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Customer Needs and Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gesunde Pflanzen     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
International Journal of Consumer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Consumer Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
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Journal of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences :Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marketing Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Major Gifts Report The     Hybrid Journal  
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Rose Sheet     Full-text available via subscription  
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Gesunde Pflanzen
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1439-0345 - ISSN (Online) 0367-4223
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Yield Related Traits and Tolerance Indices to Screen Salinity Tolerant
           Genotypes in Cultivated and Wild Barley

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      Abstract: Abstract Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors limiting crop production worldwide. To assess salinity stress tolerance of wild (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum L.) and cultivated (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) barley genotypes, a two-year field experiment was carried out. Plant height, days to heading, days to anthesis, days to maturity, spike length, grain yield, and yield components were evaluated under normal and salinity stress conditions. The stress stability index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), yield index (YI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity (MP), and yield stability index (YSI) were the tolerance indices used in this study. The results showed significant effects of salinity stress and genotype on the measured and calculated variables. The wild genotypes were less affected by salinity stress than the cultivated ones and thus were far superior for the stability indices for yield (STI and YSI). On the other hand, barley cultivars were superior for yield obtained under normal (Yp) and saline (Ys) conditions, MP, GMP, and TOL. A strong relationship was found between grain yield and three indices (STI, YI, and YSI). Ultimately, cluster and principal component analyses suggested that the implementation of STI and YSI in the screening of the wild genotypes for salinity tolerance results in a more robust determination of the most salinity tolerant genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Evaluation of 10 Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes for
           Development of Cultivars Suitable for Short-Term Waterlogged Conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Eggplant is an important vegetable in South Asia. In Bangladesh, it is grown around the year in all parts of the country. However, it is highly sensitive to waterlogged conditions. In Bangladesh, during the monsoon, waterlogged conditions represent one of the hostile abiotic stresses that affect the growth and development of eggplant, leading to a drastically reduced yield. Considering this burning issue, the current study aimed to identify waterlogging-tolerant eggplant cultivars suitable for growing in the summer season. In this context, a factorial field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments consisted of factor A, waterlogged levels: (i) I0: no waterlogging (control; normal irrigation and drainage); (ii) I1: waterlogging for 48 h maintained by 25 mm constant standing water depth; (iii) I2: waterlogging for 96 h maintained by 25 mm constant standing water depth; and factor B, eggplants (including existing varieties and advance lines): V1: BARI Begun‑8, V2: BARI Begun-10, V3: BARI Hybrid Begun‑4, V4: BARI Hybrid Begun‑5, V5: BARI Hybrid Begun‑6, V6: BARI Adv. Line-SM216, V7: BARI Adv. Line-SM233, V8: BARI Adv. Line-SM253B, V9: BARI Adv. Line-SM275, and V10: BARI Adv. Line-SM286B. The results revealed that the eggplant varieties were sensitive to waterlogging levels, particularly at the flowering/fruiting stage (46 days after planting, DAP). Among the varieties, V5 (BARI Hybrid Begun-6) performed better than the other varieties and lines. The variety V5 had significantly lower damage (20%) and greater survival (80%) ability under 48 h of waterlogging (I1) at 65 DAP and 80 DAP, while the others were observed to have significantly greater damage and lower survival ability. The variety V5 also showed significantly greater root biomass under 48 h (I1) and 96 h (I2) of waterlogging at 70 DAP, while the other varieties and lines showed significantly lower root biomass. The effect of waterlogging on SPAD value and root biomass was significantly different among the treatments. It was observed that no varieties and lines survived at 80 DAP under 96 h of waterlogging (I2). The identified waterlogging-tolerant eggplant BARI Hybrid Begun‑6 will be helpful for increasing the area and production of eggplant in the summer season.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma harzianum and Zinc Nanoparticles to
           Mitigate Gray Mold Disease of Tomato

