely degrade image quality, particularly for images captured under low-light conditions; however, the removal of image noise requires sophisticated digital image processing systems. This study presents a hardware-based solution to real-time image denoising using an existing algorithm designed for the removal of mixed impulse noise (salt-and-pepper and random-valued impulse noise), while preserving image edge details and image borders, without the need for additional computation time or memory capacity. Note that mixed impulse noise is typical of most real-world situations, such as the video noise associated with dashboard cameras. The proposed design was implemented using 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, consuming only 21.7 mW when operated at 200 MHz. This operating frequency allows the proposed chip to process noisy video streams with resolution of $1920mathbf {times }1080$ at 60 frames per second in real time. In terms of image restoration, the proposed algorithm achieved image quality on par with that achieved using software simulation. We also demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed scheme in denoising noisy video images from a dashboard camera.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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