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      Abstract: Abstract Botrytis cinerea is a destructive phytopathogenic ascomycete causing severe pre- and postharvest yield losses in tomato-growing areas worldwide. Due to fungicide resistance development in B. cinerea strains, its chemical control has become a serious challenge for tomato growers. In the present investigation, 47 fungal isolates were obtained and screened for their biocontrol potency against B. cinerea, and 12 isolates showed significant biocontrol efficacy. In 12 fungal bioagents, Trichoderma harzianum isolate Tr‑3, identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis, significantly suppressed the in vitro mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Furthermore, different concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) of zinc nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) demonstrated remarkable suppression of in vitro mycelial growth. At higher concentrations (100 ppm) of ZnO-NPs, 88% mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was recorded. Moreover, foliar applications of T. harzianum suspension and ZnO-NPs in the greenhouse provided a promising control of B. cinerea infection in tomato plants, and a significant reduction in disease severity (68.5 and 83.4%, respectively) was recorded. While the foliar applications attenuate disease intensity, a significant increase in plant biomass was also recorded, which demonstrated the plant growth-promoting potential of indigenous T. harzianum and ZnO-NPs. Additionally, the antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of treated tomato leaves demonstrated higher levels of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PO) activity in ZnO-NP-treated plants followed by T. harzianum-treated plants. Thus, these results suggested that ZnO-NPs and indigenous T. harzianum as biocontrol could suppress B. cinerea infection in the greenhouse, either directly or indirectly as resistance inducers. Therefore, ZnO-NPs and T. harzianum may be applied as an alternative to fungicides to alleviate gray mold disease in tomato caused by the resistance problems in B. cinerea.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • How do Mycorrhiza and Plant Growth Stimulants Improve the Qualitative and
           Quantitative Yields of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Under Different
           Irrigation Regimes'

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      Abstract: Abstract Abiotic stress such as drought hampers plant growth and development. Biological fertilizers and phytohormones have long been recognized in agriculture. They are involved in plant growth-promoting processes and upregulation of metabolic activities to counteract abiotic stresses and improve crop yield. The current experiment assessed the role of mycorrhiza inoculation and foliar ascorbic acid (AsA) application under water-deficient conditions for increasing basil yield and production. Under field conditions (Tehran, Iran) in a split-plot factorial randomized complete block design during the 2019–2020 growing seasons, basil plants were treated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter (no inoculation; inoculation with Azospirillum, Azotobacter, and Azospirillum + Azotobacter) and AsA (0 and 100 ppm at the seedling stage), and then exposed to well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought stress regimes. During full bloom, plants were harvested for biological and agronomic measurements. While mild drought stress and foliar AsA non-application stimulated proline content, methyl chavicol, methyl eugenol, and α‑bergamotene percentages, AsA application reduced these by 11.8, 5.7, 4.43, and 4.23%, respectively, under mild drought conditions compared to unsprayed plants. Compared to mild drought stress, plants with severe drought stress had lower chlorophyll and proline content, shoot dry weight, β‑myrcene, α‑bergamotene, methyl eugenol, methyl chavicol, eugenol, and linalool percentages. In contrast, essential oil content was highest in severe drought stress treated by AsA. Increasing drought intensity reduced the chlorophyll in leaves. Application of AsA increased chlorophyll content compared to unsprayed plants. Inoculation with Azospirillum + Azotobacter increased plant height, chlorophyll, and essential oil content. Although in mild drought conditions β‑myrcene, α‑bergamotene, methyl eugenol, methyl chavicol, and eugenol content were increased by Azotobacter or Azospirillum + Azotobacter treatment, the highest content of linalool was achieved in well-watered conditions and Azotobacter treatment (54.8%). The results indicate that Azospirillum + Azotobacter or AsA can be considered a common strategy to maintain the growth of basil under water shortage.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Foliar Application of Melatonin Alleviates the Deleterious Effects of
           Drought on the Three Most Cultivated Capsicum Species in Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract Signaling molecules such as melatonin can modulate drought, which continues to be a serious threat to plant productivity across the world. Capsicum is an economically important crop valued for its piquancy and nutritional content, but is quite sensitive to drought. This study investigated the effect of two levels of foliar application of melatonin (0 and 50 μM) on growth parameters, pigment accumulation, and osmolyte and inorganic ion content of three Capsicum species (C. frutesence, C. chinense, and C. annum) under well-watered as well as mild and severe drought conditions. Drought exerted negative effects on growth and development of the Capsicum spp., as indicated by changes in height, decreased leaf area, biomass, and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Drought strongly decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoid content, but increased root biomass, total soluble sugar, and proline concentrations of Capsicum compared to well-watered plants. In C. frutesence, severe drought significantly enhanced Na+ and SO42−, while mild drought increased Ca2+ and SO42−. Mild and severe drought increased Na+, decreased K+ and Ca2+, and had no significant effects on Cl− and SO42− in C. chinense and C. annum. Foliar application of melatonin had positive but varying effects on Capsicum, as indicated by differences in growth, photosynthetic pigments, and ion accumulation. These findings pointed to beneficial effects of foliar application of melatonin in facilitating and improving drought tolerance of Capsicum via increased osmolyte accumulation, pigments, and total concentration of inorganic ions under drought conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Influence of Various Densities of Wild Oat and Holy Thistle on the
           Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

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      Abstract: Abstract Weed competition is one of the major biotic constraints to wheat crop productivity. Avena fatua L. and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. are among the worst weeds of wheat crop throughout the world, greatly deteriorating the quality of wheat and subsequently reducing its market value. In this context, experiments were conducted in two years, 2018 and 2019. Different seeding rates of wheat (80, 100, 120, and 140 kg ha−1) and different sown weed ratios (A. fatua: S. marianum; 1:8, 2:7, 3:6, 4:5, 5:4, 6:3, 7:2, 8:1, and 0:0) were investigated. The weed ratio and wheat densities were indirectly proportional. However, wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha−1 had minimal weed interference. Yield losses were 17.5% at weed density 1:8 and 7.2% at 8:1. However, in terms of wheat density, the highest percent losses were computed at 80 kg ha−1, while the lowest were recorded at 140 kg ha−1. Due to the large leaf canopy of S. marianum, it is not possible for other species to sustain. Hence, it has been concluded that S. marianum is the main factor causing reduction of yield-related parameters, followed by A. fatua and the other weeds. Due to the morphological mimicry of wheat crop by A. fatua during the vegetative growth stage, it cannot be easily distinguished from wheat. Therefore, managing A. fatua and S. marianum before seed setting is recommended for reducing the future weed problem. Based on current studies, it is suggested that sowing wheat seed at the rate 140 kg ha−1 is recommendable to better compete with all the field weeds.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Evaluating and Modeling of the Seedling Growth Ability of Wheat Seeds as
           Affected by Shallow-Saline Groundwater Conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract The adverse effects of shallow-saline groundwater may vary among crucial growth stages of crops by decreasing crop growth and productivity. The present study aimed to assess the germination and seedling growth ability of wheat seeds grown in four different (0.38, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 dSm−1) groundwater salinities (GWS) and three (30, 55, and 80 cm) groundwater depths (GWD) condition. To achieve this aim, wheat crops were grown in drainable lysimeters under rain shelter conditions until the maturity stage, and then wheat seeds were harvested from various saline groundwater conditions. Afterward, wheat seeds were germinated to identify the performance of germination and seedling growth attributes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal growing wheat seeds condition, which had high early seedling growth performance. The results showed that the seedling growth performance of wheat seeds increased with increasing GWDs, while decreased with increasing GWSs. Based on the RSM findings, we suggest that GWD and GWS should be at least 42 cm and at most 5.46 dSm−1, respectively, for sustainable higher wheat yield and seed quality. Finally, this study could provide considerable information for selecting strong and healthy wheat seeds grown under shallow saline groundwater conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ascorbic Acid Enhances Growth and Yield of Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annum)
           by Mitigating Salinity Stress

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      Abstract: Abstract Salinity is a crucial problem which has affected crop productivity globally. Ascorbic acid is considered helpful against abiotic stresses due to its powerful antioxidant potential. In the pot experiment, salinity stress (0, 35, 70, and 105 mM) was applied to sweet peppers in split doses after 20 days of transplantation. To mitigate the adverse effects of salinity, ascorbic acid (0, 0.40, 0.80, and 1.20 mM) was applied as foliar spray after a 6-day interval during vegetative growth. Sweet pepper plants sprayed with distilled water (control) recorded maximum plant height (cm), leaf area (cm2), number of branches, stem diameter (mm), number of fruit plant−1, fruit diameter (cm), yield plant−1 (g), and chlorophyll content (mg 100 g−1), while the maximum polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity (unit mg protein−1 min−1) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity (unit mg protein−1 min−1) were recorded in plants treated with 70 mM NaCl application. Salinity stress beyond 70 mM significantly reduced all the studied parameters. An ascorbic acid concentration of 1.20 mM significantly mitigated the negative effects of salt stress and recorded maximum plant height (cm), number of leaves plant−1, leaf area (cm2), number of branches plant−1, stem diameter (mm), number of fruit plant−1, fruit diameter (cm), yield plant−1 (g), chlorophyll content (mg 100 g−1), PPO activity (unit mg protein−1 min−1), and APX activity (unit mg protein−1 min−1). Hence, a 1.20 mM concentration of foliar ascorbic acid could be used in saline conditions up to 70 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl) for better growth, productivity, and enzymatic activity of sweet peppers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Prolonged Waterlogging Reduces Growth and Yield in Broccoli Plants
           (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

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      Abstract: Abstract The crop of broccoli in tropical regions is of great importance among flowering vegetables; however, the yield of this crop is severely impacted by climatic variations that can cause floods. In Tunja, Colombia, a study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in which the tolerance of broccoli plants to prolonged waterlogging was evaluated. One group of plants were kept under waterlogging conditions until most of them showed severe symptoms of chlorosis while another group was grown under regularly drained and watered soil conditions as a control. Waterlogging caused the death of 20% of the plants, reduced the height of the plants by 42.9%, the thickness of the stem by 42.1%, the foliar area by 87%, the chlorophyll content in the leaves by 96.6%, and the total dry weight per plant by 79.9%. The absolute and relative growth rates decreased by 80 and 24.4%, respectively. Waterlogging also prevented flower production and caused a 23.7% increase in the accumulation of biomass in roots but reduced it by 24.5% in leaves. Likewise, the net assimilation rate fell 72.3% when waterlogged and the values of allometric variables which express growth were altered by this stressor. Consequently, it can be inferred that these plants have a low tolerance to waterlogging; however, the most severe impact caused by waterlogging was the inability of plants to develop flowers. The lack of flowers is devastating due to their economic and commercial importance of broccoli, and they are the primary justification for the cultivation of these plants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Exploiting Eichhornia crassipes Shoots Extract as a Natural Source of
           Nutrients for Producing Healthy Tomato Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract Seeking for safe and cheap alternatives to provide the nutrient requirements of crops remains the most significant alternative for obtaining healthy and economical products. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the efficiency of aqueous water hyacinth shoot extract as a source of nutrients to feed tomato plants. Therefore, the effects of three fertilization treatments (without foliar spraying, commercial synthetic solution and natural solution of water hyacinth shoot extract) on the nutritional status and biomass yield of tomato were investigated. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. At different growth stages, several macro- and micronutrients, in addition to the final yield at harvest, were estimated. The results showed that at all growth stages of tomato (vegetative, flowering, fruiting and maturity), the natural solution of water hyacinth caused the maximum increases in phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium. However, the differences between the natural solution of water hyacinth and synthetic solution in nitrogen and potassium at the vegetative stage, phosphorus at the flowering and the fruiting stages, and manganese and selenium at the maturity stage were not significant. The increases in fresh and dry weights and fruit yield of tomato plants owing to the natural solution of water hyacinth application were 37.5, 56.8 and 72.2%, respectively, over the control. Natural organic solution of water hyacinth application increased the net return of tomato cultivation by approximately 1.84 and 1.63 times compared with the conventional practice (control) and synthetic chemical solution, respectively. It could be concluded that exploiting the natural organic solution of water hyacinth achieves several profits in agriculture via fertilization programs by enhancing the income of tomato farmers. Accordingly, it is recommended to benefit from the wastes of water hyacinth plants that are annually removed from the Nile River and other waterways.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Seed Development, Oil Accumulation and Fatty Acid Composition of Drought
           Stressed Rapeseed Plants Affected by Salicylic Acid and Putrescine

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      Abstract: Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the impacts of salicylic acid (1 mM SA) and putrescine (1 mM Put) on leaf osmolytes, seed reserve and oil accumulation and fatty acid composition of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) under different watering levels (irrigations after 70 and 150 mm evaporation as normal irrigation and severe drought stress, and 70 → 90 → 110 → 130 → 150 and 70 → 100 → 130→150 as gradual and moderately gradual water deficits, respectively). The experiments were laid out as split plot on the bases of randomized complete block design in three replications. Water stress increased the contents of glycine betaine, proline, soluble sugars, and proteins. Application of SA and Put further enhanced the contents of glycine betaine and soluble sugars, while reduced proline content of leaves. Seed filling duration, seeds per plant, plant biomass and seed yield were decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Exogenous SA and Put enhanced all of these parameters under different irrigation intervals. Oil accumulation in seeds was diminished as water stress severed. The gradual water deficit considerably reduced the impacts of drought stress on yield related traits and oil content per seed, due to stress acclimation of plants. Oil content of seeds was augmented by SA and Put treatments through prolonging seed filling duration, particularly under limited irrigations. Percentages of palmitic acid and stearic acid (saturated fatty acids) were not affected by water limitation. However, unsaturated fatty acids of linoleic and linolenic acids were reduced, and oleic acid was enhanced due to water shortage. Unsaturation index was improved by SA and Put treatments under severe water stress as a result of decreasing oleic acid and increasing linoleic and linolenic acids contents. The SA spray was the best treatment for improving rapeseed seed and oil production under normal and stressful conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Role of Silicon in Mediating Heat Shock Tolerance in Soybean

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      Abstract: Abstract The present experiment was conducted to assess the role of silicon (Si; 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg L−1 Na2SiO3) in mitigating heat stress-induced growth deficiency, photosynthesis inhibition, and oxidative damage in soybean cultivars. Heat stress lowered root and shoot dry weights, which were noticeably improved by Si supplementation. Exposition to 200 mg L−1 Si caused a 45 and 34% increase in chlorophyll and Fv/Fm, respectively, compared to plants that received no Si. Net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2, and stomatal conductance were lowered due to heat stress and Si supplementation mitigated the adverse effect of heat stress on these attributes. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide generation, and electrolyte leakage were higher in heat-stressed soybean cultivars without Si as compared to those supplemented with Si. Accumulation of osmolytic cytosolutes such as proline and glycine betaine was also boosted by Si supplementation. In addition, Si treatment alleviated the destructive effects of heat stress by 63, 64, and 50% increases in total phenol, flavonol, and tocopherol contents, respectively. Interestingly, including Si in the heat-stressed soybean cultivars improved protein content and enhanced the activities of catalase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and lipoxygenase, while the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were lowered by 30, 56, and 54%, respectively, compared to non-Si-treated cultivars. In conclusion, Si alleviated the adverse effect of heat stress in soybean cultivars by modulating photosynthesis, further accumulating osmolytes, and regulating the antioxidant system. However, large-scale and long-term field trials must be carried out to investigate the economic feasibility of Si application for alleviating heat shock stress.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum, the Causal Agent of Potato
           Rot

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      Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out in vivo and in vitro to search the biological control possibilities of soil borne dry rot causal agent Fusarium oxysporum causing yield losses in potato. In this study, 2 Pantoea agglomerans (BRTB and RK-92), 2 Bacillus pumilus (RK-103 and TV-67C), 7 Bacillus subtilis (BAB-140, TV-12H, TV-6F, EK‑7, TV-17C, CP‑1 and TV-125A), 3 Bacillus megaterium (TV-103B, TV-87A and TV-91C), 1 Ochrobactrum anthropi (A-16B), 1 Agrobacterium radiobacter (A-16) and 1 Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (BAB-410) bacterial and 2 Trichoderma harzianum (ET 4 and ET 14) fungal isolates tested efficacy in previous studies were used. In pot trial, the experiment was established with the most effective five bacterial strains (BRTB 66.22%; RK-103, 50.90%; BAB-140 50.00%; TV-103B 49.10%; TV-12H 48.65% and TV-6F 48.20%) and two fungal isolates (ET 4; 69.44%, ET 14; 66.66%). BRTB, the most effective bacterial strain, prevented completely the development of the pathogen. Based on the application time of BRTB, infection was not observed on seedlings on growing from tubers inoculated with pathogen 4 h after dipping into the bacterial solution. In storage treatments, BRTB was the most efficacy isolate when compared with others. As a result, BRTB strain of Pantoea agglomerans can be candidate in the biological control of F. oxysporum.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Effect of Azospirillum and Azotobacter Species on the Performance of
           Cherry Tomato under Different Salinity Levels

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      Abstract: Abstract Abiotic stress has a negative impact on plant physiology, influencing the overall growth and development of plant crops. Saline stress is one of the most serious environmental issues limiting crop plant production. Biofertilizers are reparative elements used in soil to increase tolerance to salinity and drought stress. We investigated the effect of salinity stress on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cerasiforme) with biofertilizer application 0, 15 and 30 days after transplanting in this study. After different days of transplantation, different levels of salinity (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) were used with biofertilizer (Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp.) application (0, 15 and 30 days). The salinity (150 mM NaCl) significantly affected the studied variables, which were recorded with minimum levels of leaf area (52.42 cm2), root length (6.54 cm), fresh root weight (13.64 g), yield (6.52 tons/ha), leaf chlorophyll content (36.11 mg/m2) and maximum levels of total soluble solids (TSS, 8.87 °Brix). Control samples had higher leaf area (58.35 cm2), root length (15.23 cm), fresh root weight (17.86 g), yield (9.39 tons/ha), leaf chlorophyll content (44.09 mg/m2), and lower TSS (7.93 °Brix). Plants that received biofertilizer (15 days after transplanting) had higher plant height (73.41 cm), stem diameter (0.74 cm), leaf area (61.16 cm2), root length (15.35 cm), fresh root weight (18.38 g), root dry matter (60.41%), yield (10.43 t/ha), leaf chlorophyll content (42.55 mg/m2), fruit dry matter content (10.12 g), pH 4.52, and TSS (9.30 °Brix). The minimum plant height (51.33 cm), stem diameter (0.55 cm), leaf area (49.60 cm2), root length (7.04 cm), fresh root weight (12.76 g), root dry matter (42.16 g), yield (5.15 tons/ha), leaf chlorophyll content (35.18 mg/m2), fruit dry matter content (6.59 g), pH 4.27 and TSS (7.55 °Brix) were recorded in plants with no application of biofertilizer. The present study revealed that most growth and quality variables were negatively affected by salinity except for TSS, which showed positive effect with application of 150 mM of NaCl. Biofertilizer application at 15 days significantly influences the quantitative and qualitative attributes of cherry tomato under different levels of salinity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Wheat Growth, Yield, and Quality Under Water Deficit and Reduced Nitrogen
           Supply. A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract This review summarizes wheat crop growth, yield, and quality response to moisture stress and nitrogen availability in the rhizosphere. The high nitrogen demand of wheat crop enhances grain protein accumulation, which is a key factor for baking quality. Nitrogen is an important nutrient for increasing wheat production, but there is still a need to economize the optimum nitrogen rate under water-deficit conditions. Water stress is the most important abiotic stress adversely affecting crop productivity. Soil moisture significantly affects nitrogen nutrition through its effect on nitrogen uptake, mineralization, and losses through leaching, denitrification, and volatilization. This colimitation of nitrogen and water underpins an approach for improving water and nitrogen-use efficiency concurrently, thereby enhancing wheat productivity and quality.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Effects of Sowing Dates and Seeding Rates on Nitrogen and Water Use
           Efficiency of Facultative Wheat

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, effects of different sowing dates and seeding rates on N uptake efficiency (NUE), N translocation efficiency (NTE), agronomic efficiency (AE), physiological efficiency (PE), water use efficiency for grain yield (WUEg) and water use efficiency for biomass (WUEb) of facultative wheat were investigated. As the average of cropping year, sowing dates and seeding rates, N uptake efficiency (NUE), N translocation efficiency (NTE), agronomic efficiency (AE), physiological efficiency (PE), water use efficiency for grain yield (WUEg) and water use efficiency for biomass (WUEb) values were respectively obtained as 1.17 kg Nuptake/kg Napplied, 68.5%, 36.9 kg grain/kg Napplied, 31.2 kg grain/kg Nuptake, 5.19 kg ha−1 mm−1 and 18.04 kg ha−1 mm−1. Nitrogen and water use efficiencies decreased with delayed sowing dates and increased with increasing seeding rates. It is possible to maintain a high wheat yield, nitrogen and water use efficiency by increasing plant density through winter sowing. It was concluded based on present findings that sowing date and seeding rates had significant effects on nitrogen and water use efficiencies and winter sowing should be practiced as not to cause yield losses and high seeding rates (575 seeds m−2) yielded greater nitrogen-water use efficiencies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Interaction Effect of Water Magnetization and Water Salinity on Yield,
           Water Productivity and Morpho-Physiological of Balkız Bean (Phaseolus
           vulgaris)

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      Abstract: Abstract Developing new tools for using low-quality irrigation waters is vital for the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and minimizing salt accumulation. Therefore, the present study focused on the interactive influence of irrigation treatments (magnetized (MT) and non-magnetized (NMT)) and water salinities (0.38, 1.5, 4.5, and 7.0 dSm−1) on soil salinity, water use efficiency, yield and morpho-physiological changes of Balkız bean. A pot experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications under the rain shelter condition. Irrigation water MT treatment increased fresh bean yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) by 21.35, 23.00 and 14.8%, respectively, while saturated soil salinity was reduced by 20%, compared to NMT treatments. The leaf area, stomata, and leaf succulence in green beans in the MT treatment significantly increased by 13.4, 23.9, and 3.3% compared with those in the NMT treatment. Stems of the bean crops were more sensitive to salinity stress followed by roots and leaves. The study revealed that irrigation with magnetically treated water manages salinity related yield loss through increased morphological features as well as osmotic and stomatal adjustments. In addition, the bean crops showed an ability to protect water in tissue against salinity toxicity up to 5.24 dSm−1 soil salinity level under magnetized saline water conditions. Finally, irrigation with magnetically treated 0.38 dSm−1 irrigation water can be recommended due to providing a higher yield, WUE, IWUE, and sustainable production under saline irrigation in water scarcity regions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characterization of Drought Tolerance in Bread Wheat Genotypes Using
           Physiological Indices

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      Abstract: Abstract Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food in many countries and is regarded as a vital source of nutrition. Drought is one the most prevalent limitations to wheat growth and development. Herein a two year study was conducted using 25 diverse wheat genotypes obtained from the gene pool of various research institutes of Pakistan to characterize their drought tolerance using various physiological indices like relative water content (RWC), relative dry weight (RDW), water saturation deficit (WSD), relative water loss (RWL), flag leaf area (LA), chlorophyll content index (CC) and their association with the grain yield (GY). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated the presence of significant amount of differences and genetic diversity among genotypes under study. Correlation analysis exposed positive association of CC and LA with GY. However, RWC was shown to have a highly significant and negative association with WSD and RWL. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that out of the 7 PCs only 2 were significant having eigenvalues > 1; cumulatively accounting for 88.70% and 73.03% of the total variation under control and drought stress conditions, respectively. Strikingly the results of the PCA biplots and cluster heat map exposed G1 (Barani-17), G2 (Dharabi-11), G3 (Ehsan-16), G4 (Chakwal-50), G17 (Ujala-2016) and G23 (Kohistan-97) as potential drought tolerant genotypes. Selection of the positively associated indices would be fruitful and the tolerant genotypes having drought tolerance potential could be utilized in future wheat breeding programs to develop high yielding and drought tolerant genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Erratum to: Effects of Sowing Dates and Seeding Rates on Nitrogen and
           Water Use Efficiency of Facultative Wheat

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      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10343-022-00662-x
       
  • Xylem-specific Overexpression of the GIBBERELLIN ACID 20 OXIDASE Gene
           (GA20-OXIDASE) from Pine in Hybrid Poplar (Populus tremula
           L. × P. alba L.) Revealed Reliable Increase in Growth and Biomass
           Production Just in a Single-copy-line

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      Abstract: Abstract Overexpression of the GA20-OXIDASE gene under control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in poplar leads to increased shoot growth and biomass production, however, the trees suffer from unstable shoots and poor root growth. Transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus tremula L. × P. alba L.) plants overexpressing the GA20-OXIDASE gene from pine under control of a poplar-xylem-specific DX15-promoter also revealed a superior effect on growth and biomass production but without changing the overall phenotype. We tested seven DX15::GA20-OXIDASE-transgenic lines for growth and biomass production in the glasshouse in 2017, and repeated the experiment in 2018 with the “best-four” lines. Plants from one DX15::GA20-OXIDASE-transgenic line, N457‑4, turned out to be the tallest, with highest biomass, in both years under investigation. In contrast to the other lines tested in 2017 and 2018 carrying two or more copies of the transgene, N457‑4 carries only one copy. We suggest that transcriptional or post-transcriptional transgene silencing in the two- or more copies carrying lines might be responsible for lower GA20-OXIDASE transgene expression and that the single-copy-line N457‑4 has stable GA20-OXIDASE-gene expression.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10343-022-00653-y
       
 
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